Abstract

There have been substantial efforts to implement high-speed (>10 Gb/s) upstream transmission using reflective semiconductor optical amplifiers (RSOAs) in a coherent wavelength-division-multiplexed (WDM) passive optical network (PON). In such a network, it is necessary to estimate the carrier phase of upstream optical signal to retrieve the phase-modulated information created by RSOA. However, due to the severe waveform distortions caused by the limited modulation bandwidth of RSOA (typically less than 3 GHz), previously reported carrier phase estimation (CPE) algorithms cannot accurately estimate the carrier phase of high-speed quadrature phase-shift keying (QPSK) signal generated from the RSOA seeded by a distributed-feedback (DFB) laser. We propose a novel CPE method capable of tracking the carrier phase rapidly by using a small number of symbols (e.g., 15 symbols) even when the waveforms are severely distorted by the limited modulation bandwidth of RSOA. The proposed CPE method utilizes the linear relationship between the intensity modulation and phase modulation indices inherent in the semiconductor opto-electronic device. By using the proposed method, we demonstrate the transmission of 25.78-Gb/s QPSK signal in a 20-km long loopback fiber link. In this experiment, a commercial DFB laser (linewidth: 3 MHz) is used as the seed light instead of an expensive narrow-linewidth laser. Also shown through the experiment is that the proposed CPE method is highly unsusceptible to variations of parameters required in the proposed method, such as the number of test phases, the accuracy of linewidth enhancement factor, and the accuracy of the normalized amplitude of DC component.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
  6. H. K. Shim, H. Kim, and Y. C. Chung, “Effects of electrical and optical equalizations in 28-Gb/s RSOA-based WDM PON,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(22), 2537–2540 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  7. K. Y. Cho, Y. Takushima, and Y. C. Chung, “10-Gb/s operation of RSOA for WDM PON,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20(18), 1533–1535 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  8. U. H. Hong, K. Y. Cho, H. G. Choi, and Y. C. Chung, “A simple carrier-phase estimation technique for high-speed RSOA-based Coherent WDM PON,” in Optical Fiber Communications (2013), paper OM2A.2.
  9. S. P. Jung, Y. Takushima, and Y. C. Chung, “Generation of 5-Gbps QPSK signal using directly modulated RSOA for 100-km coherent WDM PON,” in Optical Fiber Communications (2011), paper OTuB3.
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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2016 (3)

2015 (2)

Z. Vujičić, R. S. Luís, J. M. D. Mendinueta, A. Shahpari, N. B. Pavlović, B. J. Puttnam, Y. Kamio, M. Nakamura, N. Wada, and A. Teixera, “Self-homodyne detection-based fully coherent reflective PON using RSOA and simplified DSP,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(21), 2226–2229 (2015).
[Crossref]

Q. Hu, D. Che, Y. Wang, A. Li, J. Fang, and W. Shieh, “Beyond amplitude-only detection for digital coherent system using directly modulated laser,” Opt. Lett. 40(12), 2762–2765 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (1)

2013 (1)

2011 (1)

2009 (1)

2008 (1)

K. Y. Cho, Y. Takushima, and Y. C. Chung, “10-Gb/s operation of RSOA for WDM PON,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20(18), 1533–1535 (2008).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

F. Devaux, Y. Sorel, and J. F. Kerdiles, “Simple measurement of fiber dispersion and of chirp parameter of intensity modulated light emitter,” J. Lightwave Technol. 11(12), 1937–1940 (1993).
[Crossref]

1989 (1)

G. P. Agrawal and N. A. Olsson, “Self-phase modulation and spectral broadening of optical pulses in semiconductor laser amplifiers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 20(11), 2297–2306 (1989).
[Crossref]

1988 (1)

F. Koyama and K. Iga, “Frequency chirping in external modulators,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6(1), 87–93 (1988).
[Crossref]

Agata, A.

Agrawal, G. P.

G. P. Agrawal and N. A. Olsson, “Self-phase modulation and spectral broadening of optical pulses in semiconductor laser amplifiers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 20(11), 2297–2306 (1989).
[Crossref]

Chang, J. H.

Che, D.

Cho, K. Y.

Choi, H. G.

Chung, Y. C.

H. K. Shim, H. Kim, and Y. C. Chung, “Effects of electrical and optical equalizations in 28-Gb/s RSOA-based WDM PON,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(22), 2537–2540 (2016).
[Crossref]

U. H. Hong, H. G. Choi, H. Kim, and Y. C. Chung, “Simple carrier-phase estimator for high-speed RSOA-based coherent WDM PON,” Opt. Express 22(25), 30975–30982 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Y. Cho, K. Tanaka, T. Sano, S. P. Jung, J. H. Chang, Y. Takushima, A. Agata, Y. Horiuchi, M. Suzuki, and Y. C. Chung, “Long-reach coherent WDM PON employing self-polarization-stabilization technique,” J. Lightwave Technol. 29(4), 456–462 (2011).
[Crossref]

K. Y. Cho, Y. Takushima, and Y. C. Chung, “10-Gb/s operation of RSOA for WDM PON,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20(18), 1533–1535 (2008).
[Crossref]

Devaux, F.

F. Devaux, Y. Sorel, and J. F. Kerdiles, “Simple measurement of fiber dispersion and of chirp parameter of intensity modulated light emitter,” J. Lightwave Technol. 11(12), 1937–1940 (1993).
[Crossref]

Fang, J.

Han, S. K.

Hoffmann, S.

Hong, U. H.

Horiuchi, Y.

Hu, Q.

Iga, K.

F. Koyama and K. Iga, “Frequency chirping in external modulators,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6(1), 87–93 (1988).
[Crossref]

Jung, S. M.

Jung, S. P.

Jung, S. Y.

Kam, P. Y.

Kamio, Y.

Z. Vujičić, R. S. Luís, J. M. D. Mendinueta, A. Shahpari, N. B. Pavlović, B. J. Puttnam, Y. Kamio, M. Nakamura, N. Wada, and A. Teixera, “Self-homodyne detection-based fully coherent reflective PON using RSOA and simplified DSP,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(21), 2226–2229 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kerdiles, J. F.

F. Devaux, Y. Sorel, and J. F. Kerdiles, “Simple measurement of fiber dispersion and of chirp parameter of intensity modulated light emitter,” J. Lightwave Technol. 11(12), 1937–1940 (1993).
[Crossref]

Kim, C. H.

Kim, H.

Koyama, F.

F. Koyama and K. Iga, “Frequency chirping in external modulators,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6(1), 87–93 (1988).
[Crossref]

Kye, M.

Lee, C. H.

Li, A.

Luís, R. S.

Z. Vujičić, R. S. Luís, J. M. D. Mendinueta, A. Shahpari, N. B. Pavlović, B. J. Puttnam, Y. Kamio, M. Nakamura, N. Wada, and A. Teixera, “Self-homodyne detection-based fully coherent reflective PON using RSOA and simplified DSP,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(21), 2226–2229 (2015).
[Crossref]

Meiyappan, A.

Mendinueta, J. M. D.

Z. Vujičić, R. S. Luís, J. M. D. Mendinueta, A. Shahpari, N. B. Pavlović, B. J. Puttnam, Y. Kamio, M. Nakamura, N. Wada, and A. Teixera, “Self-homodyne detection-based fully coherent reflective PON using RSOA and simplified DSP,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(21), 2226–2229 (2015).
[Crossref]

Moon, S. R.

Nakamura, M.

Z. Vujičić, R. S. Luís, J. M. D. Mendinueta, A. Shahpari, N. B. Pavlović, B. J. Puttnam, Y. Kamio, M. Nakamura, N. Wada, and A. Teixera, “Self-homodyne detection-based fully coherent reflective PON using RSOA and simplified DSP,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(21), 2226–2229 (2015).
[Crossref]

Noe, R.

Olsson, N. A.

G. P. Agrawal and N. A. Olsson, “Self-phase modulation and spectral broadening of optical pulses in semiconductor laser amplifiers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 20(11), 2297–2306 (1989).
[Crossref]

Pavlovic, N. B.

Z. Vujičić, R. S. Luís, J. M. D. Mendinueta, A. Shahpari, N. B. Pavlović, B. J. Puttnam, Y. Kamio, M. Nakamura, N. Wada, and A. Teixera, “Self-homodyne detection-based fully coherent reflective PON using RSOA and simplified DSP,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(21), 2226–2229 (2015).
[Crossref]

Pfau, T.

Puttnam, B. J.

Z. Vujičić, R. S. Luís, J. M. D. Mendinueta, A. Shahpari, N. B. Pavlović, B. J. Puttnam, Y. Kamio, M. Nakamura, N. Wada, and A. Teixera, “Self-homodyne detection-based fully coherent reflective PON using RSOA and simplified DSP,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(21), 2226–2229 (2015).
[Crossref]

Sano, T.

Shahpari, A.

Z. Vujičić, R. S. Luís, J. M. D. Mendinueta, A. Shahpari, N. B. Pavlović, B. J. Puttnam, Y. Kamio, M. Nakamura, N. Wada, and A. Teixera, “Self-homodyne detection-based fully coherent reflective PON using RSOA and simplified DSP,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(21), 2226–2229 (2015).
[Crossref]

Shieh, W.

Shim, H. K.

H. K. Shim, H. Kim, and Y. C. Chung, “Effects of electrical and optical equalizations in 28-Gb/s RSOA-based WDM PON,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(22), 2537–2540 (2016).
[Crossref]

Sorel, Y.

F. Devaux, Y. Sorel, and J. F. Kerdiles, “Simple measurement of fiber dispersion and of chirp parameter of intensity modulated light emitter,” J. Lightwave Technol. 11(12), 1937–1940 (1993).
[Crossref]

Suzuki, M.

Takushima, Y.

Tanaka, K.

Teixera, A.

Z. Vujičić, R. S. Luís, J. M. D. Mendinueta, A. Shahpari, N. B. Pavlović, B. J. Puttnam, Y. Kamio, M. Nakamura, N. Wada, and A. Teixera, “Self-homodyne detection-based fully coherent reflective PON using RSOA and simplified DSP,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(21), 2226–2229 (2015).
[Crossref]

Vujicic, Z.

Z. Vujičić, R. S. Luís, J. M. D. Mendinueta, A. Shahpari, N. B. Pavlović, B. J. Puttnam, Y. Kamio, M. Nakamura, N. Wada, and A. Teixera, “Self-homodyne detection-based fully coherent reflective PON using RSOA and simplified DSP,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(21), 2226–2229 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wada, N.

Z. Vujičić, R. S. Luís, J. M. D. Mendinueta, A. Shahpari, N. B. Pavlović, B. J. Puttnam, Y. Kamio, M. Nakamura, N. Wada, and A. Teixera, “Self-homodyne detection-based fully coherent reflective PON using RSOA and simplified DSP,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(21), 2226–2229 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y.

Yoo, S. H.

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

G. P. Agrawal and N. A. Olsson, “Self-phase modulation and spectral broadening of optical pulses in semiconductor laser amplifiers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 20(11), 2297–2306 (1989).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (3)

Z. Vujičić, R. S. Luís, J. M. D. Mendinueta, A. Shahpari, N. B. Pavlović, B. J. Puttnam, Y. Kamio, M. Nakamura, N. Wada, and A. Teixera, “Self-homodyne detection-based fully coherent reflective PON using RSOA and simplified DSP,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(21), 2226–2229 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. K. Shim, H. Kim, and Y. C. Chung, “Effects of electrical and optical equalizations in 28-Gb/s RSOA-based WDM PON,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(22), 2537–2540 (2016).
[Crossref]

K. Y. Cho, Y. Takushima, and Y. C. Chung, “10-Gb/s operation of RSOA for WDM PON,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20(18), 1533–1535 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (5)

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (4)

P. Chanclou, F. Payoux, T. Soret, N. Genay, R. Brenot, F. Blache, M. Goix, J. Landreau, O. Legouezigou, and F. Mallecot, “Demonstration of RSOA-based remote modulation at 2.5 and 5 Gbit/s for WDM PON,” in Optical Fiber Communications (2007), paper OWD1.

M. Presi, M. Artiglia, M. Rannello, I. Tomkos, I. Cano, J. Prat, and E. Ciaramella, “Hitless dynamic wavelength allocation in coherent WDM-PONs,” in Optical Fiber Communications (2016), paper W2A.63.

U. H. Hong, K. Y. Cho, H. G. Choi, and Y. C. Chung, “A simple carrier-phase estimation technique for high-speed RSOA-based Coherent WDM PON,” in Optical Fiber Communications (2013), paper OM2A.2.

S. P. Jung, Y. Takushima, and Y. C. Chung, “Generation of 5-Gbps QPSK signal using directly modulated RSOA for 100-km coherent WDM PON,” in Optical Fiber Communications (2011), paper OTuB3.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Constellation diagram of the 25.78 Gb/s QPSK signal generated by using an RSOA (measurement time = 7.8 ns).
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Constellation diagrams obtained by using the AC-coupled coherent receiver at different time (measurement time = 7.8 ns).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 The block diagram of the proposed CPE method.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Experimental setup
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Measured receiver sensitivity versus the CPE block length, L, for three different seed lasers (a) ECL A (linewidth = 30 kHz), (b) ECL B (linewidth = 600 kHz), and (c) DFB laser (linewidth = 3 MHz).
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Measured receiver sensitivity versus the number of test phases, N, for ECL A and DFB laser. The transmission distance is 20 km. The α and R values used in this plot are 5.3 and 0.54, respectively.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Measured receiver sensitivity versus the linewidth enhancement factor, α, used in the proposed CPE method when α is measured to be 5.3. The transmission distance is 20 km. The R and N values used in this plot are 0.54 and 360, respectively.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Measured receiver sensitivity versus the normalized amplitude of DC component, R, used in the proposed CPE method when R is measured to be 0.54. The transmission distance is 20 km. The α and N values used in this plot are 5.3 and 360, respectively.

Equations (1)

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ϕ k+1 ϕ k =α× I k+1 I k I k+1 + I k

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