Abstract

We selected appropriate indices for color rendition and determined their recommended values for ultra-high-definition television (UHDTV) production using white LED lighting. Since the spectral sensitivities of UHDTV cameras can be designed to approximate the ideal spectral sensitivities of UHDTV colorimetry, they have more accurate color reproduction than HDTV cameras, and thus the color-rendering properties of the lighting are critical. Comparing images taken under white LEDs with conventional color rendering indices (Ra, R9-14) and recently proposed methods for evaluating color rendition of CQS, TM-30, Qa, and SSI, we found the combination of Ra and R9 appropriate. For white LED lighting, Ra ≥ 90 and R9 ≥ 80 are recommended for UHDTV production.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. Recommendation ITU-R BT.2020–2, “Parameter values for UHDTV systems for production and international programme exchange” International Telecommunications Union, Geneva, 2015.
  2. Recommendation ITU-R BT.709–6, “Parameter values for the HDTV standards for production and international programme exchange” International Telecommunications Union, Geneva, 2015.
  3. K. Masaoka, Y. Nishida, T. Soeno, T. Yamashita, M. Sugawara, and A. Saita, “Designing camera spectral sensitivities for UHDTV,” SMPTE Mot. Imag. J. 123(8), 26–32 (2014).
    [Crossref]
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  6. CIE Publication 13.3, “Method of measuring and specifying colour rendering of light sources” International Commission on Illumination, Vienna, 1995.
  7. JIS Z 9127:2008, “Recommendation for sports lighting” Japanese Standards Association, Tokyo, 2008.
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. A. David, P. T. Fini, K. W. Houser, Y. Ohno, M. P. Royer, K. A. Smet, M. Wei, and L. Whitehead, “Development of the IES method for evaluating the color rendition of light sources,” Opt. Express 23(12), 15888–15906 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. W. Davis and Y. Ohno, “Color quality scale,” Opt. Eng. 49(3), 033602 (2010).
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  16. R-137, “Television lighting consistency index-2012” FTV-LED, Geneva, November 2012.
  17. J. Holm, T. Maier, P. Debevec, C. LeGendre, J. Pines, J. Erland, G. Joblove, S. Dyer, B. Sloan, J. di Gennaro, and D. Sherlocky, “A cinematographic spectral similarity index,” SMPTE 2016Annual Technical Conference.
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    [Crossref]
  29. Building Technology Program, “LED color characteristics” Solid-State Lighting Technology Fact Sheet, U.S. Department of Energy, PNNL-SA-84900, January 2012.
  30. Ian Ashdown, “Thoughts on color rendering” Lighting Analysts Inc. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/273763307_Thoughts_on_Color_Rendering
  31. “Problems related to LED lighting fixtures and study of standardization of its construction” Japan Electrical Construction Association, December 2015 (in Japanese).
  32. T. Yamashita, R. Funatsu, T. Yanagi, K. Mitani, Y. Nojiri, and T. Yoshida, “A camera system using three 33-m-pixel CMOS image sensors for UHDTV2,” SMPTE Mot. Imag. J. 120(8), 24–31 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  33. Recommendation ITU-R BT.1886-0, “Reference electro-optical transfer function for flat panel displays used in HDTV studio production” International Telecommunications Union, Geneva, 2011.
  34. P. Bohler, J. Emmett, and A. Roberts, “Toward a “standard” television camera color model,” SMPTE Mot. Imag. J. 122(3), 30–36 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  35. Recommendation ITU-R BT.500-13, “Methodology for the subjective assessment of the quality of television pictures” International Telecommunications Union, Geneva, 2012.
  36. C. Clay, “Lighting for sports stadiums,” Lighting J. 70, 26–29 (2005).
  37. A. Kaufman and D. Sauter, “Problems of lighting in color television outdoor broadcasts,” J. SMPTE 83(1), 20–26 (1974).
    [Crossref]
  38. Tech 3355, “Method for the assessment of the colorimetric properties of luminaires the television lighting consistency index (TLCI-2012)” FTV-LED, Geneva, April 2013.
  39. S. Maeda, N. Okimoto, H. Yasui, A. Heishi, E. Niikura, K. Minami, Y. Nishida, and Y. Kusakabe, “RGB laser-backlight LCD”, Proc. ITE annual convention, 32A–1 2015.
  40. T. Hasegawa, M. Inoue, and T. Mitsuhashi, “Subjective assessment of TV picture quality and data processing,” J. Inst. Television Eng. Jpn. 37, 1040–1050 (1983).
    [Crossref]
  41. J. Okamoto and T. Hayashi, “Latest trends in image media quality assessment technologies,” IEICE Fundam. Rev. 6(4), 276–284 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  42. M. Saffir, “A comparative study of scales constructed by three psychophysical methods,” Psychometrika 2(3), 179–198 (1937).
    [Crossref]
  43. CIE Publication 29.2, “Guide on interior lighting” International Commission on Illumination, Vienna, 1986.

2015 (1)

2014 (1)

K. Masaoka, Y. Nishida, T. Soeno, T. Yamashita, M. Sugawara, and A. Saita, “Designing camera spectral sensitivities for UHDTV,” SMPTE Mot. Imag. J. 123(8), 26–32 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

P. Bohler, J. Emmett, and A. Roberts, “Toward a “standard” television camera color model,” SMPTE Mot. Imag. J. 122(3), 30–36 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Okamoto and T. Hayashi, “Latest trends in image media quality assessment technologies,” IEICE Fundam. Rev. 6(4), 276–284 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

M. Wei and K. W. Houser, “Status of solid-state lighting based on entries to the 2010 US DOE next generation luminaire competition,” Leukos 8(4), 237–259 (2012).

2011 (2)

K. Smet, W. R. Ryckaert, M. R. Pointer, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaer, “Correlation between color quality metric predictions and visual appreciation of light sources,” Opt. Express 19(9), 8151–8166 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Yamashita, R. Funatsu, T. Yanagi, K. Mitani, Y. Nojiri, and T. Yoshida, “A camera system using three 33-m-pixel CMOS image sensors for UHDTV2,” SMPTE Mot. Imag. J. 120(8), 24–31 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

W. Davis and Y. Ohno, “Color quality scale,” Opt. Eng. 49(3), 033602 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

S. Jost-Boissard, M. Fontoynont, and J. Blanc-Gonnet, “Perceived lighting quality of LED sources for the presentation of fruit and vegetables,” J. Mod. Opt. 56(13), 1420–1432 (2009).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

J. B. Protzman and K. W. Houser, “LEDs for general illumination: The state of the science,” Leukos 3(2), 121–142 (2006).

2005 (1)

C. Clay, “Lighting for sports stadiums,” Lighting J. 70, 26–29 (2005).

1983 (1)

T. Hasegawa, M. Inoue, and T. Mitsuhashi, “Subjective assessment of TV picture quality and data processing,” J. Inst. Television Eng. Jpn. 37, 1040–1050 (1983).
[Crossref]

1974 (1)

A. Kaufman and D. Sauter, “Problems of lighting in color television outdoor broadcasts,” J. SMPTE 83(1), 20–26 (1974).
[Crossref]

1937 (1)

M. Saffir, “A comparative study of scales constructed by three psychophysical methods,” Psychometrika 2(3), 179–198 (1937).
[Crossref]

Blanc-Gonnet, J.

S. Jost-Boissard, M. Fontoynont, and J. Blanc-Gonnet, “Perceived lighting quality of LED sources for the presentation of fruit and vegetables,” J. Mod. Opt. 56(13), 1420–1432 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bohler, P.

P. Bohler, J. Emmett, and A. Roberts, “Toward a “standard” television camera color model,” SMPTE Mot. Imag. J. 122(3), 30–36 (2013).
[Crossref]

Clay, C.

C. Clay, “Lighting for sports stadiums,” Lighting J. 70, 26–29 (2005).

David, A.

Davis, W.

W. Davis and Y. Ohno, “Color quality scale,” Opt. Eng. 49(3), 033602 (2010).
[Crossref]

Debevec, P.

J. Holm, T. Maier, P. Debevec, C. LeGendre, J. Pines, J. Erland, G. Joblove, S. Dyer, B. Sloan, J. di Gennaro, and D. Sherlocky, “A cinematographic spectral similarity index,” SMPTE 2016Annual Technical Conference.

Deconinck, G.

di Gennaro, J.

J. Holm, T. Maier, P. Debevec, C. LeGendre, J. Pines, J. Erland, G. Joblove, S. Dyer, B. Sloan, J. di Gennaro, and D. Sherlocky, “A cinematographic spectral similarity index,” SMPTE 2016Annual Technical Conference.

Dyer, S.

J. Holm, T. Maier, P. Debevec, C. LeGendre, J. Pines, J. Erland, G. Joblove, S. Dyer, B. Sloan, J. di Gennaro, and D. Sherlocky, “A cinematographic spectral similarity index,” SMPTE 2016Annual Technical Conference.

Emmett, J.

P. Bohler, J. Emmett, and A. Roberts, “Toward a “standard” television camera color model,” SMPTE Mot. Imag. J. 122(3), 30–36 (2013).
[Crossref]

Erland, J.

J. Holm, T. Maier, P. Debevec, C. LeGendre, J. Pines, J. Erland, G. Joblove, S. Dyer, B. Sloan, J. di Gennaro, and D. Sherlocky, “A cinematographic spectral similarity index,” SMPTE 2016Annual Technical Conference.

Fini, P. T.

Fontoynont, M.

S. Jost-Boissard, M. Fontoynont, and J. Blanc-Gonnet, “Perceived lighting quality of LED sources for the presentation of fruit and vegetables,” J. Mod. Opt. 56(13), 1420–1432 (2009).
[Crossref]

Funatsu, R.

T. Yamashita, R. Funatsu, T. Yanagi, K. Mitani, Y. Nojiri, and T. Yoshida, “A camera system using three 33-m-pixel CMOS image sensors for UHDTV2,” SMPTE Mot. Imag. J. 120(8), 24–31 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hanselaer, P.

Hasegawa, T.

T. Hasegawa, M. Inoue, and T. Mitsuhashi, “Subjective assessment of TV picture quality and data processing,” J. Inst. Television Eng. Jpn. 37, 1040–1050 (1983).
[Crossref]

Hayashi, T.

J. Okamoto and T. Hayashi, “Latest trends in image media quality assessment technologies,” IEICE Fundam. Rev. 6(4), 276–284 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hirashima, Y.

O. Kobayashi, T. Soda, Y. Hirashima, and Y. Tamura, “The evaluation of colour rendering of lamps with HDTV camera,” IESNA Annu. Conf., 1992.

Holm, J.

J. Holm, T. Maier, P. Debevec, C. LeGendre, J. Pines, J. Erland, G. Joblove, S. Dyer, B. Sloan, J. di Gennaro, and D. Sherlocky, “A cinematographic spectral similarity index,” SMPTE 2016Annual Technical Conference.

Houser, K. W.

A. David, P. T. Fini, K. W. Houser, Y. Ohno, M. P. Royer, K. A. Smet, M. Wei, and L. Whitehead, “Development of the IES method for evaluating the color rendition of light sources,” Opt. Express 23(12), 15888–15906 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Wei and K. W. Houser, “Status of solid-state lighting based on entries to the 2010 US DOE next generation luminaire competition,” Leukos 8(4), 237–259 (2012).

J. B. Protzman and K. W. Houser, “LEDs for general illumination: The state of the science,” Leukos 3(2), 121–142 (2006).

Inoue, M.

T. Hasegawa, M. Inoue, and T. Mitsuhashi, “Subjective assessment of TV picture quality and data processing,” J. Inst. Television Eng. Jpn. 37, 1040–1050 (1983).
[Crossref]

Joblove, G.

J. Holm, T. Maier, P. Debevec, C. LeGendre, J. Pines, J. Erland, G. Joblove, S. Dyer, B. Sloan, J. di Gennaro, and D. Sherlocky, “A cinematographic spectral similarity index,” SMPTE 2016Annual Technical Conference.

Jost-Boissard, S.

S. Jost-Boissard, M. Fontoynont, and J. Blanc-Gonnet, “Perceived lighting quality of LED sources for the presentation of fruit and vegetables,” J. Mod. Opt. 56(13), 1420–1432 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kaufman, A.

A. Kaufman and D. Sauter, “Problems of lighting in color television outdoor broadcasts,” J. SMPTE 83(1), 20–26 (1974).
[Crossref]

Kobayashi, O.

O. Kobayashi, T. Soda, Y. Hirashima, and Y. Tamura, “The evaluation of colour rendering of lamps with HDTV camera,” IESNA Annu. Conf., 1992.

LeGendre, C.

J. Holm, T. Maier, P. Debevec, C. LeGendre, J. Pines, J. Erland, G. Joblove, S. Dyer, B. Sloan, J. di Gennaro, and D. Sherlocky, “A cinematographic spectral similarity index,” SMPTE 2016Annual Technical Conference.

Maier, T.

J. Holm, T. Maier, P. Debevec, C. LeGendre, J. Pines, J. Erland, G. Joblove, S. Dyer, B. Sloan, J. di Gennaro, and D. Sherlocky, “A cinematographic spectral similarity index,” SMPTE 2016Annual Technical Conference.

Masaoka, K.

K. Masaoka, Y. Nishida, T. Soeno, T. Yamashita, M. Sugawara, and A. Saita, “Designing camera spectral sensitivities for UHDTV,” SMPTE Mot. Imag. J. 123(8), 26–32 (2014).
[Crossref]

Mitani, K.

T. Yamashita, R. Funatsu, T. Yanagi, K. Mitani, Y. Nojiri, and T. Yoshida, “A camera system using three 33-m-pixel CMOS image sensors for UHDTV2,” SMPTE Mot. Imag. J. 120(8), 24–31 (2011).
[Crossref]

Mitsuhashi, T.

T. Hasegawa, M. Inoue, and T. Mitsuhashi, “Subjective assessment of TV picture quality and data processing,” J. Inst. Television Eng. Jpn. 37, 1040–1050 (1983).
[Crossref]

Nishida, Y.

K. Masaoka, Y. Nishida, T. Soeno, T. Yamashita, M. Sugawara, and A. Saita, “Designing camera spectral sensitivities for UHDTV,” SMPTE Mot. Imag. J. 123(8), 26–32 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nojiri, Y.

T. Yamashita, R. Funatsu, T. Yanagi, K. Mitani, Y. Nojiri, and T. Yoshida, “A camera system using three 33-m-pixel CMOS image sensors for UHDTV2,” SMPTE Mot. Imag. J. 120(8), 24–31 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ohno, Y.

Okamoto, J.

J. Okamoto and T. Hayashi, “Latest trends in image media quality assessment technologies,” IEICE Fundam. Rev. 6(4), 276–284 (2013).
[Crossref]

Pines, J.

J. Holm, T. Maier, P. Debevec, C. LeGendre, J. Pines, J. Erland, G. Joblove, S. Dyer, B. Sloan, J. di Gennaro, and D. Sherlocky, “A cinematographic spectral similarity index,” SMPTE 2016Annual Technical Conference.

Pointer, M. R.

Protzman, J. B.

J. B. Protzman and K. W. Houser, “LEDs for general illumination: The state of the science,” Leukos 3(2), 121–142 (2006).

Roberts, A.

P. Bohler, J. Emmett, and A. Roberts, “Toward a “standard” television camera color model,” SMPTE Mot. Imag. J. 122(3), 30–36 (2013).
[Crossref]

Royer, M. P.

Ryckaert, W. R.

Saffir, M.

M. Saffir, “A comparative study of scales constructed by three psychophysical methods,” Psychometrika 2(3), 179–198 (1937).
[Crossref]

Saita, A.

K. Masaoka, Y. Nishida, T. Soeno, T. Yamashita, M. Sugawara, and A. Saita, “Designing camera spectral sensitivities for UHDTV,” SMPTE Mot. Imag. J. 123(8), 26–32 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sauter, D.

A. Kaufman and D. Sauter, “Problems of lighting in color television outdoor broadcasts,” J. SMPTE 83(1), 20–26 (1974).
[Crossref]

Sherlocky, D.

J. Holm, T. Maier, P. Debevec, C. LeGendre, J. Pines, J. Erland, G. Joblove, S. Dyer, B. Sloan, J. di Gennaro, and D. Sherlocky, “A cinematographic spectral similarity index,” SMPTE 2016Annual Technical Conference.

Sloan, B.

J. Holm, T. Maier, P. Debevec, C. LeGendre, J. Pines, J. Erland, G. Joblove, S. Dyer, B. Sloan, J. di Gennaro, and D. Sherlocky, “A cinematographic spectral similarity index,” SMPTE 2016Annual Technical Conference.

Smet, K.

Smet, K. A.

Soda, T.

O. Kobayashi, T. Soda, Y. Hirashima, and Y. Tamura, “The evaluation of colour rendering of lamps with HDTV camera,” IESNA Annu. Conf., 1992.

Soeno, T.

K. Masaoka, Y. Nishida, T. Soeno, T. Yamashita, M. Sugawara, and A. Saita, “Designing camera spectral sensitivities for UHDTV,” SMPTE Mot. Imag. J. 123(8), 26–32 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sugawara, M.

K. Masaoka, Y. Nishida, T. Soeno, T. Yamashita, M. Sugawara, and A. Saita, “Designing camera spectral sensitivities for UHDTV,” SMPTE Mot. Imag. J. 123(8), 26–32 (2014).
[Crossref]

Tamura, Y.

O. Kobayashi, T. Soda, Y. Hirashima, and Y. Tamura, “The evaluation of colour rendering of lamps with HDTV camera,” IESNA Annu. Conf., 1992.

Wei, M.

A. David, P. T. Fini, K. W. Houser, Y. Ohno, M. P. Royer, K. A. Smet, M. Wei, and L. Whitehead, “Development of the IES method for evaluating the color rendition of light sources,” Opt. Express 23(12), 15888–15906 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Wei and K. W. Houser, “Status of solid-state lighting based on entries to the 2010 US DOE next generation luminaire competition,” Leukos 8(4), 237–259 (2012).

Whitehead, L.

Yamashita, T.

K. Masaoka, Y. Nishida, T. Soeno, T. Yamashita, M. Sugawara, and A. Saita, “Designing camera spectral sensitivities for UHDTV,” SMPTE Mot. Imag. J. 123(8), 26–32 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Yamashita, R. Funatsu, T. Yanagi, K. Mitani, Y. Nojiri, and T. Yoshida, “A camera system using three 33-m-pixel CMOS image sensors for UHDTV2,” SMPTE Mot. Imag. J. 120(8), 24–31 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yanagi, T.

T. Yamashita, R. Funatsu, T. Yanagi, K. Mitani, Y. Nojiri, and T. Yoshida, “A camera system using three 33-m-pixel CMOS image sensors for UHDTV2,” SMPTE Mot. Imag. J. 120(8), 24–31 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yoshida, T.

T. Yamashita, R. Funatsu, T. Yanagi, K. Mitani, Y. Nojiri, and T. Yoshida, “A camera system using three 33-m-pixel CMOS image sensors for UHDTV2,” SMPTE Mot. Imag. J. 120(8), 24–31 (2011).
[Crossref]

IEICE Fundam. Rev. (1)

J. Okamoto and T. Hayashi, “Latest trends in image media quality assessment technologies,” IEICE Fundam. Rev. 6(4), 276–284 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Inst. Television Eng. Jpn. (1)

T. Hasegawa, M. Inoue, and T. Mitsuhashi, “Subjective assessment of TV picture quality and data processing,” J. Inst. Television Eng. Jpn. 37, 1040–1050 (1983).
[Crossref]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

S. Jost-Boissard, M. Fontoynont, and J. Blanc-Gonnet, “Perceived lighting quality of LED sources for the presentation of fruit and vegetables,” J. Mod. Opt. 56(13), 1420–1432 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. SMPTE (1)

A. Kaufman and D. Sauter, “Problems of lighting in color television outdoor broadcasts,” J. SMPTE 83(1), 20–26 (1974).
[Crossref]

Leukos (2)

M. Wei and K. W. Houser, “Status of solid-state lighting based on entries to the 2010 US DOE next generation luminaire competition,” Leukos 8(4), 237–259 (2012).

J. B. Protzman and K. W. Houser, “LEDs for general illumination: The state of the science,” Leukos 3(2), 121–142 (2006).

Lighting J. (1)

C. Clay, “Lighting for sports stadiums,” Lighting J. 70, 26–29 (2005).

Opt. Eng. (1)

W. Davis and Y. Ohno, “Color quality scale,” Opt. Eng. 49(3), 033602 (2010).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (2)

Psychometrika (1)

M. Saffir, “A comparative study of scales constructed by three psychophysical methods,” Psychometrika 2(3), 179–198 (1937).
[Crossref]

SMPTE Mot. Imag. J. (3)

K. Masaoka, Y. Nishida, T. Soeno, T. Yamashita, M. Sugawara, and A. Saita, “Designing camera spectral sensitivities for UHDTV,” SMPTE Mot. Imag. J. 123(8), 26–32 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Bohler, J. Emmett, and A. Roberts, “Toward a “standard” television camera color model,” SMPTE Mot. Imag. J. 122(3), 30–36 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. Yamashita, R. Funatsu, T. Yanagi, K. Mitani, Y. Nojiri, and T. Yoshida, “A camera system using three 33-m-pixel CMOS image sensors for UHDTV2,” SMPTE Mot. Imag. J. 120(8), 24–31 (2011).
[Crossref]

Other (29)

Recommendation ITU-R BT.1886-0, “Reference electro-optical transfer function for flat panel displays used in HDTV studio production” International Telecommunications Union, Geneva, 2011.

Recommendation ITU-R BT.2020–2, “Parameter values for UHDTV systems for production and international programme exchange” International Telecommunications Union, Geneva, 2015.

Recommendation ITU-R BT.709–6, “Parameter values for the HDTV standards for production and international programme exchange” International Telecommunications Union, Geneva, 2015.

Building Technology Program, “LED color characteristics” Solid-State Lighting Technology Fact Sheet, U.S. Department of Energy, PNNL-SA-84900, January 2012.

Ian Ashdown, “Thoughts on color rendering” Lighting Analysts Inc. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/273763307_Thoughts_on_Color_Rendering

“Problems related to LED lighting fixtures and study of standardization of its construction” Japan Electrical Construction Association, December 2015 (in Japanese).

Recommendation ITU-R BT.500-13, “Methodology for the subjective assessment of the quality of television pictures” International Telecommunications Union, Geneva, 2012.

CIE Publication 29.2, “Guide on interior lighting” International Commission on Illumination, Vienna, 1986.

Tech 3355, “Method for the assessment of the colorimetric properties of luminaires the television lighting consistency index (TLCI-2012)” FTV-LED, Geneva, April 2013.

S. Maeda, N. Okimoto, H. Yasui, A. Heishi, E. Niikura, K. Minami, Y. Nishida, and Y. Kusakabe, “RGB laser-backlight LCD”, Proc. ITE annual convention, 32A–1 2015.

R-137, “Television lighting consistency index-2012” FTV-LED, Geneva, November 2012.

J. Holm, T. Maier, P. Debevec, C. LeGendre, J. Pines, J. Erland, G. Joblove, S. Dyer, B. Sloan, J. di Gennaro, and D. Sherlocky, “A cinematographic spectral similarity index,” SMPTE 2016Annual Technical Conference.

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Figures (13)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Spectral power distributions of the LEDs and Xenon lamp used in Experiments I and II.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Method of Experiment I.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Method of Experiment II.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Spectral power distributions of the lighting conditions used in Experiment III at CCTs of (a) 3,000 K, (b) 5,600 K, and (c) 6,500 K.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Setup of Experiment III.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Evaluation images used in Experiment III and their chromaticity distributions. Sports group: (a) Evaluation image, (b) chromaticity distribution. Flower group: (c) Evaluation image, (d) chromaticity distribution.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Photograph of subjective evaluation of Experiment III. A participant evaluates a reference image (left side) and a comparison image (right side) displayed side by side controlling the gray border.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 The correlation between the DCR method and the Thurstone method.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Equal-interval scale values for the color differences in UHDTV imagery obtained in Experiment III for each CCTs of (a) 3,000 K, (b) 5,600 K, and (c) 6,500 K. Marker shapes denote three objects. Marker sizes denote three CCTs.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 Comparison of equal-interval scale values versus Ra obtained in Experiment III. The markers denote four white LED lighting conditions, three CCTs, and three objects as shown in Fig. 9.
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 Comparison of equal-interval scale values versus six special CRI values of (a) R9, (b) R10, (c) R11, (d) R12, (e) R13, and (f) R14 obtained in Experiment III. The markers denote four white LED lighting conditions, three CCTs, and three objects as shown in Fig. 9.
Fig. 12
Fig. 12 Comparison of equal-interval scale values versus indices values of new methods for evaluating color rendition of (a) TLCI Qa, (b) TLCI Qa´, (c) CQS Qa, (d) CQS Qf, (e) TM-30 Rf, and (f) SSI obtained in Experiment III. The markers denote four white LED lighting conditions, three CCTs, and three objects as shown in Fig. 9. In the comparison of the equal-interval scale values versus SSI, the two sizes of markers denote two CCTs (3,000 K and 5,600 K) because the SSI is not defined for 6,500 K.
Fig. 13
Fig. 13 The distributions between the equal-interval scale values and each index values of (a) Ra, (b) R9, (c) CQS Qa, and (d) TM-30 Rf with 95% confidence intervals. The markers denote four white LED lighting conditions, three CCTs, and three objects as shown in Fig. 9.

Tables (7)

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Table 1 Color rendering properties and luminous efficacy for four different types of white LED lighting.

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Table 2 Characteristics of 5 light sources used in Experiment I and II. (1,000 Duv equivalent to 1 duv)

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Table 3 Color differences exhibited by UHDTV and HDTV cameras obtained in Experiment I.

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Table 4 Mean and maximum values of the differences between the reproduced colors of the 24 color patches captured under the daylight and each white LED lighting for 2.4-power EOTF obtained in Experiment II.

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Table 5 Mean and maximum values of the differences between the reproduced colors of the 24 color patches captured under the daylight and each white LED lighting when using the inverse of Rec. 709 OETF obtained in Experiment II.

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Table 6 Characteristics of lighting conditions used in Experiment III. (1,000 Duv equivalent to 1 duv)

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Table 7 Five-stage degradation scale of DCR method used in Experiment III.

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