Abstract

We examine gated-Geiger mode operation of an integrated waveguide-coupled Ge-on-Si lateral avalanche photodiode (APD) and demonstrate single photon detection at low dark count for this mode of operation. Our integrated waveguide-coupled APD is fabricated using a selective epitaxial Ge-on-Si growth process resulting in a separate absorption and charge multiplication (SACM) design compatible with our silicon photonics platform. Single photon detection efficiency and dark count rate is measured as a function of temperature in order to understand and optimize performance characteristics in this device. We report single photon detection of 5.27% at 1310 nm and a dark count rate of 534 kHz at 80 K for a Ge-on-Si single photon avalanche diode. Dark count rate is the lowest for a Ge-on-Si single photon detector in this range of temperatures while maintaining competitive detection efficiency. A jitter of 105 ps was measured for this device.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. R. H. Hadfield, “Single-photon detectors for optical quantum information applications,” Nat. Photonics 3, 696–705 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  2. F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, T. Gerrits, I. Vayshenker, and S. W. Nam, “Detecting single infrared photons with 93% system efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 7, 210–214 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  3. B. F. Aull, A. H. Loomis, D. J. Young, R. M. Heinrichs, B. J. Felton, P. J. Daniels, and D. J. Landers, “Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes for 3-D imaging,” Lincoln Lab. J. 13, 335–350 (2002).
  4. C. Hu, X. Zheng, J. C. Campbell, B. M. Onat, X. Jiang, and M. A. Itzler, “Characterization of an InGaAs/InP-based single photon avalanche photodiode with gated passive quenching with active reset circuit,” J. Mod. Opt. 13, 1632–3044 (2010).
  5. M. Liu, X. Bai, C. Hu, X. Guo, J.C. Campbell, Z. Pan, and M.M. Tashima, “Low dark count rate and high single photon detection efficiency avalanche photodiode in Geiger-mode operation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 387–390 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  6. M. R. Watts, J. Sun, C. DeRose, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and G. N. Nielson, “Adiabatic thermo-optic Mach-Zehnder switch,” Opt. Lett. 38, 733–735 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. J. A. Cox, A. L. Lentine, D. J. Savignon, R. D. Miller, D. C. Trotter, and A. L. Starbuck, “Very large scale integrated optical interconnects: coherent optical control systems with 3D integration,” in Integrated Photonics Reseach, Silicon and Nanophotonics (2014), pp. IM2A1.
  8. J. A. Cox, D. C. Trotter, and A. L. Starbuck, “Integrated control of silicon-photonic micro-resonator wavelength via balanced homodyne locking,” Opt. Express 22, 52–53 (2013).
  9. C. T. Derose, D. C. Trotter, W. A. Zortman, A. L. Starbuck, M. Fisher, M. R. Watts, and P. S. Davids, “Ultra compact 45 GHz CMOS compatible Germanium waveguide photodiode with low dark current,” Opt. Express 19, 527–534 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  10. A. L. Lentine, J. A. Cox, W. A. Zortman, and D. J. Savignon, “Electronic interfaces to Silicon photonics,” Proc. SPIE 8989, 89890F (2014).
    [Crossref]
  11. A. L. Lentine and C. T. DeRose, “Challenges in the implementation of dense wavelength division multiplexed (DWDM) optical interconnects using resonant silicon photonics,” Proc. SPIE 9772, 977207 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  12. N. J.D. Martinez, C. T. DeRose, R. W. Brock, A. L. Starbuck, A. T. Pomerene, A. L. Lentine, D. C. Trotter, and P. S. Davids, “High performance waveguide-coupled Ge-on-Si linear mode avalanche photodiodes,” Opt. Express 24, 19072–19081 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. X. Jiang, M. Itzler, K. O’Donnell, M. Entwistle, M. Owens, K. Slomkowski, and S. Rangwala, “InP-based single-photon detectors and Geiger-mode APD arrays for quantum communication applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21, 3800112 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  14. A. Y. Loudon, P. A. Hiskett, G. S. Buller, R. T. Carline, D. C. Herbert, W. Y. Leong, and J. G. Rarity, “Enhancement of the infrared detection efficiency of silicon photon-counting avalanche photodiodes by use of silicon germanium absorbing layers,” Opt. Lett. 4, 219–221 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  15. B. Aull, “Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode arrays integrated to all-digital CMOS circuits,” Sensors ( 16, 495 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  16. Z. Lu, Y. Kang, C. Hu, Q. Zhou, H. Liu, and J.C. Campbell, “Geiger-mode operation of Ge-on-Si avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 47, 731–735 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  17. R. Warburton, G. Intermite, M. Myronov, P. Allred, D. Leadley, K. Gallacher, D. Paul, N. Pilgrim, L. Lever, Z. Ikonic, R. Kelsall, E. Huante-Ceron, A. Knights, and G. Buller, “Ge-on-si single-photon avalanche diode detectors: design, modeling, fabrication, and characterization at wavelengths 1310 and 1550 nm,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 60, 3807–3813 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  18. N. Duan, T.-Y. Liow, A. E. Lim, L. Ding, and G. Lo, “High speed waveguide-integrated ge/si avalanche photodetector,” in “Optical Fiber Communication Conference/National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference 2013,” (Optical Society of America, 2013), p. OM3K.3.
  19. S. Zhu, K. W. Ang, S. C. Rustagi, J. Wang, Y. Z. Xiong, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Waveguided Ge/Si avalanche photodiode with separate vertical SEG-Ge absorption, lateral Si charge, and multiplication configuration,” IEEE Electron. Dev. Lett. 30, 934–936 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  20. J. C. Garrison and R. Y. Chiao, “Quantum Optics,” (Oxford University Press, 2008).
    [Crossref]
  21. D. J. Massey, J. P. David, and G. J. Rees, “Temperature dependence of impact ionization in submicrometer Silicon devices,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 53, 2328 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  22. R. G. Brown, R. Jones, J. G. Rarity, and K. D. Ridley, “Characterization of silicon avalanche photodiodes for photon correlation measurements. 2: active quenching,” Appl. Opt. 12, 2383–2389 (1987).
    [Crossref]
  23. R. I. Soref and B. R. Bennet, “Electrooptical effects in silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 123–129 (1987).
    [Crossref]

2016 (3)

A. L. Lentine and C. T. DeRose, “Challenges in the implementation of dense wavelength division multiplexed (DWDM) optical interconnects using resonant silicon photonics,” Proc. SPIE 9772, 977207 (2016).
[Crossref]

B. Aull, “Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode arrays integrated to all-digital CMOS circuits,” Sensors ( 16, 495 (2016).
[Crossref]

N. J.D. Martinez, C. T. DeRose, R. W. Brock, A. L. Starbuck, A. T. Pomerene, A. L. Lentine, D. C. Trotter, and P. S. Davids, “High performance waveguide-coupled Ge-on-Si linear mode avalanche photodiodes,” Opt. Express 24, 19072–19081 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (1)

X. Jiang, M. Itzler, K. O’Donnell, M. Entwistle, M. Owens, K. Slomkowski, and S. Rangwala, “InP-based single-photon detectors and Geiger-mode APD arrays for quantum communication applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21, 3800112 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

A. L. Lentine, J. A. Cox, W. A. Zortman, and D. J. Savignon, “Electronic interfaces to Silicon photonics,” Proc. SPIE 8989, 89890F (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (4)

R. Warburton, G. Intermite, M. Myronov, P. Allred, D. Leadley, K. Gallacher, D. Paul, N. Pilgrim, L. Lever, Z. Ikonic, R. Kelsall, E. Huante-Ceron, A. Knights, and G. Buller, “Ge-on-si single-photon avalanche diode detectors: design, modeling, fabrication, and characterization at wavelengths 1310 and 1550 nm,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 60, 3807–3813 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. A. Cox, D. C. Trotter, and A. L. Starbuck, “Integrated control of silicon-photonic micro-resonator wavelength via balanced homodyne locking,” Opt. Express 22, 52–53 (2013).

F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, T. Gerrits, I. Vayshenker, and S. W. Nam, “Detecting single infrared photons with 93% system efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 7, 210–214 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. R. Watts, J. Sun, C. DeRose, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and G. N. Nielson, “Adiabatic thermo-optic Mach-Zehnder switch,” Opt. Lett. 38, 733–735 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

Z. Lu, Y. Kang, C. Hu, Q. Zhou, H. Liu, and J.C. Campbell, “Geiger-mode operation of Ge-on-Si avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 47, 731–735 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. T. Derose, D. C. Trotter, W. A. Zortman, A. L. Starbuck, M. Fisher, M. R. Watts, and P. S. Davids, “Ultra compact 45 GHz CMOS compatible Germanium waveguide photodiode with low dark current,” Opt. Express 19, 527–534 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

C. Hu, X. Zheng, J. C. Campbell, B. M. Onat, X. Jiang, and M. A. Itzler, “Characterization of an InGaAs/InP-based single photon avalanche photodiode with gated passive quenching with active reset circuit,” J. Mod. Opt. 13, 1632–3044 (2010).

2009 (2)

R. H. Hadfield, “Single-photon detectors for optical quantum information applications,” Nat. Photonics 3, 696–705 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. Zhu, K. W. Ang, S. C. Rustagi, J. Wang, Y. Z. Xiong, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Waveguided Ge/Si avalanche photodiode with separate vertical SEG-Ge absorption, lateral Si charge, and multiplication configuration,” IEEE Electron. Dev. Lett. 30, 934–936 (2009).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

M. Liu, X. Bai, C. Hu, X. Guo, J.C. Campbell, Z. Pan, and M.M. Tashima, “Low dark count rate and high single photon detection efficiency avalanche photodiode in Geiger-mode operation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 387–390 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

D. J. Massey, J. P. David, and G. J. Rees, “Temperature dependence of impact ionization in submicrometer Silicon devices,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 53, 2328 (2006).
[Crossref]

2002 (2)

A. Y. Loudon, P. A. Hiskett, G. S. Buller, R. T. Carline, D. C. Herbert, W. Y. Leong, and J. G. Rarity, “Enhancement of the infrared detection efficiency of silicon photon-counting avalanche photodiodes by use of silicon germanium absorbing layers,” Opt. Lett. 4, 219–221 (2002).
[Crossref]

B. F. Aull, A. H. Loomis, D. J. Young, R. M. Heinrichs, B. J. Felton, P. J. Daniels, and D. J. Landers, “Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes for 3-D imaging,” Lincoln Lab. J. 13, 335–350 (2002).

1987 (2)

R. G. Brown, R. Jones, J. G. Rarity, and K. D. Ridley, “Characterization of silicon avalanche photodiodes for photon correlation measurements. 2: active quenching,” Appl. Opt. 12, 2383–2389 (1987).
[Crossref]

R. I. Soref and B. R. Bennet, “Electrooptical effects in silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 123–129 (1987).
[Crossref]

Allred, P.

R. Warburton, G. Intermite, M. Myronov, P. Allred, D. Leadley, K. Gallacher, D. Paul, N. Pilgrim, L. Lever, Z. Ikonic, R. Kelsall, E. Huante-Ceron, A. Knights, and G. Buller, “Ge-on-si single-photon avalanche diode detectors: design, modeling, fabrication, and characterization at wavelengths 1310 and 1550 nm,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 60, 3807–3813 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ang, K. W.

S. Zhu, K. W. Ang, S. C. Rustagi, J. Wang, Y. Z. Xiong, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Waveguided Ge/Si avalanche photodiode with separate vertical SEG-Ge absorption, lateral Si charge, and multiplication configuration,” IEEE Electron. Dev. Lett. 30, 934–936 (2009).
[Crossref]

Aull, B.

B. Aull, “Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode arrays integrated to all-digital CMOS circuits,” Sensors ( 16, 495 (2016).
[Crossref]

Aull, B. F.

B. F. Aull, A. H. Loomis, D. J. Young, R. M. Heinrichs, B. J. Felton, P. J. Daniels, and D. J. Landers, “Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes for 3-D imaging,” Lincoln Lab. J. 13, 335–350 (2002).

Bai, X.

M. Liu, X. Bai, C. Hu, X. Guo, J.C. Campbell, Z. Pan, and M.M. Tashima, “Low dark count rate and high single photon detection efficiency avalanche photodiode in Geiger-mode operation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 387–390 (2007).
[Crossref]

Bennet, B. R.

R. I. Soref and B. R. Bennet, “Electrooptical effects in silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 123–129 (1987).
[Crossref]

Brock, R. W.

Brown, R. G.

R. G. Brown, R. Jones, J. G. Rarity, and K. D. Ridley, “Characterization of silicon avalanche photodiodes for photon correlation measurements. 2: active quenching,” Appl. Opt. 12, 2383–2389 (1987).
[Crossref]

Buller, G.

R. Warburton, G. Intermite, M. Myronov, P. Allred, D. Leadley, K. Gallacher, D. Paul, N. Pilgrim, L. Lever, Z. Ikonic, R. Kelsall, E. Huante-Ceron, A. Knights, and G. Buller, “Ge-on-si single-photon avalanche diode detectors: design, modeling, fabrication, and characterization at wavelengths 1310 and 1550 nm,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 60, 3807–3813 (2013).
[Crossref]

Buller, G. S.

Campbell, J. C.

C. Hu, X. Zheng, J. C. Campbell, B. M. Onat, X. Jiang, and M. A. Itzler, “Characterization of an InGaAs/InP-based single photon avalanche photodiode with gated passive quenching with active reset circuit,” J. Mod. Opt. 13, 1632–3044 (2010).

Campbell, J.C.

Z. Lu, Y. Kang, C. Hu, Q. Zhou, H. Liu, and J.C. Campbell, “Geiger-mode operation of Ge-on-Si avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 47, 731–735 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Liu, X. Bai, C. Hu, X. Guo, J.C. Campbell, Z. Pan, and M.M. Tashima, “Low dark count rate and high single photon detection efficiency avalanche photodiode in Geiger-mode operation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 387–390 (2007).
[Crossref]

Carline, R. T.

Chiao, R. Y.

J. C. Garrison and R. Y. Chiao, “Quantum Optics,” (Oxford University Press, 2008).
[Crossref]

Cox, J. A.

A. L. Lentine, J. A. Cox, W. A. Zortman, and D. J. Savignon, “Electronic interfaces to Silicon photonics,” Proc. SPIE 8989, 89890F (2014).
[Crossref]

J. A. Cox, D. C. Trotter, and A. L. Starbuck, “Integrated control of silicon-photonic micro-resonator wavelength via balanced homodyne locking,” Opt. Express 22, 52–53 (2013).

J. A. Cox, A. L. Lentine, D. J. Savignon, R. D. Miller, D. C. Trotter, and A. L. Starbuck, “Very large scale integrated optical interconnects: coherent optical control systems with 3D integration,” in Integrated Photonics Reseach, Silicon and Nanophotonics (2014), pp. IM2A1.

Daniels, P. J.

B. F. Aull, A. H. Loomis, D. J. Young, R. M. Heinrichs, B. J. Felton, P. J. Daniels, and D. J. Landers, “Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes for 3-D imaging,” Lincoln Lab. J. 13, 335–350 (2002).

David, J. P.

D. J. Massey, J. P. David, and G. J. Rees, “Temperature dependence of impact ionization in submicrometer Silicon devices,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 53, 2328 (2006).
[Crossref]

Davids, P. S.

DeRose, C.

DeRose, C. T.

Ding, L.

N. Duan, T.-Y. Liow, A. E. Lim, L. Ding, and G. Lo, “High speed waveguide-integrated ge/si avalanche photodetector,” in “Optical Fiber Communication Conference/National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference 2013,” (Optical Society of America, 2013), p. OM3K.3.

Duan, N.

N. Duan, T.-Y. Liow, A. E. Lim, L. Ding, and G. Lo, “High speed waveguide-integrated ge/si avalanche photodetector,” in “Optical Fiber Communication Conference/National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference 2013,” (Optical Society of America, 2013), p. OM3K.3.

Entwistle, M.

X. Jiang, M. Itzler, K. O’Donnell, M. Entwistle, M. Owens, K. Slomkowski, and S. Rangwala, “InP-based single-photon detectors and Geiger-mode APD arrays for quantum communication applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21, 3800112 (2015).
[Crossref]

Felton, B. J.

B. F. Aull, A. H. Loomis, D. J. Young, R. M. Heinrichs, B. J. Felton, P. J. Daniels, and D. J. Landers, “Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes for 3-D imaging,” Lincoln Lab. J. 13, 335–350 (2002).

Fisher, M.

Gallacher, K.

R. Warburton, G. Intermite, M. Myronov, P. Allred, D. Leadley, K. Gallacher, D. Paul, N. Pilgrim, L. Lever, Z. Ikonic, R. Kelsall, E. Huante-Ceron, A. Knights, and G. Buller, “Ge-on-si single-photon avalanche diode detectors: design, modeling, fabrication, and characterization at wavelengths 1310 and 1550 nm,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 60, 3807–3813 (2013).
[Crossref]

Garrison, J. C.

J. C. Garrison and R. Y. Chiao, “Quantum Optics,” (Oxford University Press, 2008).
[Crossref]

Gerrits, T.

F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, T. Gerrits, I. Vayshenker, and S. W. Nam, “Detecting single infrared photons with 93% system efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 7, 210–214 (2013).
[Crossref]

Guo, X.

M. Liu, X. Bai, C. Hu, X. Guo, J.C. Campbell, Z. Pan, and M.M. Tashima, “Low dark count rate and high single photon detection efficiency avalanche photodiode in Geiger-mode operation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 387–390 (2007).
[Crossref]

Hadfield, R. H.

R. H. Hadfield, “Single-photon detectors for optical quantum information applications,” Nat. Photonics 3, 696–705 (2009).
[Crossref]

Harrington, S.

F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, T. Gerrits, I. Vayshenker, and S. W. Nam, “Detecting single infrared photons with 93% system efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 7, 210–214 (2013).
[Crossref]

Heinrichs, R. M.

B. F. Aull, A. H. Loomis, D. J. Young, R. M. Heinrichs, B. J. Felton, P. J. Daniels, and D. J. Landers, “Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes for 3-D imaging,” Lincoln Lab. J. 13, 335–350 (2002).

Herbert, D. C.

Hiskett, P. A.

Hu, C.

Z. Lu, Y. Kang, C. Hu, Q. Zhou, H. Liu, and J.C. Campbell, “Geiger-mode operation of Ge-on-Si avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 47, 731–735 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. Hu, X. Zheng, J. C. Campbell, B. M. Onat, X. Jiang, and M. A. Itzler, “Characterization of an InGaAs/InP-based single photon avalanche photodiode with gated passive quenching with active reset circuit,” J. Mod. Opt. 13, 1632–3044 (2010).

M. Liu, X. Bai, C. Hu, X. Guo, J.C. Campbell, Z. Pan, and M.M. Tashima, “Low dark count rate and high single photon detection efficiency avalanche photodiode in Geiger-mode operation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 387–390 (2007).
[Crossref]

Huante-Ceron, E.

R. Warburton, G. Intermite, M. Myronov, P. Allred, D. Leadley, K. Gallacher, D. Paul, N. Pilgrim, L. Lever, Z. Ikonic, R. Kelsall, E. Huante-Ceron, A. Knights, and G. Buller, “Ge-on-si single-photon avalanche diode detectors: design, modeling, fabrication, and characterization at wavelengths 1310 and 1550 nm,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 60, 3807–3813 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ikonic, Z.

R. Warburton, G. Intermite, M. Myronov, P. Allred, D. Leadley, K. Gallacher, D. Paul, N. Pilgrim, L. Lever, Z. Ikonic, R. Kelsall, E. Huante-Ceron, A. Knights, and G. Buller, “Ge-on-si single-photon avalanche diode detectors: design, modeling, fabrication, and characterization at wavelengths 1310 and 1550 nm,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 60, 3807–3813 (2013).
[Crossref]

Intermite, G.

R. Warburton, G. Intermite, M. Myronov, P. Allred, D. Leadley, K. Gallacher, D. Paul, N. Pilgrim, L. Lever, Z. Ikonic, R. Kelsall, E. Huante-Ceron, A. Knights, and G. Buller, “Ge-on-si single-photon avalanche diode detectors: design, modeling, fabrication, and characterization at wavelengths 1310 and 1550 nm,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 60, 3807–3813 (2013).
[Crossref]

Itzler, M.

X. Jiang, M. Itzler, K. O’Donnell, M. Entwistle, M. Owens, K. Slomkowski, and S. Rangwala, “InP-based single-photon detectors and Geiger-mode APD arrays for quantum communication applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21, 3800112 (2015).
[Crossref]

Itzler, M. A.

C. Hu, X. Zheng, J. C. Campbell, B. M. Onat, X. Jiang, and M. A. Itzler, “Characterization of an InGaAs/InP-based single photon avalanche photodiode with gated passive quenching with active reset circuit,” J. Mod. Opt. 13, 1632–3044 (2010).

Jiang, X.

X. Jiang, M. Itzler, K. O’Donnell, M. Entwistle, M. Owens, K. Slomkowski, and S. Rangwala, “InP-based single-photon detectors and Geiger-mode APD arrays for quantum communication applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21, 3800112 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Hu, X. Zheng, J. C. Campbell, B. M. Onat, X. Jiang, and M. A. Itzler, “Characterization of an InGaAs/InP-based single photon avalanche photodiode with gated passive quenching with active reset circuit,” J. Mod. Opt. 13, 1632–3044 (2010).

Jones, R.

R. G. Brown, R. Jones, J. G. Rarity, and K. D. Ridley, “Characterization of silicon avalanche photodiodes for photon correlation measurements. 2: active quenching,” Appl. Opt. 12, 2383–2389 (1987).
[Crossref]

Kang, Y.

Z. Lu, Y. Kang, C. Hu, Q. Zhou, H. Liu, and J.C. Campbell, “Geiger-mode operation of Ge-on-Si avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 47, 731–735 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kelsall, R.

R. Warburton, G. Intermite, M. Myronov, P. Allred, D. Leadley, K. Gallacher, D. Paul, N. Pilgrim, L. Lever, Z. Ikonic, R. Kelsall, E. Huante-Ceron, A. Knights, and G. Buller, “Ge-on-si single-photon avalanche diode detectors: design, modeling, fabrication, and characterization at wavelengths 1310 and 1550 nm,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 60, 3807–3813 (2013).
[Crossref]

Knights, A.

R. Warburton, G. Intermite, M. Myronov, P. Allred, D. Leadley, K. Gallacher, D. Paul, N. Pilgrim, L. Lever, Z. Ikonic, R. Kelsall, E. Huante-Ceron, A. Knights, and G. Buller, “Ge-on-si single-photon avalanche diode detectors: design, modeling, fabrication, and characterization at wavelengths 1310 and 1550 nm,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 60, 3807–3813 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kwong, D. L.

S. Zhu, K. W. Ang, S. C. Rustagi, J. Wang, Y. Z. Xiong, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Waveguided Ge/Si avalanche photodiode with separate vertical SEG-Ge absorption, lateral Si charge, and multiplication configuration,” IEEE Electron. Dev. Lett. 30, 934–936 (2009).
[Crossref]

Landers, D. J.

B. F. Aull, A. H. Loomis, D. J. Young, R. M. Heinrichs, B. J. Felton, P. J. Daniels, and D. J. Landers, “Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes for 3-D imaging,” Lincoln Lab. J. 13, 335–350 (2002).

Leadley, D.

R. Warburton, G. Intermite, M. Myronov, P. Allred, D. Leadley, K. Gallacher, D. Paul, N. Pilgrim, L. Lever, Z. Ikonic, R. Kelsall, E. Huante-Ceron, A. Knights, and G. Buller, “Ge-on-si single-photon avalanche diode detectors: design, modeling, fabrication, and characterization at wavelengths 1310 and 1550 nm,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 60, 3807–3813 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lentine, A. L.

A. L. Lentine and C. T. DeRose, “Challenges in the implementation of dense wavelength division multiplexed (DWDM) optical interconnects using resonant silicon photonics,” Proc. SPIE 9772, 977207 (2016).
[Crossref]

N. J.D. Martinez, C. T. DeRose, R. W. Brock, A. L. Starbuck, A. T. Pomerene, A. L. Lentine, D. C. Trotter, and P. S. Davids, “High performance waveguide-coupled Ge-on-Si linear mode avalanche photodiodes,” Opt. Express 24, 19072–19081 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. L. Lentine, J. A. Cox, W. A. Zortman, and D. J. Savignon, “Electronic interfaces to Silicon photonics,” Proc. SPIE 8989, 89890F (2014).
[Crossref]

J. A. Cox, A. L. Lentine, D. J. Savignon, R. D. Miller, D. C. Trotter, and A. L. Starbuck, “Very large scale integrated optical interconnects: coherent optical control systems with 3D integration,” in Integrated Photonics Reseach, Silicon and Nanophotonics (2014), pp. IM2A1.

Leong, W. Y.

Lever, L.

R. Warburton, G. Intermite, M. Myronov, P. Allred, D. Leadley, K. Gallacher, D. Paul, N. Pilgrim, L. Lever, Z. Ikonic, R. Kelsall, E. Huante-Ceron, A. Knights, and G. Buller, “Ge-on-si single-photon avalanche diode detectors: design, modeling, fabrication, and characterization at wavelengths 1310 and 1550 nm,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 60, 3807–3813 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lim, A. E.

N. Duan, T.-Y. Liow, A. E. Lim, L. Ding, and G. Lo, “High speed waveguide-integrated ge/si avalanche photodetector,” in “Optical Fiber Communication Conference/National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference 2013,” (Optical Society of America, 2013), p. OM3K.3.

Liow, T.-Y.

N. Duan, T.-Y. Liow, A. E. Lim, L. Ding, and G. Lo, “High speed waveguide-integrated ge/si avalanche photodetector,” in “Optical Fiber Communication Conference/National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference 2013,” (Optical Society of America, 2013), p. OM3K.3.

Lita, A. E.

F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, T. Gerrits, I. Vayshenker, and S. W. Nam, “Detecting single infrared photons with 93% system efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 7, 210–214 (2013).
[Crossref]

Liu, H.

Z. Lu, Y. Kang, C. Hu, Q. Zhou, H. Liu, and J.C. Campbell, “Geiger-mode operation of Ge-on-Si avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 47, 731–735 (2011).
[Crossref]

Liu, M.

M. Liu, X. Bai, C. Hu, X. Guo, J.C. Campbell, Z. Pan, and M.M. Tashima, “Low dark count rate and high single photon detection efficiency avalanche photodiode in Geiger-mode operation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 387–390 (2007).
[Crossref]

Lo, G.

N. Duan, T.-Y. Liow, A. E. Lim, L. Ding, and G. Lo, “High speed waveguide-integrated ge/si avalanche photodetector,” in “Optical Fiber Communication Conference/National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference 2013,” (Optical Society of America, 2013), p. OM3K.3.

Lo, G. Q.

S. Zhu, K. W. Ang, S. C. Rustagi, J. Wang, Y. Z. Xiong, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Waveguided Ge/Si avalanche photodiode with separate vertical SEG-Ge absorption, lateral Si charge, and multiplication configuration,” IEEE Electron. Dev. Lett. 30, 934–936 (2009).
[Crossref]

Loomis, A. H.

B. F. Aull, A. H. Loomis, D. J. Young, R. M. Heinrichs, B. J. Felton, P. J. Daniels, and D. J. Landers, “Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes for 3-D imaging,” Lincoln Lab. J. 13, 335–350 (2002).

Loudon, A. Y.

Lu, Z.

Z. Lu, Y. Kang, C. Hu, Q. Zhou, H. Liu, and J.C. Campbell, “Geiger-mode operation of Ge-on-Si avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 47, 731–735 (2011).
[Crossref]

Marsili, F.

F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, T. Gerrits, I. Vayshenker, and S. W. Nam, “Detecting single infrared photons with 93% system efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 7, 210–214 (2013).
[Crossref]

Martinez, N. J.D.

Massey, D. J.

D. J. Massey, J. P. David, and G. J. Rees, “Temperature dependence of impact ionization in submicrometer Silicon devices,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 53, 2328 (2006).
[Crossref]

Miller, R. D.

J. A. Cox, A. L. Lentine, D. J. Savignon, R. D. Miller, D. C. Trotter, and A. L. Starbuck, “Very large scale integrated optical interconnects: coherent optical control systems with 3D integration,” in Integrated Photonics Reseach, Silicon and Nanophotonics (2014), pp. IM2A1.

Myronov, M.

R. Warburton, G. Intermite, M. Myronov, P. Allred, D. Leadley, K. Gallacher, D. Paul, N. Pilgrim, L. Lever, Z. Ikonic, R. Kelsall, E. Huante-Ceron, A. Knights, and G. Buller, “Ge-on-si single-photon avalanche diode detectors: design, modeling, fabrication, and characterization at wavelengths 1310 and 1550 nm,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 60, 3807–3813 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nam, S. W.

F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, T. Gerrits, I. Vayshenker, and S. W. Nam, “Detecting single infrared photons with 93% system efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 7, 210–214 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nielson, G. N.

O’Donnell, K.

X. Jiang, M. Itzler, K. O’Donnell, M. Entwistle, M. Owens, K. Slomkowski, and S. Rangwala, “InP-based single-photon detectors and Geiger-mode APD arrays for quantum communication applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21, 3800112 (2015).
[Crossref]

Onat, B. M.

C. Hu, X. Zheng, J. C. Campbell, B. M. Onat, X. Jiang, and M. A. Itzler, “Characterization of an InGaAs/InP-based single photon avalanche photodiode with gated passive quenching with active reset circuit,” J. Mod. Opt. 13, 1632–3044 (2010).

Owens, M.

X. Jiang, M. Itzler, K. O’Donnell, M. Entwistle, M. Owens, K. Slomkowski, and S. Rangwala, “InP-based single-photon detectors and Geiger-mode APD arrays for quantum communication applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21, 3800112 (2015).
[Crossref]

Pan, Z.

M. Liu, X. Bai, C. Hu, X. Guo, J.C. Campbell, Z. Pan, and M.M. Tashima, “Low dark count rate and high single photon detection efficiency avalanche photodiode in Geiger-mode operation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 387–390 (2007).
[Crossref]

Paul, D.

R. Warburton, G. Intermite, M. Myronov, P. Allred, D. Leadley, K. Gallacher, D. Paul, N. Pilgrim, L. Lever, Z. Ikonic, R. Kelsall, E. Huante-Ceron, A. Knights, and G. Buller, “Ge-on-si single-photon avalanche diode detectors: design, modeling, fabrication, and characterization at wavelengths 1310 and 1550 nm,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 60, 3807–3813 (2013).
[Crossref]

Pilgrim, N.

R. Warburton, G. Intermite, M. Myronov, P. Allred, D. Leadley, K. Gallacher, D. Paul, N. Pilgrim, L. Lever, Z. Ikonic, R. Kelsall, E. Huante-Ceron, A. Knights, and G. Buller, “Ge-on-si single-photon avalanche diode detectors: design, modeling, fabrication, and characterization at wavelengths 1310 and 1550 nm,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 60, 3807–3813 (2013).
[Crossref]

Pomerene, A. T.

Rangwala, S.

X. Jiang, M. Itzler, K. O’Donnell, M. Entwistle, M. Owens, K. Slomkowski, and S. Rangwala, “InP-based single-photon detectors and Geiger-mode APD arrays for quantum communication applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21, 3800112 (2015).
[Crossref]

Rarity, J. G.

A. Y. Loudon, P. A. Hiskett, G. S. Buller, R. T. Carline, D. C. Herbert, W. Y. Leong, and J. G. Rarity, “Enhancement of the infrared detection efficiency of silicon photon-counting avalanche photodiodes by use of silicon germanium absorbing layers,” Opt. Lett. 4, 219–221 (2002).
[Crossref]

R. G. Brown, R. Jones, J. G. Rarity, and K. D. Ridley, “Characterization of silicon avalanche photodiodes for photon correlation measurements. 2: active quenching,” Appl. Opt. 12, 2383–2389 (1987).
[Crossref]

Rees, G. J.

D. J. Massey, J. P. David, and G. J. Rees, “Temperature dependence of impact ionization in submicrometer Silicon devices,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 53, 2328 (2006).
[Crossref]

Ridley, K. D.

R. G. Brown, R. Jones, J. G. Rarity, and K. D. Ridley, “Characterization of silicon avalanche photodiodes for photon correlation measurements. 2: active quenching,” Appl. Opt. 12, 2383–2389 (1987).
[Crossref]

Rustagi, S. C.

S. Zhu, K. W. Ang, S. C. Rustagi, J. Wang, Y. Z. Xiong, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Waveguided Ge/Si avalanche photodiode with separate vertical SEG-Ge absorption, lateral Si charge, and multiplication configuration,” IEEE Electron. Dev. Lett. 30, 934–936 (2009).
[Crossref]

Savignon, D. J.

A. L. Lentine, J. A. Cox, W. A. Zortman, and D. J. Savignon, “Electronic interfaces to Silicon photonics,” Proc. SPIE 8989, 89890F (2014).
[Crossref]

J. A. Cox, A. L. Lentine, D. J. Savignon, R. D. Miller, D. C. Trotter, and A. L. Starbuck, “Very large scale integrated optical interconnects: coherent optical control systems with 3D integration,” in Integrated Photonics Reseach, Silicon and Nanophotonics (2014), pp. IM2A1.

Slomkowski, K.

X. Jiang, M. Itzler, K. O’Donnell, M. Entwistle, M. Owens, K. Slomkowski, and S. Rangwala, “InP-based single-photon detectors and Geiger-mode APD arrays for quantum communication applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21, 3800112 (2015).
[Crossref]

Soref, R. I.

R. I. Soref and B. R. Bennet, “Electrooptical effects in silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 123–129 (1987).
[Crossref]

Starbuck, A. L.

N. J.D. Martinez, C. T. DeRose, R. W. Brock, A. L. Starbuck, A. T. Pomerene, A. L. Lentine, D. C. Trotter, and P. S. Davids, “High performance waveguide-coupled Ge-on-Si linear mode avalanche photodiodes,” Opt. Express 24, 19072–19081 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. A. Cox, D. C. Trotter, and A. L. Starbuck, “Integrated control of silicon-photonic micro-resonator wavelength via balanced homodyne locking,” Opt. Express 22, 52–53 (2013).

C. T. Derose, D. C. Trotter, W. A. Zortman, A. L. Starbuck, M. Fisher, M. R. Watts, and P. S. Davids, “Ultra compact 45 GHz CMOS compatible Germanium waveguide photodiode with low dark current,” Opt. Express 19, 527–534 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. A. Cox, A. L. Lentine, D. J. Savignon, R. D. Miller, D. C. Trotter, and A. L. Starbuck, “Very large scale integrated optical interconnects: coherent optical control systems with 3D integration,” in Integrated Photonics Reseach, Silicon and Nanophotonics (2014), pp. IM2A1.

Stern, J. A.

F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, T. Gerrits, I. Vayshenker, and S. W. Nam, “Detecting single infrared photons with 93% system efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 7, 210–214 (2013).
[Crossref]

Sun, J.

Tashima, M.M.

M. Liu, X. Bai, C. Hu, X. Guo, J.C. Campbell, Z. Pan, and M.M. Tashima, “Low dark count rate and high single photon detection efficiency avalanche photodiode in Geiger-mode operation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 387–390 (2007).
[Crossref]

Trotter, D. C.

N. J.D. Martinez, C. T. DeRose, R. W. Brock, A. L. Starbuck, A. T. Pomerene, A. L. Lentine, D. C. Trotter, and P. S. Davids, “High performance waveguide-coupled Ge-on-Si linear mode avalanche photodiodes,” Opt. Express 24, 19072–19081 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. R. Watts, J. Sun, C. DeRose, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and G. N. Nielson, “Adiabatic thermo-optic Mach-Zehnder switch,” Opt. Lett. 38, 733–735 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. A. Cox, D. C. Trotter, and A. L. Starbuck, “Integrated control of silicon-photonic micro-resonator wavelength via balanced homodyne locking,” Opt. Express 22, 52–53 (2013).

C. T. Derose, D. C. Trotter, W. A. Zortman, A. L. Starbuck, M. Fisher, M. R. Watts, and P. S. Davids, “Ultra compact 45 GHz CMOS compatible Germanium waveguide photodiode with low dark current,” Opt. Express 19, 527–534 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. A. Cox, A. L. Lentine, D. J. Savignon, R. D. Miller, D. C. Trotter, and A. L. Starbuck, “Very large scale integrated optical interconnects: coherent optical control systems with 3D integration,” in Integrated Photonics Reseach, Silicon and Nanophotonics (2014), pp. IM2A1.

Vayshenker, I.

F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, T. Gerrits, I. Vayshenker, and S. W. Nam, “Detecting single infrared photons with 93% system efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 7, 210–214 (2013).
[Crossref]

Verma, V. B.

F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, T. Gerrits, I. Vayshenker, and S. W. Nam, “Detecting single infrared photons with 93% system efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 7, 210–214 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wang, J.

S. Zhu, K. W. Ang, S. C. Rustagi, J. Wang, Y. Z. Xiong, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Waveguided Ge/Si avalanche photodiode with separate vertical SEG-Ge absorption, lateral Si charge, and multiplication configuration,” IEEE Electron. Dev. Lett. 30, 934–936 (2009).
[Crossref]

Warburton, R.

R. Warburton, G. Intermite, M. Myronov, P. Allred, D. Leadley, K. Gallacher, D. Paul, N. Pilgrim, L. Lever, Z. Ikonic, R. Kelsall, E. Huante-Ceron, A. Knights, and G. Buller, “Ge-on-si single-photon avalanche diode detectors: design, modeling, fabrication, and characterization at wavelengths 1310 and 1550 nm,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 60, 3807–3813 (2013).
[Crossref]

Watts, M. R.

Xiong, Y. Z.

S. Zhu, K. W. Ang, S. C. Rustagi, J. Wang, Y. Z. Xiong, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Waveguided Ge/Si avalanche photodiode with separate vertical SEG-Ge absorption, lateral Si charge, and multiplication configuration,” IEEE Electron. Dev. Lett. 30, 934–936 (2009).
[Crossref]

Young, D. J.

B. F. Aull, A. H. Loomis, D. J. Young, R. M. Heinrichs, B. J. Felton, P. J. Daniels, and D. J. Landers, “Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes for 3-D imaging,” Lincoln Lab. J. 13, 335–350 (2002).

Young, R. W.

Zheng, X.

C. Hu, X. Zheng, J. C. Campbell, B. M. Onat, X. Jiang, and M. A. Itzler, “Characterization of an InGaAs/InP-based single photon avalanche photodiode with gated passive quenching with active reset circuit,” J. Mod. Opt. 13, 1632–3044 (2010).

Zhou, Q.

Z. Lu, Y. Kang, C. Hu, Q. Zhou, H. Liu, and J.C. Campbell, “Geiger-mode operation of Ge-on-Si avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 47, 731–735 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zhu, S.

S. Zhu, K. W. Ang, S. C. Rustagi, J. Wang, Y. Z. Xiong, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Waveguided Ge/Si avalanche photodiode with separate vertical SEG-Ge absorption, lateral Si charge, and multiplication configuration,” IEEE Electron. Dev. Lett. 30, 934–936 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zortman, W. A.

Appl. Opt. (1)

R. G. Brown, R. Jones, J. G. Rarity, and K. D. Ridley, “Characterization of silicon avalanche photodiodes for photon correlation measurements. 2: active quenching,” Appl. Opt. 12, 2383–2389 (1987).
[Crossref]

IEEE Electron. Dev. Lett. (1)

S. Zhu, K. W. Ang, S. C. Rustagi, J. Wang, Y. Z. Xiong, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Waveguided Ge/Si avalanche photodiode with separate vertical SEG-Ge absorption, lateral Si charge, and multiplication configuration,” IEEE Electron. Dev. Lett. 30, 934–936 (2009).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

Z. Lu, Y. Kang, C. Hu, Q. Zhou, H. Liu, and J.C. Campbell, “Geiger-mode operation of Ge-on-Si avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 47, 731–735 (2011).
[Crossref]

R. I. Soref and B. R. Bennet, “Electrooptical effects in silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 123–129 (1987).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

X. Jiang, M. Itzler, K. O’Donnell, M. Entwistle, M. Owens, K. Slomkowski, and S. Rangwala, “InP-based single-photon detectors and Geiger-mode APD arrays for quantum communication applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21, 3800112 (2015).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

M. Liu, X. Bai, C. Hu, X. Guo, J.C. Campbell, Z. Pan, and M.M. Tashima, “Low dark count rate and high single photon detection efficiency avalanche photodiode in Geiger-mode operation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 387–390 (2007).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. (1)

R. Warburton, G. Intermite, M. Myronov, P. Allred, D. Leadley, K. Gallacher, D. Paul, N. Pilgrim, L. Lever, Z. Ikonic, R. Kelsall, E. Huante-Ceron, A. Knights, and G. Buller, “Ge-on-si single-photon avalanche diode detectors: design, modeling, fabrication, and characterization at wavelengths 1310 and 1550 nm,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 60, 3807–3813 (2013).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. (1)

D. J. Massey, J. P. David, and G. J. Rees, “Temperature dependence of impact ionization in submicrometer Silicon devices,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 53, 2328 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

C. Hu, X. Zheng, J. C. Campbell, B. M. Onat, X. Jiang, and M. A. Itzler, “Characterization of an InGaAs/InP-based single photon avalanche photodiode with gated passive quenching with active reset circuit,” J. Mod. Opt. 13, 1632–3044 (2010).

Lincoln Lab. J. (1)

B. F. Aull, A. H. Loomis, D. J. Young, R. M. Heinrichs, B. J. Felton, P. J. Daniels, and D. J. Landers, “Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes for 3-D imaging,” Lincoln Lab. J. 13, 335–350 (2002).

Nat. Photonics (2)

R. H. Hadfield, “Single-photon detectors for optical quantum information applications,” Nat. Photonics 3, 696–705 (2009).
[Crossref]

F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, T. Gerrits, I. Vayshenker, and S. W. Nam, “Detecting single infrared photons with 93% system efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 7, 210–214 (2013).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Proc. SPIE (2)

A. L. Lentine, J. A. Cox, W. A. Zortman, and D. J. Savignon, “Electronic interfaces to Silicon photonics,” Proc. SPIE 8989, 89890F (2014).
[Crossref]

A. L. Lentine and C. T. DeRose, “Challenges in the implementation of dense wavelength division multiplexed (DWDM) optical interconnects using resonant silicon photonics,” Proc. SPIE 9772, 977207 (2016).
[Crossref]

Sensors (1)

B. Aull, “Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode arrays integrated to all-digital CMOS circuits,” Sensors ( 16, 495 (2016).
[Crossref]

Other (3)

J. A. Cox, A. L. Lentine, D. J. Savignon, R. D. Miller, D. C. Trotter, and A. L. Starbuck, “Very large scale integrated optical interconnects: coherent optical control systems with 3D integration,” in Integrated Photonics Reseach, Silicon and Nanophotonics (2014), pp. IM2A1.

N. Duan, T.-Y. Liow, A. E. Lim, L. Ding, and G. Lo, “High speed waveguide-integrated ge/si avalanche photodetector,” in “Optical Fiber Communication Conference/National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference 2013,” (Optical Society of America, 2013), p. OM3K.3.

J. C. Garrison and R. Y. Chiao, “Quantum Optics,” (Oxford University Press, 2008).
[Crossref]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Schematic cross-section for lateral separate absorption and charge multiplication APD. The p-charge region and the multiplication regions (MR) in the symmetric Gm-APD are shown. Ge absorber is located above the waveguide feed and p-charge layer extends out from Ge-Si interface. (b) Angled SEM image of Gm-APD with oxide cladding removed. The input waveguide is shown.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Illustration of gated Geiger mode operation of the APD. The APD is initially dc biased VDC below the avalanche breakdown voltage Vbr. A periodic series of ac voltage pulses VAC are applied to the APD pushing temporarily the total excess bias, VEx, above the breakdown voltage for the device. A synchronized narrow width optical pulse train is timed to arrive within the over-bias time window triggering avalanche breakdown of the APD and generating a large amplified photocurrent pulse. Inset shows a dark IV characteristic for the APD showing the breakdown voltage.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Schematic of the gated-Geiger mode single photon measurement setup. Key components shown are a pulsed laser, AC source pulse generator, DC power supply, bias-tee, high-speed oscillloscope, and time correlated single photon counter. The black (red) lines represent electrical (optical) traces. (b) Circuit diagram of the device under test (DUT). The DUT is in a cyrostat for examining Gm-APD performance as a function of temperature.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Oscilloscope trace of Gm-APD under pulsed single photon illumination. Voltage and time scales are 1 mV/div and 1 ns/div respectively. (b) Histograms for gated Geiger mode single photon detection. Red dots are for pulse illuminated APD with 〈n〉 = 0.1 photons, and black dots are for the APD in the dark. The temporal analysis window τ is shown schematically. The dark count probability is proportional to the cross-hatched area, and detection probability is proportional to the integrated area under the red fit Gaussian.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Temperature dependent Geiger mode characteristics of lateral APD. (a) IV characteristics for multiple temperatures in the dark and under CW laser illumination. (b) DCR vs. excess bias for various temperatures. (Uses same color code as (a)). (c) DCR vs. repetition rate for the gated overbias voltage at 80 K. (d) Single photon detection efficiency (SPDE) and DCR for the Gm-APD measured at 80 K as a function of % overbias. Here the overbias is given by VEx/Vbr in percent.

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

p n = n n n ! exp ( n )
p d = n = 1 p n = 1 exp ( ρ τ ) .
p c = 1 exp ( μ ) ,
ζ = 1 n ln ( 1 p d 1 p c ) .
p c = 0 τ d t r ( t ) = 1 N g i = 0 N ( τ ) n c ( i )
σ G m A P D = σ H i s t 2 σ L a s e r 2 σ E l e c t 2

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