Abstract

We investigate the absorption enhancement of an unstructured graphene sheet in a broad frequency range from terahertz (THz) to mid-infrared regime. Ultra-multiband graphene absorption enhancement is observed by integrating graphene in a metal-dielectric-graphene (MDG) sandwich structure for polarized waves. Multiple order Fabry-Perot (FP) resonances are demonstrated to be responsible for the multiband absorption. Furthermore, perfect absorption is realized by introducing the MDG structure on a metal reflector to suppress the transmission channel. In addition, the absorption peaks can be easily tuned by changing the doping level of graphene. This work may have potential for improving the performance of graphene based optoelectrical devices and can be regarded as a demonstration of a tunable broadband near-perfect metamaterial absorber.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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2017 (1)

Y.-X. Peng, M.-D. He, Z.-J. Li, K.-J. Wang, S. Li, J.-B. Li, J.-Q. Liu, M. Long, W.-D. Hu, and X. Chen, “Graphene-ribbon-coupled tunable enhanced transmission through metallic grating,” Opt. Commun. 382, 86–92 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (3)

2015 (5)

F. Xiong, J. Zhang, Z. Zhu, X. Yuan, and S. Qin, “Ultrabroadband, More than One Order Absorption Enhancement in Graphene with Plasmonic Light Trapping,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 16998 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Ke, B. Wang, H. Huang, H. Long, K. Wang, and P. Lu, “Plasmonic absorption enhancement in periodic cross-shaped graphene arrays,” Opt. Express 23(7), 8888–8900 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Cai, J. Zhu, and Q. H. Liu, “Tunable enhanced optical absorption of graphene using plasmonic perfect absorbers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(4), 043105 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Bao, S. Zu, Y. Zhang, and Z. Fang, “Active control of graphene-based unidirectional surface plasmon launcher,” ACS Photonics 2(8), 1135–1140 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. M. Jadidi, A. B. Sushkov, R. L. Myers-Ward, A. K. Boyd, K. M. Daniels, D. K. Gaskill, M. S. Fuhrer, H. D. Drew, and T. E. Murphy, “Tunable terahertz hybrid metal–graphene plasmons,” Nano Lett. 15(10), 7099–7104 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (7)

C.-H. Liu, Y.-C. Chang, T. B. Norris, and Z. Zhong, “Graphene photodetectors with ultra-broadband and high responsivity at room temperature,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(4), 273–278 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. R. Piper and S. Fan, “Total absorption in a graphene monolayer in the optical regime by critical coupling with a photonic crystal guided resonance,” ACS Photonics 1(4), 347–353 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Liu, A. Chadha, D. Zhao, J. R. Piper, Y. Jia, Y. Shuai, L. Menon, H. Yang, Z. Ma, S. Fan, F. Xia, and W. Zhou, “Approaching total absorption at near infrared in a large area monolayer graphene by critical coupling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(18), 181105 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Yao, R. Shankar, M. A. Kats, Y. Song, J. Kong, M. Loncar, and F. Capasso, “Electrically tunable metasurface perfect absorbers for ultrathin mid-infrared optical modulators,” Nano Lett. 14(11), 6526–6532 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Fang, Y. Wang, A. E. Schlather, Z. Liu, P. M. Ajayan, F. J. García de Abajo, P. Nordlander, X. Zhu, and N. J. Halas, “Active tunable absorption enhancement with graphene nanodisk arrays,” Nano Lett. 14(1), 299–304 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Zhao, J. Zhao, and Z. Zhang, “Enhancement of near-infrared absorption in graphene with metal gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(3), 031905 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Grande, M. A. Vincenti, T. Stomeo, G. V. Bianco, D. de Ceglia, N. Aközbek, V. Petruzzelli, G. Bruno, M. De Vittorio, M. Scalora, and A. D’Orazio, “Graphene-based absorber exploiting guided mode resonances in one-dimensional gratings,” Opt. Express 22(25), 31511–31519 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (7)

A. Andryieuski and A. V. Lavrinenko, “Graphene metamaterials based tunable terahertz absorber: effective surface conductivity approach,” Opt. Express 21(7), 9144–9155 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Song, Q. Chen, L. Jin, and F. Sun, “Great light absorption enhancement in a graphene photodetector integrated with a metamaterial perfect absorber,” Nanoscale 5(20), 9615–9619 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Zhang, Y. Zhang, Z. C. Dong, S. Jiang, C. Zhang, L. G. Chen, L. Zhang, Y. Liao, J. Aizpurua, Y. Luo, J. L. Yang, and J. G. Hou, “Chemical mapping of a single molecule by plasmon-enhanced Raman scattering,” Nature 498(7452), 82–86 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Yao, M. A. Kats, P. Genevet, N. Yu, Y. Song, J. Kong, and F. Capasso, “Broad electrical tuning of graphene-loaded plasmonic antennas,” Nano Lett. 13(3), 1257–1264 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Li and N. Yu, “Modulation of mid-infrared light using graphene-metal plasmonic antennas,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(13), 131108 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. M. Jornet and I. F. Akyildiz, “Graphene-based plasmonic nano-antenna for terahertz band communication in nanonetworks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm. 31(12), 685–694 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. Tassin, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Graphene for terahertz applications,” Science 341(6146), 620–621 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (12)

Z. Fang, Z. Liu, Y. Wang, P. M. Ajayan, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Graphene-antenna sandwich photodetector,” Nano Lett. 12(7), 3808–3813 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Sensale-Rodriguez, R. Yan, M. M. Kelly, T. Fang, K. Tahy, W. S. Hwang, D. Jena, L. Liu, and H. G. Xing, “Broadband graphene terahertz modulators enabled by intraband transitions,” Nat. Commun. 3, 780 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Liu, X. Yin, and X. Zhang, “Double-layer graphene optical modulator,” Nano Lett. 12(3), 1482–1485 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Chen, M. Badioli, P. Alonso-González, S. Thongrattanasiri, F. Huth, J. Osmond, M. Spasenović, A. Centeno, A. Pesquera, P. Godignon, A. Z. Elorza, N. Camara, F. J. García de Abajo, R. Hillenbrand, and F. H. Koppens, “Optical nano-imaging of gate-tunable graphene plasmons,” Nature 487(7405), 77–81 (2012).
[PubMed]

Z. Fei, A. S. Rodin, G. O. Andreev, W. Bao, A. S. McLeod, M. Wagner, L. M. Zhang, Z. Zhao, M. Thiemens, G. Dominguez, M. M. Fogler, A. H. Castro Neto, C. N. Lau, F. Keilmann, and D. N. Basov, “Gate-tuning of graphene plasmons revealed by infrared nano-imaging,” Nature 487(7405), 82–85 (2012).
[PubMed]

A. Ferreira, N. Peres, R. Ribeiro, and T. Stauber, “Graphene-based photodetector with two cavities,” Phys. Rev. B 85(11), 115438 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Engel, M. Steiner, A. Lombardo, A. C. Ferrari, H. V. Löhneysen, P. Avouris, and R. Krupke, “Light-matter interaction in a microcavity-controlled graphene transistor,” Nat. Commun. 3, 906 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Furchi, A. Urich, A. Pospischil, G. Lilley, K. Unterrainer, H. Detz, P. Klang, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, G. Strasser, and T. Mueller, “Microcavity-integrated graphene photodetector,” Nano Lett. 12(6), 2773–2777 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. D. Sonntag, J. M. Klingsporn, L. K. Garibay, J. M. Roberts, J. A. Dieringer, T. Seideman, K. A. Scheidt, L. Jensen, G. C. Schatz, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Single-molecule tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. C 116(1), 478–483 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Chaste, A. Eichler, J. Moser, G. Ceballos, R. Rurali, and A. Bachtold, “A nanomechanical mass sensor with yoctogram resolution,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7(5), 301–304 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Thongrattanasiri, F. H. Koppens, and F. J. García de Abajo, “Complete optical absorption in periodically patterned graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(4), 047401 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Sensale-Rodriguez, R. Yan, M. Zhu, D. Jena, L. Liu, and H. Grace Xing, “Efficient terahertz electro-absorption modulation employing graphene plasmonic structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(26), 261115 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Pang, Y. Hernandez, X. Feng, and K. Müllen, “Graphene as transparent electrode material for organic electronics,” Adv. Mater. 23(25), 2779–2795 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (3)

S. Bae, H. Kim, Y. Lee, X. Xu, J.-S. Park, Y. Zheng, J. Balakrishnan, T. Lei, H. Ri Kim, Y. I. Song, Y.-J. Kim, K. S. Kim, B. Özyilmaz, J.-H. Ahn, B. H. Hong, and S. Iijima, “Roll-to-roll production of 30-inch graphene films for transparent electrodes,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(8), 574–578 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 611–622 (2010).
[Crossref]

T. Mueller, F. Xia, and P. Avouris, “Graphene photodetectors for high-speed optical communications,” Nat. Photonics 4(5), 297–301 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

K. S. Kim, Y. Zhao, H. Jang, S. Y. Lee, J. M. Kim, K. S. Kim, J.-H. Ahn, P. Kim, J.-Y. Choi, and B. H. Hong, “Large-scale pattern growth of graphene films for stretchable transparent electrodes,” Nature 457(7230), 706–710 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Xia, T. Mueller, Y. M. Lin, A. Valdes-Garcia, and P. Avouris, “Ultrafast graphene photodetector,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 4(12), 839–843 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science 320(5881), 1308 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

N. Anderson, A. Hartschuh, S. Cronin, and L. Novotny, “Nanoscale vibrational analysis of single-walled carbon nanotubes,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127(8), 2533–2537 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science 306(5696), 666–669 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (2)

R. M. Stöckle, Y. D. Suh, V. Deckert, and R. Zenobi, “Nanoscale chemical analysis by tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 318(1-3), 131–136 (2000).
[Crossref]

N. Hayazawa, Y. Inouye, Z. Sekkat, and S. Kawata, “Metallized tip amplification of near-field Raman scattering,” Opt. Commun. 183(1-4), 333–336 (2000).
[Crossref]

1987 (1)

Ahn, J.-H.

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Y. Yao, R. Shankar, M. A. Kats, Y. Song, J. Kong, M. Loncar, and F. Capasso, “Electrically tunable metasurface perfect absorbers for ultrathin mid-infrared optical modulators,” Nano Lett. 14(11), 6526–6532 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Yao, M. A. Kats, P. Genevet, N. Yu, Y. Song, J. Kong, and F. Capasso, “Broad electrical tuning of graphene-loaded plasmonic antennas,” Nano Lett. 13(3), 1257–1264 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yin, X.

M. Liu, X. Yin, and X. Zhang, “Double-layer graphene optical modulator,” Nano Lett. 12(3), 1482–1485 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, N.

Y. Yao, M. A. Kats, P. Genevet, N. Yu, Y. Song, J. Kong, and F. Capasso, “Broad electrical tuning of graphene-loaded plasmonic antennas,” Nano Lett. 13(3), 1257–1264 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Li and N. Yu, “Modulation of mid-infrared light using graphene-metal plasmonic antennas,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(13), 131108 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yuan, X.

F. Xiong, J. Zhang, Z. Zhu, X. Yuan, and S. Qin, “Ultrabroadband, More than One Order Absorption Enhancement in Graphene with Plasmonic Light Trapping,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 16998 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zenobi, R.

R. M. Stöckle, Y. D. Suh, V. Deckert, and R. Zenobi, “Nanoscale chemical analysis by tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 318(1-3), 131–136 (2000).
[Crossref]

Zentgraf, T.

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, C.

R. Zhang, Y. Zhang, Z. C. Dong, S. Jiang, C. Zhang, L. G. Chen, L. Zhang, Y. Liao, J. Aizpurua, Y. Luo, J. L. Yang, and J. G. Hou, “Chemical mapping of a single molecule by plasmon-enhanced Raman scattering,” Nature 498(7452), 82–86 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, H.

Zhang, J.

F. Xiong, J. Zhang, Z. Zhu, X. Yuan, and S. Qin, “Ultrabroadband, More than One Order Absorption Enhancement in Graphene with Plasmonic Light Trapping,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 16998 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, L.

L. Zhang, L. Tang, W. Wei, X. Cheng, W. Wang, and H. Zhang, “Enhanced near-infrared absorption in graphene with multilayer metal-dielectric-metal nanostructure,” Opt. Express 24(18), 20002–20009 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Zhang, Y. Zhang, Z. C. Dong, S. Jiang, C. Zhang, L. G. Chen, L. Zhang, Y. Liao, J. Aizpurua, Y. Luo, J. L. Yang, and J. G. Hou, “Chemical mapping of a single molecule by plasmon-enhanced Raman scattering,” Nature 498(7452), 82–86 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, L. M.

Z. Fei, A. S. Rodin, G. O. Andreev, W. Bao, A. S. McLeod, M. Wagner, L. M. Zhang, Z. Zhao, M. Thiemens, G. Dominguez, M. M. Fogler, A. H. Castro Neto, C. N. Lau, F. Keilmann, and D. N. Basov, “Gate-tuning of graphene plasmons revealed by infrared nano-imaging,” Nature 487(7405), 82–85 (2012).
[PubMed]

Zhang, R.

R. Zhang, Y. Zhang, Z. C. Dong, S. Jiang, C. Zhang, L. G. Chen, L. Zhang, Y. Liao, J. Aizpurua, Y. Luo, J. L. Yang, and J. G. Hou, “Chemical mapping of a single molecule by plasmon-enhanced Raman scattering,” Nature 498(7452), 82–86 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

W. Luo, W. Cai, Y. Xiang, L. Wang, M. Ren, X. Zhang, and J. Xu, “Flexible modulation of plasmon-induced transparency in a strongly coupled graphene grating-sheet system,” Opt. Express 24(6), 5784–5793 (2016).
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M. Liu, X. Yin, and X. Zhang, “Double-layer graphene optical modulator,” Nano Lett. 12(3), 1482–1485 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, Y.

Y. Bao, S. Zu, Y. Zhang, and Z. Fang, “Active control of graphene-based unidirectional surface plasmon launcher,” ACS Photonics 2(8), 1135–1140 (2015).
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R. Zhang, Y. Zhang, Z. C. Dong, S. Jiang, C. Zhang, L. G. Chen, L. Zhang, Y. Liao, J. Aizpurua, Y. Luo, J. L. Yang, and J. G. Hou, “Chemical mapping of a single molecule by plasmon-enhanced Raman scattering,” Nature 498(7452), 82–86 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science 306(5696), 666–669 (2004).
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Zhang, Z.

B. Zhao, J. Zhao, and Z. Zhang, “Enhancement of near-infrared absorption in graphene with metal gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(3), 031905 (2014).
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Zhao, B.

B. Zhao, J. Zhao, and Z. Zhang, “Enhancement of near-infrared absorption in graphene with metal gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(3), 031905 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhao, D.

Y. Liu, A. Chadha, D. Zhao, J. R. Piper, Y. Jia, Y. Shuai, L. Menon, H. Yang, Z. Ma, S. Fan, F. Xia, and W. Zhou, “Approaching total absorption at near infrared in a large area monolayer graphene by critical coupling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(18), 181105 (2014).
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Zhao, J.

B. Zhao, J. Zhao, and Z. Zhang, “Enhancement of near-infrared absorption in graphene with metal gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(3), 031905 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhao, Y.

K. S. Kim, Y. Zhao, H. Jang, S. Y. Lee, J. M. Kim, K. S. Kim, J.-H. Ahn, P. Kim, J.-Y. Choi, and B. H. Hong, “Large-scale pattern growth of graphene films for stretchable transparent electrodes,” Nature 457(7230), 706–710 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, Z.

Z. Fei, A. S. Rodin, G. O. Andreev, W. Bao, A. S. McLeod, M. Wagner, L. M. Zhang, Z. Zhao, M. Thiemens, G. Dominguez, M. M. Fogler, A. H. Castro Neto, C. N. Lau, F. Keilmann, and D. N. Basov, “Gate-tuning of graphene plasmons revealed by infrared nano-imaging,” Nature 487(7405), 82–85 (2012).
[PubMed]

Zheng, Y.

S. Bae, H. Kim, Y. Lee, X. Xu, J.-S. Park, Y. Zheng, J. Balakrishnan, T. Lei, H. Ri Kim, Y. I. Song, Y.-J. Kim, K. S. Kim, B. Özyilmaz, J.-H. Ahn, B. H. Hong, and S. Iijima, “Roll-to-roll production of 30-inch graphene films for transparent electrodes,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(8), 574–578 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhong, Z.

C.-H. Liu, Y.-C. Chang, T. B. Norris, and Z. Zhong, “Graphene photodetectors with ultra-broadband and high responsivity at room temperature,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(4), 273–278 (2014).
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Zhou, W.

Y. Liu, A. Chadha, D. Zhao, J. R. Piper, Y. Jia, Y. Shuai, L. Menon, H. Yang, Z. Ma, S. Fan, F. Xia, and W. Zhou, “Approaching total absorption at near infrared in a large area monolayer graphene by critical coupling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(18), 181105 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhu, J.

Y. Cai, J. Zhu, and Q. H. Liu, “Tunable enhanced optical absorption of graphene using plasmonic perfect absorbers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(4), 043105 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhu, M.

B. Sensale-Rodriguez, R. Yan, M. Zhu, D. Jena, L. Liu, and H. Grace Xing, “Efficient terahertz electro-absorption modulation employing graphene plasmonic structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(26), 261115 (2012).
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Zhu, X.

Z. Fang, Y. Wang, A. E. Schlather, Z. Liu, P. M. Ajayan, F. J. García de Abajo, P. Nordlander, X. Zhu, and N. J. Halas, “Active tunable absorption enhancement with graphene nanodisk arrays,” Nano Lett. 14(1), 299–304 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhu, Z.

F. Xiong, J. Zhang, Z. Zhu, X. Yuan, and S. Qin, “Ultrabroadband, More than One Order Absorption Enhancement in Graphene with Plasmonic Light Trapping,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 16998 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zu, S.

Y. Bao, S. Zu, Y. Zhang, and Z. Fang, “Active control of graphene-based unidirectional surface plasmon launcher,” ACS Photonics 2(8), 1135–1140 (2015).
[Crossref]

ACS Photonics (2)

Y. Bao, S. Zu, Y. Zhang, and Z. Fang, “Active control of graphene-based unidirectional surface plasmon launcher,” ACS Photonics 2(8), 1135–1140 (2015).
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J. R. Piper and S. Fan, “Total absorption in a graphene monolayer in the optical regime by critical coupling with a photonic crystal guided resonance,” ACS Photonics 1(4), 347–353 (2014).
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S. Pang, Y. Hernandez, X. Feng, and K. Müllen, “Graphene as transparent electrode material for organic electronics,” Adv. Mater. 23(25), 2779–2795 (2011).
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Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

Y. Liu, A. Chadha, D. Zhao, J. R. Piper, Y. Jia, Y. Shuai, L. Menon, H. Yang, Z. Ma, S. Fan, F. Xia, and W. Zhou, “Approaching total absorption at near infrared in a large area monolayer graphene by critical coupling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(18), 181105 (2014).
[Crossref]

B. Sensale-Rodriguez, R. Yan, M. Zhu, D. Jena, L. Liu, and H. Grace Xing, “Efficient terahertz electro-absorption modulation employing graphene plasmonic structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(26), 261115 (2012).
[Crossref]

B. Zhao, J. Zhao, and Z. Zhang, “Enhancement of near-infrared absorption in graphene with metal gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(3), 031905 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Cai, J. Zhu, and Q. H. Liu, “Tunable enhanced optical absorption of graphene using plasmonic perfect absorbers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(4), 043105 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z. Li and N. Yu, “Modulation of mid-infrared light using graphene-metal plasmonic antennas,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(13), 131108 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

R. M. Stöckle, Y. D. Suh, V. Deckert, and R. Zenobi, “Nanoscale chemical analysis by tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 318(1-3), 131–136 (2000).
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IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm. (1)

J. M. Jornet and I. F. Akyildiz, “Graphene-based plasmonic nano-antenna for terahertz band communication in nanonetworks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm. 31(12), 685–694 (2013).
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Y. Yao, R. Shankar, M. A. Kats, Y. Song, J. Kong, M. Loncar, and F. Capasso, “Electrically tunable metasurface perfect absorbers for ultrathin mid-infrared optical modulators,” Nano Lett. 14(11), 6526–6532 (2014).
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Z. Fang, Y. Wang, A. E. Schlather, Z. Liu, P. M. Ajayan, F. J. García de Abajo, P. Nordlander, X. Zhu, and N. J. Halas, “Active tunable absorption enhancement with graphene nanodisk arrays,” Nano Lett. 14(1), 299–304 (2014).
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M. Furchi, A. Urich, A. Pospischil, G. Lilley, K. Unterrainer, H. Detz, P. Klang, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, G. Strasser, and T. Mueller, “Microcavity-integrated graphene photodetector,” Nano Lett. 12(6), 2773–2777 (2012).
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Y. Yao, M. A. Kats, P. Genevet, N. Yu, Y. Song, J. Kong, and F. Capasso, “Broad electrical tuning of graphene-loaded plasmonic antennas,” Nano Lett. 13(3), 1257–1264 (2013).
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Z. Fang, Z. Liu, Y. Wang, P. M. Ajayan, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Graphene-antenna sandwich photodetector,” Nano Lett. 12(7), 3808–3813 (2012).
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M. M. Jadidi, A. B. Sushkov, R. L. Myers-Ward, A. K. Boyd, K. M. Daniels, D. K. Gaskill, M. S. Fuhrer, H. D. Drew, and T. E. Murphy, “Tunable terahertz hybrid metal–graphene plasmons,” Nano Lett. 15(10), 7099–7104 (2015).
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M. Liu, X. Yin, and X. Zhang, “Double-layer graphene optical modulator,” Nano Lett. 12(3), 1482–1485 (2012).
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Nanoscale (1)

S. Song, Q. Chen, L. Jin, and F. Sun, “Great light absorption enhancement in a graphene photodetector integrated with a metamaterial perfect absorber,” Nanoscale 5(20), 9615–9619 (2013).
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Nat. Commun. (2)

B. Sensale-Rodriguez, R. Yan, M. M. Kelly, T. Fang, K. Tahy, W. S. Hwang, D. Jena, L. Liu, and H. G. Xing, “Broadband graphene terahertz modulators enabled by intraband transitions,” Nat. Commun. 3, 780 (2012).
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M. Engel, M. Steiner, A. Lombardo, A. C. Ferrari, H. V. Löhneysen, P. Avouris, and R. Krupke, “Light-matter interaction in a microcavity-controlled graphene transistor,” Nat. Commun. 3, 906 (2012).
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J. Chaste, A. Eichler, J. Moser, G. Ceballos, R. Rurali, and A. Bachtold, “A nanomechanical mass sensor with yoctogram resolution,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7(5), 301–304 (2012).
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F. Xia, T. Mueller, Y. M. Lin, A. Valdes-Garcia, and P. Avouris, “Ultrafast graphene photodetector,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 4(12), 839–843 (2009).
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S. Bae, H. Kim, Y. Lee, X. Xu, J.-S. Park, Y. Zheng, J. Balakrishnan, T. Lei, H. Ri Kim, Y. I. Song, Y.-J. Kim, K. S. Kim, B. Özyilmaz, J.-H. Ahn, B. H. Hong, and S. Iijima, “Roll-to-roll production of 30-inch graphene films for transparent electrodes,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(8), 574–578 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C.-H. Liu, Y.-C. Chang, T. B. Norris, and Z. Zhong, “Graphene photodetectors with ultra-broadband and high responsivity at room temperature,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(4), 273–278 (2014).
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Nat. Photonics (2)

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 611–622 (2010).
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T. Mueller, F. Xia, and P. Avouris, “Graphene photodetectors for high-speed optical communications,” Nat. Photonics 4(5), 297–301 (2010).
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Nature (5)

K. S. Kim, Y. Zhao, H. Jang, S. Y. Lee, J. M. Kim, K. S. Kim, J.-H. Ahn, P. Kim, J.-Y. Choi, and B. H. Hong, “Large-scale pattern growth of graphene films for stretchable transparent electrodes,” Nature 457(7230), 706–710 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Zhang, Y. Zhang, Z. C. Dong, S. Jiang, C. Zhang, L. G. Chen, L. Zhang, Y. Liao, J. Aizpurua, Y. Luo, J. L. Yang, and J. G. Hou, “Chemical mapping of a single molecule by plasmon-enhanced Raman scattering,” Nature 498(7452), 82–86 (2013).
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Sci. Rep. (1)

F. Xiong, J. Zhang, Z. Zhu, X. Yuan, and S. Qin, “Ultrabroadband, More than One Order Absorption Enhancement in Graphene with Plasmonic Light Trapping,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 16998 (2015).
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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic view of the proposed structure. Parameters are given as W = 1 μm, P = 2 μm, t = 40 nm and s = 5 nm, respectively.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Absorption spectrum and field distribution of |E/E0|. (a) Absorption spectra of the proposed structure (gray line and shadow), the proposed structure but without the graphene sheet (black line) and a freestanding graphene sheet (blue line). (b) Field distribution of |E/E0| at the three absorption peaks “I”, “II” and “III” marked in (a). White rectangles indicate where metal exists.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Verification of the FP resonance model. (a) Calculated effective refractive index of GPs waves travelling in the MDG sandwich structure. Inset is the schematic illustration of how FP resonances are formed. (b) Wavelength of GPs derived from the FP resonance model and numerical simulations.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Near-perfect absorption enhancement. (a) Schematic view of the proposed structure with a metal substrate. The thickness of the dielectric spacer is 1 μm. Other parameters are the same as in Fig. 1. (b) Absorption spectra of the structure in (a) at different graphene doping levels represented by Fermi energy EF. An offset of 1 between adjacent lines is included for clarification.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Distributions of Ez component of a metal grating (a) and a metal grating with the complementary structure (b). Shaded rectangles mark the region where metal material exits.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Graphene conductivity at various EF. (a) Real part. (b) Imaginary part.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Comparison of absorption in graphene and in gold.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Dispersion of plasmons at metal-air interface, suspended graphene sheet and the proposed MDG structure.

Equations (1)

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σ(ω)= 2 e 2 k B T π 2 i ω+i τ 1 ln[2cosh( E F 2 k B T )] + e 2 4 [H(ω/2)+i 2ω π 0 H(ω'/2)H(ω/2) ω 2 ω ' 2 dω'.

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