Abstract

The performance of X-ray and neutron grating interferometers is characterised by their visibility, which is a measure for the maximum achievable contrast. In this study we show how the real grating geometry in a grating interferometer with three gratings impacts the interference and self projection that leads to visibility in the first place. We quantify the individual contributions of wavelength distributions and grating shapes in terms of visibility reduction by determining the absolute as well as relative effect of each contribution. The understanding of the impact of changed geometry and wavelength distributions on the interference of neutrons/X-rays allows us to present the first fully quantitative model of a grating interferometer setup. We demonstrate the capability of the simulation framework by building a model of the neutron grating interferometer at the ICON beamline and directly comparing simulated and measured visibility values. The general nature of the model makes it possible to extend it to any given grating interferometer for both X-rays and neutrons.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. Strobl, B. Betz, R. P. Harti, A. Hilger, N. Kardjilov, I. Manke, and C. Grünzweig, “Wavelength-dispersive dark-field contrast: micrometre structure resolution in neutron imaging with gratings,” J. Appl. Crystallogr. 49(2), 569–573 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  2. F. Pfeiffer, T. Weitkamp, O. Bunk, and C. David, “Phase retrieval and differential phase-contrast imaging with low-brilliance X-ray sources,” Nature Phys. 2(4), 258–261 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  3. F. Pfeiffer, M. Bech, O. Bunk, P. Kraft, E. F. Eikenberry, Ch. Brönnimann, C. Grünzweig, and C. David, “Hard-X-ray dark-field imaging using a grating interferometer,” Nat. Mater. 7(2), 134–137 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. F. Pfeiffer, C. Grünzweig, O. Bunk, G. Frei, E. Lehmann, and C. David, “Neutron phase imaging and tomography,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(21), 215505 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. C. Grünzweig, C. David, O. Bunk, M. Dierolf, G. Frei, G. Kühne, J. Kohlbrecher, R. Schäfer, P. Lejcek, H. M. R. Rønnow, and F. Pfeiffer, “Neutron decoherence imaging for visualizing bulk magnetic domain structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(2), 025504 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. B. Betz, P. Rauscher, R. P. Harti, R. Schäfer, H. Van Swygenhoven, A. Kaestner, J. Hovind, E. Lehmann, and C. Grünzweig, “In-situ visualization of stress-dependent bulk magnetic domain formation by neutron grating interferometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(1), 012405 (2016).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
  18. W. Haas, P. Bartl, F. Bayer, J. Durst, T. Grund, J. Kenntner, T. Michel, A. Ritter, T. Weber, G. Anton, and J. Hornegger, “Performance analysis of X-Ray phase-contrast interferometers with respect to grating layouts,” in Proceedings of the IEEE Nuclear Science Symposuim & Medical Imaging Conference (2010), pp. 3176–3178.
  19. A. P. Kaestner, S. Hartmann, G. Kühne, G. Frei, C. Grünzweig, L. Josic, F. Schmid, and E. H. Lehmann, “The ICON beamline - A facility for cold neutron imaging at SINQ,” Nucl. Instr. Meth. Phys. Res. A 659(1), 387–393 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  20. C. Grünzweig, F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, T. Donath, G. Kühne, G. Frei, M. Dierolf, and C. David, “Design, fabrication, and characterization of diffraction gratings for neutron phase contrast imaging,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79(5), 1–6 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  21. M. Morgano, S. Peetermans, E. H. Lehmann, T. Panzner, and U. Filges, “Neutron imaging options at the BOA beamline at Paul Scherrer Institut,” Nucl. Instr. Meth. Phys. Res. A 754(5), 46–56 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  22. T. Thüring, M. Abis, Z. Wang, C. David, and M. Stampanoni, “X-ray phase-contrast imaging at 100 keV on a conventional source,” Sci. Rep. 45198 (2014).
    [Crossref]

2016 (2)

M. Strobl, B. Betz, R. P. Harti, A. Hilger, N. Kardjilov, I. Manke, and C. Grünzweig, “Wavelength-dispersive dark-field contrast: micrometre structure resolution in neutron imaging with gratings,” J. Appl. Crystallogr. 49(2), 569–573 (2016).
[Crossref]

B. Betz, P. Rauscher, R. P. Harti, R. Schäfer, H. Van Swygenhoven, A. Kaestner, J. Hovind, E. Lehmann, and C. Grünzweig, “In-situ visualization of stress-dependent bulk magnetic domain formation by neutron grating interferometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(1), 012405 (2016).
[Crossref]

2014 (4)

S. Hipp, M. Willner, J. Herzen, S. D. Auweter, M. Chabior, J. Meiser, K. Achterhold, J. Mohr, and F. Pfeiffer, “Energy-resolved visibility analysis of grating interferometers operated at polychromatic X-ray sources,” Opt. Express 22(25), 30394–30409 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Peter, P. Modregger, M. K. Fix, W. Volken, D. Frei, P. Manser, and M. Stampanoni, “Combining Monte Carlo methods with coherent wave optics for the simulation of phase-sensitive X-ray imaging,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 21(3), 613–622 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Morgano, S. Peetermans, E. H. Lehmann, T. Panzner, and U. Filges, “Neutron imaging options at the BOA beamline at Paul Scherrer Institut,” Nucl. Instr. Meth. Phys. Res. A 754(5), 46–56 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Thüring, M. Abis, Z. Wang, C. David, and M. Stampanoni, “X-ray phase-contrast imaging at 100 keV on a conventional source,” Sci. Rep. 45198 (2014).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

T. Weber, P. Bartl, F. Bayer, J. Durst, W. Haas, T. Michel, A. Ritter, and G. Anton, “Noise in x-ray grating-based phase-contrast imaging,” Med. Phys. 38(7), 4133–4140 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. P. Kaestner, S. Hartmann, G. Kühne, G. Frei, C. Grünzweig, L. Josic, F. Schmid, and E. H. Lehmann, “The ICON beamline - A facility for cold neutron imaging at SINQ,” Nucl. Instr. Meth. Phys. Res. A 659(1), 387–393 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

P. Bartl, F. Bayer, J. Durst, W. Haas, T. Michel, A. Ritter, T. Weber, and G. Anton, “Grating-based high energy X-ray interferometry with the Medipix-detector in simulation and measurement,” J. Instrum. 5(10) P10008 (2010).
[Crossref]

2008 (6)

C. Grünzweig, F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, T. Donath, G. Kühne, G. Frei, M. Dierolf, and C. David, “Design, fabrication, and characterization of diffraction gratings for neutron phase contrast imaging,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79(5), 1–6 (2008).
[Crossref]

K. Lefmann, P. K. Willendrup, L. Udby, B. Lebech, K. Mortensen, J. O. Birk, K. Klenø, E. Knudsen, P. Christiansen, J. Saroun, J. Kulda, U. Filges, M. Konnecke, P. Tregenna-Piggott, J. Peters, K. Lieutenant, G. Zsigmond, P. Bentley, and E. Farhi, “Virtual experiments: the ultimate aim of neutron ray-tracing simulations,” J. Neutron Res. 16(3), 97–111 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. Engelhardt, C. Kottler, O. Bunk, C. David, C. Schroer, J. Baumann, M. Schuster, and F. Pfeiffer, “The fractional Talbot effect in differential x-ray phase-contrast imaging for extended and polychromatic x-ray sources,” J. Microsc. 232(1), 145–157 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Grünzweig, C. David, O. Bunk, M. Dierolf, G. Frei, G. Kühne, J. Kohlbrecher, R. Schäfer, P. Lejcek, H. M. R. Rønnow, and F. Pfeiffer, “Neutron decoherence imaging for visualizing bulk magnetic domain structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(2), 025504 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Strobl, C. Grünzweig, A. Hilger, I. Manke, N. Kardjilov, C. David, and F. Pfeiffer, “Neutron dark-field tomography,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(12), 123902 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Pfeiffer, M. Bech, O. Bunk, P. Kraft, E. F. Eikenberry, Ch. Brönnimann, C. Grünzweig, and C. David, “Hard-X-ray dark-field imaging using a grating interferometer,” Nat. Mater. 7(2), 134–137 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (3)

F. Pfeiffer, C. Grünzweig, O. Bunk, G. Frei, E. Lehmann, and C. David, “Neutron phase imaging and tomography,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(21), 215505 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Pfeiffer, T. Weitkamp, O. Bunk, and C. David, “Phase retrieval and differential phase-contrast imaging with low-brilliance X-ray sources,” Nature Phys. 2(4), 258–261 (2006).
[Crossref]

T. Weitkamp and C. David, “Tomography with grating interferometers at low-brilliance sources,” Proc. SPIE 6318, 63180S (2006).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

P. Willendrup, E. Farhi, and K. Lefmann, “McStas 1.7 - a new version of the flexible Monte Carlo neutron scattering package,” Physica B 350(1), E735–E737 (2004).
[Crossref]

Abis, M.

T. Thüring, M. Abis, Z. Wang, C. David, and M. Stampanoni, “X-ray phase-contrast imaging at 100 keV on a conventional source,” Sci. Rep. 45198 (2014).
[Crossref]

Achterhold, K.

Anton, G.

T. Weber, P. Bartl, F. Bayer, J. Durst, W. Haas, T. Michel, A. Ritter, and G. Anton, “Noise in x-ray grating-based phase-contrast imaging,” Med. Phys. 38(7), 4133–4140 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Bartl, F. Bayer, J. Durst, W. Haas, T. Michel, A. Ritter, T. Weber, and G. Anton, “Grating-based high energy X-ray interferometry with the Medipix-detector in simulation and measurement,” J. Instrum. 5(10) P10008 (2010).
[Crossref]

W. Haas, P. Bartl, F. Bayer, J. Durst, T. Grund, J. Kenntner, T. Michel, A. Ritter, T. Weber, G. Anton, and J. Hornegger, “Performance analysis of X-Ray phase-contrast interferometers with respect to grating layouts,” in Proceedings of the IEEE Nuclear Science Symposuim & Medical Imaging Conference (2010), pp. 3176–3178.

Auweter, S. D.

Bartl, P.

T. Weber, P. Bartl, F. Bayer, J. Durst, W. Haas, T. Michel, A. Ritter, and G. Anton, “Noise in x-ray grating-based phase-contrast imaging,” Med. Phys. 38(7), 4133–4140 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Bartl, F. Bayer, J. Durst, W. Haas, T. Michel, A. Ritter, T. Weber, and G. Anton, “Grating-based high energy X-ray interferometry with the Medipix-detector in simulation and measurement,” J. Instrum. 5(10) P10008 (2010).
[Crossref]

W. Haas, P. Bartl, F. Bayer, J. Durst, T. Grund, J. Kenntner, T. Michel, A. Ritter, T. Weber, G. Anton, and J. Hornegger, “Performance analysis of X-Ray phase-contrast interferometers with respect to grating layouts,” in Proceedings of the IEEE Nuclear Science Symposuim & Medical Imaging Conference (2010), pp. 3176–3178.

Baumann, J.

M. Engelhardt, C. Kottler, O. Bunk, C. David, C. Schroer, J. Baumann, M. Schuster, and F. Pfeiffer, “The fractional Talbot effect in differential x-ray phase-contrast imaging for extended and polychromatic x-ray sources,” J. Microsc. 232(1), 145–157 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bayer, F.

T. Weber, P. Bartl, F. Bayer, J. Durst, W. Haas, T. Michel, A. Ritter, and G. Anton, “Noise in x-ray grating-based phase-contrast imaging,” Med. Phys. 38(7), 4133–4140 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Bartl, F. Bayer, J. Durst, W. Haas, T. Michel, A. Ritter, T. Weber, and G. Anton, “Grating-based high energy X-ray interferometry with the Medipix-detector in simulation and measurement,” J. Instrum. 5(10) P10008 (2010).
[Crossref]

W. Haas, P. Bartl, F. Bayer, J. Durst, T. Grund, J. Kenntner, T. Michel, A. Ritter, T. Weber, G. Anton, and J. Hornegger, “Performance analysis of X-Ray phase-contrast interferometers with respect to grating layouts,” in Proceedings of the IEEE Nuclear Science Symposuim & Medical Imaging Conference (2010), pp. 3176–3178.

Bech, M.

F. Pfeiffer, M. Bech, O. Bunk, P. Kraft, E. F. Eikenberry, Ch. Brönnimann, C. Grünzweig, and C. David, “Hard-X-ray dark-field imaging using a grating interferometer,” Nat. Mater. 7(2), 134–137 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bentley, P.

K. Lefmann, P. K. Willendrup, L. Udby, B. Lebech, K. Mortensen, J. O. Birk, K. Klenø, E. Knudsen, P. Christiansen, J. Saroun, J. Kulda, U. Filges, M. Konnecke, P. Tregenna-Piggott, J. Peters, K. Lieutenant, G. Zsigmond, P. Bentley, and E. Farhi, “Virtual experiments: the ultimate aim of neutron ray-tracing simulations,” J. Neutron Res. 16(3), 97–111 (2008).
[Crossref]

Betz, B.

B. Betz, P. Rauscher, R. P. Harti, R. Schäfer, H. Van Swygenhoven, A. Kaestner, J. Hovind, E. Lehmann, and C. Grünzweig, “In-situ visualization of stress-dependent bulk magnetic domain formation by neutron grating interferometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(1), 012405 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Strobl, B. Betz, R. P. Harti, A. Hilger, N. Kardjilov, I. Manke, and C. Grünzweig, “Wavelength-dispersive dark-field contrast: micrometre structure resolution in neutron imaging with gratings,” J. Appl. Crystallogr. 49(2), 569–573 (2016).
[Crossref]

Birk, J. O.

K. Lefmann, P. K. Willendrup, L. Udby, B. Lebech, K. Mortensen, J. O. Birk, K. Klenø, E. Knudsen, P. Christiansen, J. Saroun, J. Kulda, U. Filges, M. Konnecke, P. Tregenna-Piggott, J. Peters, K. Lieutenant, G. Zsigmond, P. Bentley, and E. Farhi, “Virtual experiments: the ultimate aim of neutron ray-tracing simulations,” J. Neutron Res. 16(3), 97–111 (2008).
[Crossref]

Brönnimann, Ch.

F. Pfeiffer, M. Bech, O. Bunk, P. Kraft, E. F. Eikenberry, Ch. Brönnimann, C. Grünzweig, and C. David, “Hard-X-ray dark-field imaging using a grating interferometer,” Nat. Mater. 7(2), 134–137 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bunk, O.

F. Pfeiffer, M. Bech, O. Bunk, P. Kraft, E. F. Eikenberry, Ch. Brönnimann, C. Grünzweig, and C. David, “Hard-X-ray dark-field imaging using a grating interferometer,” Nat. Mater. 7(2), 134–137 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Grünzweig, C. David, O. Bunk, M. Dierolf, G. Frei, G. Kühne, J. Kohlbrecher, R. Schäfer, P. Lejcek, H. M. R. Rønnow, and F. Pfeiffer, “Neutron decoherence imaging for visualizing bulk magnetic domain structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(2), 025504 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Grünzweig, F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, T. Donath, G. Kühne, G. Frei, M. Dierolf, and C. David, “Design, fabrication, and characterization of diffraction gratings for neutron phase contrast imaging,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79(5), 1–6 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. Engelhardt, C. Kottler, O. Bunk, C. David, C. Schroer, J. Baumann, M. Schuster, and F. Pfeiffer, “The fractional Talbot effect in differential x-ray phase-contrast imaging for extended and polychromatic x-ray sources,” J. Microsc. 232(1), 145–157 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Pfeiffer, C. Grünzweig, O. Bunk, G. Frei, E. Lehmann, and C. David, “Neutron phase imaging and tomography,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(21), 215505 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Pfeiffer, T. Weitkamp, O. Bunk, and C. David, “Phase retrieval and differential phase-contrast imaging with low-brilliance X-ray sources,” Nature Phys. 2(4), 258–261 (2006).
[Crossref]

Chabior, M.

Christiansen, P.

K. Lefmann, P. K. Willendrup, L. Udby, B. Lebech, K. Mortensen, J. O. Birk, K. Klenø, E. Knudsen, P. Christiansen, J. Saroun, J. Kulda, U. Filges, M. Konnecke, P. Tregenna-Piggott, J. Peters, K. Lieutenant, G. Zsigmond, P. Bentley, and E. Farhi, “Virtual experiments: the ultimate aim of neutron ray-tracing simulations,” J. Neutron Res. 16(3), 97–111 (2008).
[Crossref]

David, C.

T. Thüring, M. Abis, Z. Wang, C. David, and M. Stampanoni, “X-ray phase-contrast imaging at 100 keV on a conventional source,” Sci. Rep. 45198 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Strobl, C. Grünzweig, A. Hilger, I. Manke, N. Kardjilov, C. David, and F. Pfeiffer, “Neutron dark-field tomography,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(12), 123902 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Pfeiffer, M. Bech, O. Bunk, P. Kraft, E. F. Eikenberry, Ch. Brönnimann, C. Grünzweig, and C. David, “Hard-X-ray dark-field imaging using a grating interferometer,” Nat. Mater. 7(2), 134–137 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Grünzweig, C. David, O. Bunk, M. Dierolf, G. Frei, G. Kühne, J. Kohlbrecher, R. Schäfer, P. Lejcek, H. M. R. Rønnow, and F. Pfeiffer, “Neutron decoherence imaging for visualizing bulk magnetic domain structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(2), 025504 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Engelhardt, C. Kottler, O. Bunk, C. David, C. Schroer, J. Baumann, M. Schuster, and F. Pfeiffer, “The fractional Talbot effect in differential x-ray phase-contrast imaging for extended and polychromatic x-ray sources,” J. Microsc. 232(1), 145–157 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Grünzweig, F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, T. Donath, G. Kühne, G. Frei, M. Dierolf, and C. David, “Design, fabrication, and characterization of diffraction gratings for neutron phase contrast imaging,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79(5), 1–6 (2008).
[Crossref]

T. Weitkamp and C. David, “Tomography with grating interferometers at low-brilliance sources,” Proc. SPIE 6318, 63180S (2006).
[Crossref]

F. Pfeiffer, C. Grünzweig, O. Bunk, G. Frei, E. Lehmann, and C. David, “Neutron phase imaging and tomography,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(21), 215505 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Pfeiffer, T. Weitkamp, O. Bunk, and C. David, “Phase retrieval and differential phase-contrast imaging with low-brilliance X-ray sources,” Nature Phys. 2(4), 258–261 (2006).
[Crossref]

Dierolf, M.

C. Grünzweig, C. David, O. Bunk, M. Dierolf, G. Frei, G. Kühne, J. Kohlbrecher, R. Schäfer, P. Lejcek, H. M. R. Rønnow, and F. Pfeiffer, “Neutron decoherence imaging for visualizing bulk magnetic domain structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(2), 025504 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Grünzweig, F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, T. Donath, G. Kühne, G. Frei, M. Dierolf, and C. David, “Design, fabrication, and characterization of diffraction gratings for neutron phase contrast imaging,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79(5), 1–6 (2008).
[Crossref]

Donath, T.

C. Grünzweig, F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, T. Donath, G. Kühne, G. Frei, M. Dierolf, and C. David, “Design, fabrication, and characterization of diffraction gratings for neutron phase contrast imaging,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79(5), 1–6 (2008).
[Crossref]

Durst, J.

T. Weber, P. Bartl, F. Bayer, J. Durst, W. Haas, T. Michel, A. Ritter, and G. Anton, “Noise in x-ray grating-based phase-contrast imaging,” Med. Phys. 38(7), 4133–4140 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Bartl, F. Bayer, J. Durst, W. Haas, T. Michel, A. Ritter, T. Weber, and G. Anton, “Grating-based high energy X-ray interferometry with the Medipix-detector in simulation and measurement,” J. Instrum. 5(10) P10008 (2010).
[Crossref]

W. Haas, P. Bartl, F. Bayer, J. Durst, T. Grund, J. Kenntner, T. Michel, A. Ritter, T. Weber, G. Anton, and J. Hornegger, “Performance analysis of X-Ray phase-contrast interferometers with respect to grating layouts,” in Proceedings of the IEEE Nuclear Science Symposuim & Medical Imaging Conference (2010), pp. 3176–3178.

Eikenberry, E. F.

F. Pfeiffer, M. Bech, O. Bunk, P. Kraft, E. F. Eikenberry, Ch. Brönnimann, C. Grünzweig, and C. David, “Hard-X-ray dark-field imaging using a grating interferometer,” Nat. Mater. 7(2), 134–137 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Engelhardt, M.

M. Engelhardt, C. Kottler, O. Bunk, C. David, C. Schroer, J. Baumann, M. Schuster, and F. Pfeiffer, “The fractional Talbot effect in differential x-ray phase-contrast imaging for extended and polychromatic x-ray sources,” J. Microsc. 232(1), 145–157 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Farhi, E.

K. Lefmann, P. K. Willendrup, L. Udby, B. Lebech, K. Mortensen, J. O. Birk, K. Klenø, E. Knudsen, P. Christiansen, J. Saroun, J. Kulda, U. Filges, M. Konnecke, P. Tregenna-Piggott, J. Peters, K. Lieutenant, G. Zsigmond, P. Bentley, and E. Farhi, “Virtual experiments: the ultimate aim of neutron ray-tracing simulations,” J. Neutron Res. 16(3), 97–111 (2008).
[Crossref]

P. Willendrup, E. Farhi, and K. Lefmann, “McStas 1.7 - a new version of the flexible Monte Carlo neutron scattering package,” Physica B 350(1), E735–E737 (2004).
[Crossref]

Filges, U.

M. Morgano, S. Peetermans, E. H. Lehmann, T. Panzner, and U. Filges, “Neutron imaging options at the BOA beamline at Paul Scherrer Institut,” Nucl. Instr. Meth. Phys. Res. A 754(5), 46–56 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. Lefmann, P. K. Willendrup, L. Udby, B. Lebech, K. Mortensen, J. O. Birk, K. Klenø, E. Knudsen, P. Christiansen, J. Saroun, J. Kulda, U. Filges, M. Konnecke, P. Tregenna-Piggott, J. Peters, K. Lieutenant, G. Zsigmond, P. Bentley, and E. Farhi, “Virtual experiments: the ultimate aim of neutron ray-tracing simulations,” J. Neutron Res. 16(3), 97–111 (2008).
[Crossref]

Fix, M. K.

S. Peter, P. Modregger, M. K. Fix, W. Volken, D. Frei, P. Manser, and M. Stampanoni, “Combining Monte Carlo methods with coherent wave optics for the simulation of phase-sensitive X-ray imaging,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 21(3), 613–622 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Frei, D.

S. Peter, P. Modregger, M. K. Fix, W. Volken, D. Frei, P. Manser, and M. Stampanoni, “Combining Monte Carlo methods with coherent wave optics for the simulation of phase-sensitive X-ray imaging,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 21(3), 613–622 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Frei, G.

A. P. Kaestner, S. Hartmann, G. Kühne, G. Frei, C. Grünzweig, L. Josic, F. Schmid, and E. H. Lehmann, “The ICON beamline - A facility for cold neutron imaging at SINQ,” Nucl. Instr. Meth. Phys. Res. A 659(1), 387–393 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. Grünzweig, F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, T. Donath, G. Kühne, G. Frei, M. Dierolf, and C. David, “Design, fabrication, and characterization of diffraction gratings for neutron phase contrast imaging,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79(5), 1–6 (2008).
[Crossref]

C. Grünzweig, C. David, O. Bunk, M. Dierolf, G. Frei, G. Kühne, J. Kohlbrecher, R. Schäfer, P. Lejcek, H. M. R. Rønnow, and F. Pfeiffer, “Neutron decoherence imaging for visualizing bulk magnetic domain structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(2), 025504 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Pfeiffer, C. Grünzweig, O. Bunk, G. Frei, E. Lehmann, and C. David, “Neutron phase imaging and tomography,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(21), 215505 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Greiner, W.

W. Greiner, Quantum mechanics: An introduction (Springer Science & Buisness Media, 2000).

Grund, T.

W. Haas, P. Bartl, F. Bayer, J. Durst, T. Grund, J. Kenntner, T. Michel, A. Ritter, T. Weber, G. Anton, and J. Hornegger, “Performance analysis of X-Ray phase-contrast interferometers with respect to grating layouts,” in Proceedings of the IEEE Nuclear Science Symposuim & Medical Imaging Conference (2010), pp. 3176–3178.

Grünzweig, C.

B. Betz, P. Rauscher, R. P. Harti, R. Schäfer, H. Van Swygenhoven, A. Kaestner, J. Hovind, E. Lehmann, and C. Grünzweig, “In-situ visualization of stress-dependent bulk magnetic domain formation by neutron grating interferometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(1), 012405 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Strobl, B. Betz, R. P. Harti, A. Hilger, N. Kardjilov, I. Manke, and C. Grünzweig, “Wavelength-dispersive dark-field contrast: micrometre structure resolution in neutron imaging with gratings,” J. Appl. Crystallogr. 49(2), 569–573 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. P. Kaestner, S. Hartmann, G. Kühne, G. Frei, C. Grünzweig, L. Josic, F. Schmid, and E. H. Lehmann, “The ICON beamline - A facility for cold neutron imaging at SINQ,” Nucl. Instr. Meth. Phys. Res. A 659(1), 387–393 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. Grünzweig, F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, T. Donath, G. Kühne, G. Frei, M. Dierolf, and C. David, “Design, fabrication, and characterization of diffraction gratings for neutron phase contrast imaging,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79(5), 1–6 (2008).
[Crossref]

F. Pfeiffer, M. Bech, O. Bunk, P. Kraft, E. F. Eikenberry, Ch. Brönnimann, C. Grünzweig, and C. David, “Hard-X-ray dark-field imaging using a grating interferometer,” Nat. Mater. 7(2), 134–137 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Grünzweig, C. David, O. Bunk, M. Dierolf, G. Frei, G. Kühne, J. Kohlbrecher, R. Schäfer, P. Lejcek, H. M. R. Rønnow, and F. Pfeiffer, “Neutron decoherence imaging for visualizing bulk magnetic domain structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(2), 025504 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Strobl, C. Grünzweig, A. Hilger, I. Manke, N. Kardjilov, C. David, and F. Pfeiffer, “Neutron dark-field tomography,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(12), 123902 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Pfeiffer, C. Grünzweig, O. Bunk, G. Frei, E. Lehmann, and C. David, “Neutron phase imaging and tomography,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(21), 215505 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Haas, W.

T. Weber, P. Bartl, F. Bayer, J. Durst, W. Haas, T. Michel, A. Ritter, and G. Anton, “Noise in x-ray grating-based phase-contrast imaging,” Med. Phys. 38(7), 4133–4140 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Bartl, F. Bayer, J. Durst, W. Haas, T. Michel, A. Ritter, T. Weber, and G. Anton, “Grating-based high energy X-ray interferometry with the Medipix-detector in simulation and measurement,” J. Instrum. 5(10) P10008 (2010).
[Crossref]

W. Haas, P. Bartl, F. Bayer, J. Durst, T. Grund, J. Kenntner, T. Michel, A. Ritter, T. Weber, G. Anton, and J. Hornegger, “Performance analysis of X-Ray phase-contrast interferometers with respect to grating layouts,” in Proceedings of the IEEE Nuclear Science Symposuim & Medical Imaging Conference (2010), pp. 3176–3178.

Harti, R. P.

M. Strobl, B. Betz, R. P. Harti, A. Hilger, N. Kardjilov, I. Manke, and C. Grünzweig, “Wavelength-dispersive dark-field contrast: micrometre structure resolution in neutron imaging with gratings,” J. Appl. Crystallogr. 49(2), 569–573 (2016).
[Crossref]

B. Betz, P. Rauscher, R. P. Harti, R. Schäfer, H. Van Swygenhoven, A. Kaestner, J. Hovind, E. Lehmann, and C. Grünzweig, “In-situ visualization of stress-dependent bulk magnetic domain formation by neutron grating interferometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(1), 012405 (2016).
[Crossref]

Hartmann, S.

A. P. Kaestner, S. Hartmann, G. Kühne, G. Frei, C. Grünzweig, L. Josic, F. Schmid, and E. H. Lehmann, “The ICON beamline - A facility for cold neutron imaging at SINQ,” Nucl. Instr. Meth. Phys. Res. A 659(1), 387–393 (2011).
[Crossref]

Herzen, J.

Hilger, A.

M. Strobl, B. Betz, R. P. Harti, A. Hilger, N. Kardjilov, I. Manke, and C. Grünzweig, “Wavelength-dispersive dark-field contrast: micrometre structure resolution in neutron imaging with gratings,” J. Appl. Crystallogr. 49(2), 569–573 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Strobl, C. Grünzweig, A. Hilger, I. Manke, N. Kardjilov, C. David, and F. Pfeiffer, “Neutron dark-field tomography,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(12), 123902 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hipp, S.

Hornegger, J.

W. Haas, P. Bartl, F. Bayer, J. Durst, T. Grund, J. Kenntner, T. Michel, A. Ritter, T. Weber, G. Anton, and J. Hornegger, “Performance analysis of X-Ray phase-contrast interferometers with respect to grating layouts,” in Proceedings of the IEEE Nuclear Science Symposuim & Medical Imaging Conference (2010), pp. 3176–3178.

Hovind, J.

B. Betz, P. Rauscher, R. P. Harti, R. Schäfer, H. Van Swygenhoven, A. Kaestner, J. Hovind, E. Lehmann, and C. Grünzweig, “In-situ visualization of stress-dependent bulk magnetic domain formation by neutron grating interferometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(1), 012405 (2016).
[Crossref]

Josic, L.

A. P. Kaestner, S. Hartmann, G. Kühne, G. Frei, C. Grünzweig, L. Josic, F. Schmid, and E. H. Lehmann, “The ICON beamline - A facility for cold neutron imaging at SINQ,” Nucl. Instr. Meth. Phys. Res. A 659(1), 387–393 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kaestner, A.

B. Betz, P. Rauscher, R. P. Harti, R. Schäfer, H. Van Swygenhoven, A. Kaestner, J. Hovind, E. Lehmann, and C. Grünzweig, “In-situ visualization of stress-dependent bulk magnetic domain formation by neutron grating interferometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(1), 012405 (2016).
[Crossref]

Kaestner, A. P.

A. P. Kaestner, S. Hartmann, G. Kühne, G. Frei, C. Grünzweig, L. Josic, F. Schmid, and E. H. Lehmann, “The ICON beamline - A facility for cold neutron imaging at SINQ,” Nucl. Instr. Meth. Phys. Res. A 659(1), 387–393 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kardjilov, N.

M. Strobl, B. Betz, R. P. Harti, A. Hilger, N. Kardjilov, I. Manke, and C. Grünzweig, “Wavelength-dispersive dark-field contrast: micrometre structure resolution in neutron imaging with gratings,” J. Appl. Crystallogr. 49(2), 569–573 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Strobl, C. Grünzweig, A. Hilger, I. Manke, N. Kardjilov, C. David, and F. Pfeiffer, “Neutron dark-field tomography,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(12), 123902 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kenntner, J.

W. Haas, P. Bartl, F. Bayer, J. Durst, T. Grund, J. Kenntner, T. Michel, A. Ritter, T. Weber, G. Anton, and J. Hornegger, “Performance analysis of X-Ray phase-contrast interferometers with respect to grating layouts,” in Proceedings of the IEEE Nuclear Science Symposuim & Medical Imaging Conference (2010), pp. 3176–3178.

Klenø, K.

K. Lefmann, P. K. Willendrup, L. Udby, B. Lebech, K. Mortensen, J. O. Birk, K. Klenø, E. Knudsen, P. Christiansen, J. Saroun, J. Kulda, U. Filges, M. Konnecke, P. Tregenna-Piggott, J. Peters, K. Lieutenant, G. Zsigmond, P. Bentley, and E. Farhi, “Virtual experiments: the ultimate aim of neutron ray-tracing simulations,” J. Neutron Res. 16(3), 97–111 (2008).
[Crossref]

Knudsen, E.

K. Lefmann, P. K. Willendrup, L. Udby, B. Lebech, K. Mortensen, J. O. Birk, K. Klenø, E. Knudsen, P. Christiansen, J. Saroun, J. Kulda, U. Filges, M. Konnecke, P. Tregenna-Piggott, J. Peters, K. Lieutenant, G. Zsigmond, P. Bentley, and E. Farhi, “Virtual experiments: the ultimate aim of neutron ray-tracing simulations,” J. Neutron Res. 16(3), 97–111 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kohlbrecher, J.

C. Grünzweig, C. David, O. Bunk, M. Dierolf, G. Frei, G. Kühne, J. Kohlbrecher, R. Schäfer, P. Lejcek, H. M. R. Rønnow, and F. Pfeiffer, “Neutron decoherence imaging for visualizing bulk magnetic domain structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(2), 025504 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Konnecke, M.

K. Lefmann, P. K. Willendrup, L. Udby, B. Lebech, K. Mortensen, J. O. Birk, K. Klenø, E. Knudsen, P. Christiansen, J. Saroun, J. Kulda, U. Filges, M. Konnecke, P. Tregenna-Piggott, J. Peters, K. Lieutenant, G. Zsigmond, P. Bentley, and E. Farhi, “Virtual experiments: the ultimate aim of neutron ray-tracing simulations,” J. Neutron Res. 16(3), 97–111 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kottler, C.

M. Engelhardt, C. Kottler, O. Bunk, C. David, C. Schroer, J. Baumann, M. Schuster, and F. Pfeiffer, “The fractional Talbot effect in differential x-ray phase-contrast imaging for extended and polychromatic x-ray sources,” J. Microsc. 232(1), 145–157 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kraft, P.

F. Pfeiffer, M. Bech, O. Bunk, P. Kraft, E. F. Eikenberry, Ch. Brönnimann, C. Grünzweig, and C. David, “Hard-X-ray dark-field imaging using a grating interferometer,” Nat. Mater. 7(2), 134–137 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kühne, G.

A. P. Kaestner, S. Hartmann, G. Kühne, G. Frei, C. Grünzweig, L. Josic, F. Schmid, and E. H. Lehmann, “The ICON beamline - A facility for cold neutron imaging at SINQ,” Nucl. Instr. Meth. Phys. Res. A 659(1), 387–393 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. Grünzweig, F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, T. Donath, G. Kühne, G. Frei, M. Dierolf, and C. David, “Design, fabrication, and characterization of diffraction gratings for neutron phase contrast imaging,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79(5), 1–6 (2008).
[Crossref]

C. Grünzweig, C. David, O. Bunk, M. Dierolf, G. Frei, G. Kühne, J. Kohlbrecher, R. Schäfer, P. Lejcek, H. M. R. Rønnow, and F. Pfeiffer, “Neutron decoherence imaging for visualizing bulk magnetic domain structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(2), 025504 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kulda, J.

K. Lefmann, P. K. Willendrup, L. Udby, B. Lebech, K. Mortensen, J. O. Birk, K. Klenø, E. Knudsen, P. Christiansen, J. Saroun, J. Kulda, U. Filges, M. Konnecke, P. Tregenna-Piggott, J. Peters, K. Lieutenant, G. Zsigmond, P. Bentley, and E. Farhi, “Virtual experiments: the ultimate aim of neutron ray-tracing simulations,” J. Neutron Res. 16(3), 97–111 (2008).
[Crossref]

Lebech, B.

K. Lefmann, P. K. Willendrup, L. Udby, B. Lebech, K. Mortensen, J. O. Birk, K. Klenø, E. Knudsen, P. Christiansen, J. Saroun, J. Kulda, U. Filges, M. Konnecke, P. Tregenna-Piggott, J. Peters, K. Lieutenant, G. Zsigmond, P. Bentley, and E. Farhi, “Virtual experiments: the ultimate aim of neutron ray-tracing simulations,” J. Neutron Res. 16(3), 97–111 (2008).
[Crossref]

Lefmann, K.

K. Lefmann, P. K. Willendrup, L. Udby, B. Lebech, K. Mortensen, J. O. Birk, K. Klenø, E. Knudsen, P. Christiansen, J. Saroun, J. Kulda, U. Filges, M. Konnecke, P. Tregenna-Piggott, J. Peters, K. Lieutenant, G. Zsigmond, P. Bentley, and E. Farhi, “Virtual experiments: the ultimate aim of neutron ray-tracing simulations,” J. Neutron Res. 16(3), 97–111 (2008).
[Crossref]

P. Willendrup, E. Farhi, and K. Lefmann, “McStas 1.7 - a new version of the flexible Monte Carlo neutron scattering package,” Physica B 350(1), E735–E737 (2004).
[Crossref]

Lehmann, E.

B. Betz, P. Rauscher, R. P. Harti, R. Schäfer, H. Van Swygenhoven, A. Kaestner, J. Hovind, E. Lehmann, and C. Grünzweig, “In-situ visualization of stress-dependent bulk magnetic domain formation by neutron grating interferometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(1), 012405 (2016).
[Crossref]

F. Pfeiffer, C. Grünzweig, O. Bunk, G. Frei, E. Lehmann, and C. David, “Neutron phase imaging and tomography,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(21), 215505 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lehmann, E. H.

M. Morgano, S. Peetermans, E. H. Lehmann, T. Panzner, and U. Filges, “Neutron imaging options at the BOA beamline at Paul Scherrer Institut,” Nucl. Instr. Meth. Phys. Res. A 754(5), 46–56 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. P. Kaestner, S. Hartmann, G. Kühne, G. Frei, C. Grünzweig, L. Josic, F. Schmid, and E. H. Lehmann, “The ICON beamline - A facility for cold neutron imaging at SINQ,” Nucl. Instr. Meth. Phys. Res. A 659(1), 387–393 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lejcek, P.

C. Grünzweig, C. David, O. Bunk, M. Dierolf, G. Frei, G. Kühne, J. Kohlbrecher, R. Schäfer, P. Lejcek, H. M. R. Rønnow, and F. Pfeiffer, “Neutron decoherence imaging for visualizing bulk magnetic domain structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(2), 025504 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lieutenant, K.

K. Lefmann, P. K. Willendrup, L. Udby, B. Lebech, K. Mortensen, J. O. Birk, K. Klenø, E. Knudsen, P. Christiansen, J. Saroun, J. Kulda, U. Filges, M. Konnecke, P. Tregenna-Piggott, J. Peters, K. Lieutenant, G. Zsigmond, P. Bentley, and E. Farhi, “Virtual experiments: the ultimate aim of neutron ray-tracing simulations,” J. Neutron Res. 16(3), 97–111 (2008).
[Crossref]

Manke, I.

M. Strobl, B. Betz, R. P. Harti, A. Hilger, N. Kardjilov, I. Manke, and C. Grünzweig, “Wavelength-dispersive dark-field contrast: micrometre structure resolution in neutron imaging with gratings,” J. Appl. Crystallogr. 49(2), 569–573 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Strobl, C. Grünzweig, A. Hilger, I. Manke, N. Kardjilov, C. David, and F. Pfeiffer, “Neutron dark-field tomography,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(12), 123902 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Manser, P.

S. Peter, P. Modregger, M. K. Fix, W. Volken, D. Frei, P. Manser, and M. Stampanoni, “Combining Monte Carlo methods with coherent wave optics for the simulation of phase-sensitive X-ray imaging,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 21(3), 613–622 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Meiser, J.

Michel, T.

T. Weber, P. Bartl, F. Bayer, J. Durst, W. Haas, T. Michel, A. Ritter, and G. Anton, “Noise in x-ray grating-based phase-contrast imaging,” Med. Phys. 38(7), 4133–4140 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Bartl, F. Bayer, J. Durst, W. Haas, T. Michel, A. Ritter, T. Weber, and G. Anton, “Grating-based high energy X-ray interferometry with the Medipix-detector in simulation and measurement,” J. Instrum. 5(10) P10008 (2010).
[Crossref]

W. Haas, P. Bartl, F. Bayer, J. Durst, T. Grund, J. Kenntner, T. Michel, A. Ritter, T. Weber, G. Anton, and J. Hornegger, “Performance analysis of X-Ray phase-contrast interferometers with respect to grating layouts,” in Proceedings of the IEEE Nuclear Science Symposuim & Medical Imaging Conference (2010), pp. 3176–3178.

Modregger, P.

S. Peter, P. Modregger, M. K. Fix, W. Volken, D. Frei, P. Manser, and M. Stampanoni, “Combining Monte Carlo methods with coherent wave optics for the simulation of phase-sensitive X-ray imaging,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 21(3), 613–622 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mohr, J.

Morgano, M.

M. Morgano, S. Peetermans, E. H. Lehmann, T. Panzner, and U. Filges, “Neutron imaging options at the BOA beamline at Paul Scherrer Institut,” Nucl. Instr. Meth. Phys. Res. A 754(5), 46–56 (2014).
[Crossref]

Mortensen, K.

K. Lefmann, P. K. Willendrup, L. Udby, B. Lebech, K. Mortensen, J. O. Birk, K. Klenø, E. Knudsen, P. Christiansen, J. Saroun, J. Kulda, U. Filges, M. Konnecke, P. Tregenna-Piggott, J. Peters, K. Lieutenant, G. Zsigmond, P. Bentley, and E. Farhi, “Virtual experiments: the ultimate aim of neutron ray-tracing simulations,” J. Neutron Res. 16(3), 97–111 (2008).
[Crossref]

Panzner, T.

M. Morgano, S. Peetermans, E. H. Lehmann, T. Panzner, and U. Filges, “Neutron imaging options at the BOA beamline at Paul Scherrer Institut,” Nucl. Instr. Meth. Phys. Res. A 754(5), 46–56 (2014).
[Crossref]

Peetermans, S.

M. Morgano, S. Peetermans, E. H. Lehmann, T. Panzner, and U. Filges, “Neutron imaging options at the BOA beamline at Paul Scherrer Institut,” Nucl. Instr. Meth. Phys. Res. A 754(5), 46–56 (2014).
[Crossref]

Peter, S.

S. Peter, P. Modregger, M. K. Fix, W. Volken, D. Frei, P. Manser, and M. Stampanoni, “Combining Monte Carlo methods with coherent wave optics for the simulation of phase-sensitive X-ray imaging,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 21(3), 613–622 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Peters, J.

K. Lefmann, P. K. Willendrup, L. Udby, B. Lebech, K. Mortensen, J. O. Birk, K. Klenø, E. Knudsen, P. Christiansen, J. Saroun, J. Kulda, U. Filges, M. Konnecke, P. Tregenna-Piggott, J. Peters, K. Lieutenant, G. Zsigmond, P. Bentley, and E. Farhi, “Virtual experiments: the ultimate aim of neutron ray-tracing simulations,” J. Neutron Res. 16(3), 97–111 (2008).
[Crossref]

Pfeiffer, F.

S. Hipp, M. Willner, J. Herzen, S. D. Auweter, M. Chabior, J. Meiser, K. Achterhold, J. Mohr, and F. Pfeiffer, “Energy-resolved visibility analysis of grating interferometers operated at polychromatic X-ray sources,” Opt. Express 22(25), 30394–30409 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Engelhardt, C. Kottler, O. Bunk, C. David, C. Schroer, J. Baumann, M. Schuster, and F. Pfeiffer, “The fractional Talbot effect in differential x-ray phase-contrast imaging for extended and polychromatic x-ray sources,” J. Microsc. 232(1), 145–157 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Grünzweig, F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, T. Donath, G. Kühne, G. Frei, M. Dierolf, and C. David, “Design, fabrication, and characterization of diffraction gratings for neutron phase contrast imaging,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79(5), 1–6 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. Strobl, C. Grünzweig, A. Hilger, I. Manke, N. Kardjilov, C. David, and F. Pfeiffer, “Neutron dark-field tomography,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(12), 123902 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Pfeiffer, M. Bech, O. Bunk, P. Kraft, E. F. Eikenberry, Ch. Brönnimann, C. Grünzweig, and C. David, “Hard-X-ray dark-field imaging using a grating interferometer,” Nat. Mater. 7(2), 134–137 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Grünzweig, C. David, O. Bunk, M. Dierolf, G. Frei, G. Kühne, J. Kohlbrecher, R. Schäfer, P. Lejcek, H. M. R. Rønnow, and F. Pfeiffer, “Neutron decoherence imaging for visualizing bulk magnetic domain structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(2), 025504 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Pfeiffer, T. Weitkamp, O. Bunk, and C. David, “Phase retrieval and differential phase-contrast imaging with low-brilliance X-ray sources,” Nature Phys. 2(4), 258–261 (2006).
[Crossref]

F. Pfeiffer, C. Grünzweig, O. Bunk, G. Frei, E. Lehmann, and C. David, “Neutron phase imaging and tomography,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(21), 215505 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rauch, H.

H. Rauch and S. Werner, Neutron interferometry, (Oxford University, 2015), 2nd ed.
[Crossref]

Rauscher, P.

B. Betz, P. Rauscher, R. P. Harti, R. Schäfer, H. Van Swygenhoven, A. Kaestner, J. Hovind, E. Lehmann, and C. Grünzweig, “In-situ visualization of stress-dependent bulk magnetic domain formation by neutron grating interferometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(1), 012405 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ritter, A.

T. Weber, P. Bartl, F. Bayer, J. Durst, W. Haas, T. Michel, A. Ritter, and G. Anton, “Noise in x-ray grating-based phase-contrast imaging,” Med. Phys. 38(7), 4133–4140 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Bartl, F. Bayer, J. Durst, W. Haas, T. Michel, A. Ritter, T. Weber, and G. Anton, “Grating-based high energy X-ray interferometry with the Medipix-detector in simulation and measurement,” J. Instrum. 5(10) P10008 (2010).
[Crossref]

W. Haas, P. Bartl, F. Bayer, J. Durst, T. Grund, J. Kenntner, T. Michel, A. Ritter, T. Weber, G. Anton, and J. Hornegger, “Performance analysis of X-Ray phase-contrast interferometers with respect to grating layouts,” in Proceedings of the IEEE Nuclear Science Symposuim & Medical Imaging Conference (2010), pp. 3176–3178.

Rønnow, H. M. R.

C. Grünzweig, C. David, O. Bunk, M. Dierolf, G. Frei, G. Kühne, J. Kohlbrecher, R. Schäfer, P. Lejcek, H. M. R. Rønnow, and F. Pfeiffer, “Neutron decoherence imaging for visualizing bulk magnetic domain structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(2), 025504 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Saroun, J.

K. Lefmann, P. K. Willendrup, L. Udby, B. Lebech, K. Mortensen, J. O. Birk, K. Klenø, E. Knudsen, P. Christiansen, J. Saroun, J. Kulda, U. Filges, M. Konnecke, P. Tregenna-Piggott, J. Peters, K. Lieutenant, G. Zsigmond, P. Bentley, and E. Farhi, “Virtual experiments: the ultimate aim of neutron ray-tracing simulations,” J. Neutron Res. 16(3), 97–111 (2008).
[Crossref]

Schäfer, R.

B. Betz, P. Rauscher, R. P. Harti, R. Schäfer, H. Van Swygenhoven, A. Kaestner, J. Hovind, E. Lehmann, and C. Grünzweig, “In-situ visualization of stress-dependent bulk magnetic domain formation by neutron grating interferometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(1), 012405 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Grünzweig, C. David, O. Bunk, M. Dierolf, G. Frei, G. Kühne, J. Kohlbrecher, R. Schäfer, P. Lejcek, H. M. R. Rønnow, and F. Pfeiffer, “Neutron decoherence imaging for visualizing bulk magnetic domain structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(2), 025504 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schmid, F.

A. P. Kaestner, S. Hartmann, G. Kühne, G. Frei, C. Grünzweig, L. Josic, F. Schmid, and E. H. Lehmann, “The ICON beamline - A facility for cold neutron imaging at SINQ,” Nucl. Instr. Meth. Phys. Res. A 659(1), 387–393 (2011).
[Crossref]

Schroer, C.

M. Engelhardt, C. Kottler, O. Bunk, C. David, C. Schroer, J. Baumann, M. Schuster, and F. Pfeiffer, “The fractional Talbot effect in differential x-ray phase-contrast imaging for extended and polychromatic x-ray sources,” J. Microsc. 232(1), 145–157 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schuster, M.

M. Engelhardt, C. Kottler, O. Bunk, C. David, C. Schroer, J. Baumann, M. Schuster, and F. Pfeiffer, “The fractional Talbot effect in differential x-ray phase-contrast imaging for extended and polychromatic x-ray sources,” J. Microsc. 232(1), 145–157 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stampanoni, M.

S. Peter, P. Modregger, M. K. Fix, W. Volken, D. Frei, P. Manser, and M. Stampanoni, “Combining Monte Carlo methods with coherent wave optics for the simulation of phase-sensitive X-ray imaging,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 21(3), 613–622 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Thüring, M. Abis, Z. Wang, C. David, and M. Stampanoni, “X-ray phase-contrast imaging at 100 keV on a conventional source,” Sci. Rep. 45198 (2014).
[Crossref]

Strobl, M.

M. Strobl, B. Betz, R. P. Harti, A. Hilger, N. Kardjilov, I. Manke, and C. Grünzweig, “Wavelength-dispersive dark-field contrast: micrometre structure resolution in neutron imaging with gratings,” J. Appl. Crystallogr. 49(2), 569–573 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Strobl, C. Grünzweig, A. Hilger, I. Manke, N. Kardjilov, C. David, and F. Pfeiffer, “Neutron dark-field tomography,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(12), 123902 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Thüring, T.

T. Thüring, M. Abis, Z. Wang, C. David, and M. Stampanoni, “X-ray phase-contrast imaging at 100 keV on a conventional source,” Sci. Rep. 45198 (2014).
[Crossref]

Tregenna-Piggott, P.

K. Lefmann, P. K. Willendrup, L. Udby, B. Lebech, K. Mortensen, J. O. Birk, K. Klenø, E. Knudsen, P. Christiansen, J. Saroun, J. Kulda, U. Filges, M. Konnecke, P. Tregenna-Piggott, J. Peters, K. Lieutenant, G. Zsigmond, P. Bentley, and E. Farhi, “Virtual experiments: the ultimate aim of neutron ray-tracing simulations,” J. Neutron Res. 16(3), 97–111 (2008).
[Crossref]

Udby, L.

K. Lefmann, P. K. Willendrup, L. Udby, B. Lebech, K. Mortensen, J. O. Birk, K. Klenø, E. Knudsen, P. Christiansen, J. Saroun, J. Kulda, U. Filges, M. Konnecke, P. Tregenna-Piggott, J. Peters, K. Lieutenant, G. Zsigmond, P. Bentley, and E. Farhi, “Virtual experiments: the ultimate aim of neutron ray-tracing simulations,” J. Neutron Res. 16(3), 97–111 (2008).
[Crossref]

Van Swygenhoven, H.

B. Betz, P. Rauscher, R. P. Harti, R. Schäfer, H. Van Swygenhoven, A. Kaestner, J. Hovind, E. Lehmann, and C. Grünzweig, “In-situ visualization of stress-dependent bulk magnetic domain formation by neutron grating interferometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(1), 012405 (2016).
[Crossref]

Volken, W.

S. Peter, P. Modregger, M. K. Fix, W. Volken, D. Frei, P. Manser, and M. Stampanoni, “Combining Monte Carlo methods with coherent wave optics for the simulation of phase-sensitive X-ray imaging,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 21(3), 613–622 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, Z.

T. Thüring, M. Abis, Z. Wang, C. David, and M. Stampanoni, “X-ray phase-contrast imaging at 100 keV on a conventional source,” Sci. Rep. 45198 (2014).
[Crossref]

Weber, T.

T. Weber, P. Bartl, F. Bayer, J. Durst, W. Haas, T. Michel, A. Ritter, and G. Anton, “Noise in x-ray grating-based phase-contrast imaging,” Med. Phys. 38(7), 4133–4140 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Bartl, F. Bayer, J. Durst, W. Haas, T. Michel, A. Ritter, T. Weber, and G. Anton, “Grating-based high energy X-ray interferometry with the Medipix-detector in simulation and measurement,” J. Instrum. 5(10) P10008 (2010).
[Crossref]

W. Haas, P. Bartl, F. Bayer, J. Durst, T. Grund, J. Kenntner, T. Michel, A. Ritter, T. Weber, G. Anton, and J. Hornegger, “Performance analysis of X-Ray phase-contrast interferometers with respect to grating layouts,” in Proceedings of the IEEE Nuclear Science Symposuim & Medical Imaging Conference (2010), pp. 3176–3178.

Weitkamp, T.

T. Weitkamp and C. David, “Tomography with grating interferometers at low-brilliance sources,” Proc. SPIE 6318, 63180S (2006).
[Crossref]

F. Pfeiffer, T. Weitkamp, O. Bunk, and C. David, “Phase retrieval and differential phase-contrast imaging with low-brilliance X-ray sources,” Nature Phys. 2(4), 258–261 (2006).
[Crossref]

Werner, S.

H. Rauch and S. Werner, Neutron interferometry, (Oxford University, 2015), 2nd ed.
[Crossref]

Willendrup, P.

P. Willendrup, E. Farhi, and K. Lefmann, “McStas 1.7 - a new version of the flexible Monte Carlo neutron scattering package,” Physica B 350(1), E735–E737 (2004).
[Crossref]

Willendrup, P. K.

K. Lefmann, P. K. Willendrup, L. Udby, B. Lebech, K. Mortensen, J. O. Birk, K. Klenø, E. Knudsen, P. Christiansen, J. Saroun, J. Kulda, U. Filges, M. Konnecke, P. Tregenna-Piggott, J. Peters, K. Lieutenant, G. Zsigmond, P. Bentley, and E. Farhi, “Virtual experiments: the ultimate aim of neutron ray-tracing simulations,” J. Neutron Res. 16(3), 97–111 (2008).
[Crossref]

Willner, M.

Zsigmond, G.

K. Lefmann, P. K. Willendrup, L. Udby, B. Lebech, K. Mortensen, J. O. Birk, K. Klenø, E. Knudsen, P. Christiansen, J. Saroun, J. Kulda, U. Filges, M. Konnecke, P. Tregenna-Piggott, J. Peters, K. Lieutenant, G. Zsigmond, P. Bentley, and E. Farhi, “Virtual experiments: the ultimate aim of neutron ray-tracing simulations,” J. Neutron Res. 16(3), 97–111 (2008).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

B. Betz, P. Rauscher, R. P. Harti, R. Schäfer, H. Van Swygenhoven, A. Kaestner, J. Hovind, E. Lehmann, and C. Grünzweig, “In-situ visualization of stress-dependent bulk magnetic domain formation by neutron grating interferometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(1), 012405 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Crystallogr. (1)

M. Strobl, B. Betz, R. P. Harti, A. Hilger, N. Kardjilov, I. Manke, and C. Grünzweig, “Wavelength-dispersive dark-field contrast: micrometre structure resolution in neutron imaging with gratings,” J. Appl. Crystallogr. 49(2), 569–573 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Instrum. (1)

P. Bartl, F. Bayer, J. Durst, W. Haas, T. Michel, A. Ritter, T. Weber, and G. Anton, “Grating-based high energy X-ray interferometry with the Medipix-detector in simulation and measurement,” J. Instrum. 5(10) P10008 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Microsc. (1)

M. Engelhardt, C. Kottler, O. Bunk, C. David, C. Schroer, J. Baumann, M. Schuster, and F. Pfeiffer, “The fractional Talbot effect in differential x-ray phase-contrast imaging for extended and polychromatic x-ray sources,” J. Microsc. 232(1), 145–157 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Neutron Res. (1)

K. Lefmann, P. K. Willendrup, L. Udby, B. Lebech, K. Mortensen, J. O. Birk, K. Klenø, E. Knudsen, P. Christiansen, J. Saroun, J. Kulda, U. Filges, M. Konnecke, P. Tregenna-Piggott, J. Peters, K. Lieutenant, G. Zsigmond, P. Bentley, and E. Farhi, “Virtual experiments: the ultimate aim of neutron ray-tracing simulations,” J. Neutron Res. 16(3), 97–111 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Synchrotron Radiat. (1)

S. Peter, P. Modregger, M. K. Fix, W. Volken, D. Frei, P. Manser, and M. Stampanoni, “Combining Monte Carlo methods with coherent wave optics for the simulation of phase-sensitive X-ray imaging,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 21(3), 613–622 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Med. Phys. (1)

T. Weber, P. Bartl, F. Bayer, J. Durst, W. Haas, T. Michel, A. Ritter, and G. Anton, “Noise in x-ray grating-based phase-contrast imaging,” Med. Phys. 38(7), 4133–4140 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater. (1)

F. Pfeiffer, M. Bech, O. Bunk, P. Kraft, E. F. Eikenberry, Ch. Brönnimann, C. Grünzweig, and C. David, “Hard-X-ray dark-field imaging using a grating interferometer,” Nat. Mater. 7(2), 134–137 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nature Phys. (1)

F. Pfeiffer, T. Weitkamp, O. Bunk, and C. David, “Phase retrieval and differential phase-contrast imaging with low-brilliance X-ray sources,” Nature Phys. 2(4), 258–261 (2006).
[Crossref]

Nucl. Instr. Meth. Phys. Res. A (2)

A. P. Kaestner, S. Hartmann, G. Kühne, G. Frei, C. Grünzweig, L. Josic, F. Schmid, and E. H. Lehmann, “The ICON beamline - A facility for cold neutron imaging at SINQ,” Nucl. Instr. Meth. Phys. Res. A 659(1), 387–393 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Morgano, S. Peetermans, E. H. Lehmann, T. Panzner, and U. Filges, “Neutron imaging options at the BOA beamline at Paul Scherrer Institut,” Nucl. Instr. Meth. Phys. Res. A 754(5), 46–56 (2014).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (1)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

F. Pfeiffer, C. Grünzweig, O. Bunk, G. Frei, E. Lehmann, and C. David, “Neutron phase imaging and tomography,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(21), 215505 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Grünzweig, C. David, O. Bunk, M. Dierolf, G. Frei, G. Kühne, J. Kohlbrecher, R. Schäfer, P. Lejcek, H. M. R. Rønnow, and F. Pfeiffer, “Neutron decoherence imaging for visualizing bulk magnetic domain structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(2), 025504 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Strobl, C. Grünzweig, A. Hilger, I. Manke, N. Kardjilov, C. David, and F. Pfeiffer, “Neutron dark-field tomography,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(12), 123902 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Physica B (1)

P. Willendrup, E. Farhi, and K. Lefmann, “McStas 1.7 - a new version of the flexible Monte Carlo neutron scattering package,” Physica B 350(1), E735–E737 (2004).
[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (1)

T. Weitkamp and C. David, “Tomography with grating interferometers at low-brilliance sources,” Proc. SPIE 6318, 63180S (2006).
[Crossref]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

C. Grünzweig, F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, T. Donath, G. Kühne, G. Frei, M. Dierolf, and C. David, “Design, fabrication, and characterization of diffraction gratings for neutron phase contrast imaging,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79(5), 1–6 (2008).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (1)

T. Thüring, M. Abis, Z. Wang, C. David, and M. Stampanoni, “X-ray phase-contrast imaging at 100 keV on a conventional source,” Sci. Rep. 45198 (2014).
[Crossref]

Other (3)

W. Greiner, Quantum mechanics: An introduction (Springer Science & Buisness Media, 2000).

H. Rauch and S. Werner, Neutron interferometry, (Oxford University, 2015), 2nd ed.
[Crossref]

W. Haas, P. Bartl, F. Bayer, J. Durst, T. Grund, J. Kenntner, T. Michel, A. Ritter, T. Weber, G. Anton, and J. Hornegger, “Performance analysis of X-Ray phase-contrast interferometers with respect to grating layouts,” in Proceedings of the IEEE Nuclear Science Symposuim & Medical Imaging Conference (2010), pp. 3176–3178.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Grating geometries and spectral distributions for neutron grating interferometry. a) Examples of neutron energy distributions considered in the presented work. The inlet shows the setup with the three gratings (G0, G1, G2) and the position of the wavelength selecting device between G0 and G1, indicated with λ. b) Optical image of the G0 grating (top view) made of gadolinium (Gd). The arrows indicate gadolinium trenches (Gd) and the gaps between them (air). The plot below the image shows how its properties are considered in the presented simulation. c), d) Scanning electron microscopy images of G1 and G2 and the according representation in the simulation, including the parameters needed to define the structures.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 The impact of slight imperfections in G1 on the Talbot carpet. a): Schematic of the geometrical parameters. b): Geometrical parameters for perfect and real geometry. c),d): Calculated Talbot carpets for both geometries up to the fifth fractional Talbot distance at 4.1 Å. The linescans show the intensity distribution at the first fractional Talbot distance and are plotted as a function of multiple of the G1 period (p1).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Comparison of experimental and simulated visibility values for varying measurement conditions. The top six values are monochromatically recorded visibilities, including the design wavelength of the setup 4.1 Å. A velocity selector is used to vary the neutron wavelength. The white beam and Be-filtered spectra are the full spectrum of the beamline and the full spectrum with a cut-off at 4 Å keeping only the larger wavelengths. The inlet shows a visibility map with the area of extracted visibility indicated as a red box. The measured as well as the simulated values can be found in the table on the bottom of the figure.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Step wise consideration of different real effects to decreased visibility. The impact of real geometries of G1 and G2 as well as the energy resolution of the velocity selector can be judged individually by the relative decrease in visibility attributed to each feature. The bar plot visualises the different contributions for white beam measurements as well as measurements at the design wavelength of 4.1 Å, selected with a velocity selector. The table on the bottom shows the absolute and relative contributions of the individual simulation setups as indicated in the simulation scheme on the top right.

Equations (9)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Φ = n S L D λ h ,
T ( λ ) = 1 e d a l .
Φ l = λ d λ Φ i d e a l .
D @ d t ( y , d , λ ) = D G 1 ( y ) P r e a l ( y , d , λ ) .
( D @ d t ( y , d , λ ) ) = ( D G 1 ( y ) ) P ( Y , d , λ ) .
P ( Y , d , λ ) = e i π λ d Y 2 ,
D G 2 e v a l ( y , d , λ ) = D @ d t ( y , d , λ ) G 2 ( y ) ,
D e v a l ( y , d , λ ) = D G 2 e v a l ( y , d , λ ) G 0 ( y ) ,
V ( y , d , λ ) = m a x ( D e v a l ( y , d , λ ) ) m i n ( D e v a l ( y , d , λ ) ) m a x ( D e v a l ( y , d , λ ) ) + m i n ( D e v a l ( y , d , λ ) ) .

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