Abstract

We have studied the formation of near-field fringes when sharp edges of materials are imaged using scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscope (s-SNOM). The materials we have investigated include dielectrics, metals, a near-perfect conductor, and those that possess anisotropic permittivity and hyperbolic dispersion. For our theoretical analysis, we use a technique that combines full-wave numerical simulations of tip-sample near-field interaction and signal demodulation at higher orders akin to what is done in typical s-SNOM experiments. Unlike previous tip-sample interaction near-field models, our advanced technique allows simulation of the realistic tip and sample structure. Our analysis clarifies edge imaging of recently emerged layered materials such as hexagonal boron nitride and transition metal dichalcogenides (in particular, molybdenum disulfide), as well as traditional plasmonic materials such as gold. Hexagonal boron nitride is studied at several wavelengths, including the wavelength where it possesses excitation of phonon-polaritons and hyperbolic dispersion. Based on our results of s-SNOM imaging in different demodulation orders, we specify resonant and non-resonant types of edges and describe the edge fringes for each case. We clarify near-field edge-fringe formation at material sharp boundaries, both outside bright fringes and the low-contrast region at the edge, and elaborate on the necessity of separating them from propagating waves on the surface of polaritonic materials.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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2017 (1)

P. Li, I. Dolado, F. J. Alfaro-Mozaz, A. Yu. Nikitin, F. Casanova, L. E. Hueso, S. Vélez, and R. Hillenbrand, “Optical Nanoimaging of Hyperbolic Surface Polaritons at the Edges of van der Waals Materials,” Nano Lett. 17(1), 228–235 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (5)

Y. Abate, S. Gamage, L. Zhen, S. B. Cronin, H. Wang, V. Babicheva, M. H. Javani, and M. I. Stockman, “Nanoscopy reveals metallic black phosphorus,” Light Sci. Appl. 5(10), e16162 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Boulesbaa, V. E. Babicheva, K. Wang, I. I. Kravchenko, M.-W. Lin, M. Mahjouri-Samani, C. Jacob, A. A. Puretzky, K. Xiao, I. Ivanov, C. M. Rouleau, and D. B. Geohegan, “Ultrafast dynamics of metal plasmons induced by 2d semiconductor excitons in hybrid nanostructure arrays,” ACS Photonics 3(12), 2389–2395 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. D. Caldwell, I. Vurgaftman, J. G. Tischler, O. J. Glembocki, J. C. Owrutsky, and T. L. Reinecke, “Atomic-scale photonic hybrids for mid-infrared and terahertz nanophotonics,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 11(1), 9–15 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. V. Chebykin, V. E. Babicheva, I. V. Iorsh, A. A. Orlov, P. A. Belov, and S. V. Zhukovsky, “Enhancement of the Purcell factor in multiperiodic hyperboliclike metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. A 93(3), 033855 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Abate, D. Seidlitz, A. Fali, S. Gamage, V. Babicheva, V. S. Yakovlev, M. I. Stockman, R. Collazo, D. Alden, and N. Dietz, “Nanoscopy of Phase separation in In1-xGaxN alloys,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 8(35), 23160–23166 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (7)

Y. Abate, R. E. Marvel, J. I. Ziegler, S. Gamage, M. H. Javani, M. I. Stockman, and R. F. Haglund, “Control of plasmonic nanoantennas by reversible metal-insulator transition,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 13997 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Li, M. Lewin, A. V. Kretinin, J. D. Caldwell, K. S. Novoselov, T. Taniguchi, K. Watanabe, F. Gaussmann, and T. Taubner, “Hyperbolic phonon-polaritons in boron nitride for near-field optical imaging and focusing,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7507 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Dai, Q. Ma, T. Andersen, A. S. Mcleod, Z. Fei, M. K. Liu, M. Wagner, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, M. Thiemens, F. Keilmann, P. Jarillo-Herrero, M. M. Fogler, and D. N. Basov, “Subdiffractional focusing and guiding of polaritonic rays in a natural hyperbolic material,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6963 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Y. Shalaginov, V. V. Vorobyov, J. Liu, M. Ferrera, A. V. Akimov, A. Lagutchev, A. N. Smolyaninov, V. V. Klimov, J. Irudayaraj, A. V. Kildishev, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, “Enhancement of single-photon emission from nitrogen-vacancy centers with TiN/(Al,Sc)N hyperbolic metamaterial,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(1), 120–127 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Dai, Q. Ma, M. K. Liu, T. Andersen, Z. Fei, M. D. Goldflam, M. Wagner, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, M. Thiemens, F. Keilmann, G. C. A. M. Janssen, S.-E. Zhu, P. Jarillo-Herrero, M. M. Fogler, and D. N. Basov, “Graphene on hexagonal boron nitride as a tunable hyperbolic metamaterial,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(8), 682–686 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. E. Babicheva, M. Y. Shalaginov, S. Ishii, A. Boltasseva, and A. V. Kildishev, “Finite-width plasmonic waveguides with hyperbolic multilayer cladding,” Opt. Express 23(8), 9681–9689 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. E. Babicheva, M. Y. Shalaginov, S. Ishii, A. Boltasseva, and A. V. Kildishev, “Long-range plasmonic waveguides with hyperbolic cladding,” Opt. Express 23(24), 31109–31119 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (8)

S. Ishii, M. Y. Shalaginov, V. E. Babicheva, A. Boltasseva, and A. V. Kildishev, “Plasmonic waveguides cladded by hyperbolic metamaterials,” Opt. Lett. 39(16), 4663–4666 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Sun, N. M. Litchinitser, and J. Zhou, “Indefinite by nature: from ultraviolet to terahertz,” ACS Photonics 1(4), 293–303 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. V. Zhukovsky, A. Orlov, V. E. Babicheva, A. V. Lavrinenko, and J. E. Sipe, “Photonic-band-gap engineering for volume plasmon polaritons in multiscale multilayer hyperbolic metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. A 90(1), 013801 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. A. Orlov, A. K. Krylova, S. V. Zhukovsky, V. E. Babicheva, and P. A. Belov, “Multi-periodicity in plasmonic multilayers: general description and diversity of topologies,” Phys. Rev. A 90(1), 013812 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. A. Orlov, E. A. Yankovskaya, S. V. Zhukovsky, V. E. Babicheva, I. V. Iorsh, and P. A. Belov, “Retrieval of Effective Parameters of Subwavelength Periodic Photonic Structures,” Crystals 4(3), 417–426 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Dai, Z. Fei, Q. Ma, A. S. Rodin, M. Wagner, A. S. McLeod, M. K. Liu, W. Gannett, W. Regan, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, M. Thiemens, G. Dominguez, A. H. Castro Neto, A. Zettl, F. Keilmann, P. Jarillo-Herrero, M. M. Fogler, and D. N. Basov, “Tunable phonon polaritons in atomically thin van der waals crystals of boron nitride,” Science 343(6175), 1125–1129 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Woessner, M. B. Lundeberg, Y. Gao, A. Principi, P. Alonso-González, M. Carrega, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, G. Vignale, M. Polini, J. Hone, R. Hillenbrand, and F. H. L. Koppens, “Highly confined low-loss plasmons in graphene-boron nitride heterostructures,” Nat. Mater. 14(4), 421–425 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Zhu, K. Hippalgaonkar, S. Shen, K. Wang, Y. Abate, S. Lee, J. Wu, X. Yin, A. Majumdar, and X. Zhang, “Temperature-Gated Thermal Rectifier for Active Heat Flow Control,” Nano Lett. 14(8), 4867–4872 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (5)

S. E. Grefe, D. Leiva, S. Mastel, S. D. Dhuey, S. Cabrini, P. J. Schuck, and Y. Abate, “Near-field spatial mapping of strongly interacting multiple plasmonic infrared antennas,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 15(43), 18944–18950 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. A. K. Othman, C. Guclu, and F. Capolino, “Graphene-based tunable hyperbolic metamaterials and enhanced near-field absorption,” Opt. Express 21(6), 7614–7632 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Simovski, S. Maslovski, I. Nefedov, and S. Tretyakov, “Optimization of radiative heat transfer in hyperbolic metamaterials for thermophotovoltaic applications,” Opt. Express 21(12), 14988–15013 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Poddubny, I. Iorsh, P. Belov, and Y. Kivshar, “Hyperbolic metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 7(12), 948–957 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Ishii, A. V. Kildishev, E. Narimanov, V. M. Shalaev, and V. P. Drachev, “Sub-wavelength interference pattern from volume plasmon polaritons in a hyperbolic medium,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(2), 265–271 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (4)

J. Chen, M. Badioli, P. Alonso-González, S. Thongrattanasiri, F. Huth, J. Osmond, M. Spasenović, A. Centeno, A. Pesquera, P. Godignon, A. Z. Elorza, N. Camara, F. J. García de Abajo, R. Hillenbrand, and F. H. Koppens, “Optical nano-imaging of gate-tunable graphene plasmons,” Nature 487(7405), 77–81 (2012).
[PubMed]

Z. Jacob, I. I. Smolyaninov, and E. E. Narimanov, “Broadband Purcell effect: Radiative decay engineering with metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(18), 181105 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Mastel, S. E. Grefe, G. B. Cross, A. Taber, S. Dhuey, S. Cabrini, P. J. Schuck, and Y. Abate, “Real-space mapping of nanoplasmonic hotspots via optical antenna-gap loading,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(13), 131102 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Nuno, B. Hessler, B. Heiberg, R. Damato, T. Dunlap, Y. S. Shon, and Y. Abate, “Nanoscale near-field infrared spectroscopic imaging of silica-shell/gold-core and pure silica nanoparticles,” J. Nanopart. Res. 14(3), 766 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

J. M. Stiegler, Y. Abate, A. Cvitkovic, Y. E. Romanyuk, A. J. Huber, S. R. Leone, and R. Hillenbrand, “Nanoscale Infrared Absorption Spectroscopy of Individual Nanoparticles Enabled by Scattering-Type Near-Field Microscopy,” ACS Nano 5(8), 6494–6499 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Nuño, B. Hessler, J. Ochoa, Y. S. Shon, C. Bonney, and Y. Abate, “Nanoscale subsurface- and material-specific identification of single nanoparticles,” Opt. Express 19(21), 20865–20875 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Rossouw, M. Couillard, J. Vickery, E. Kumacheva, and G. A. Botton, “Multipolar plasmonic resonances in silver nanowire antennas imaged with a subnanometer electron probe,” Nano Lett. 11(4), 1499–1504 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

Y. Ogawa, F. Minami, Y. Abate, and S. R. Leone, “Nanometer-scale dielectric constant of Ge quantum dots using apertureless near-field scanning optical microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(6), 063107 (2010).
[Crossref]

Z. Jacob, J.-Y. Kim, G. V. Naik, A. Boltasseva, E. E. Narimanov, and V. M. Shalaev, “Engineering photonic density of states using metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. B 100(1), 215–218 (2010).
[Crossref]

2007 (3)

Z. Liu, H. Lee, Y. Xiong, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Far-field optical hyperlens magnifying sub-diffraction-limited objects,” Science 315(5819), 1686 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Cvitkovic, N. Ocelic, and R. Hillenbrand, “Material-specific infrared recognition of single sub-10 nm particles by substrate-enhanced scattering-type near-field microscopy,” Nano Lett. 7(10), 3177–3181 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. L. Tsakmakidis, A. D. Boardman, and O. Hess, “Trapped rainbow’ storage of light in metamaterials,” Nature 450(7168), 397–401 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (3)

Z. Jacob, L. V. Alekseyev, and E. Narimanov, “Optical hyperlens: far-field imaging beyond the diffraction limit,” Opt. Express 14(18), 8247–8256 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. J. Sherry, R. Jin, C. A. Mirkin, G. C. Schatz, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Localized surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy of single silver triangular nanoprisms,” Nano Lett. 6(9), 2060–2065 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Taubner, D. Korobkin, Y. Urzhumov, G. Shvets, and R. Hillenbrand, “Near-field microscopy through a SiC superlens,” Science 313(5793), 1595 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

R. Hillenbrand, B. Knoll, and F. Keilmann, “Pure optical contrast in scattering-type scanning near-field microscopy,” J. Microsc. 202(P1), 77–83 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

B. Knoll and F. Keilmann, “Enhanced Dielectric Contrast in Scattering-Type Scanning Near-Field Optical Microscopy,” Opt. Commun. 182(4-6), 321–328 (2000).
[Crossref]

Abate, Y.

Y. Abate, S. Gamage, L. Zhen, S. B. Cronin, H. Wang, V. Babicheva, M. H. Javani, and M. I. Stockman, “Nanoscopy reveals metallic black phosphorus,” Light Sci. Appl. 5(10), e16162 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Abate, D. Seidlitz, A. Fali, S. Gamage, V. Babicheva, V. S. Yakovlev, M. I. Stockman, R. Collazo, D. Alden, and N. Dietz, “Nanoscopy of Phase separation in In1-xGaxN alloys,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 8(35), 23160–23166 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Abate, R. E. Marvel, J. I. Ziegler, S. Gamage, M. H. Javani, M. I. Stockman, and R. F. Haglund, “Control of plasmonic nanoantennas by reversible metal-insulator transition,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 13997 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Zhu, K. Hippalgaonkar, S. Shen, K. Wang, Y. Abate, S. Lee, J. Wu, X. Yin, A. Majumdar, and X. Zhang, “Temperature-Gated Thermal Rectifier for Active Heat Flow Control,” Nano Lett. 14(8), 4867–4872 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. E. Grefe, D. Leiva, S. Mastel, S. D. Dhuey, S. Cabrini, P. J. Schuck, and Y. Abate, “Near-field spatial mapping of strongly interacting multiple plasmonic infrared antennas,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 15(43), 18944–18950 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Mastel, S. E. Grefe, G. B. Cross, A. Taber, S. Dhuey, S. Cabrini, P. J. Schuck, and Y. Abate, “Real-space mapping of nanoplasmonic hotspots via optical antenna-gap loading,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(13), 131102 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Nuno, B. Hessler, B. Heiberg, R. Damato, T. Dunlap, Y. S. Shon, and Y. Abate, “Nanoscale near-field infrared spectroscopic imaging of silica-shell/gold-core and pure silica nanoparticles,” J. Nanopart. Res. 14(3), 766 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. M. Stiegler, Y. Abate, A. Cvitkovic, Y. E. Romanyuk, A. J. Huber, S. R. Leone, and R. Hillenbrand, “Nanoscale Infrared Absorption Spectroscopy of Individual Nanoparticles Enabled by Scattering-Type Near-Field Microscopy,” ACS Nano 5(8), 6494–6499 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Nuño, B. Hessler, J. Ochoa, Y. S. Shon, C. Bonney, and Y. Abate, “Nanoscale subsurface- and material-specific identification of single nanoparticles,” Opt. Express 19(21), 20865–20875 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Ogawa, F. Minami, Y. Abate, and S. R. Leone, “Nanometer-scale dielectric constant of Ge quantum dots using apertureless near-field scanning optical microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(6), 063107 (2010).
[Crossref]

Akimov, A. V.

M. Y. Shalaginov, V. V. Vorobyov, J. Liu, M. Ferrera, A. V. Akimov, A. Lagutchev, A. N. Smolyaninov, V. V. Klimov, J. Irudayaraj, A. V. Kildishev, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, “Enhancement of single-photon emission from nitrogen-vacancy centers with TiN/(Al,Sc)N hyperbolic metamaterial,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(1), 120–127 (2015).
[Crossref]

Alden, D.

Y. Abate, D. Seidlitz, A. Fali, S. Gamage, V. Babicheva, V. S. Yakovlev, M. I. Stockman, R. Collazo, D. Alden, and N. Dietz, “Nanoscopy of Phase separation in In1-xGaxN alloys,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 8(35), 23160–23166 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alekseyev, L. V.

Alfaro-Mozaz, F. J.

P. Li, I. Dolado, F. J. Alfaro-Mozaz, A. Yu. Nikitin, F. Casanova, L. E. Hueso, S. Vélez, and R. Hillenbrand, “Optical Nanoimaging of Hyperbolic Surface Polaritons at the Edges of van der Waals Materials,” Nano Lett. 17(1), 228–235 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alonso-González, P.

A. Woessner, M. B. Lundeberg, Y. Gao, A. Principi, P. Alonso-González, M. Carrega, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, G. Vignale, M. Polini, J. Hone, R. Hillenbrand, and F. H. L. Koppens, “Highly confined low-loss plasmons in graphene-boron nitride heterostructures,” Nat. Mater. 14(4), 421–425 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Chen, M. Badioli, P. Alonso-González, S. Thongrattanasiri, F. Huth, J. Osmond, M. Spasenović, A. Centeno, A. Pesquera, P. Godignon, A. Z. Elorza, N. Camara, F. J. García de Abajo, R. Hillenbrand, and F. H. Koppens, “Optical nano-imaging of gate-tunable graphene plasmons,” Nature 487(7405), 77–81 (2012).
[PubMed]

Andersen, T.

S. Dai, Q. Ma, T. Andersen, A. S. Mcleod, Z. Fei, M. K. Liu, M. Wagner, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, M. Thiemens, F. Keilmann, P. Jarillo-Herrero, M. M. Fogler, and D. N. Basov, “Subdiffractional focusing and guiding of polaritonic rays in a natural hyperbolic material,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6963 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Dai, Q. Ma, M. K. Liu, T. Andersen, Z. Fei, M. D. Goldflam, M. Wagner, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, M. Thiemens, F. Keilmann, G. C. A. M. Janssen, S.-E. Zhu, P. Jarillo-Herrero, M. M. Fogler, and D. N. Basov, “Graphene on hexagonal boron nitride as a tunable hyperbolic metamaterial,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(8), 682–686 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Babicheva, V.

Y. Abate, S. Gamage, L. Zhen, S. B. Cronin, H. Wang, V. Babicheva, M. H. Javani, and M. I. Stockman, “Nanoscopy reveals metallic black phosphorus,” Light Sci. Appl. 5(10), e16162 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Abate, D. Seidlitz, A. Fali, S. Gamage, V. Babicheva, V. S. Yakovlev, M. I. Stockman, R. Collazo, D. Alden, and N. Dietz, “Nanoscopy of Phase separation in In1-xGaxN alloys,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 8(35), 23160–23166 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Babicheva, V. E.

A. Boulesbaa, V. E. Babicheva, K. Wang, I. I. Kravchenko, M.-W. Lin, M. Mahjouri-Samani, C. Jacob, A. A. Puretzky, K. Xiao, I. Ivanov, C. M. Rouleau, and D. B. Geohegan, “Ultrafast dynamics of metal plasmons induced by 2d semiconductor excitons in hybrid nanostructure arrays,” ACS Photonics 3(12), 2389–2395 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. V. Chebykin, V. E. Babicheva, I. V. Iorsh, A. A. Orlov, P. A. Belov, and S. V. Zhukovsky, “Enhancement of the Purcell factor in multiperiodic hyperboliclike metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. A 93(3), 033855 (2016).
[Crossref]

V. E. Babicheva, M. Y. Shalaginov, S. Ishii, A. Boltasseva, and A. V. Kildishev, “Finite-width plasmonic waveguides with hyperbolic multilayer cladding,” Opt. Express 23(8), 9681–9689 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. E. Babicheva, M. Y. Shalaginov, S. Ishii, A. Boltasseva, and A. V. Kildishev, “Long-range plasmonic waveguides with hyperbolic cladding,” Opt. Express 23(24), 31109–31119 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. V. Zhukovsky, A. Orlov, V. E. Babicheva, A. V. Lavrinenko, and J. E. Sipe, “Photonic-band-gap engineering for volume plasmon polaritons in multiscale multilayer hyperbolic metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. A 90(1), 013801 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. A. Orlov, A. K. Krylova, S. V. Zhukovsky, V. E. Babicheva, and P. A. Belov, “Multi-periodicity in plasmonic multilayers: general description and diversity of topologies,” Phys. Rev. A 90(1), 013812 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. A. Orlov, E. A. Yankovskaya, S. V. Zhukovsky, V. E. Babicheva, I. V. Iorsh, and P. A. Belov, “Retrieval of Effective Parameters of Subwavelength Periodic Photonic Structures,” Crystals 4(3), 417–426 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Ishii, M. Y. Shalaginov, V. E. Babicheva, A. Boltasseva, and A. V. Kildishev, “Plasmonic waveguides cladded by hyperbolic metamaterials,” Opt. Lett. 39(16), 4663–4666 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Badioli, M.

J. Chen, M. Badioli, P. Alonso-González, S. Thongrattanasiri, F. Huth, J. Osmond, M. Spasenović, A. Centeno, A. Pesquera, P. Godignon, A. Z. Elorza, N. Camara, F. J. García de Abajo, R. Hillenbrand, and F. H. Koppens, “Optical nano-imaging of gate-tunable graphene plasmons,” Nature 487(7405), 77–81 (2012).
[PubMed]

Basov, D. N.

S. Dai, Q. Ma, T. Andersen, A. S. Mcleod, Z. Fei, M. K. Liu, M. Wagner, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, M. Thiemens, F. Keilmann, P. Jarillo-Herrero, M. M. Fogler, and D. N. Basov, “Subdiffractional focusing and guiding of polaritonic rays in a natural hyperbolic material,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6963 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Dai, Q. Ma, M. K. Liu, T. Andersen, Z. Fei, M. D. Goldflam, M. Wagner, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, M. Thiemens, F. Keilmann, G. C. A. M. Janssen, S.-E. Zhu, P. Jarillo-Herrero, M. M. Fogler, and D. N. Basov, “Graphene on hexagonal boron nitride as a tunable hyperbolic metamaterial,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(8), 682–686 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Dai, Z. Fei, Q. Ma, A. S. Rodin, M. Wagner, A. S. McLeod, M. K. Liu, W. Gannett, W. Regan, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, M. Thiemens, G. Dominguez, A. H. Castro Neto, A. Zettl, F. Keilmann, P. Jarillo-Herrero, M. M. Fogler, and D. N. Basov, “Tunable phonon polaritons in atomically thin van der waals crystals of boron nitride,” Science 343(6175), 1125–1129 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Belov, P.

A. Poddubny, I. Iorsh, P. Belov, and Y. Kivshar, “Hyperbolic metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 7(12), 948–957 (2013).
[Crossref]

Belov, P. A.

A. V. Chebykin, V. E. Babicheva, I. V. Iorsh, A. A. Orlov, P. A. Belov, and S. V. Zhukovsky, “Enhancement of the Purcell factor in multiperiodic hyperboliclike metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. A 93(3), 033855 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. A. Orlov, A. K. Krylova, S. V. Zhukovsky, V. E. Babicheva, and P. A. Belov, “Multi-periodicity in plasmonic multilayers: general description and diversity of topologies,” Phys. Rev. A 90(1), 013812 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. A. Orlov, E. A. Yankovskaya, S. V. Zhukovsky, V. E. Babicheva, I. V. Iorsh, and P. A. Belov, “Retrieval of Effective Parameters of Subwavelength Periodic Photonic Structures,” Crystals 4(3), 417–426 (2014).
[Crossref]

Boardman, A. D.

K. L. Tsakmakidis, A. D. Boardman, and O. Hess, “Trapped rainbow’ storage of light in metamaterials,” Nature 450(7168), 397–401 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boltasseva, A.

M. Y. Shalaginov, V. V. Vorobyov, J. Liu, M. Ferrera, A. V. Akimov, A. Lagutchev, A. N. Smolyaninov, V. V. Klimov, J. Irudayaraj, A. V. Kildishev, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, “Enhancement of single-photon emission from nitrogen-vacancy centers with TiN/(Al,Sc)N hyperbolic metamaterial,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(1), 120–127 (2015).
[Crossref]

V. E. Babicheva, M. Y. Shalaginov, S. Ishii, A. Boltasseva, and A. V. Kildishev, “Finite-width plasmonic waveguides with hyperbolic multilayer cladding,” Opt. Express 23(8), 9681–9689 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. E. Babicheva, M. Y. Shalaginov, S. Ishii, A. Boltasseva, and A. V. Kildishev, “Long-range plasmonic waveguides with hyperbolic cladding,” Opt. Express 23(24), 31109–31119 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Ishii, M. Y. Shalaginov, V. E. Babicheva, A. Boltasseva, and A. V. Kildishev, “Plasmonic waveguides cladded by hyperbolic metamaterials,” Opt. Lett. 39(16), 4663–4666 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Jacob, J.-Y. Kim, G. V. Naik, A. Boltasseva, E. E. Narimanov, and V. M. Shalaev, “Engineering photonic density of states using metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. B 100(1), 215–218 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bonney, C.

Botton, G. A.

D. Rossouw, M. Couillard, J. Vickery, E. Kumacheva, and G. A. Botton, “Multipolar plasmonic resonances in silver nanowire antennas imaged with a subnanometer electron probe,” Nano Lett. 11(4), 1499–1504 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boulesbaa, A.

A. Boulesbaa, V. E. Babicheva, K. Wang, I. I. Kravchenko, M.-W. Lin, M. Mahjouri-Samani, C. Jacob, A. A. Puretzky, K. Xiao, I. Ivanov, C. M. Rouleau, and D. B. Geohegan, “Ultrafast dynamics of metal plasmons induced by 2d semiconductor excitons in hybrid nanostructure arrays,” ACS Photonics 3(12), 2389–2395 (2016).
[Crossref]

Cabrini, S.

S. E. Grefe, D. Leiva, S. Mastel, S. D. Dhuey, S. Cabrini, P. J. Schuck, and Y. Abate, “Near-field spatial mapping of strongly interacting multiple plasmonic infrared antennas,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 15(43), 18944–18950 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Mastel, S. E. Grefe, G. B. Cross, A. Taber, S. Dhuey, S. Cabrini, P. J. Schuck, and Y. Abate, “Real-space mapping of nanoplasmonic hotspots via optical antenna-gap loading,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(13), 131102 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Caldwell, J. D.

J. D. Caldwell, I. Vurgaftman, J. G. Tischler, O. J. Glembocki, J. C. Owrutsky, and T. L. Reinecke, “Atomic-scale photonic hybrids for mid-infrared and terahertz nanophotonics,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 11(1), 9–15 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Li, M. Lewin, A. V. Kretinin, J. D. Caldwell, K. S. Novoselov, T. Taniguchi, K. Watanabe, F. Gaussmann, and T. Taubner, “Hyperbolic phonon-polaritons in boron nitride for near-field optical imaging and focusing,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7507 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Camara, N.

J. Chen, M. Badioli, P. Alonso-González, S. Thongrattanasiri, F. Huth, J. Osmond, M. Spasenović, A. Centeno, A. Pesquera, P. Godignon, A. Z. Elorza, N. Camara, F. J. García de Abajo, R. Hillenbrand, and F. H. Koppens, “Optical nano-imaging of gate-tunable graphene plasmons,” Nature 487(7405), 77–81 (2012).
[PubMed]

Capolino, F.

Carrega, M.

A. Woessner, M. B. Lundeberg, Y. Gao, A. Principi, P. Alonso-González, M. Carrega, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, G. Vignale, M. Polini, J. Hone, R. Hillenbrand, and F. H. L. Koppens, “Highly confined low-loss plasmons in graphene-boron nitride heterostructures,” Nat. Mater. 14(4), 421–425 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Casanova, F.

P. Li, I. Dolado, F. J. Alfaro-Mozaz, A. Yu. Nikitin, F. Casanova, L. E. Hueso, S. Vélez, and R. Hillenbrand, “Optical Nanoimaging of Hyperbolic Surface Polaritons at the Edges of van der Waals Materials,” Nano Lett. 17(1), 228–235 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Castro Neto, A. H.

S. Dai, Z. Fei, Q. Ma, A. S. Rodin, M. Wagner, A. S. McLeod, M. K. Liu, W. Gannett, W. Regan, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, M. Thiemens, G. Dominguez, A. H. Castro Neto, A. Zettl, F. Keilmann, P. Jarillo-Herrero, M. M. Fogler, and D. N. Basov, “Tunable phonon polaritons in atomically thin van der waals crystals of boron nitride,” Science 343(6175), 1125–1129 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Centeno, A.

J. Chen, M. Badioli, P. Alonso-González, S. Thongrattanasiri, F. Huth, J. Osmond, M. Spasenović, A. Centeno, A. Pesquera, P. Godignon, A. Z. Elorza, N. Camara, F. J. García de Abajo, R. Hillenbrand, and F. H. Koppens, “Optical nano-imaging of gate-tunable graphene plasmons,” Nature 487(7405), 77–81 (2012).
[PubMed]

Chebykin, A. V.

A. V. Chebykin, V. E. Babicheva, I. V. Iorsh, A. A. Orlov, P. A. Belov, and S. V. Zhukovsky, “Enhancement of the Purcell factor in multiperiodic hyperboliclike metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. A 93(3), 033855 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chen, J.

J. Chen, M. Badioli, P. Alonso-González, S. Thongrattanasiri, F. Huth, J. Osmond, M. Spasenović, A. Centeno, A. Pesquera, P. Godignon, A. Z. Elorza, N. Camara, F. J. García de Abajo, R. Hillenbrand, and F. H. Koppens, “Optical nano-imaging of gate-tunable graphene plasmons,” Nature 487(7405), 77–81 (2012).
[PubMed]

Collazo, R.

Y. Abate, D. Seidlitz, A. Fali, S. Gamage, V. Babicheva, V. S. Yakovlev, M. I. Stockman, R. Collazo, D. Alden, and N. Dietz, “Nanoscopy of Phase separation in In1-xGaxN alloys,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 8(35), 23160–23166 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Couillard, M.

D. Rossouw, M. Couillard, J. Vickery, E. Kumacheva, and G. A. Botton, “Multipolar plasmonic resonances in silver nanowire antennas imaged with a subnanometer electron probe,” Nano Lett. 11(4), 1499–1504 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cronin, S. B.

Y. Abate, S. Gamage, L. Zhen, S. B. Cronin, H. Wang, V. Babicheva, M. H. Javani, and M. I. Stockman, “Nanoscopy reveals metallic black phosphorus,” Light Sci. Appl. 5(10), e16162 (2016).
[Crossref]

Cross, G. B.

S. Mastel, S. E. Grefe, G. B. Cross, A. Taber, S. Dhuey, S. Cabrini, P. J. Schuck, and Y. Abate, “Real-space mapping of nanoplasmonic hotspots via optical antenna-gap loading,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(13), 131102 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cvitkovic, A.

J. M. Stiegler, Y. Abate, A. Cvitkovic, Y. E. Romanyuk, A. J. Huber, S. R. Leone, and R. Hillenbrand, “Nanoscale Infrared Absorption Spectroscopy of Individual Nanoparticles Enabled by Scattering-Type Near-Field Microscopy,” ACS Nano 5(8), 6494–6499 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Cvitkovic, N. Ocelic, and R. Hillenbrand, “Material-specific infrared recognition of single sub-10 nm particles by substrate-enhanced scattering-type near-field microscopy,” Nano Lett. 7(10), 3177–3181 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dai, S.

S. Dai, Q. Ma, T. Andersen, A. S. Mcleod, Z. Fei, M. K. Liu, M. Wagner, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, M. Thiemens, F. Keilmann, P. Jarillo-Herrero, M. M. Fogler, and D. N. Basov, “Subdiffractional focusing and guiding of polaritonic rays in a natural hyperbolic material,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6963 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Dai, Q. Ma, M. K. Liu, T. Andersen, Z. Fei, M. D. Goldflam, M. Wagner, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, M. Thiemens, F. Keilmann, G. C. A. M. Janssen, S.-E. Zhu, P. Jarillo-Herrero, M. M. Fogler, and D. N. Basov, “Graphene on hexagonal boron nitride as a tunable hyperbolic metamaterial,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(8), 682–686 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Dai, Z. Fei, Q. Ma, A. S. Rodin, M. Wagner, A. S. McLeod, M. K. Liu, W. Gannett, W. Regan, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, M. Thiemens, G. Dominguez, A. H. Castro Neto, A. Zettl, F. Keilmann, P. Jarillo-Herrero, M. M. Fogler, and D. N. Basov, “Tunable phonon polaritons in atomically thin van der waals crystals of boron nitride,” Science 343(6175), 1125–1129 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Damato, R.

Z. Nuno, B. Hessler, B. Heiberg, R. Damato, T. Dunlap, Y. S. Shon, and Y. Abate, “Nanoscale near-field infrared spectroscopic imaging of silica-shell/gold-core and pure silica nanoparticles,” J. Nanopart. Res. 14(3), 766 (2012).
[Crossref]

Dhuey, S.

S. Mastel, S. E. Grefe, G. B. Cross, A. Taber, S. Dhuey, S. Cabrini, P. J. Schuck, and Y. Abate, “Real-space mapping of nanoplasmonic hotspots via optical antenna-gap loading,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(13), 131102 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dhuey, S. D.

S. E. Grefe, D. Leiva, S. Mastel, S. D. Dhuey, S. Cabrini, P. J. Schuck, and Y. Abate, “Near-field spatial mapping of strongly interacting multiple plasmonic infrared antennas,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 15(43), 18944–18950 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dietz, N.

Y. Abate, D. Seidlitz, A. Fali, S. Gamage, V. Babicheva, V. S. Yakovlev, M. I. Stockman, R. Collazo, D. Alden, and N. Dietz, “Nanoscopy of Phase separation in In1-xGaxN alloys,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 8(35), 23160–23166 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dolado, I.

P. Li, I. Dolado, F. J. Alfaro-Mozaz, A. Yu. Nikitin, F. Casanova, L. E. Hueso, S. Vélez, and R. Hillenbrand, “Optical Nanoimaging of Hyperbolic Surface Polaritons at the Edges of van der Waals Materials,” Nano Lett. 17(1), 228–235 (2017).
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ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces (1)

Y. Abate, D. Seidlitz, A. Fali, S. Gamage, V. Babicheva, V. S. Yakovlev, M. I. Stockman, R. Collazo, D. Alden, and N. Dietz, “Nanoscopy of Phase separation in In1-xGaxN alloys,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 8(35), 23160–23166 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

ACS Nano (1)

J. M. Stiegler, Y. Abate, A. Cvitkovic, Y. E. Romanyuk, A. J. Huber, S. R. Leone, and R. Hillenbrand, “Nanoscale Infrared Absorption Spectroscopy of Individual Nanoparticles Enabled by Scattering-Type Near-Field Microscopy,” ACS Nano 5(8), 6494–6499 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

ACS Photonics (2)

J. Sun, N. M. Litchinitser, and J. Zhou, “Indefinite by nature: from ultraviolet to terahertz,” ACS Photonics 1(4), 293–303 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Boulesbaa, V. E. Babicheva, K. Wang, I. I. Kravchenko, M.-W. Lin, M. Mahjouri-Samani, C. Jacob, A. A. Puretzky, K. Xiao, I. Ivanov, C. M. Rouleau, and D. B. Geohegan, “Ultrafast dynamics of metal plasmons induced by 2d semiconductor excitons in hybrid nanostructure arrays,” ACS Photonics 3(12), 2389–2395 (2016).
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Appl. Phys. B (1)

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M. Y. Shalaginov, V. V. Vorobyov, J. Liu, M. Ferrera, A. V. Akimov, A. Lagutchev, A. N. Smolyaninov, V. V. Klimov, J. Irudayaraj, A. V. Kildishev, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, “Enhancement of single-photon emission from nitrogen-vacancy centers with TiN/(Al,Sc)N hyperbolic metamaterial,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(1), 120–127 (2015).
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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Numerical calculations showing edge imaging in s-SNOM. (a)-(d) Various tip positions with respect to the dielectric edge and (e) line profile of calculated s-SNOM signal at 2nd harmonic (A2) demodulation. In (b), xtip = –37 nm (xtip is a position of the tip with respect to the edge), and two hot spots are formed: below the tip apex and at the edge; this results in the signal peak in (e). In (c) it is shown that the tip is displaced from the substrate below it and consequently does not couple to the substrate strongly, which results in the lower effective polarizability and the broad low-contrast line in the s-SNOM measurements.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Numerical calculations for gold in the mid-infrared range where its properties are similar to the perfect electric conductor. (a) Change of contrast in different demodulation orders An in the case of beam incident perpendicular to the edge. Gold thickness is 60 nm. The signal is normalized so that it is equal to 1 on the substrate at the distance 2 µm in each demodulation order. At the tip position xtip = –200 nm, the edge slightly affects the signal, which results in a small deviation from 1. (b) The same as (a) but for the beam propagating along the edge. (c) Change of contrast A4 for thicknesses of the gold 10 and 25 nm. (d) Change of contrast for different gold thickness at the point of two-hot-spot formation. The change of contrast does not reach 1 for the layers of several nanometers as the highly reflective boundary affects the signal.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Edge fringes in materials at different harmonics of the tip resonance frequency ( A norm ) n . (a) and (b) Numerical modeling and experimental images, respectively, for an MoS2 (dielectric) on silicon at λ = 632 nm. (c) Line profiles taken from s-SNOM near-field images and (d) s-SNOM amplitude images for hBN on silicon at the laser wavelength, λ = 10.7 µm, where hBN is an anisotropic dielectric. The sample edge has a plateau, which results in an additional outside plateau fringe.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Edge fringes in plasmonic or phononic structures. (a) Schematic side view of a cross-section of the edge characterization of hBN sample and propagation of deeply subwavelength phonon-polariton rays in 60-nm-thick layer excited by the light with λ = 7 µm. The most efficient excitation and pronounced outside bright fringe occur at the intermediate position of the tip in respect to the sample edge: xtip = –31 nm, which in the numerical simulations corresponds to the peaks in the signal (A3 and A4) of hBN edge characterization. (b) s-SNOM image of hBN at the 3rd harmonic of the tip frequency (A3). hBN fringes in the hyperbolic regime at λ = 7 µm are different from the fringes of dielectric hBN at λ = 10.7 µm [see Figs. 3(c) and 3(d)]. (c) Numerical modeling and (d) experimental results of the change of contrast in different demodulation orders An for hBN that has a hyperbolic dispersion at λ = 7 µm (εin-plane = –14.6 + 1i and εout-of-plane = 2.7 + 0.0004i). The peak of the signal occurs at xtip = –31 nm [panel (c)], which means it is offset from the point where two hot spots are created simultaneously (tip/edge and tip/substrate at xtip = –37 nm). In panel (d), the solid and dotted lines correspond to two experimental measurements, and they agree remarkably well. (e) Numerical modeling and (f) experimental results respectively for plasmonic material: at λ = 632 nm, gold permittivity is ε = –12 + 1.3i, and plasmonic edge resonances are excited.

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