Abstract

We demonstrate and characterize polarization-division multiplexed (PDM) DWDM data transmission for the first time in a range of systems incorporating a net-gain polarization-insensitive fiber optical parametric amplifier (PI-FOPA) for loss compensation. The PI-FOPA comprises a modified diversity-loop architecture to achieve 15dB net-gain, and up to 2.3THz (~18nm) bandwidth. Three representative systems are characterized using a 100Gb/s PDM-QPSK signal in conjunction with emulated DWDM neighbouring channels: (a) a 4x75km in-line fiber transmission system incorporating multiple EDFAs and a single PI-FOPA (b) N cascaded PI-FOPA amplification stages in an unlevelled Nx25km recirculating loop arrangement, with no EDFAs used within the loop signal path, and (c) M cascaded PI-FOPA amplification stages as part of an Mx75.6km gain-flattened recirculating loop system with the FOPA compensating for the transmission fiber loss, and EDFA compensation for loop switching and levelling loss. For the 4x75km in-line system (a), we transmit 45x50GHz-spaced signals (‘equivalent’ data-rate of 4.5Tb/s) with average OSNR penalty of 1.3dB over the band at 10−3 BER. For the unlevelled ‘FOPA-only’ 25.2km cascaded system (b), we report a maximum of eight recirculations for all 10x100GHz-spaced signals, and five recirculations for 20x50GHz-spaced signals. For the 75.6km levelled system (c), we achieve eight recirculations for all 20x50GHz signals resulting in a total transmission distance of 604.8km.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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References

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2017 (3)

2016 (2)

2015 (2)

2014 (1)

2013 (4)

Z. Li, A. M. Heidt, J. M. O. Daniel, Y. Jung, S. U. Alam, and D. J. Richardson, “Thulium-doped fiber amplifier for optical communications at 2 µm,” Opt. Express 21(8), 9289–9297 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. D. Marconi, M. C. Fugihara, F. A. Callegari, and H. L. Fragnito, “In-line one-pump parametric amplifier with independent polarization gain: a field-trial demonstration,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 55(5), 1104–1107 (2013).
[Crossref]

F. Poletti, N. V. Wheeler, M. N. Petrovich, N. K. Baddela, E. Numkam Fokoua, J. R. Hayes, D. R. Gray, Z. Li, R. Slavik, and D. J. Richardson, “Towards high-capacity fibre-optic communications at the speed of light in vacuum,” Nat. Photonics 7(4), 279–284 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. Kashyap, “The fiber fuse--from a curious effect to a critical issue: A 25th year retrospective,” Opt. Express 21(5), 6422–6441 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (2)

Z. Tong, C. Lundstrom, P. A. Andrekson, M. Karlsson, and A. Bogris, “Ultralow noise, broadband phase-sensitive optical amplifiers, and their applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 18(2), 1016–1032 (2012).
[Crossref]

N. El Dahdah, D. S. Govan, M. Jamshidifar, N. J. Doran, and M. E. Marhic, “Fiber Optical Parametric Amplifier Performance in a 1-Tb/s DWDM Communication System,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 18(2), 950–957 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

F. Zhang, Y. Luo, Y. Wang, L. Li, L. Zhu, Z. Chen, and C. Wu, “Experimental Comparison of Different BER Estimation Methods for Coherent Optical QPSK Transmission Systems,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(18), 1343–1345 (2011).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

J. M. Chavez Boggio, J. D. Marconi, and H. L. Fragnito, “Experimental and numerical investigation of the SBS-threshold increase in an optical fiber by applying strain distributions,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23(11), 3808–3814 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. M. Chavez Boggio, A. Guimarães, F. A. Callegari, J. D. Marconi, and H. L. Fragnito, “Q penalties due to pump phase modulation and pump RIN in fiber optic parametric amplifiers with non-uniform dispersion,” Opt. Commun. 249(4), 451–472 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

A. Mussot, A. Durécu-Legrand, E. Lantz, C. Simonneau, D. Bayart, H. Maillotte, and T. Sylvestre, “Impact of pump phase modulation on the gain of fiber optical parametric amplifier,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16(5), 1289–1291 (2004).
[Crossref]

2002 (2)

J. Hansryd, P. A. Andrekson, M. Westlund, J. Li, and P. O. Hedekvist, “Fiber-based optical parametric amplifiers and their applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(3), 506–520 (2002).
[Crossref]

M. Islam, “Raman amplifiers for telecommunications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(3), 548–559 (2002).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

M. F. C. Stephens, D. Nesset, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, and M. J. Fice, “Wavelength conversion at 40 Gbit/s via four wave mixing in semiconductor optical amplifier with integrated pump laser,” Electron. Lett. 35(5), 420–421 (1999).
[Crossref]

1988 (1)

M. J. O’ Mahony, “Semiconductor laser optical amplifiers for use in future fiber systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6(4), 531–544 (1988).
[Crossref]

Alam, S. U.

Al-Khateeb, M. A. Z.

Andrekson, P. A.

Z. Tong, C. Lundstrom, P. A. Andrekson, M. Karlsson, and A. Bogris, “Ultralow noise, broadband phase-sensitive optical amplifiers, and their applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 18(2), 1016–1032 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Hansryd, P. A. Andrekson, M. Westlund, J. Li, and P. O. Hedekvist, “Fiber-based optical parametric amplifiers and their applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(3), 506–520 (2002).
[Crossref]

Baddela, N. K.

F. Poletti, N. V. Wheeler, M. N. Petrovich, N. K. Baddela, E. Numkam Fokoua, J. R. Hayes, D. R. Gray, Z. Li, R. Slavik, and D. J. Richardson, “Towards high-capacity fibre-optic communications at the speed of light in vacuum,” Nat. Photonics 7(4), 279–284 (2013).
[Crossref]

Barua, P.

Bayart, D.

A. Mussot, A. Durécu-Legrand, E. Lantz, C. Simonneau, D. Bayart, H. Maillotte, and T. Sylvestre, “Impact of pump phase modulation on the gain of fiber optical parametric amplifier,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16(5), 1289–1291 (2004).
[Crossref]

Bayvel, P.

Bogris, A.

Z. Tong, C. Lundstrom, P. A. Andrekson, M. Karlsson, and A. Bogris, “Ultralow noise, broadband phase-sensitive optical amplifiers, and their applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 18(2), 1016–1032 (2012).
[Crossref]

Callegari, F. A.

J. D. Marconi, M. C. Fugihara, F. A. Callegari, and H. L. Fragnito, “In-line one-pump parametric amplifier with independent polarization gain: a field-trial demonstration,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 55(5), 1104–1107 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. M. Chavez Boggio, A. Guimarães, F. A. Callegari, J. D. Marconi, and H. L. Fragnito, “Q penalties due to pump phase modulation and pump RIN in fiber optic parametric amplifiers with non-uniform dispersion,” Opt. Commun. 249(4), 451–472 (2005).
[Crossref]

Chavez Boggio, J. M.

J. M. Chavez Boggio, J. D. Marconi, and H. L. Fragnito, “Experimental and numerical investigation of the SBS-threshold increase in an optical fiber by applying strain distributions,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23(11), 3808–3814 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. M. Chavez Boggio, A. Guimarães, F. A. Callegari, J. D. Marconi, and H. L. Fragnito, “Q penalties due to pump phase modulation and pump RIN in fiber optic parametric amplifiers with non-uniform dispersion,” Opt. Commun. 249(4), 451–472 (2005).
[Crossref]

Chen, Z.

F. Zhang, Y. Luo, Y. Wang, L. Li, L. Zhu, Z. Chen, and C. Wu, “Experimental Comparison of Different BER Estimation Methods for Coherent Optical QPSK Transmission Systems,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(18), 1343–1345 (2011).
[Crossref]

Clarkson, W. A.

Daniel, J. M. O.

Doran, N.

Doran, N. J.

Durécu-Legrand, A.

A. Mussot, A. Durécu-Legrand, E. Lantz, C. Simonneau, D. Bayart, H. Maillotte, and T. Sylvestre, “Impact of pump phase modulation on the gain of fiber optical parametric amplifier,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16(5), 1289–1291 (2004).
[Crossref]

El Dahdah, N.

N. El Dahdah, D. S. Govan, M. Jamshidifar, N. J. Doran, and M. E. Marhic, “Fiber Optical Parametric Amplifier Performance in a 1-Tb/s DWDM Communication System,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 18(2), 950–957 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ellis, A. D.

Elson, D.

El-Taher, A. E.

Fabbri, S.

Fice, M. J.

M. F. C. Stephens, D. Nesset, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, and M. J. Fice, “Wavelength conversion at 40 Gbit/s via four wave mixing in semiconductor optical amplifier with integrated pump laser,” Electron. Lett. 35(5), 420–421 (1999).
[Crossref]

Fragnito, H. L.

J. D. Marconi, M. C. Fugihara, F. A. Callegari, and H. L. Fragnito, “In-line one-pump parametric amplifier with independent polarization gain: a field-trial demonstration,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 55(5), 1104–1107 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. M. Chavez Boggio, A. Guimarães, F. A. Callegari, J. D. Marconi, and H. L. Fragnito, “Q penalties due to pump phase modulation and pump RIN in fiber optic parametric amplifiers with non-uniform dispersion,” Opt. Commun. 249(4), 451–472 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. M. Chavez Boggio, J. D. Marconi, and H. L. Fragnito, “Experimental and numerical investigation of the SBS-threshold increase in an optical fiber by applying strain distributions,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23(11), 3808–3814 (2005).
[Crossref]

Fugihara, M. C.

J. D. Marconi, M. C. Fugihara, F. A. Callegari, and H. L. Fragnito, “In-line one-pump parametric amplifier with independent polarization gain: a field-trial demonstration,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 55(5), 1104–1107 (2013).
[Crossref]

Galdino, L.

Gordienko, V.

Govan, D. S.

N. El Dahdah, D. S. Govan, M. Jamshidifar, N. J. Doran, and M. E. Marhic, “Fiber Optical Parametric Amplifier Performance in a 1-Tb/s DWDM Communication System,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 18(2), 950–957 (2012).
[Crossref]

Gray, D. R.

F. Poletti, N. V. Wheeler, M. N. Petrovich, N. K. Baddela, E. Numkam Fokoua, J. R. Hayes, D. R. Gray, Z. Li, R. Slavik, and D. J. Richardson, “Towards high-capacity fibre-optic communications at the speed of light in vacuum,” Nat. Photonics 7(4), 279–284 (2013).
[Crossref]

Guimarães, A.

J. M. Chavez Boggio, A. Guimarães, F. A. Callegari, J. D. Marconi, and H. L. Fragnito, “Q penalties due to pump phase modulation and pump RIN in fiber optic parametric amplifiers with non-uniform dispersion,” Opt. Commun. 249(4), 451–472 (2005).
[Crossref]

Hansryd, J.

J. Hansryd, P. A. Andrekson, M. Westlund, J. Li, and P. O. Hedekvist, “Fiber-based optical parametric amplifiers and their applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(3), 506–520 (2002).
[Crossref]

Harper, P.

Hayes, J. R.

F. Poletti, N. V. Wheeler, M. N. Petrovich, N. K. Baddela, E. Numkam Fokoua, J. R. Hayes, D. R. Gray, Z. Li, R. Slavik, and D. J. Richardson, “Towards high-capacity fibre-optic communications at the speed of light in vacuum,” Nat. Photonics 7(4), 279–284 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hedekvist, P. O.

J. Hansryd, P. A. Andrekson, M. Westlund, J. Li, and P. O. Hedekvist, “Fiber-based optical parametric amplifiers and their applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(3), 506–520 (2002).
[Crossref]

Heidt, A. M.

Hemming, A.

Iqbal, M. A.

Islam, M.

M. Islam, “Raman amplifiers for telecommunications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(3), 548–559 (2002).
[Crossref]

Jamshidifar, M.

N. El Dahdah, D. S. Govan, M. Jamshidifar, N. J. Doran, and M. E. Marhic, “Fiber Optical Parametric Amplifier Performance in a 1-Tb/s DWDM Communication System,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 18(2), 950–957 (2012).
[Crossref]

Jung, Y.

Karlsson, M.

Z. Tong, C. Lundstrom, P. A. Andrekson, M. Karlsson, and A. Bogris, “Ultralow noise, broadband phase-sensitive optical amplifiers, and their applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 18(2), 1016–1032 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kashyap, R.

Killey, R.

Lantz, E.

A. Mussot, A. Durécu-Legrand, E. Lantz, C. Simonneau, D. Bayart, H. Maillotte, and T. Sylvestre, “Impact of pump phase modulation on the gain of fiber optical parametric amplifier,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16(5), 1289–1291 (2004).
[Crossref]

Lavery, D.

Li, J.

J. Hansryd, P. A. Andrekson, M. Westlund, J. Li, and P. O. Hedekvist, “Fiber-based optical parametric amplifiers and their applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(3), 506–520 (2002).
[Crossref]

Li, L.

F. Zhang, Y. Luo, Y. Wang, L. Li, L. Zhu, Z. Chen, and C. Wu, “Experimental Comparison of Different BER Estimation Methods for Coherent Optical QPSK Transmission Systems,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(18), 1343–1345 (2011).
[Crossref]

Li, Z.

Liang, S.

Liga, G.

Lundstrom, C.

Z. Tong, C. Lundstrom, P. A. Andrekson, M. Karlsson, and A. Bogris, “Ultralow noise, broadband phase-sensitive optical amplifiers, and their applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 18(2), 1016–1032 (2012).
[Crossref]

Luo, Y.

F. Zhang, Y. Luo, Y. Wang, L. Li, L. Zhu, Z. Chen, and C. Wu, “Experimental Comparison of Different BER Estimation Methods for Coherent Optical QPSK Transmission Systems,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(18), 1343–1345 (2011).
[Crossref]

Maher, R.

Maillotte, H.

A. Mussot, A. Durécu-Legrand, E. Lantz, C. Simonneau, D. Bayart, H. Maillotte, and T. Sylvestre, “Impact of pump phase modulation on the gain of fiber optical parametric amplifier,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16(5), 1289–1291 (2004).
[Crossref]

Marconi, J. D.

J. D. Marconi, M. C. Fugihara, F. A. Callegari, and H. L. Fragnito, “In-line one-pump parametric amplifier with independent polarization gain: a field-trial demonstration,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 55(5), 1104–1107 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. M. Chavez Boggio, A. Guimarães, F. A. Callegari, J. D. Marconi, and H. L. Fragnito, “Q penalties due to pump phase modulation and pump RIN in fiber optic parametric amplifiers with non-uniform dispersion,” Opt. Commun. 249(4), 451–472 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. M. Chavez Boggio, J. D. Marconi, and H. L. Fragnito, “Experimental and numerical investigation of the SBS-threshold increase in an optical fiber by applying strain distributions,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23(11), 3808–3814 (2005).
[Crossref]

Marhic, M. E.

N. El Dahdah, D. S. Govan, M. Jamshidifar, N. J. Doran, and M. E. Marhic, “Fiber Optical Parametric Amplifier Performance in a 1-Tb/s DWDM Communication System,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 18(2), 950–957 (2012).
[Crossref]

McCarthy, M. E.

Mondaca, G. S.

Mussot, A.

A. Mussot, A. Durécu-Legrand, E. Lantz, C. Simonneau, D. Bayart, H. Maillotte, and T. Sylvestre, “Impact of pump phase modulation on the gain of fiber optical parametric amplifier,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16(5), 1289–1291 (2004).
[Crossref]

Nesset, D.

M. F. C. Stephens, D. Nesset, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, and M. J. Fice, “Wavelength conversion at 40 Gbit/s via four wave mixing in semiconductor optical amplifier with integrated pump laser,” Electron. Lett. 35(5), 420–421 (1999).
[Crossref]

Numkam Fokoua, E.

F. Poletti, N. V. Wheeler, M. N. Petrovich, N. K. Baddela, E. Numkam Fokoua, J. R. Hayes, D. R. Gray, Z. Li, R. Slavik, and D. J. Richardson, “Towards high-capacity fibre-optic communications at the speed of light in vacuum,” Nat. Photonics 7(4), 279–284 (2013).
[Crossref]

O’ Mahony, M. J.

M. J. O’ Mahony, “Semiconductor laser optical amplifiers for use in future fiber systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6(4), 531–544 (1988).
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Penty, R. V.

M. F. C. Stephens, D. Nesset, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, and M. J. Fice, “Wavelength conversion at 40 Gbit/s via four wave mixing in semiconductor optical amplifier with integrated pump laser,” Electron. Lett. 35(5), 420–421 (1999).
[Crossref]

Perentos, A.

Petrovich, M. N.

F. Poletti, N. V. Wheeler, M. N. Petrovich, N. K. Baddela, E. Numkam Fokoua, J. R. Hayes, D. R. Gray, Z. Li, R. Slavik, and D. J. Richardson, “Towards high-capacity fibre-optic communications at the speed of light in vacuum,” Nat. Photonics 7(4), 279–284 (2013).
[Crossref]

Phillips, I. D.

Poletti, F.

F. Poletti, N. V. Wheeler, M. N. Petrovich, N. K. Baddela, E. Numkam Fokoua, J. R. Hayes, D. R. Gray, Z. Li, R. Slavik, and D. J. Richardson, “Towards high-capacity fibre-optic communications at the speed of light in vacuum,” Nat. Photonics 7(4), 279–284 (2013).
[Crossref]

Redyuk, A.

Richardson, D. J.

Rosa, P.

Saavedra, G.

Sahu, J. K.

Semrau, D.

Shardlow, P. C.

Shi, K.

Simakov, N.

Simonneau, C.

A. Mussot, A. Durécu-Legrand, E. Lantz, C. Simonneau, D. Bayart, H. Maillotte, and T. Sylvestre, “Impact of pump phase modulation on the gain of fiber optical parametric amplifier,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16(5), 1289–1291 (2004).
[Crossref]

Slavik, R.

F. Poletti, N. V. Wheeler, M. N. Petrovich, N. K. Baddela, E. Numkam Fokoua, J. R. Hayes, D. R. Gray, Z. Li, R. Slavik, and D. J. Richardson, “Towards high-capacity fibre-optic communications at the speed of light in vacuum,” Nat. Photonics 7(4), 279–284 (2013).
[Crossref]

Stephens, M. F. C.

V. Gordienko, M. F. C. Stephens, A. E. El-Taher, and N. J. Doran, “Ultra-flat wideband single-pump Raman-enhanced parametric amplification,” Opt. Express 25(5), 4810–4818 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. F. C. Stephens, V. Gordienko, and N. J. Doran, “20 dB net-gain polarization-insensitive fiber optical parametric amplifier with >2 THz bandwidth,” Opt. Express 25(9), 10597–10609 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. D. Ellis, M. Tan, M. A. Iqbal, M. A. Z. Al-Khateeb, V. Gordienko, G. S. Mondaca, S. Fabbri, M. F. C. Stephens, M. E. McCarthy, A. Perentos, I. D. Phillips, D. Lavery, G. Liga, R. Maher, P. Harper, N. Doran, S. K. Turitsyn, S. Sygletos, and P. Bayvel, “4 Tb/s transmission reach enhancement using 10× 400 Gb/s super-channels and polarization insensitive dual band optical phase conjugation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(8), 1717–1723 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Redyuk, M. F. C. Stephens, and N. J. Doran, “Suppression of WDM four-wave mixing crosstalk in fibre optic parametric amplifier using Raman-assisted pumping,” Opt. Express 23(21), 27240–27249 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. F. C. Stephens, I. D. Phillips, P. Rosa, P. Harper, and N. J. Doran, “Improved WDM performance of a fibre optical parametric amplifier using Raman-assisted pumping,” Opt. Express 23(2), 902–911 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. F. C. Stephens, M. Tan, I. D. Phillips, S. Sygletos, P. Harper, and N. J. Doran, “1.14 Tb/s DP-QPSK WDM polarization-diverse optical phase conjugation,” Opt. Express 22(10), 11840–11848 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. F. C. Stephens, D. Nesset, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, and M. J. Fice, “Wavelength conversion at 40 Gbit/s via four wave mixing in semiconductor optical amplifier with integrated pump laser,” Electron. Lett. 35(5), 420–421 (1999).
[Crossref]

Sygletos, S.

Sylvestre, T.

A. Mussot, A. Durécu-Legrand, E. Lantz, C. Simonneau, D. Bayart, H. Maillotte, and T. Sylvestre, “Impact of pump phase modulation on the gain of fiber optical parametric amplifier,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16(5), 1289–1291 (2004).
[Crossref]

Tan, M.

Thomsen, B.

Tong, Z.

Z. Tong, C. Lundstrom, P. A. Andrekson, M. Karlsson, and A. Bogris, “Ultralow noise, broadband phase-sensitive optical amplifiers, and their applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 18(2), 1016–1032 (2012).
[Crossref]

Turitsyn, S. K.

Wang, Y.

F. Zhang, Y. Luo, Y. Wang, L. Li, L. Zhu, Z. Chen, and C. Wu, “Experimental Comparison of Different BER Estimation Methods for Coherent Optical QPSK Transmission Systems,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(18), 1343–1345 (2011).
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Westlund, M.

J. Hansryd, P. A. Andrekson, M. Westlund, J. Li, and P. O. Hedekvist, “Fiber-based optical parametric amplifiers and their applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(3), 506–520 (2002).
[Crossref]

Wheeler, N. V.

F. Poletti, N. V. Wheeler, M. N. Petrovich, N. K. Baddela, E. Numkam Fokoua, J. R. Hayes, D. R. Gray, Z. Li, R. Slavik, and D. J. Richardson, “Towards high-capacity fibre-optic communications at the speed of light in vacuum,” Nat. Photonics 7(4), 279–284 (2013).
[Crossref]

White, I. H.

M. F. C. Stephens, D. Nesset, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, and M. J. Fice, “Wavelength conversion at 40 Gbit/s via four wave mixing in semiconductor optical amplifier with integrated pump laser,” Electron. Lett. 35(5), 420–421 (1999).
[Crossref]

Wu, C.

F. Zhang, Y. Luo, Y. Wang, L. Li, L. Zhu, Z. Chen, and C. Wu, “Experimental Comparison of Different BER Estimation Methods for Coherent Optical QPSK Transmission Systems,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(18), 1343–1345 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zhang, F.

F. Zhang, Y. Luo, Y. Wang, L. Li, L. Zhu, Z. Chen, and C. Wu, “Experimental Comparison of Different BER Estimation Methods for Coherent Optical QPSK Transmission Systems,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(18), 1343–1345 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zhu, L.

F. Zhang, Y. Luo, Y. Wang, L. Li, L. Zhu, Z. Chen, and C. Wu, “Experimental Comparison of Different BER Estimation Methods for Coherent Optical QPSK Transmission Systems,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(18), 1343–1345 (2011).
[Crossref]

Electron. Lett. (1)

M. F. C. Stephens, D. Nesset, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, and M. J. Fice, “Wavelength conversion at 40 Gbit/s via four wave mixing in semiconductor optical amplifier with integrated pump laser,” Electron. Lett. 35(5), 420–421 (1999).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (2)

M. Islam, “Raman amplifiers for telecommunications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(3), 548–559 (2002).
[Crossref]

J. Hansryd, P. A. Andrekson, M. Westlund, J. Li, and P. O. Hedekvist, “Fiber-based optical parametric amplifiers and their applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(3), 506–520 (2002).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (2)

N. El Dahdah, D. S. Govan, M. Jamshidifar, N. J. Doran, and M. E. Marhic, “Fiber Optical Parametric Amplifier Performance in a 1-Tb/s DWDM Communication System,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 18(2), 950–957 (2012).
[Crossref]

Z. Tong, C. Lundstrom, P. A. Andrekson, M. Karlsson, and A. Bogris, “Ultralow noise, broadband phase-sensitive optical amplifiers, and their applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 18(2), 1016–1032 (2012).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (2)

A. Mussot, A. Durécu-Legrand, E. Lantz, C. Simonneau, D. Bayart, H. Maillotte, and T. Sylvestre, “Impact of pump phase modulation on the gain of fiber optical parametric amplifier,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16(5), 1289–1291 (2004).
[Crossref]

F. Zhang, Y. Luo, Y. Wang, L. Li, L. Zhu, Z. Chen, and C. Wu, “Experimental Comparison of Different BER Estimation Methods for Coherent Optical QPSK Transmission Systems,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(18), 1343–1345 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (3)

Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. (1)

J. D. Marconi, M. C. Fugihara, F. A. Callegari, and H. L. Fragnito, “In-line one-pump parametric amplifier with independent polarization gain: a field-trial demonstration,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 55(5), 1104–1107 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (1)

F. Poletti, N. V. Wheeler, M. N. Petrovich, N. K. Baddela, E. Numkam Fokoua, J. R. Hayes, D. R. Gray, Z. Li, R. Slavik, and D. J. Richardson, “Towards high-capacity fibre-optic communications at the speed of light in vacuum,” Nat. Photonics 7(4), 279–284 (2013).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (1)

J. M. Chavez Boggio, A. Guimarães, F. A. Callegari, J. D. Marconi, and H. L. Fragnito, “Q penalties due to pump phase modulation and pump RIN in fiber optic parametric amplifiers with non-uniform dispersion,” Opt. Commun. 249(4), 451–472 (2005).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (9)

D. Elson, G. Saavedra, K. Shi, D. Semrau, L. Galdino, R. Killey, B. Thomsen, and P. Bayvel, “Investigation of bandwidth loading in optical fibre transmission using amplified spontaneous emission noise,” Opt. Express 25(16), 19529–19537 (2017).
[Crossref]

V. Gordienko, M. F. C. Stephens, A. E. El-Taher, and N. J. Doran, “Ultra-flat wideband single-pump Raman-enhanced parametric amplification,” Opt. Express 25(5), 4810–4818 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Li, A. M. Heidt, J. M. O. Daniel, Y. Jung, S. U. Alam, and D. J. Richardson, “Thulium-doped fiber amplifier for optical communications at 2 µm,” Opt. Express 21(8), 9289–9297 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Simakov, Z. Li, Y. Jung, J. M. O. Daniel, P. Barua, P. C. Shardlow, S. Liang, J. K. Sahu, A. Hemming, W. A. Clarkson, S. U. Alam, and D. J. Richardson, “High gain holmium-doped fibre amplifiers,” Opt. Express 24(13), 13946–13956 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Kashyap, “The fiber fuse--from a curious effect to a critical issue: A 25th year retrospective,” Opt. Express 21(5), 6422–6441 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. F. C. Stephens, M. Tan, I. D. Phillips, S. Sygletos, P. Harper, and N. J. Doran, “1.14 Tb/s DP-QPSK WDM polarization-diverse optical phase conjugation,” Opt. Express 22(10), 11840–11848 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. F. C. Stephens, V. Gordienko, and N. J. Doran, “20 dB net-gain polarization-insensitive fiber optical parametric amplifier with >2 THz bandwidth,” Opt. Express 25(9), 10597–10609 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. F. C. Stephens, I. D. Phillips, P. Rosa, P. Harper, and N. J. Doran, “Improved WDM performance of a fibre optical parametric amplifier using Raman-assisted pumping,” Opt. Express 23(2), 902–911 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Redyuk, M. F. C. Stephens, and N. J. Doran, “Suppression of WDM four-wave mixing crosstalk in fibre optic parametric amplifier using Raman-assisted pumping,” Opt. Express 23(21), 27240–27249 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (7)

L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, B. Pálsdóttir, S. Dasgupta, D. Richardson, C. Lundström, S. Olsson, and P. Andrekson, “Brillouin Suppressed Highly Nonlinear Fibers,” in European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC 2012), paper We.1.F.1.

S. Takasaka and R. Sugizaki, “Polarization Insensitive Fiber Optical Parametric Amplifier Using a SBS Suppressed Diversity Loop,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2016) paper M3D.4.
[Crossref]

C. Headley and G. P. Agrawal, Raman Amplification in Fiber Optical Communication Systems (Academic, 2005).

M. E. McCarthy, N. M. Suibhne, S. T. Le, P. Harper, and A. D. Ellis, “High spectral efficiency transmission emulation for non-linear transmission performance estimation for high order modulation formats,” in European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC 2014), paper P.5.7.
[Crossref]

Z. Lali-Dastjerdi, O. Ozolins, Y. An, V. Cristofori, F. Da Ros, N. Kang, H. Hu, H. C. H. Mulvad, K. Rottwitt, M. Galili, and C. Peucheret, “Demonstration of cascaded in-line single-pump fiber optical parametric amplifiers in recirculating loop transmission,” in European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC 2012), paper Mo.2.C.5.
[Crossref]

Z. Lali-Dastjerdi, T. Lund-Hansen, N. Kang, K. Rottwitt, M. Galili, and C. Peucheret, “High-frequency RIN transfer in fiber optic parametric amplifiers,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Europe (CLEO-Europe 2011), paper CI2.5.

M. F. C. Stephens, A. Redyuk, S. Sygletos, I. D. Phillips, P. Harper, K. J. Blow, and N. J. Doran, “The impact of pump phase-modulation and filtering on WDM signals in a fiber optical parametric amplifier,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2016), paper W2A.43.

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic of 4x75km testbed incorporating the HPL-FOPA after span 3 in example sequence EEFE. PBS = polarization beam splitter, HNLF = highly nonlinear fiber; WDM = pump add/drop filter; BPF = bandpass filter
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Received spectra after 4x75km spans with transponder set at 193.5THz (1549.3nm) for (a) 100GHz channel spacing and (b) 50GHz channel spacing. RBW = 0.02nm.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 BER vs received OSNR curves for three signals across the band with (a) 100GHz (b) 50GHz spacing
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) BER vs signal wavelength for EEEE and EEEF at 50GHz/100GHz channel spacing with no receiver noise added. Two example constellations are inset. Also displayed is EEE at 50GHz spacing, with a 150km span included between final two EDFAs. (b) OSNR penalty at 10−3 BER comparing EEEE50/100 with EEEF50/100
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Experimental set-up of DWDM HPL-FOPA recirculating loop transmission arrangement showing cascaded FOPA-only amplification using either 25.2km of SMF within the loop or (in red), 75.6km of SSMF together with a GFF and EDFA used to counter the loop switching losses. Abbreviations not referred to in the main body of the text are: LW = linewidth; MOD = modulator; Scope = real-time oscilloscope and offline DSP.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Q2 against number of recirculations for independent HPL-FOPA and EDFA amplification with 25km of transmission fiber per recirculation for (a) 10x100GHz-spaced signals and (b) 20x50GHz-spaced signals. (c) Q2 against frequency for different numbers of recirculations, with 10x100GHz-spaced signals and (d) 20x50GHz-spaced signals. Example constellation diagrams are shown in inset for various operating points.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Optical spectra at output of the 25.2km (non-GFF) recirculating loop incorporating the HPL-FOPA for (a) 10x100GHz-spaced signals at 1, 4 and 8 recirculations and (b) 20x50GHz-spaced signals at 1, 3 and 5 recirculations. (c) Comparison of EDFA-only and FOPA-only spectra after five recirculations (d) Comparison of FOPA-only crosstalk level at 5 recirculations for 50GHz spacing (green) and 100GHz spacing (orange).
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Optical spectra at output of the 75km recirculating loop incorporating the HPL-FOPA with GFF and EDFA for (a) 10x100GHz-spaced signals at 1, 4 and 8 recirculations and (b) 20x50GHz-spaced signals at 1, 4 and 8 recirculations, and 30x50GHz-spaced signals at 6 recirculations.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Q2 against number of recirculations for 75.6km of transmission fiber per recirculation, and the loop incorporating the HPL-FOPA, a gain-flattening filter and an EDFA for (a) 20x50GHz-spaced signals and (b) 30x50GHz-spaced signals.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 Q2 against frequency for 10x100GHz signals (red triangles) and 20x50GHz signals (blue circles) after 8x75.6km recirculations. Three representative fsig are shown for 30x50GHz-spaced signals (yellow squares) after 6x75.6km recirculations.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Channel plan information for HPL-FOPA recirculating loop.

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