Abstract

The traditional Mach-Zehnder modulator (MZM) figure of merit (FOM) has been defined as (Vπ2)/υ3dBe, and works effectively for LiNbO3 long haul modulators. However, for plasma dispersion based electro-optic modulators, or any modulator that has an inherent relationship between its bandwidth, required drive voltage, and optical insertion loss/gain, this FOM is inappropriate. This is particularly true for short reach links with no optical amplification. In the following, we propose a new modulator FOM (M-FOM) based on device metrics that are essential for short-reach links, such as the peak-to-peak drive voltage, modulator rise-fall time, and relative optical modulation amplitude. Link sensitivity measurements from two MZMs that have different bandwidths and optical losses are compared using our M-FOM to demonstrate its utility. Furthermore, we present a novel application protocol of our M-FOM to provide deeper insight into the relative system impact that modulator performance has on data links with no optical amplification, by taking the ratio of M-FOMs from two modulators driven with the same radio frequency drive power.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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2016 (3)

D. M. Gill, C. Xiong, J. E. Proesel, J. C. Rosenberg, J. Orcutt, M. Khater, J. Ellis-Monaghan, A. Stricker, E. Kiewra, Y. Martin, Y. Vlasov, W. Haensch, and W. M. J. Green, “Demonstration of Error-Free 32-Gb/s Operation From Monolithic CMOS Nanophotonic Transmitters,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(13), 1410–1413 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. J. Thomson, A. Zilkie, J. E. Bowers, T. Komljenovic, G. T. Reed, L. Vivien, D. Marris-Morini, E. Cassan, L. Virot, J. M. Fédéli, J. M. Hartmann, J. H. Schmid, D. X. Xu, F. Boeuf, P. O’Brien, G. Z. Mashanovich, and M. Nedeljkovic, “Roadmap on silicon photonics,” J. Opt. 18(7), 073003 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Xiong, D. M. Gill, J. E. Proesel, J. S. Orcutt, W. Haensch, and W. M. J. Green, “Monolithic 56 Gb/s silicon photonic pulse-amplitude modulation transmitter,” Optica 3(10), 1060–1065 (2016).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

2013 (7)

G. T. Reed, G. Z. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, M. Nedeljkovic, Y. Hu, D. J. Thomson, K. Li, P. R. Wilson, S. W. Chen, and S. S. Hsu, “Recent breakthroughs in carrier depletion based silicon optical modulators,” Nanophotonics 3(4–5), 1–18 (2013).

X. Xiao, H. Xu, X. Li, Z. Li, T. Chu, Y. Yu, and J. Yu, “High-speed, low-loss silicon Mach-Zehnder modulators with doping optimization,” Opt. Express 21(4), 4116–4125 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Tu, T. Y. Liow, J. Song, X. Luo, Q. Fang, M. Yu, and G. Q. Lo, “50-Gb/s silicon optical modulator with traveling-wave electrodes,” Opt. Express 21(10), 12776–12782 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Aamer, D. J. Thomson, A. M. Gutiérrez, A. Brimont, F. Y. Gardes, G. T. Reed, J. M. Fedeli, A. Hakansson, and P. Sanchis, “10Gbit/s error-free DPSK modulation using a push–pull dual-drive silicon modulator,” Opt. Commun. 304, 107–110 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. Li, X. Xiao, H. Xu, Z. Li, T. Chu, J. Yu, and Y. Yu, “Highly efficient silicon Michelson interferometer modulators,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(5), 407–409 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Streshinsky, R. Ding, Y. Liu, A. Novack, Y. Yang, Y. Ma, X. Tu, E. K. S. Chee, A. E. J. Lim, P. G. Q. Lo, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “Low power 50 Gb/s silicon traveling wave Mach-Zehnder modulator near 1300 nm,” Opt. Express 21(25), 30350–30357 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, S. Liu, H. Porte, L. Zimmermann, J.-M. Fedeli, Y. Hu, M. Nedeljkovic, X. Yang, P. Petropoulos, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “High performance Mach–Zehnder-based silicon optical modulators,” Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, IEEE Journal of 19(6), 3400510 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (7)

H. Yu and W. Bogaerts, “An equivalent circuit model of the traveling wave electrode for carrier-depletion-based silicon optical modulators,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(11), 1602–1609 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ding, Y. Liu, A. Ayazi, T. Pinguet, N. C. Harris, M. Streshinsky, P. Lee, Y. Zhang, A. E. J. Lim, T. Y. Liow, S. H. Teo, G. Q. Lo, and M. Hochberg, “Ultralow drive voltage silicon traveling-wave modulator,” Opt. Express 20(11), 12014–12020 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. C. Rosenberg, W. M. J. Green, S. Assefa, D. M. Gill, T. Barwicz, M. Yang, S. M. Shank, and Y. A. Vlasov, “A 25 Gbps silicon microring modulator based on an interleaved junction,” Opt. Express 20(24), 26411–26423 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Dong, L. Chen, and Y.-K. Chen, “High-speed low-voltage single-drive push-pull silicon Mach-Zehnder modulators,” Opt. Express 20(6), 6163–6169 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yu, M. Pantouvaki, J. Van Campenhout, D. Korn, K. Komorowska, P. Dumon, Y. Li, P. Verheyen, P. Absil, L. Alloatti, D. Hillerkuss, J. Leuthold, R. Baets, and W. Bogaerts, “Performance tradeoff between lateral and interdigitated doping patterns for high speed carrier-depletion based silicon modulators,” Opt. Express 20(12), 12926–12938 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Dong, C. Xie, L. Chen, L. L. Buhl, and Y. K. Chen, “112-Gb/s monolithic PDM-QPSK modulator in silicon,” Opt. Express 20(26), B624–B629 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. A. Vlasov, “Silicon CMOS-integrated nano-photonics for computer and data communications beyond 100G,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 50(2), 67–72 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

2010 (1)

M. R. Watts, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, “Low-voltage, compact, depletion-mode, silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 159–164 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

D. M. Gill, M. Rasras, K. Y. Tu, Y. K. Chen, A. E. White, S. S. Patel, D. Carothers, A. Pomerene, R. Kamocsai, C. Hill, and J. Beattie, “Internal bandwidth equalization in a CMOS-compatible Si-ring modulator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(4), 200–202 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

J. Lee, M. S. Chen, and H. D. Wang, “Design and Comparison of Three 20-G/s Backplane Transceivers for Duobinary, PAM4, and NRZ Data,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 43(9), 2120–2133 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, H. Nguyen, B. Ciftcioglu, Y. Chetrit, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “High-speed optical modulation based on carrier depletion in a silicon waveguide,” Opt. Express 15(2), 660–668 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Narasimha, B. Analui, Y. Liang, T. J. Sleboda, S. Abdalla, E. Balmater, S. Gloeckner, D. Guckenberger, M. Harrison, R. G. M. P. Koumans, D. Kucharski, A. Mekis, S. Mirsaidi, D. Song, and T. Pinguet, “A fully integrated 4× 10-Gb/s DWDM optoelectronic transceiver implemented in a standard 0.13 μm CMOS SOI technology,” Solid-State Circuits, IEEE Journal of 42(12), 2736–2744 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

A. Milenković, C. Otto, and E. Jovanov, “Wireless sensor networks for personal health monitoring: Issues and an implementation,” Comput. Commun. 29(13), 2521–2533 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

2001 (1)

Aamer, M.

M. Aamer, D. J. Thomson, A. M. Gutiérrez, A. Brimont, F. Y. Gardes, G. T. Reed, J. M. Fedeli, A. Hakansson, and P. Sanchis, “10Gbit/s error-free DPSK modulation using a push–pull dual-drive silicon modulator,” Opt. Commun. 304, 107–110 (2013).
[Crossref]

Abdalla, S.

A. Narasimha, B. Analui, Y. Liang, T. J. Sleboda, S. Abdalla, E. Balmater, S. Gloeckner, D. Guckenberger, M. Harrison, R. G. M. P. Koumans, D. Kucharski, A. Mekis, S. Mirsaidi, D. Song, and T. Pinguet, “A fully integrated 4× 10-Gb/s DWDM optoelectronic transceiver implemented in a standard 0.13 μm CMOS SOI technology,” Solid-State Circuits, IEEE Journal of 42(12), 2736–2744 (2007).
[Crossref]

Abed, A.

Absil, P.

Alloatti, L.

Amberg, P.

Analui, B.

A. Narasimha, B. Analui, Y. Liang, T. J. Sleboda, S. Abdalla, E. Balmater, S. Gloeckner, D. Guckenberger, M. Harrison, R. G. M. P. Koumans, D. Kucharski, A. Mekis, S. Mirsaidi, D. Song, and T. Pinguet, “A fully integrated 4× 10-Gb/s DWDM optoelectronic transceiver implemented in a standard 0.13 μm CMOS SOI technology,” Solid-State Circuits, IEEE Journal of 42(12), 2736–2744 (2007).
[Crossref]

Asghari, M.

Assefa, S.

Ayazi, A.

Baehr-Jones, T.

Baets, R.

Balmater, E.

A. Narasimha, B. Analui, Y. Liang, T. J. Sleboda, S. Abdalla, E. Balmater, S. Gloeckner, D. Guckenberger, M. Harrison, R. G. M. P. Koumans, D. Kucharski, A. Mekis, S. Mirsaidi, D. Song, and T. Pinguet, “A fully integrated 4× 10-Gb/s DWDM optoelectronic transceiver implemented in a standard 0.13 μm CMOS SOI technology,” Solid-State Circuits, IEEE Journal of 42(12), 2736–2744 (2007).
[Crossref]

Barwicz, T.

Beattie, J.

D. M. Gill, M. Rasras, K. Y. Tu, Y. K. Chen, A. E. White, S. S. Patel, D. Carothers, A. Pomerene, R. Kamocsai, C. Hill, and J. Beattie, “Internal bandwidth equalization in a CMOS-compatible Si-ring modulator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(4), 200–202 (2009).
[Crossref]

Boeuf, F.

D. J. Thomson, A. Zilkie, J. E. Bowers, T. Komljenovic, G. T. Reed, L. Vivien, D. Marris-Morini, E. Cassan, L. Virot, J. M. Fédéli, J. M. Hartmann, J. H. Schmid, D. X. Xu, F. Boeuf, P. O’Brien, G. Z. Mashanovich, and M. Nedeljkovic, “Roadmap on silicon photonics,” J. Opt. 18(7), 073003 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bogaerts, W.

Bowers, J. E.

D. J. Thomson, A. Zilkie, J. E. Bowers, T. Komljenovic, G. T. Reed, L. Vivien, D. Marris-Morini, E. Cassan, L. Virot, J. M. Fédéli, J. M. Hartmann, J. H. Schmid, D. X. Xu, F. Boeuf, P. O’Brien, G. Z. Mashanovich, and M. Nedeljkovic, “Roadmap on silicon photonics,” J. Opt. 18(7), 073003 (2016).
[Crossref]

Brimont, A.

M. Aamer, D. J. Thomson, A. M. Gutiérrez, A. Brimont, F. Y. Gardes, G. T. Reed, J. M. Fedeli, A. Hakansson, and P. Sanchis, “10Gbit/s error-free DPSK modulation using a push–pull dual-drive silicon modulator,” Opt. Commun. 304, 107–110 (2013).
[Crossref]

Buckwalter, J. F.

Buhl, L. L.

Carothers, D.

D. M. Gill, M. Rasras, K. Y. Tu, Y. K. Chen, A. E. White, S. S. Patel, D. Carothers, A. Pomerene, R. Kamocsai, C. Hill, and J. Beattie, “Internal bandwidth equalization in a CMOS-compatible Si-ring modulator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(4), 200–202 (2009).
[Crossref]

Cassan, E.

D. J. Thomson, A. Zilkie, J. E. Bowers, T. Komljenovic, G. T. Reed, L. Vivien, D. Marris-Morini, E. Cassan, L. Virot, J. M. Fédéli, J. M. Hartmann, J. H. Schmid, D. X. Xu, F. Boeuf, P. O’Brien, G. Z. Mashanovich, and M. Nedeljkovic, “Roadmap on silicon photonics,” J. Opt. 18(7), 073003 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chang, E.

Chee, E. K. S.

Chen, L.

Chen, M. S.

J. Lee, M. S. Chen, and H. D. Wang, “Design and Comparison of Three 20-G/s Backplane Transceivers for Duobinary, PAM4, and NRZ Data,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 43(9), 2120–2133 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chen, S. W.

G. T. Reed, G. Z. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, M. Nedeljkovic, Y. Hu, D. J. Thomson, K. Li, P. R. Wilson, S. W. Chen, and S. S. Hsu, “Recent breakthroughs in carrier depletion based silicon optical modulators,” Nanophotonics 3(4–5), 1–18 (2013).

Chen, Y. K.

P. Dong, C. Xie, L. Chen, L. L. Buhl, and Y. K. Chen, “112-Gb/s monolithic PDM-QPSK modulator in silicon,” Opt. Express 20(26), B624–B629 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. M. Gill, M. Rasras, K. Y. Tu, Y. K. Chen, A. E. White, S. S. Patel, D. Carothers, A. Pomerene, R. Kamocsai, C. Hill, and J. Beattie, “Internal bandwidth equalization in a CMOS-compatible Si-ring modulator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(4), 200–202 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y.-K.

Chetrit, Y.

Chi, H.-K.

Cho, M. H.

Chowdhury, A.

Chu, T.

X. Li, X. Xiao, H. Xu, Z. Li, T. Chu, J. Yu, and Y. Yu, “Highly efficient silicon Michelson interferometer modulators,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(5), 407–409 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. Xiao, H. Xu, X. Li, Z. Li, T. Chu, Y. Yu, and J. Yu, “High-speed, low-loss silicon Mach-Zehnder modulators with doping optimization,” Opt. Express 21(4), 4116–4125 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ciftcioglu, B.

Cunningham, J. E.

Ding, R.

Djordjevic, S. S.

Dong, P.

Dumon, P.

Ellis-Monaghan, J.

D. M. Gill, C. Xiong, J. E. Proesel, J. C. Rosenberg, J. Orcutt, M. Khater, J. Ellis-Monaghan, A. Stricker, E. Kiewra, Y. Martin, Y. Vlasov, W. Haensch, and W. M. J. Green, “Demonstration of Error-Free 32-Gb/s Operation From Monolithic CMOS Nanophotonic Transmitters,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(13), 1410–1413 (2016).
[Crossref]

Emerson, N.

Fang, Q.

Fedeli, J. M.

M. Aamer, D. J. Thomson, A. M. Gutiérrez, A. Brimont, F. Y. Gardes, G. T. Reed, J. M. Fedeli, A. Hakansson, and P. Sanchis, “10Gbit/s error-free DPSK modulation using a push–pull dual-drive silicon modulator,” Opt. Commun. 304, 107–110 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, Y. Hu, G. Mashanovich, M. Fournier, P. Grosse, J. M. Fedeli, and G. T. Reed, “High contrast 40Gbit/s optical modulation in silicon,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11507–11516 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fedeli, J.-M.

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, S. Liu, H. Porte, L. Zimmermann, J.-M. Fedeli, Y. Hu, M. Nedeljkovic, X. Yang, P. Petropoulos, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “High performance Mach–Zehnder-based silicon optical modulators,” Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, IEEE Journal of 19(6), 3400510 (2013).
[Crossref]

Fédéli, J. M.

D. J. Thomson, A. Zilkie, J. E. Bowers, T. Komljenovic, G. T. Reed, L. Vivien, D. Marris-Morini, E. Cassan, L. Virot, J. M. Fédéli, J. M. Hartmann, J. H. Schmid, D. X. Xu, F. Boeuf, P. O’Brien, G. Z. Mashanovich, and M. Nedeljkovic, “Roadmap on silicon photonics,” J. Opt. 18(7), 073003 (2016).
[Crossref]

Feng, D.

Fournier, M.

Gardes, F.

Gardes, F. Y.

D. J. Thomson, H. Porte, B. Goll, D. Knoll, S. Lischke, F. Y. Gardes, Y. Hu, G. T. Reed, H. Zimmermann, and L. Zimmermann, “Silicon carrier depletion modulator with 10 Gbit/s driver realized in high‐performance photonic BiCMOS,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(1), 180–187 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. T. Reed, G. Z. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, M. Nedeljkovic, Y. Hu, D. J. Thomson, K. Li, P. R. Wilson, S. W. Chen, and S. S. Hsu, “Recent breakthroughs in carrier depletion based silicon optical modulators,” Nanophotonics 3(4–5), 1–18 (2013).

M. Aamer, D. J. Thomson, A. M. Gutiérrez, A. Brimont, F. Y. Gardes, G. T. Reed, J. M. Fedeli, A. Hakansson, and P. Sanchis, “10Gbit/s error-free DPSK modulation using a push–pull dual-drive silicon modulator,” Opt. Commun. 304, 107–110 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, S. Liu, H. Porte, L. Zimmermann, J.-M. Fedeli, Y. Hu, M. Nedeljkovic, X. Yang, P. Petropoulos, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “High performance Mach–Zehnder-based silicon optical modulators,” Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, IEEE Journal of 19(6), 3400510 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, Y. Hu, G. Mashanovich, M. Fournier, P. Grosse, J. M. Fedeli, and G. T. Reed, “High contrast 40Gbit/s optical modulation in silicon,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11507–11516 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gill, D. M.

C. Xiong, D. M. Gill, J. E. Proesel, J. S. Orcutt, W. Haensch, and W. M. J. Green, “Monolithic 56 Gb/s silicon photonic pulse-amplitude modulation transmitter,” Optica 3(10), 1060–1065 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. M. Gill, C. Xiong, J. E. Proesel, J. C. Rosenberg, J. Orcutt, M. Khater, J. Ellis-Monaghan, A. Stricker, E. Kiewra, Y. Martin, Y. Vlasov, W. Haensch, and W. M. J. Green, “Demonstration of Error-Free 32-Gb/s Operation From Monolithic CMOS Nanophotonic Transmitters,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(13), 1410–1413 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. C. Rosenberg, W. M. J. Green, S. Assefa, D. M. Gill, T. Barwicz, M. Yang, S. M. Shank, and Y. A. Vlasov, “A 25 Gbps silicon microring modulator based on an interleaved junction,” Opt. Express 20(24), 26411–26423 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. M. Gill, M. Rasras, K. Y. Tu, Y. K. Chen, A. E. White, S. S. Patel, D. Carothers, A. Pomerene, R. Kamocsai, C. Hill, and J. Beattie, “Internal bandwidth equalization in a CMOS-compatible Si-ring modulator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(4), 200–202 (2009).
[Crossref]

Gloeckner, S.

A. Narasimha, B. Analui, Y. Liang, T. J. Sleboda, S. Abdalla, E. Balmater, S. Gloeckner, D. Guckenberger, M. Harrison, R. G. M. P. Koumans, D. Kucharski, A. Mekis, S. Mirsaidi, D. Song, and T. Pinguet, “A fully integrated 4× 10-Gb/s DWDM optoelectronic transceiver implemented in a standard 0.13 μm CMOS SOI technology,” Solid-State Circuits, IEEE Journal of 42(12), 2736–2744 (2007).
[Crossref]

Goll, B.

D. J. Thomson, H. Porte, B. Goll, D. Knoll, S. Lischke, F. Y. Gardes, Y. Hu, G. T. Reed, H. Zimmermann, and L. Zimmermann, “Silicon carrier depletion modulator with 10 Gbit/s driver realized in high‐performance photonic BiCMOS,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(1), 180–187 (2014).
[Crossref]

Green, W. M. J.

D. M. Gill, C. Xiong, J. E. Proesel, J. C. Rosenberg, J. Orcutt, M. Khater, J. Ellis-Monaghan, A. Stricker, E. Kiewra, Y. Martin, Y. Vlasov, W. Haensch, and W. M. J. Green, “Demonstration of Error-Free 32-Gb/s Operation From Monolithic CMOS Nanophotonic Transmitters,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(13), 1410–1413 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Xiong, D. M. Gill, J. E. Proesel, J. S. Orcutt, W. Haensch, and W. M. J. Green, “Monolithic 56 Gb/s silicon photonic pulse-amplitude modulation transmitter,” Optica 3(10), 1060–1065 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. C. Rosenberg, W. M. J. Green, S. Assefa, D. M. Gill, T. Barwicz, M. Yang, S. M. Shank, and Y. A. Vlasov, “A 25 Gbps silicon microring modulator based on an interleaved junction,” Opt. Express 20(24), 26411–26423 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grosse, P.

Guckenberger, D.

A. Narasimha, B. Analui, Y. Liang, T. J. Sleboda, S. Abdalla, E. Balmater, S. Gloeckner, D. Guckenberger, M. Harrison, R. G. M. P. Koumans, D. Kucharski, A. Mekis, S. Mirsaidi, D. Song, and T. Pinguet, “A fully integrated 4× 10-Gb/s DWDM optoelectronic transceiver implemented in a standard 0.13 μm CMOS SOI technology,” Solid-State Circuits, IEEE Journal of 42(12), 2736–2744 (2007).
[Crossref]

Gutiérrez, A. M.

M. Aamer, D. J. Thomson, A. M. Gutiérrez, A. Brimont, F. Y. Gardes, G. T. Reed, J. M. Fedeli, A. Hakansson, and P. Sanchis, “10Gbit/s error-free DPSK modulation using a push–pull dual-drive silicon modulator,” Opt. Commun. 304, 107–110 (2013).
[Crossref]

Haensch, W.

C. Xiong, D. M. Gill, J. E. Proesel, J. S. Orcutt, W. Haensch, and W. M. J. Green, “Monolithic 56 Gb/s silicon photonic pulse-amplitude modulation transmitter,” Optica 3(10), 1060–1065 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. M. Gill, C. Xiong, J. E. Proesel, J. C. Rosenberg, J. Orcutt, M. Khater, J. Ellis-Monaghan, A. Stricker, E. Kiewra, Y. Martin, Y. Vlasov, W. Haensch, and W. M. J. Green, “Demonstration of Error-Free 32-Gb/s Operation From Monolithic CMOS Nanophotonic Transmitters,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(13), 1410–1413 (2016).
[Crossref]

Hakansson, A.

M. Aamer, D. J. Thomson, A. M. Gutiérrez, A. Brimont, F. Y. Gardes, G. T. Reed, J. M. Fedeli, A. Hakansson, and P. Sanchis, “10Gbit/s error-free DPSK modulation using a push–pull dual-drive silicon modulator,” Opt. Commun. 304, 107–110 (2013).
[Crossref]

Harris, N. C.

Harrison, M.

A. Narasimha, B. Analui, Y. Liang, T. J. Sleboda, S. Abdalla, E. Balmater, S. Gloeckner, D. Guckenberger, M. Harrison, R. G. M. P. Koumans, D. Kucharski, A. Mekis, S. Mirsaidi, D. Song, and T. Pinguet, “A fully integrated 4× 10-Gb/s DWDM optoelectronic transceiver implemented in a standard 0.13 μm CMOS SOI technology,” Solid-State Circuits, IEEE Journal of 42(12), 2736–2744 (2007).
[Crossref]

Hartmann, J. M.

D. J. Thomson, A. Zilkie, J. E. Bowers, T. Komljenovic, G. T. Reed, L. Vivien, D. Marris-Morini, E. Cassan, L. Virot, J. M. Fédéli, J. M. Hartmann, J. H. Schmid, D. X. Xu, F. Boeuf, P. O’Brien, G. Z. Mashanovich, and M. Nedeljkovic, “Roadmap on silicon photonics,” J. Opt. 18(7), 073003 (2016).
[Crossref]

Hill, C.

D. M. Gill, M. Rasras, K. Y. Tu, Y. K. Chen, A. E. White, S. S. Patel, D. Carothers, A. Pomerene, R. Kamocsai, C. Hill, and J. Beattie, “Internal bandwidth equalization in a CMOS-compatible Si-ring modulator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(4), 200–202 (2009).
[Crossref]

Hillerkuss, D.

Ho, R.

Hochberg, M.

Hsu, S. S.

G. T. Reed, G. Z. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, M. Nedeljkovic, Y. Hu, D. J. Thomson, K. Li, P. R. Wilson, S. W. Chen, and S. S. Hsu, “Recent breakthroughs in carrier depletion based silicon optical modulators,” Nanophotonics 3(4–5), 1–18 (2013).

Hu, Y.

D. J. Thomson, H. Porte, B. Goll, D. Knoll, S. Lischke, F. Y. Gardes, Y. Hu, G. T. Reed, H. Zimmermann, and L. Zimmermann, “Silicon carrier depletion modulator with 10 Gbit/s driver realized in high‐performance photonic BiCMOS,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(1), 180–187 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. T. Reed, G. Z. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, M. Nedeljkovic, Y. Hu, D. J. Thomson, K. Li, P. R. Wilson, S. W. Chen, and S. S. Hsu, “Recent breakthroughs in carrier depletion based silicon optical modulators,” Nanophotonics 3(4–5), 1–18 (2013).

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, S. Liu, H. Porte, L. Zimmermann, J.-M. Fedeli, Y. Hu, M. Nedeljkovic, X. Yang, P. Petropoulos, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “High performance Mach–Zehnder-based silicon optical modulators,” Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, IEEE Journal of 19(6), 3400510 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, Y. Hu, G. Mashanovich, M. Fournier, P. Grosse, J. M. Fedeli, and G. T. Reed, “High contrast 40Gbit/s optical modulation in silicon,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11507–11516 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hwang, M.-S.

Izhaky, N.

Jang, K.-S.

Jeong, D.-K.

Joo, J.

Jovanov, E.

A. Milenković, C. Otto, and E. Jovanov, “Wireless sensor networks for personal health monitoring: Issues and an implementation,” Comput. Commun. 29(13), 2521–2533 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kamocsai, R.

D. M. Gill, M. Rasras, K. Y. Tu, Y. K. Chen, A. E. White, S. S. Patel, D. Carothers, A. Pomerene, R. Kamocsai, C. Hill, and J. Beattie, “Internal bandwidth equalization in a CMOS-compatible Si-ring modulator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(4), 200–202 (2009).
[Crossref]

Khater, M.

D. M. Gill, C. Xiong, J. E. Proesel, J. C. Rosenberg, J. Orcutt, M. Khater, J. Ellis-Monaghan, A. Stricker, E. Kiewra, Y. Martin, Y. Vlasov, W. Haensch, and W. M. J. Green, “Demonstration of Error-Free 32-Gb/s Operation From Monolithic CMOS Nanophotonic Transmitters,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(13), 1410–1413 (2016).
[Crossref]

Kiewra, E.

D. M. Gill, C. Xiong, J. E. Proesel, J. C. Rosenberg, J. Orcutt, M. Khater, J. Ellis-Monaghan, A. Stricker, E. Kiewra, Y. Martin, Y. Vlasov, W. Haensch, and W. M. J. Green, “Demonstration of Error-Free 32-Gb/s Operation From Monolithic CMOS Nanophotonic Transmitters,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(13), 1410–1413 (2016).
[Crossref]

Kim, D.-W.

Kim, G.

Kim, H.-C.

Kim, I. G.

Kim, J. H.

Kim, J.-K.

Kim, S.

Kim, S. A.

Knoll, D.

D. J. Thomson, H. Porte, B. Goll, D. Knoll, S. Lischke, F. Y. Gardes, Y. Hu, G. T. Reed, H. Zimmermann, and L. Zimmermann, “Silicon carrier depletion modulator with 10 Gbit/s driver realized in high‐performance photonic BiCMOS,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(1), 180–187 (2014).
[Crossref]

Komljenovic, T.

D. J. Thomson, A. Zilkie, J. E. Bowers, T. Komljenovic, G. T. Reed, L. Vivien, D. Marris-Morini, E. Cassan, L. Virot, J. M. Fédéli, J. M. Hartmann, J. H. Schmid, D. X. Xu, F. Boeuf, P. O’Brien, G. Z. Mashanovich, and M. Nedeljkovic, “Roadmap on silicon photonics,” J. Opt. 18(7), 073003 (2016).
[Crossref]

Komorowska, K.

Korn, D.

Koumans, R. G. M. P.

A. Narasimha, B. Analui, Y. Liang, T. J. Sleboda, S. Abdalla, E. Balmater, S. Gloeckner, D. Guckenberger, M. Harrison, R. G. M. P. Koumans, D. Kucharski, A. Mekis, S. Mirsaidi, D. Song, and T. Pinguet, “A fully integrated 4× 10-Gb/s DWDM optoelectronic transceiver implemented in a standard 0.13 μm CMOS SOI technology,” Solid-State Circuits, IEEE Journal of 42(12), 2736–2744 (2007).
[Crossref]

Krishnamoorthy, A. V.

Kucharski, D.

A. Narasimha, B. Analui, Y. Liang, T. J. Sleboda, S. Abdalla, E. Balmater, S. Gloeckner, D. Guckenberger, M. Harrison, R. G. M. P. Koumans, D. Kucharski, A. Mekis, S. Mirsaidi, D. Song, and T. Pinguet, “A fully integrated 4× 10-Gb/s DWDM optoelectronic transceiver implemented in a standard 0.13 μm CMOS SOI technology,” Solid-State Circuits, IEEE Journal of 42(12), 2736–2744 (2007).
[Crossref]

Lee, J.

J. Lee, M. S. Chen, and H. D. Wang, “Design and Comparison of Three 20-G/s Backplane Transceivers for Duobinary, PAM4, and NRZ Data,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 43(9), 2120–2133 (2008).
[Crossref]

Lee, J. H.

Lee, J. M.

Lee, J. Y.

Lee, P.

Lentine, A. L.

M. R. Watts, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, “Low-voltage, compact, depletion-mode, silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 159–164 (2010).
[Crossref]

Leuthold, J.

Lexau, J.

Li, K.

G. T. Reed, G. Z. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, M. Nedeljkovic, Y. Hu, D. J. Thomson, K. Li, P. R. Wilson, S. W. Chen, and S. S. Hsu, “Recent breakthroughs in carrier depletion based silicon optical modulators,” Nanophotonics 3(4–5), 1–18 (2013).

Li, X.

X. Xiao, H. Xu, X. Li, Z. Li, T. Chu, Y. Yu, and J. Yu, “High-speed, low-loss silicon Mach-Zehnder modulators with doping optimization,” Opt. Express 21(4), 4116–4125 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Li, X. Xiao, H. Xu, Z. Li, T. Chu, J. Yu, and Y. Yu, “Highly efficient silicon Michelson interferometer modulators,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(5), 407–409 (2013).
[Crossref]

Li, Y.

Li, Z.

X. Xiao, H. Xu, X. Li, Z. Li, T. Chu, Y. Yu, and J. Yu, “High-speed, low-loss silicon Mach-Zehnder modulators with doping optimization,” Opt. Express 21(4), 4116–4125 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Li, X. Xiao, H. Xu, Z. Li, T. Chu, J. Yu, and Y. Yu, “Highly efficient silicon Michelson interferometer modulators,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(5), 407–409 (2013).
[Crossref]

Liang, H.

Liang, Y.

A. Narasimha, B. Analui, Y. Liang, T. J. Sleboda, S. Abdalla, E. Balmater, S. Gloeckner, D. Guckenberger, M. Harrison, R. G. M. P. Koumans, D. Kucharski, A. Mekis, S. Mirsaidi, D. Song, and T. Pinguet, “A fully integrated 4× 10-Gb/s DWDM optoelectronic transceiver implemented in a standard 0.13 μm CMOS SOI technology,” Solid-State Circuits, IEEE Journal of 42(12), 2736–2744 (2007).
[Crossref]

Liao, L.

Lim, A. E. J.

Lin, S.

Liow, T. Y.

Lischke, S.

D. J. Thomson, H. Porte, B. Goll, D. Knoll, S. Lischke, F. Y. Gardes, Y. Hu, G. T. Reed, H. Zimmermann, and L. Zimmermann, “Silicon carrier depletion modulator with 10 Gbit/s driver realized in high‐performance photonic BiCMOS,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(1), 180–187 (2014).
[Crossref]

Liu, A.

Liu, F.

Liu, S.

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, S. Liu, H. Porte, L. Zimmermann, J.-M. Fedeli, Y. Hu, M. Nedeljkovic, X. Yang, P. Petropoulos, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “High performance Mach–Zehnder-based silicon optical modulators,” Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, IEEE Journal of 19(6), 3400510 (2013).
[Crossref]

Liu, Y.

Lo, G. Q.

Lo, P. G. Q.

Luo, X.

Luo, Y.

Ma, Y.

Marris-Morini, D.

D. J. Thomson, A. Zilkie, J. E. Bowers, T. Komljenovic, G. T. Reed, L. Vivien, D. Marris-Morini, E. Cassan, L. Virot, J. M. Fédéli, J. M. Hartmann, J. H. Schmid, D. X. Xu, F. Boeuf, P. O’Brien, G. Z. Mashanovich, and M. Nedeljkovic, “Roadmap on silicon photonics,” J. Opt. 18(7), 073003 (2016).
[Crossref]

Martin, Y.

D. M. Gill, C. Xiong, J. E. Proesel, J. C. Rosenberg, J. Orcutt, M. Khater, J. Ellis-Monaghan, A. Stricker, E. Kiewra, Y. Martin, Y. Vlasov, W. Haensch, and W. M. J. Green, “Demonstration of Error-Free 32-Gb/s Operation From Monolithic CMOS Nanophotonic Transmitters,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(13), 1410–1413 (2016).
[Crossref]

Mashanovich, G.

Mashanovich, G. Z.

D. J. Thomson, A. Zilkie, J. E. Bowers, T. Komljenovic, G. T. Reed, L. Vivien, D. Marris-Morini, E. Cassan, L. Virot, J. M. Fédéli, J. M. Hartmann, J. H. Schmid, D. X. Xu, F. Boeuf, P. O’Brien, G. Z. Mashanovich, and M. Nedeljkovic, “Roadmap on silicon photonics,” J. Opt. 18(7), 073003 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, S. Liu, H. Porte, L. Zimmermann, J.-M. Fedeli, Y. Hu, M. Nedeljkovic, X. Yang, P. Petropoulos, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “High performance Mach–Zehnder-based silicon optical modulators,” Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, IEEE Journal of 19(6), 3400510 (2013).
[Crossref]

G. T. Reed, G. Z. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, M. Nedeljkovic, Y. Hu, D. J. Thomson, K. Li, P. R. Wilson, S. W. Chen, and S. S. Hsu, “Recent breakthroughs in carrier depletion based silicon optical modulators,” Nanophotonics 3(4–5), 1–18 (2013).

McCaughan, L.

Mekis, A.

A. Narasimha, B. Analui, Y. Liang, T. J. Sleboda, S. Abdalla, E. Balmater, S. Gloeckner, D. Guckenberger, M. Harrison, R. G. M. P. Koumans, D. Kucharski, A. Mekis, S. Mirsaidi, D. Song, and T. Pinguet, “A fully integrated 4× 10-Gb/s DWDM optoelectronic transceiver implemented in a standard 0.13 μm CMOS SOI technology,” Solid-State Circuits, IEEE Journal of 42(12), 2736–2744 (2007).
[Crossref]

Milenkovic, A.

A. Milenković, C. Otto, and E. Jovanov, “Wireless sensor networks for personal health monitoring: Issues and an implementation,” Comput. Commun. 29(13), 2521–2533 (2006).
[Crossref]

Mirsaidi, S.

A. Narasimha, B. Analui, Y. Liang, T. J. Sleboda, S. Abdalla, E. Balmater, S. Gloeckner, D. Guckenberger, M. Harrison, R. G. M. P. Koumans, D. Kucharski, A. Mekis, S. Mirsaidi, D. Song, and T. Pinguet, “A fully integrated 4× 10-Gb/s DWDM optoelectronic transceiver implemented in a standard 0.13 μm CMOS SOI technology,” Solid-State Circuits, IEEE Journal of 42(12), 2736–2744 (2007).
[Crossref]

Narasimha, A.

A. Narasimha, B. Analui, Y. Liang, T. J. Sleboda, S. Abdalla, E. Balmater, S. Gloeckner, D. Guckenberger, M. Harrison, R. G. M. P. Koumans, D. Kucharski, A. Mekis, S. Mirsaidi, D. Song, and T. Pinguet, “A fully integrated 4× 10-Gb/s DWDM optoelectronic transceiver implemented in a standard 0.13 μm CMOS SOI technology,” Solid-State Circuits, IEEE Journal of 42(12), 2736–2744 (2007).
[Crossref]

Nedeljkovic, M.

D. J. Thomson, A. Zilkie, J. E. Bowers, T. Komljenovic, G. T. Reed, L. Vivien, D. Marris-Morini, E. Cassan, L. Virot, J. M. Fédéli, J. M. Hartmann, J. H. Schmid, D. X. Xu, F. Boeuf, P. O’Brien, G. Z. Mashanovich, and M. Nedeljkovic, “Roadmap on silicon photonics,” J. Opt. 18(7), 073003 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, S. Liu, H. Porte, L. Zimmermann, J.-M. Fedeli, Y. Hu, M. Nedeljkovic, X. Yang, P. Petropoulos, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “High performance Mach–Zehnder-based silicon optical modulators,” Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, IEEE Journal of 19(6), 3400510 (2013).
[Crossref]

G. T. Reed, G. Z. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, M. Nedeljkovic, Y. Hu, D. J. Thomson, K. Li, P. R. Wilson, S. W. Chen, and S. S. Hsu, “Recent breakthroughs in carrier depletion based silicon optical modulators,” Nanophotonics 3(4–5), 1–18 (2013).

Nguyen, H.

Novack, A.

O’Brien, P.

D. J. Thomson, A. Zilkie, J. E. Bowers, T. Komljenovic, G. T. Reed, L. Vivien, D. Marris-Morini, E. Cassan, L. Virot, J. M. Fédéli, J. M. Hartmann, J. H. Schmid, D. X. Xu, F. Boeuf, P. O’Brien, G. Z. Mashanovich, and M. Nedeljkovic, “Roadmap on silicon photonics,” J. Opt. 18(7), 073003 (2016).
[Crossref]

Oh, J. H.

Orcutt, J.

D. M. Gill, C. Xiong, J. E. Proesel, J. C. Rosenberg, J. Orcutt, M. Khater, J. Ellis-Monaghan, A. Stricker, E. Kiewra, Y. Martin, Y. Vlasov, W. Haensch, and W. M. J. Green, “Demonstration of Error-Free 32-Gb/s Operation From Monolithic CMOS Nanophotonic Transmitters,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(13), 1410–1413 (2016).
[Crossref]

Orcutt, J. S.

Otto, C.

A. Milenković, C. Otto, and E. Jovanov, “Wireless sensor networks for personal health monitoring: Issues and an implementation,” Comput. Commun. 29(13), 2521–2533 (2006).
[Crossref]

Paniccia, M.

Pantouvaki, M.

Park, G. S.

Park, J. M.

Park, J. W.

Park, K.-S.

Patel, S. S.

D. M. Gill, M. Rasras, K. Y. Tu, Y. K. Chen, A. E. White, S. S. Patel, D. Carothers, A. Pomerene, R. Kamocsai, C. Hill, and J. Beattie, “Internal bandwidth equalization in a CMOS-compatible Si-ring modulator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(4), 200–202 (2009).
[Crossref]

Petropoulos, P.

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, S. Liu, H. Porte, L. Zimmermann, J.-M. Fedeli, Y. Hu, M. Nedeljkovic, X. Yang, P. Petropoulos, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “High performance Mach–Zehnder-based silicon optical modulators,” Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, IEEE Journal of 19(6), 3400510 (2013).
[Crossref]

Pinguet, T.

T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ding, Y. Liu, A. Ayazi, T. Pinguet, N. C. Harris, M. Streshinsky, P. Lee, Y. Zhang, A. E. J. Lim, T. Y. Liow, S. H. Teo, G. Q. Lo, and M. Hochberg, “Ultralow drive voltage silicon traveling-wave modulator,” Opt. Express 20(11), 12014–12020 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Narasimha, B. Analui, Y. Liang, T. J. Sleboda, S. Abdalla, E. Balmater, S. Gloeckner, D. Guckenberger, M. Harrison, R. G. M. P. Koumans, D. Kucharski, A. Mekis, S. Mirsaidi, D. Song, and T. Pinguet, “A fully integrated 4× 10-Gb/s DWDM optoelectronic transceiver implemented in a standard 0.13 μm CMOS SOI technology,” Solid-State Circuits, IEEE Journal of 42(12), 2736–2744 (2007).
[Crossref]

Png, C.

Pomerene, A.

D. M. Gill, M. Rasras, K. Y. Tu, Y. K. Chen, A. E. White, S. S. Patel, D. Carothers, A. Pomerene, R. Kamocsai, C. Hill, and J. Beattie, “Internal bandwidth equalization in a CMOS-compatible Si-ring modulator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(4), 200–202 (2009).
[Crossref]

Porte, H.

D. J. Thomson, H. Porte, B. Goll, D. Knoll, S. Lischke, F. Y. Gardes, Y. Hu, G. T. Reed, H. Zimmermann, and L. Zimmermann, “Silicon carrier depletion modulator with 10 Gbit/s driver realized in high‐performance photonic BiCMOS,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(1), 180–187 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, S. Liu, H. Porte, L. Zimmermann, J.-M. Fedeli, Y. Hu, M. Nedeljkovic, X. Yang, P. Petropoulos, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “High performance Mach–Zehnder-based silicon optical modulators,” Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, IEEE Journal of 19(6), 3400510 (2013).
[Crossref]

Proesel, J. E.

C. Xiong, D. M. Gill, J. E. Proesel, J. S. Orcutt, W. Haensch, and W. M. J. Green, “Monolithic 56 Gb/s silicon photonic pulse-amplitude modulation transmitter,” Optica 3(10), 1060–1065 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. M. Gill, C. Xiong, J. E. Proesel, J. C. Rosenberg, J. Orcutt, M. Khater, J. Ellis-Monaghan, A. Stricker, E. Kiewra, Y. Martin, Y. Vlasov, W. Haensch, and W. M. J. Green, “Demonstration of Error-Free 32-Gb/s Operation From Monolithic CMOS Nanophotonic Transmitters,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(13), 1410–1413 (2016).
[Crossref]

Raj, K.

Rasras, M.

D. M. Gill, M. Rasras, K. Y. Tu, Y. K. Chen, A. E. White, S. S. Patel, D. Carothers, A. Pomerene, R. Kamocsai, C. Hill, and J. Beattie, “Internal bandwidth equalization in a CMOS-compatible Si-ring modulator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(4), 200–202 (2009).
[Crossref]

Reed, G.

Reed, G. T.

D. J. Thomson, A. Zilkie, J. E. Bowers, T. Komljenovic, G. T. Reed, L. Vivien, D. Marris-Morini, E. Cassan, L. Virot, J. M. Fédéli, J. M. Hartmann, J. H. Schmid, D. X. Xu, F. Boeuf, P. O’Brien, G. Z. Mashanovich, and M. Nedeljkovic, “Roadmap on silicon photonics,” J. Opt. 18(7), 073003 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. J. Thomson, H. Porte, B. Goll, D. Knoll, S. Lischke, F. Y. Gardes, Y. Hu, G. T. Reed, H. Zimmermann, and L. Zimmermann, “Silicon carrier depletion modulator with 10 Gbit/s driver realized in high‐performance photonic BiCMOS,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(1), 180–187 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. T. Reed, G. Z. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, M. Nedeljkovic, Y. Hu, D. J. Thomson, K. Li, P. R. Wilson, S. W. Chen, and S. S. Hsu, “Recent breakthroughs in carrier depletion based silicon optical modulators,” Nanophotonics 3(4–5), 1–18 (2013).

M. Aamer, D. J. Thomson, A. M. Gutiérrez, A. Brimont, F. Y. Gardes, G. T. Reed, J. M. Fedeli, A. Hakansson, and P. Sanchis, “10Gbit/s error-free DPSK modulation using a push–pull dual-drive silicon modulator,” Opt. Commun. 304, 107–110 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, Y. Hu, G. Mashanovich, M. Fournier, P. Grosse, J. M. Fedeli, and G. T. Reed, “High contrast 40Gbit/s optical modulation in silicon,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11507–11516 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rosenberg, J. C.

D. M. Gill, C. Xiong, J. E. Proesel, J. C. Rosenberg, J. Orcutt, M. Khater, J. Ellis-Monaghan, A. Stricker, E. Kiewra, Y. Martin, Y. Vlasov, W. Haensch, and W. M. J. Green, “Demonstration of Error-Free 32-Gb/s Operation From Monolithic CMOS Nanophotonic Transmitters,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(13), 1410–1413 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. C. Rosenberg, W. M. J. Green, S. Assefa, D. M. Gill, T. Barwicz, M. Yang, S. M. Shank, and Y. A. Vlasov, “A 25 Gbps silicon microring modulator based on an interleaved junction,” Opt. Express 20(24), 26411–26423 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rubin, D.

Sanchis, P.

M. Aamer, D. J. Thomson, A. M. Gutiérrez, A. Brimont, F. Y. Gardes, G. T. Reed, J. M. Fedeli, A. Hakansson, and P. Sanchis, “10Gbit/s error-free DPSK modulation using a push–pull dual-drive silicon modulator,” Opt. Commun. 304, 107–110 (2013).
[Crossref]

Schmid, J. H.

D. J. Thomson, A. Zilkie, J. E. Bowers, T. Komljenovic, G. T. Reed, L. Vivien, D. Marris-Morini, E. Cassan, L. Virot, J. M. Fédéli, J. M. Hartmann, J. H. Schmid, D. X. Xu, F. Boeuf, P. O’Brien, G. Z. Mashanovich, and M. Nedeljkovic, “Roadmap on silicon photonics,” J. Opt. 18(7), 073003 (2016).
[Crossref]

Shafiiha, R.

Shank, S. M.

Shubin, I.

Sleboda, T. J.

A. Narasimha, B. Analui, Y. Liang, T. J. Sleboda, S. Abdalla, E. Balmater, S. Gloeckner, D. Guckenberger, M. Harrison, R. G. M. P. Koumans, D. Kucharski, A. Mekis, S. Mirsaidi, D. Song, and T. Pinguet, “A fully integrated 4× 10-Gb/s DWDM optoelectronic transceiver implemented in a standard 0.13 μm CMOS SOI technology,” Solid-State Circuits, IEEE Journal of 42(12), 2736–2744 (2007).
[Crossref]

Song, D.

A. Narasimha, B. Analui, Y. Liang, T. J. Sleboda, S. Abdalla, E. Balmater, S. Gloeckner, D. Guckenberger, M. Harrison, R. G. M. P. Koumans, D. Kucharski, A. Mekis, S. Mirsaidi, D. Song, and T. Pinguet, “A fully integrated 4× 10-Gb/s DWDM optoelectronic transceiver implemented in a standard 0.13 μm CMOS SOI technology,” Solid-State Circuits, IEEE Journal of 42(12), 2736–2744 (2007).
[Crossref]

Song, J.

Streshinsky, M.

Stricker, A.

D. M. Gill, C. Xiong, J. E. Proesel, J. C. Rosenberg, J. Orcutt, M. Khater, J. Ellis-Monaghan, A. Stricker, E. Kiewra, Y. Martin, Y. Vlasov, W. Haensch, and W. M. J. Green, “Demonstration of Error-Free 32-Gb/s Operation From Monolithic CMOS Nanophotonic Transmitters,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(13), 1410–1413 (2016).
[Crossref]

Teo, S. H.

Thacker, H. D.

Thomson, D. J.

D. J. Thomson, A. Zilkie, J. E. Bowers, T. Komljenovic, G. T. Reed, L. Vivien, D. Marris-Morini, E. Cassan, L. Virot, J. M. Fédéli, J. M. Hartmann, J. H. Schmid, D. X. Xu, F. Boeuf, P. O’Brien, G. Z. Mashanovich, and M. Nedeljkovic, “Roadmap on silicon photonics,” J. Opt. 18(7), 073003 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. J. Thomson, H. Porte, B. Goll, D. Knoll, S. Lischke, F. Y. Gardes, Y. Hu, G. T. Reed, H. Zimmermann, and L. Zimmermann, “Silicon carrier depletion modulator with 10 Gbit/s driver realized in high‐performance photonic BiCMOS,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(1), 180–187 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. T. Reed, G. Z. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, M. Nedeljkovic, Y. Hu, D. J. Thomson, K. Li, P. R. Wilson, S. W. Chen, and S. S. Hsu, “Recent breakthroughs in carrier depletion based silicon optical modulators,” Nanophotonics 3(4–5), 1–18 (2013).

M. Aamer, D. J. Thomson, A. M. Gutiérrez, A. Brimont, F. Y. Gardes, G. T. Reed, J. M. Fedeli, A. Hakansson, and P. Sanchis, “10Gbit/s error-free DPSK modulation using a push–pull dual-drive silicon modulator,” Opt. Commun. 304, 107–110 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, S. Liu, H. Porte, L. Zimmermann, J.-M. Fedeli, Y. Hu, M. Nedeljkovic, X. Yang, P. Petropoulos, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “High performance Mach–Zehnder-based silicon optical modulators,” Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, IEEE Journal of 19(6), 3400510 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, Y. Hu, G. Mashanovich, M. Fournier, P. Grosse, J. M. Fedeli, and G. T. Reed, “High contrast 40Gbit/s optical modulation in silicon,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11507–11516 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Trotter, D. C.

M. R. Watts, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, “Low-voltage, compact, depletion-mode, silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 159–164 (2010).
[Crossref]

Tu, K. Y.

D. M. Gill, M. Rasras, K. Y. Tu, Y. K. Chen, A. E. White, S. S. Patel, D. Carothers, A. Pomerene, R. Kamocsai, C. Hill, and J. Beattie, “Internal bandwidth equalization in a CMOS-compatible Si-ring modulator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(4), 200–202 (2009).
[Crossref]

Tu, X.

Van Campenhout, J.

Verheyen, P.

Virot, L.

D. J. Thomson, A. Zilkie, J. E. Bowers, T. Komljenovic, G. T. Reed, L. Vivien, D. Marris-Morini, E. Cassan, L. Virot, J. M. Fédéli, J. M. Hartmann, J. H. Schmid, D. X. Xu, F. Boeuf, P. O’Brien, G. Z. Mashanovich, and M. Nedeljkovic, “Roadmap on silicon photonics,” J. Opt. 18(7), 073003 (2016).
[Crossref]

Vivien, L.

D. J. Thomson, A. Zilkie, J. E. Bowers, T. Komljenovic, G. T. Reed, L. Vivien, D. Marris-Morini, E. Cassan, L. Virot, J. M. Fédéli, J. M. Hartmann, J. H. Schmid, D. X. Xu, F. Boeuf, P. O’Brien, G. Z. Mashanovich, and M. Nedeljkovic, “Roadmap on silicon photonics,” J. Opt. 18(7), 073003 (2016).
[Crossref]

Vlasov, Y.

D. M. Gill, C. Xiong, J. E. Proesel, J. C. Rosenberg, J. Orcutt, M. Khater, J. Ellis-Monaghan, A. Stricker, E. Kiewra, Y. Martin, Y. Vlasov, W. Haensch, and W. M. J. Green, “Demonstration of Error-Free 32-Gb/s Operation From Monolithic CMOS Nanophotonic Transmitters,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(13), 1410–1413 (2016).
[Crossref]

Vlasov, Y. A.

Wang, H. D.

J. Lee, M. S. Chen, and H. D. Wang, “Design and Comparison of Three 20-G/s Backplane Transceivers for Duobinary, PAM4, and NRZ Data,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 43(9), 2120–2133 (2008).
[Crossref]

Watts, M. R.

M. R. Watts, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, “Low-voltage, compact, depletion-mode, silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 159–164 (2010).
[Crossref]

White, A. E.

D. M. Gill, M. Rasras, K. Y. Tu, Y. K. Chen, A. E. White, S. S. Patel, D. Carothers, A. Pomerene, R. Kamocsai, C. Hill, and J. Beattie, “Internal bandwidth equalization in a CMOS-compatible Si-ring modulator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(4), 200–202 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wilson, P. R.

G. T. Reed, G. Z. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, M. Nedeljkovic, Y. Hu, D. J. Thomson, K. Li, P. R. Wilson, S. W. Chen, and S. S. Hsu, “Recent breakthroughs in carrier depletion based silicon optical modulators,” Nanophotonics 3(4–5), 1–18 (2013).

Xiao, X.

X. Xiao, H. Xu, X. Li, Z. Li, T. Chu, Y. Yu, and J. Yu, “High-speed, low-loss silicon Mach-Zehnder modulators with doping optimization,” Opt. Express 21(4), 4116–4125 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Li, X. Xiao, H. Xu, Z. Li, T. Chu, J. Yu, and Y. Yu, “Highly efficient silicon Michelson interferometer modulators,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(5), 407–409 (2013).
[Crossref]

Xie, C.

Xiong, C.

C. Xiong, D. M. Gill, J. E. Proesel, J. S. Orcutt, W. Haensch, and W. M. J. Green, “Monolithic 56 Gb/s silicon photonic pulse-amplitude modulation transmitter,” Optica 3(10), 1060–1065 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. M. Gill, C. Xiong, J. E. Proesel, J. C. Rosenberg, J. Orcutt, M. Khater, J. Ellis-Monaghan, A. Stricker, E. Kiewra, Y. Martin, Y. Vlasov, W. Haensch, and W. M. J. Green, “Demonstration of Error-Free 32-Gb/s Operation From Monolithic CMOS Nanophotonic Transmitters,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(13), 1410–1413 (2016).
[Crossref]

Xu, D. X.

D. J. Thomson, A. Zilkie, J. E. Bowers, T. Komljenovic, G. T. Reed, L. Vivien, D. Marris-Morini, E. Cassan, L. Virot, J. M. Fédéli, J. M. Hartmann, J. H. Schmid, D. X. Xu, F. Boeuf, P. O’Brien, G. Z. Mashanovich, and M. Nedeljkovic, “Roadmap on silicon photonics,” J. Opt. 18(7), 073003 (2016).
[Crossref]

Xu, H.

X. Li, X. Xiao, H. Xu, Z. Li, T. Chu, J. Yu, and Y. Yu, “Highly efficient silicon Michelson interferometer modulators,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(5), 407–409 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. Xiao, H. Xu, X. Li, Z. Li, T. Chu, Y. Yu, and J. Yu, “High-speed, low-loss silicon Mach-Zehnder modulators with doping optimization,” Opt. Express 21(4), 4116–4125 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, M.

Yang, X.

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, S. Liu, H. Porte, L. Zimmermann, J.-M. Fedeli, Y. Hu, M. Nedeljkovic, X. Yang, P. Petropoulos, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “High performance Mach–Zehnder-based silicon optical modulators,” Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, IEEE Journal of 19(6), 3400510 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yang, Y.

Young, R. W.

M. R. Watts, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, “Low-voltage, compact, depletion-mode, silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 159–164 (2010).
[Crossref]

Yu, H.

Yu, J.

X. Li, X. Xiao, H. Xu, Z. Li, T. Chu, J. Yu, and Y. Yu, “Highly efficient silicon Michelson interferometer modulators,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(5), 407–409 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. Xiao, H. Xu, X. Li, Z. Li, T. Chu, Y. Yu, and J. Yu, “High-speed, low-loss silicon Mach-Zehnder modulators with doping optimization,” Opt. Express 21(4), 4116–4125 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, M.

Yu, Y.

X. Li, X. Xiao, H. Xu, Z. Li, T. Chu, J. Yu, and Y. Yu, “Highly efficient silicon Michelson interferometer modulators,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(5), 407–409 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. Xiao, H. Xu, X. Li, Z. Li, T. Chu, Y. Yu, and J. Yu, “High-speed, low-loss silicon Mach-Zehnder modulators with doping optimization,” Opt. Express 21(4), 4116–4125 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, Y.

Zheng, X.

Zilkie, A.

D. J. Thomson, A. Zilkie, J. E. Bowers, T. Komljenovic, G. T. Reed, L. Vivien, D. Marris-Morini, E. Cassan, L. Virot, J. M. Fédéli, J. M. Hartmann, J. H. Schmid, D. X. Xu, F. Boeuf, P. O’Brien, G. Z. Mashanovich, and M. Nedeljkovic, “Roadmap on silicon photonics,” J. Opt. 18(7), 073003 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zimmermann, H.

D. J. Thomson, H. Porte, B. Goll, D. Knoll, S. Lischke, F. Y. Gardes, Y. Hu, G. T. Reed, H. Zimmermann, and L. Zimmermann, “Silicon carrier depletion modulator with 10 Gbit/s driver realized in high‐performance photonic BiCMOS,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(1), 180–187 (2014).
[Crossref]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 ) Extinction ratio (left y-axis, dashed line), and fraction of a π phase shift (right y-axis, solid line), that gives the optimum ROMA from an MZM as a function of electro-optic phase shifter EL-FOM assuming a 1.6 Vpp push-pull RF drive, as calculated from Eq. (4).
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 ) Basic measured characteristics of MZM1 (solid line) and MZM2 (dashed line) with three MZM drive conditions; namely 1 Vpp drive with a −0.5 V DC bias, a 2 Vpp drive with a −1.0 V DC bias, and a 3 Vpp drive with a −1.5 V DC bias. a.) Measured MZM insertion loss versus applied DC bias. b.) Measured MZM 20%-80% rise-fall times versus applied DC bias. c.) Measured MZM extinction ratio versus applied Vpp drive at a data rate of 10 Gb/s. d.) MZM ROMA calculated from the measured MZM insertion loss and ER versus the various Vpp drive conditions.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 a.) BER versus average received optical power for MZM1 (‘o’ data points) and MZM2 (‘x’ data points). Solid lines are fits to the measured data. b.) BER versus CW optical power launched into MZM1 (‘o’ data points) and MZM2 (‘x’ data points). The solid lines are fits to the measured data.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 ) The measured link-penalty-ratios for the two modulators at data rates of 10 Gb/s (solid line with circles), 25 Gb/s (solid line with diamonds), and 28 Gb/s (solid line with triangles), with identical drive conditions. The measured link-penalty-ratio is defined as the required relative change in CW optical laser power launched into MZM2, relative to MZM1, for error free (BER = 1x10−12) operation with a back-to-back receiver.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 ) Eye diagrams from the two MZMs considered in this manuscript with a 2Vpp drive and −1 V DC bias. Note that the y-axis scale is not the same for all eye diagrams. a.) 10 Gb/s eye diagram from MZM1. b.) 25 Gb/s eye diagram from MZM1. c.) 32 Gb/s eye diagram from MZM1. d.) 10 Gb/s eye diagram from MZM2. e.) 25 Gb/s eye diagram from MZM2. f.) 32 Gb/s eye diagram from MZM2.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 ) Calculated M-FOM-ratios plotted as M-FOM-ratio = 10*log10{(MZM1_FOM)/(MZM2_FOM)} for the two MZM devices at 10 Gb/s (dashed line with circles), 25 Gb/s (dashed line with diamonds), and 28 Gb/s (dashed line with triangles) data rates. Also shown are the measured link-penalty-ratios from Fig. 4 for the two modulators at data rates of 10 Gb/s (solid line with circles), 25 Gb/s (solid line with diamonds), and 28 Gb/s (solid line with triangles), and for similar drive conditions. The measured link-penalty-ratio is defined as the change in CW laser input power required in MZM2, relative to MZM1, to get an error free BER (1x10−12) with a back-to-back receiver.

Equations (13)

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M-FOM( v 3dB V π 2 ).
ROMA= ΔTran s MZM lin *Tran s MZM lin ,
ROMA={ 10Lo g 10 ( 10 ER 10   1 ) ( 10 ER 10  + 1 ) }+{ ELFOM 2 V pp [ 1  4arccos( 1 1+ 10 ER 10 ) π ] }.
E R Max_ROMA ={ 20Lo g 10 1+  14 ( ln10 20π ) 2 ( ELFOM V pp ) 2 2( ln10 20π )( ELFOM V pp ) }.
E= E o { ab e σ 1 L exp[ iΔ Φ 1 ( t ) ]+ 1 a 2 1 b 2 e σ 2 L exp[ iΔ Φ 2 ( t ) ] }.
MFOM= ( ( V pp 2 50  Ω ) ROMA )*τ.
MFOM= ( ( V pp 2 50  Ω ) ROMA )* 1 Bandwidth .
MFOM=  ( 1 4 *C* V pp 2 ) ROMA *τ.
τ   1 1+ ( τ τ BitRate ) ( 2*FilterOrder ) .
MFOM= ( ( V PP 2 50  Ω ) ROMA )* 1 1+ ( τ 0.4* τ BitRate ) 6 .
MFOM= ( ( 1 4 *C* V PP 2 ) ROMA )* 1 1+ ( τ 0.4* τ BitRate ) 6 .
MFOM= ( ( 1 4 *C* V PP 2 +TOP ) ROMA )* 1 1+ ( τ 0.4* τ BitRate ) 6 .
MFOMratio= 10lo g 10 ( ROM A MZM2 ROM A MZM1 )* 1+ ( τ MZM2 0.4* τ BitRate ) 6 1+ ( τ MZM1 0.4* τ BitRate ) 6 .

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