Abstract

A novel technique is presented for producing micro-hyperboloid lensed fibers for efficient coupling to semiconductor laser chips. A three-step process including a precision mechanical grinding, a spin-on-glass (SOG) coating and an electrostatic pulling process is used to form the hyperboloid lens structure on a flat-end single mold fiber (SMF) with the core diameter of 6.6 μm. Micro-hyperboloid lensed fibers with tunable radii of curvature around 4.18 – 4.83 μm can be formed on the SMF end face. A high average coupling efficiency around 80% and low coupling variation of 0.116 ± 0.044% are obtained for the produced fibers. The developed method is efficient to produce micro-hyperboloid lensed fibers for high-performance light coupling between the SMF and the semiconductor diode lasers.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. R. Smith and S. Personick, “Receiver design for optical fiber communication systems,” in Semiconductor devices for optical communication (Springer, 1980), pp. 89–160.
  2. M. Okayasu, T. Takeshita, M. Yamada, O. Kogure, M. Horiguchi, M. Fukuda, A. Kozen, K. Oe, and S. Uehara, “High-power 0.98 μm GaInAs strained quantum well lasers for Er3+-doped fibre amplifier,” Electron. Lett. 25(23), 1563–1565 (1989).
    [Crossref]
  3. R. Smith, C. Sullivan, G. Vawter, G. Hadley, J. Wendt, M. Snipes, and J. Klem, “Reduced coupling loss using a tapered-rib adiabatic-following fiber coupler,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 8(8), 1052–1054 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  4. Y. Fu, N. K. A. Bryan, and O. N. Shing, “Integrated micro-cylindrical lens with laser diode for single-mode fiber coupling,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 12(9), 1213–1215 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  5. S.-Y. Huang, C. Gaehe, K. A. Miller, G. T. Wiand, and T. S. Stakelon, “High coupling optical design for laser diodes with large aspect ratio,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Pack. 23(2), 165–169 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  6. L. G. Cohen and M. V. Schneider, “Microlenses for coupling junction lasers to optical fibers,” Appl. Opt. 13(1), 89–94 (1974).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. A. Kotsas, H. Ghafouri-Shiraz, and T. Maclean, “Microlens fabrication on single-mode fibres for efficient coupling from laser diodes,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 23(3), 367–378 (1991).
    [Crossref]
  8. K.-R. Kim, S. Chang, and K. Oh, “Refractive microlens on fiber using UV-curable fluorinated acrylate polymer by surface-tension,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15(8), 1100–1102 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  9. C.-C. Wu, Y.-D. Tseng, S.-M. Kuo, and C.-H. Lin, “Fabrication of asperical lensed optical fibers with an electro-static pulling of SU-8 photoresist,” Opt. Express 19(23), 22993–22998 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. H. Presby and C. Giles, “Asymmetric fiber microlenses for efficient coupling to elliptical laser beams,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 5(2), 184–186 (1993).
    [Crossref]
  11. R. Modavis and T. Webb, “Anamorphic microlens for laser diode to single-mode fiber coupling,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 7(7), 798–800 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  12. S.-M. Yeh, Y.-K. Lu, S.-Y. Huang, H.-H. Lin, C.-H. Hsieh, and W.-H. Cheng, “A novel scheme of lensed fiber employing a quadrangular-pyramid-shaped fiber endface for coupling between high-power laser diodes and single-mode fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22(5), 1374–1379 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  13. Y.-C. Huang, W.-H. Hsieh, Y.-C. Hsu, M.-T. Sheen, Y.-S. Lin, J.-L. Chen, Y.-C. Tsai, and W.-H. Cheng, “New scheme of hyperboloid microlens for high-average and high-yield coupling high-power lasers to single-mode fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(11), 1681–1686 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  14. S. C. Lei, W. H. Hsieh, W. H. Cheng, Y. C. Tsai, and C. H. Lin, “Micro-hyperboloid lensed optical fibers for laser chip coupling,” in Proc. of The 11th Annual IEEE International Conference on Nano/Micro Engineered and Molecular Systems (IEEE-NEMS 2016)(2016).
    [Crossref]
  15. W.-H. Hsieh, C.-N. Liu, Y.-C. Huang, C.-A. Hsu, S.-C. Lei, Y.-C. Hsu, Y.-C. Tsai, C.-H. Lin, C.-P. Yu, and W.-H. Cheng, “A New Scheme of Oriented Hyperboloid Microlens for Passive Alignment Lasers to Polarization Maintaining Fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 33(20), 4187–4192 (2015).
    [Crossref]

2015 (1)

2013 (1)

2011 (1)

2004 (1)

2003 (1)

K.-R. Kim, S. Chang, and K. Oh, “Refractive microlens on fiber using UV-curable fluorinated acrylate polymer by surface-tension,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15(8), 1100–1102 (2003).
[Crossref]

2000 (2)

Y. Fu, N. K. A. Bryan, and O. N. Shing, “Integrated micro-cylindrical lens with laser diode for single-mode fiber coupling,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 12(9), 1213–1215 (2000).
[Crossref]

S.-Y. Huang, C. Gaehe, K. A. Miller, G. T. Wiand, and T. S. Stakelon, “High coupling optical design for laser diodes with large aspect ratio,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Pack. 23(2), 165–169 (2000).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

R. Smith, C. Sullivan, G. Vawter, G. Hadley, J. Wendt, M. Snipes, and J. Klem, “Reduced coupling loss using a tapered-rib adiabatic-following fiber coupler,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 8(8), 1052–1054 (1996).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

R. Modavis and T. Webb, “Anamorphic microlens for laser diode to single-mode fiber coupling,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 7(7), 798–800 (1995).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

H. Presby and C. Giles, “Asymmetric fiber microlenses for efficient coupling to elliptical laser beams,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 5(2), 184–186 (1993).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

A. Kotsas, H. Ghafouri-Shiraz, and T. Maclean, “Microlens fabrication on single-mode fibres for efficient coupling from laser diodes,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 23(3), 367–378 (1991).
[Crossref]

1989 (1)

M. Okayasu, T. Takeshita, M. Yamada, O. Kogure, M. Horiguchi, M. Fukuda, A. Kozen, K. Oe, and S. Uehara, “High-power 0.98 μm GaInAs strained quantum well lasers for Er3+-doped fibre amplifier,” Electron. Lett. 25(23), 1563–1565 (1989).
[Crossref]

1974 (1)

Bryan, N. K. A.

Y. Fu, N. K. A. Bryan, and O. N. Shing, “Integrated micro-cylindrical lens with laser diode for single-mode fiber coupling,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 12(9), 1213–1215 (2000).
[Crossref]

Chang, S.

K.-R. Kim, S. Chang, and K. Oh, “Refractive microlens on fiber using UV-curable fluorinated acrylate polymer by surface-tension,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15(8), 1100–1102 (2003).
[Crossref]

Chen, J.-L.

Cheng, W. H.

S. C. Lei, W. H. Hsieh, W. H. Cheng, Y. C. Tsai, and C. H. Lin, “Micro-hyperboloid lensed optical fibers for laser chip coupling,” in Proc. of The 11th Annual IEEE International Conference on Nano/Micro Engineered and Molecular Systems (IEEE-NEMS 2016)(2016).
[Crossref]

Cheng, W.-H.

Cohen, L. G.

Fu, Y.

Y. Fu, N. K. A. Bryan, and O. N. Shing, “Integrated micro-cylindrical lens with laser diode for single-mode fiber coupling,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 12(9), 1213–1215 (2000).
[Crossref]

Fukuda, M.

M. Okayasu, T. Takeshita, M. Yamada, O. Kogure, M. Horiguchi, M. Fukuda, A. Kozen, K. Oe, and S. Uehara, “High-power 0.98 μm GaInAs strained quantum well lasers for Er3+-doped fibre amplifier,” Electron. Lett. 25(23), 1563–1565 (1989).
[Crossref]

Gaehe, C.

S.-Y. Huang, C. Gaehe, K. A. Miller, G. T. Wiand, and T. S. Stakelon, “High coupling optical design for laser diodes with large aspect ratio,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Pack. 23(2), 165–169 (2000).
[Crossref]

Ghafouri-Shiraz, H.

A. Kotsas, H. Ghafouri-Shiraz, and T. Maclean, “Microlens fabrication on single-mode fibres for efficient coupling from laser diodes,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 23(3), 367–378 (1991).
[Crossref]

Giles, C.

H. Presby and C. Giles, “Asymmetric fiber microlenses for efficient coupling to elliptical laser beams,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 5(2), 184–186 (1993).
[Crossref]

Hadley, G.

R. Smith, C. Sullivan, G. Vawter, G. Hadley, J. Wendt, M. Snipes, and J. Klem, “Reduced coupling loss using a tapered-rib adiabatic-following fiber coupler,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 8(8), 1052–1054 (1996).
[Crossref]

Horiguchi, M.

M. Okayasu, T. Takeshita, M. Yamada, O. Kogure, M. Horiguchi, M. Fukuda, A. Kozen, K. Oe, and S. Uehara, “High-power 0.98 μm GaInAs strained quantum well lasers for Er3+-doped fibre amplifier,” Electron. Lett. 25(23), 1563–1565 (1989).
[Crossref]

Hsieh, C.-H.

Hsieh, W. H.

S. C. Lei, W. H. Hsieh, W. H. Cheng, Y. C. Tsai, and C. H. Lin, “Micro-hyperboloid lensed optical fibers for laser chip coupling,” in Proc. of The 11th Annual IEEE International Conference on Nano/Micro Engineered and Molecular Systems (IEEE-NEMS 2016)(2016).
[Crossref]

Hsieh, W.-H.

Hsu, C.-A.

Hsu, Y.-C.

Huang, S.-Y.

Huang, Y.-C.

Kim, K.-R.

K.-R. Kim, S. Chang, and K. Oh, “Refractive microlens on fiber using UV-curable fluorinated acrylate polymer by surface-tension,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15(8), 1100–1102 (2003).
[Crossref]

Klem, J.

R. Smith, C. Sullivan, G. Vawter, G. Hadley, J. Wendt, M. Snipes, and J. Klem, “Reduced coupling loss using a tapered-rib adiabatic-following fiber coupler,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 8(8), 1052–1054 (1996).
[Crossref]

Kogure, O.

M. Okayasu, T. Takeshita, M. Yamada, O. Kogure, M. Horiguchi, M. Fukuda, A. Kozen, K. Oe, and S. Uehara, “High-power 0.98 μm GaInAs strained quantum well lasers for Er3+-doped fibre amplifier,” Electron. Lett. 25(23), 1563–1565 (1989).
[Crossref]

Kotsas, A.

A. Kotsas, H. Ghafouri-Shiraz, and T. Maclean, “Microlens fabrication on single-mode fibres for efficient coupling from laser diodes,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 23(3), 367–378 (1991).
[Crossref]

Kozen, A.

M. Okayasu, T. Takeshita, M. Yamada, O. Kogure, M. Horiguchi, M. Fukuda, A. Kozen, K. Oe, and S. Uehara, “High-power 0.98 μm GaInAs strained quantum well lasers for Er3+-doped fibre amplifier,” Electron. Lett. 25(23), 1563–1565 (1989).
[Crossref]

Kuo, S.-M.

Lei, S. C.

S. C. Lei, W. H. Hsieh, W. H. Cheng, Y. C. Tsai, and C. H. Lin, “Micro-hyperboloid lensed optical fibers for laser chip coupling,” in Proc. of The 11th Annual IEEE International Conference on Nano/Micro Engineered and Molecular Systems (IEEE-NEMS 2016)(2016).
[Crossref]

Lei, S.-C.

Lin, C. H.

S. C. Lei, W. H. Hsieh, W. H. Cheng, Y. C. Tsai, and C. H. Lin, “Micro-hyperboloid lensed optical fibers for laser chip coupling,” in Proc. of The 11th Annual IEEE International Conference on Nano/Micro Engineered and Molecular Systems (IEEE-NEMS 2016)(2016).
[Crossref]

Lin, C.-H.

Lin, H.-H.

Lin, Y.-S.

Liu, C.-N.

Lu, Y.-K.

Maclean, T.

A. Kotsas, H. Ghafouri-Shiraz, and T. Maclean, “Microlens fabrication on single-mode fibres for efficient coupling from laser diodes,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 23(3), 367–378 (1991).
[Crossref]

Miller, K. A.

S.-Y. Huang, C. Gaehe, K. A. Miller, G. T. Wiand, and T. S. Stakelon, “High coupling optical design for laser diodes with large aspect ratio,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Pack. 23(2), 165–169 (2000).
[Crossref]

Modavis, R.

R. Modavis and T. Webb, “Anamorphic microlens for laser diode to single-mode fiber coupling,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 7(7), 798–800 (1995).
[Crossref]

Oe, K.

M. Okayasu, T. Takeshita, M. Yamada, O. Kogure, M. Horiguchi, M. Fukuda, A. Kozen, K. Oe, and S. Uehara, “High-power 0.98 μm GaInAs strained quantum well lasers for Er3+-doped fibre amplifier,” Electron. Lett. 25(23), 1563–1565 (1989).
[Crossref]

Oh, K.

K.-R. Kim, S. Chang, and K. Oh, “Refractive microlens on fiber using UV-curable fluorinated acrylate polymer by surface-tension,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15(8), 1100–1102 (2003).
[Crossref]

Okayasu, M.

M. Okayasu, T. Takeshita, M. Yamada, O. Kogure, M. Horiguchi, M. Fukuda, A. Kozen, K. Oe, and S. Uehara, “High-power 0.98 μm GaInAs strained quantum well lasers for Er3+-doped fibre amplifier,” Electron. Lett. 25(23), 1563–1565 (1989).
[Crossref]

Presby, H.

H. Presby and C. Giles, “Asymmetric fiber microlenses for efficient coupling to elliptical laser beams,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 5(2), 184–186 (1993).
[Crossref]

Schneider, M. V.

Sheen, M.-T.

Shing, O. N.

Y. Fu, N. K. A. Bryan, and O. N. Shing, “Integrated micro-cylindrical lens with laser diode for single-mode fiber coupling,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 12(9), 1213–1215 (2000).
[Crossref]

Smith, R.

R. Smith, C. Sullivan, G. Vawter, G. Hadley, J. Wendt, M. Snipes, and J. Klem, “Reduced coupling loss using a tapered-rib adiabatic-following fiber coupler,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 8(8), 1052–1054 (1996).
[Crossref]

Snipes, M.

R. Smith, C. Sullivan, G. Vawter, G. Hadley, J. Wendt, M. Snipes, and J. Klem, “Reduced coupling loss using a tapered-rib adiabatic-following fiber coupler,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 8(8), 1052–1054 (1996).
[Crossref]

Stakelon, T. S.

S.-Y. Huang, C. Gaehe, K. A. Miller, G. T. Wiand, and T. S. Stakelon, “High coupling optical design for laser diodes with large aspect ratio,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Pack. 23(2), 165–169 (2000).
[Crossref]

Sullivan, C.

R. Smith, C. Sullivan, G. Vawter, G. Hadley, J. Wendt, M. Snipes, and J. Klem, “Reduced coupling loss using a tapered-rib adiabatic-following fiber coupler,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 8(8), 1052–1054 (1996).
[Crossref]

Takeshita, T.

M. Okayasu, T. Takeshita, M. Yamada, O. Kogure, M. Horiguchi, M. Fukuda, A. Kozen, K. Oe, and S. Uehara, “High-power 0.98 μm GaInAs strained quantum well lasers for Er3+-doped fibre amplifier,” Electron. Lett. 25(23), 1563–1565 (1989).
[Crossref]

Tsai, Y. C.

S. C. Lei, W. H. Hsieh, W. H. Cheng, Y. C. Tsai, and C. H. Lin, “Micro-hyperboloid lensed optical fibers for laser chip coupling,” in Proc. of The 11th Annual IEEE International Conference on Nano/Micro Engineered and Molecular Systems (IEEE-NEMS 2016)(2016).
[Crossref]

Tsai, Y.-C.

Tseng, Y.-D.

Uehara, S.

M. Okayasu, T. Takeshita, M. Yamada, O. Kogure, M. Horiguchi, M. Fukuda, A. Kozen, K. Oe, and S. Uehara, “High-power 0.98 μm GaInAs strained quantum well lasers for Er3+-doped fibre amplifier,” Electron. Lett. 25(23), 1563–1565 (1989).
[Crossref]

Vawter, G.

R. Smith, C. Sullivan, G. Vawter, G. Hadley, J. Wendt, M. Snipes, and J. Klem, “Reduced coupling loss using a tapered-rib adiabatic-following fiber coupler,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 8(8), 1052–1054 (1996).
[Crossref]

Webb, T.

R. Modavis and T. Webb, “Anamorphic microlens for laser diode to single-mode fiber coupling,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 7(7), 798–800 (1995).
[Crossref]

Wendt, J.

R. Smith, C. Sullivan, G. Vawter, G. Hadley, J. Wendt, M. Snipes, and J. Klem, “Reduced coupling loss using a tapered-rib adiabatic-following fiber coupler,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 8(8), 1052–1054 (1996).
[Crossref]

Wiand, G. T.

S.-Y. Huang, C. Gaehe, K. A. Miller, G. T. Wiand, and T. S. Stakelon, “High coupling optical design for laser diodes with large aspect ratio,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Pack. 23(2), 165–169 (2000).
[Crossref]

Wu, C.-C.

Yamada, M.

M. Okayasu, T. Takeshita, M. Yamada, O. Kogure, M. Horiguchi, M. Fukuda, A. Kozen, K. Oe, and S. Uehara, “High-power 0.98 μm GaInAs strained quantum well lasers for Er3+-doped fibre amplifier,” Electron. Lett. 25(23), 1563–1565 (1989).
[Crossref]

Yeh, S.-M.

Yu, C.-P.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Electron. Lett. (1)

M. Okayasu, T. Takeshita, M. Yamada, O. Kogure, M. Horiguchi, M. Fukuda, A. Kozen, K. Oe, and S. Uehara, “High-power 0.98 μm GaInAs strained quantum well lasers for Er3+-doped fibre amplifier,” Electron. Lett. 25(23), 1563–1565 (1989).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (5)

R. Smith, C. Sullivan, G. Vawter, G. Hadley, J. Wendt, M. Snipes, and J. Klem, “Reduced coupling loss using a tapered-rib adiabatic-following fiber coupler,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 8(8), 1052–1054 (1996).
[Crossref]

Y. Fu, N. K. A. Bryan, and O. N. Shing, “Integrated micro-cylindrical lens with laser diode for single-mode fiber coupling,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 12(9), 1213–1215 (2000).
[Crossref]

K.-R. Kim, S. Chang, and K. Oh, “Refractive microlens on fiber using UV-curable fluorinated acrylate polymer by surface-tension,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15(8), 1100–1102 (2003).
[Crossref]

H. Presby and C. Giles, “Asymmetric fiber microlenses for efficient coupling to elliptical laser beams,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 5(2), 184–186 (1993).
[Crossref]

R. Modavis and T. Webb, “Anamorphic microlens for laser diode to single-mode fiber coupling,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 7(7), 798–800 (1995).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Adv. Pack. (1)

S.-Y. Huang, C. Gaehe, K. A. Miller, G. T. Wiand, and T. S. Stakelon, “High coupling optical design for laser diodes with large aspect ratio,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Pack. 23(2), 165–169 (2000).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (3)

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Quantum Electron. (1)

A. Kotsas, H. Ghafouri-Shiraz, and T. Maclean, “Microlens fabrication on single-mode fibres for efficient coupling from laser diodes,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 23(3), 367–378 (1991).
[Crossref]

Other (2)

R. Smith and S. Personick, “Receiver design for optical fiber communication systems,” in Semiconductor devices for optical communication (Springer, 1980), pp. 89–160.

S. C. Lei, W. H. Hsieh, W. H. Cheng, Y. C. Tsai, and C. H. Lin, “Micro-hyperboloid lensed optical fibers for laser chip coupling,” in Proc. of The 11th Annual IEEE International Conference on Nano/Micro Engineered and Molecular Systems (IEEE-NEMS 2016)(2016).
[Crossref]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic showing the laser coupling via (A) flat-end fiber and (B) micro-hyperboloid lensed fiber.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 The simplified fabrication process for producing the micro-hyperboloid lensed fiber.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Experimental setup for measuring the coupling efficiency for the produced lensed fibers.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 SEM images for the optical fibers (A) right after mechanical grinding and (B) after SOG coating. The insets show the side view picture while measuring the radius of curvature of the formed hyperboloid microlens.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (A) Relationship between the measured radius of curvature versus the applied electric field for SOG pulling, (B) measured coupling efficiency for 10 fibers with different radii of curvature and the fiber without coating.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (A) Measured light coupling stability for 5 individual hyperboloid microlensed fibers, (B) high-efficiency light source on-off switch test.

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