Abstract

A novel, electrically tunable metasurface comprising a periodic array of disk-shaped silicon resonators is proposed. The dielectric resonators can be individually manipulated by applying external bias, inducing the complex permittivity modulation of indium tin oxide (ITO) embedded in the middle of the silicon nanodisks. Simulation data shows a reflectance shift from 61% to 8% at λ = 1111nm and a phase shift of 272.9° at λ = 1127nm with an applied voltage in the range of −4 ~4V. In addition, by simply adjusting the resonator geometry, any operating wavelength from 850nm to 1150nm can be achieved with the metasurface.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. J. Park, J.-H. Kang, X. Liu, and M. L. Brongersma, “Electrically Tunable Epsilon-Near-Zero (ENZ) Metafilm Absorbers,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 15754 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2017 (1)

C.-S. Park, V. R. Shrestha, W. Yue, S. Gao, S.-S. Lee, E.-S. Kim, and D.-Y. Choi, “Structural color filters enabled by a dielectric metasurface incorporating hydrogenated amorphous silicon nanodisks,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 2556 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (4)

J. Proust, F. Bedu, B. Gallas, I. Ozerov, and N. Bonod, “All-dielectric colored metasurfaces with silicon mie resonators,” ACS Nano 10(8), 7761–7767 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Khorasaninejad, W. T. Chen, R. C. Devlin, J. Oh, A. Y. Zhu, and F. Capasso, “Metalenses at visible wavelengths: Diffraction-limited focusing and subwavelength resolution imaging,” Science 352(6290), 1190–1194 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Gutruf, C. Zou, W. Withayachumnankul, M. Bhaskaran, S. Sriram, and C. Fumeaux, “Mechanically Tunable Dielectric Resonator Metasurfaces at Visible Frequencies,” ACS Nano 10(1), 133–141 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y.-W. Huang, H. W. H. Lee, R. Sokhoyan, R. A. Pala, K. Thyagarajan, S. Han, D. P. Tsai, and H. A. Atwater, “Gate-Tunable Conducting Oxide Metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 16(9), 5319–5325 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (5)

M. Decker, I. Staude, M. Falkner, J. Dominguez, D. N. Neshev, I. Brener, T. Pertsch, and Y. S. Kivshar, “High-Efficiency Dielectric Huygens’ Surfaces,” Adv. Optical Mater. 3(6), 813–820 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. F. Yu, A. Y. Zhu, R. Paniagua-Domínguez, Y. H. Fu, B. Luk’yanchuk, and A. I. Kuznetsov, “High-transmission dielectric metasurface with 2π phase control at visible wavelengths,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(4), 412–418 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Park, J.-H. Kang, X. Liu, and M. L. Brongersma, “Electrically Tunable Epsilon-Near-Zero (ENZ) Metafilm Absorbers,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 15754 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Yin, M. Schäferling, A.-K. U. Michel, A. Tittl, M. Wuttig, T. Taubner, and H. Giessen, “Active Chiral Plasmonics,” Nano Lett. 15(7), 4255–4260 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Sautter, I. Staude, M. Decker, E. Rusak, D. N. Neshev, I. Brener, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Active Tuning of All-Dielectric Metasurfaces,” ACS Nano 9(4), 4308–4315 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (2)

L. Zou, M. Lopez-Garcia, W. Withayachumnankul, C. M. Shah, A. Mitchell, M. Bhaskaran, S. Sriram, R. Oulton, M. Klemm, and C. Fumeaux, “Spectral and angular characteristics of dielectric resonator metasurface at optical frequencies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(19), 191109 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Cheng, D. Ansari-Oghol-Beig, and H. Mosallaei, “Wave manipulation with designer dielectric metasurfaces,” Opt. Lett. 39(21), 6285–6288 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (6)

L. Zou, W. Withayachumnankul, C. M. Shah, A. Mitchell, M. Bhaskaran, S. Sriram, and C. Fumeaux, “Dielectric resonator nanoantennas at visible frequencies,” Opt. Express 21(1), 1344–1352 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. H. Mousavi, I. Kholmanov, K. B. Alici, D. Purtseladze, N. Arju, K. Tatar, D. Y. Fozdar, J. W. Suk, Y. Hao, A. B. Khanikaev, R. S. Ruoff, and G. Shvets, “Inductive Tuning of Fano-Resonant Metasurfaces Using Plasmonic Response of Graphene in the Mid-Infrared,” Nano Lett. 13(3), 1111–1117 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Ni, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Metasurface holograms for visible light,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2807 (2013).
[Crossref]

Z. Li and N. Yu, “Modulation of mid-infrared light using graphene-metal plasmonic antennas,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(13), 131108 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. V. Kildishev, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, “Planar Photonics with Metasurfaces,” Science 339(6125), 1232009 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Staude, A. E. Miroshnichenko, M. Decker, N. T. Fofang, S. Liu, E. Gonzales, J. Dominguez, T. S. Luk, D. N. Neshev, I. Brener, and Y. Kivshar, “Tailoring directional scattering through magnetic and electric resonances in subwavelength silicon nanodisks,” ACS Nano 7(9), 7824–7832 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

E. Feigenbaum, K. Diest, and H. A. Atwater, “Unity-Order Index Change in Transparent Conducting Oxides at Visible Frequencies,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 2111–2116 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

2000 (1)

L. Kang, B. H. Lee, W.-J. Qi, Y. Jeon, R. Nieh, S. Gopalan, K. Onishi, and J. C. Lee, “Electrical characteristics of highly reliable ultrathin hafnium oxide gate dielectric,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 21(4), 181–183 (2000).
[Crossref]

Alici, K. B.

S. H. Mousavi, I. Kholmanov, K. B. Alici, D. Purtseladze, N. Arju, K. Tatar, D. Y. Fozdar, J. W. Suk, Y. Hao, A. B. Khanikaev, R. S. Ruoff, and G. Shvets, “Inductive Tuning of Fano-Resonant Metasurfaces Using Plasmonic Response of Graphene in the Mid-Infrared,” Nano Lett. 13(3), 1111–1117 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ansari-Oghol-Beig, D.

Arju, N.

S. H. Mousavi, I. Kholmanov, K. B. Alici, D. Purtseladze, N. Arju, K. Tatar, D. Y. Fozdar, J. W. Suk, Y. Hao, A. B. Khanikaev, R. S. Ruoff, and G. Shvets, “Inductive Tuning of Fano-Resonant Metasurfaces Using Plasmonic Response of Graphene in the Mid-Infrared,” Nano Lett. 13(3), 1111–1117 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Atwater, H. A.

Y.-W. Huang, H. W. H. Lee, R. Sokhoyan, R. A. Pala, K. Thyagarajan, S. Han, D. P. Tsai, and H. A. Atwater, “Gate-Tunable Conducting Oxide Metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 16(9), 5319–5325 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Feigenbaum, K. Diest, and H. A. Atwater, “Unity-Order Index Change in Transparent Conducting Oxides at Visible Frequencies,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 2111–2116 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bedu, F.

J. Proust, F. Bedu, B. Gallas, I. Ozerov, and N. Bonod, “All-dielectric colored metasurfaces with silicon mie resonators,” ACS Nano 10(8), 7761–7767 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bhaskaran, M.

P. Gutruf, C. Zou, W. Withayachumnankul, M. Bhaskaran, S. Sriram, and C. Fumeaux, “Mechanically Tunable Dielectric Resonator Metasurfaces at Visible Frequencies,” ACS Nano 10(1), 133–141 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Zou, M. Lopez-Garcia, W. Withayachumnankul, C. M. Shah, A. Mitchell, M. Bhaskaran, S. Sriram, R. Oulton, M. Klemm, and C. Fumeaux, “Spectral and angular characteristics of dielectric resonator metasurface at optical frequencies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(19), 191109 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Zou, W. Withayachumnankul, C. M. Shah, A. Mitchell, M. Bhaskaran, S. Sriram, and C. Fumeaux, “Dielectric resonator nanoantennas at visible frequencies,” Opt. Express 21(1), 1344–1352 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Biener, G.

Boltasseva, A.

A. V. Kildishev, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, “Planar Photonics with Metasurfaces,” Science 339(6125), 1232009 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bonod, N.

J. Proust, F. Bedu, B. Gallas, I. Ozerov, and N. Bonod, “All-dielectric colored metasurfaces with silicon mie resonators,” ACS Nano 10(8), 7761–7767 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brener, I.

M. Decker, I. Staude, M. Falkner, J. Dominguez, D. N. Neshev, I. Brener, T. Pertsch, and Y. S. Kivshar, “High-Efficiency Dielectric Huygens’ Surfaces,” Adv. Optical Mater. 3(6), 813–820 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Sautter, I. Staude, M. Decker, E. Rusak, D. N. Neshev, I. Brener, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Active Tuning of All-Dielectric Metasurfaces,” ACS Nano 9(4), 4308–4315 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Staude, A. E. Miroshnichenko, M. Decker, N. T. Fofang, S. Liu, E. Gonzales, J. Dominguez, T. S. Luk, D. N. Neshev, I. Brener, and Y. Kivshar, “Tailoring directional scattering through magnetic and electric resonances in subwavelength silicon nanodisks,” ACS Nano 7(9), 7824–7832 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brongersma, M. L.

J. Park, J.-H. Kang, X. Liu, and M. L. Brongersma, “Electrically Tunable Epsilon-Near-Zero (ENZ) Metafilm Absorbers,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 15754 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Capasso, F.

M. Khorasaninejad, W. T. Chen, R. C. Devlin, J. Oh, A. Y. Zhu, and F. Capasso, “Metalenses at visible wavelengths: Diffraction-limited focusing and subwavelength resolution imaging,” Science 352(6290), 1190–1194 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, W. T.

M. Khorasaninejad, W. T. Chen, R. C. Devlin, J. Oh, A. Y. Zhu, and F. Capasso, “Metalenses at visible wavelengths: Diffraction-limited focusing and subwavelength resolution imaging,” Science 352(6290), 1190–1194 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cheng, J.

Choi, D.-Y.

C.-S. Park, V. R. Shrestha, W. Yue, S. Gao, S.-S. Lee, E.-S. Kim, and D.-Y. Choi, “Structural color filters enabled by a dielectric metasurface incorporating hydrogenated amorphous silicon nanodisks,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 2556 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Decker, M.

J. Sautter, I. Staude, M. Decker, E. Rusak, D. N. Neshev, I. Brener, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Active Tuning of All-Dielectric Metasurfaces,” ACS Nano 9(4), 4308–4315 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Decker, I. Staude, M. Falkner, J. Dominguez, D. N. Neshev, I. Brener, T. Pertsch, and Y. S. Kivshar, “High-Efficiency Dielectric Huygens’ Surfaces,” Adv. Optical Mater. 3(6), 813–820 (2015).
[Crossref]

I. Staude, A. E. Miroshnichenko, M. Decker, N. T. Fofang, S. Liu, E. Gonzales, J. Dominguez, T. S. Luk, D. N. Neshev, I. Brener, and Y. Kivshar, “Tailoring directional scattering through magnetic and electric resonances in subwavelength silicon nanodisks,” ACS Nano 7(9), 7824–7832 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Devlin, R. C.

M. Khorasaninejad, W. T. Chen, R. C. Devlin, J. Oh, A. Y. Zhu, and F. Capasso, “Metalenses at visible wavelengths: Diffraction-limited focusing and subwavelength resolution imaging,” Science 352(6290), 1190–1194 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Diest, K.

E. Feigenbaum, K. Diest, and H. A. Atwater, “Unity-Order Index Change in Transparent Conducting Oxides at Visible Frequencies,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 2111–2116 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dominguez, J.

M. Decker, I. Staude, M. Falkner, J. Dominguez, D. N. Neshev, I. Brener, T. Pertsch, and Y. S. Kivshar, “High-Efficiency Dielectric Huygens’ Surfaces,” Adv. Optical Mater. 3(6), 813–820 (2015).
[Crossref]

I. Staude, A. E. Miroshnichenko, M. Decker, N. T. Fofang, S. Liu, E. Gonzales, J. Dominguez, T. S. Luk, D. N. Neshev, I. Brener, and Y. Kivshar, “Tailoring directional scattering through magnetic and electric resonances in subwavelength silicon nanodisks,” ACS Nano 7(9), 7824–7832 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Falkner, M.

M. Decker, I. Staude, M. Falkner, J. Dominguez, D. N. Neshev, I. Brener, T. Pertsch, and Y. S. Kivshar, “High-Efficiency Dielectric Huygens’ Surfaces,” Adv. Optical Mater. 3(6), 813–820 (2015).
[Crossref]

Feigenbaum, E.

E. Feigenbaum, K. Diest, and H. A. Atwater, “Unity-Order Index Change in Transparent Conducting Oxides at Visible Frequencies,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 2111–2116 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fofang, N. T.

I. Staude, A. E. Miroshnichenko, M. Decker, N. T. Fofang, S. Liu, E. Gonzales, J. Dominguez, T. S. Luk, D. N. Neshev, I. Brener, and Y. Kivshar, “Tailoring directional scattering through magnetic and electric resonances in subwavelength silicon nanodisks,” ACS Nano 7(9), 7824–7832 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fozdar, D. Y.

S. H. Mousavi, I. Kholmanov, K. B. Alici, D. Purtseladze, N. Arju, K. Tatar, D. Y. Fozdar, J. W. Suk, Y. Hao, A. B. Khanikaev, R. S. Ruoff, and G. Shvets, “Inductive Tuning of Fano-Resonant Metasurfaces Using Plasmonic Response of Graphene in the Mid-Infrared,” Nano Lett. 13(3), 1111–1117 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fu, Y. H.

Y. F. Yu, A. Y. Zhu, R. Paniagua-Domínguez, Y. H. Fu, B. Luk’yanchuk, and A. I. Kuznetsov, “High-transmission dielectric metasurface with 2π phase control at visible wavelengths,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(4), 412–418 (2015).
[Crossref]

Fumeaux, C.

P. Gutruf, C. Zou, W. Withayachumnankul, M. Bhaskaran, S. Sriram, and C. Fumeaux, “Mechanically Tunable Dielectric Resonator Metasurfaces at Visible Frequencies,” ACS Nano 10(1), 133–141 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Zou, M. Lopez-Garcia, W. Withayachumnankul, C. M. Shah, A. Mitchell, M. Bhaskaran, S. Sriram, R. Oulton, M. Klemm, and C. Fumeaux, “Spectral and angular characteristics of dielectric resonator metasurface at optical frequencies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(19), 191109 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Zou, W. Withayachumnankul, C. M. Shah, A. Mitchell, M. Bhaskaran, S. Sriram, and C. Fumeaux, “Dielectric resonator nanoantennas at visible frequencies,” Opt. Express 21(1), 1344–1352 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gallas, B.

J. Proust, F. Bedu, B. Gallas, I. Ozerov, and N. Bonod, “All-dielectric colored metasurfaces with silicon mie resonators,” ACS Nano 10(8), 7761–7767 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gao, S.

C.-S. Park, V. R. Shrestha, W. Yue, S. Gao, S.-S. Lee, E.-S. Kim, and D.-Y. Choi, “Structural color filters enabled by a dielectric metasurface incorporating hydrogenated amorphous silicon nanodisks,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 2556 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Giessen, H.

X. Yin, M. Schäferling, A.-K. U. Michel, A. Tittl, M. Wuttig, T. Taubner, and H. Giessen, “Active Chiral Plasmonics,” Nano Lett. 15(7), 4255–4260 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gonzales, E.

I. Staude, A. E. Miroshnichenko, M. Decker, N. T. Fofang, S. Liu, E. Gonzales, J. Dominguez, T. S. Luk, D. N. Neshev, I. Brener, and Y. Kivshar, “Tailoring directional scattering through magnetic and electric resonances in subwavelength silicon nanodisks,” ACS Nano 7(9), 7824–7832 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gopalan, S.

L. Kang, B. H. Lee, W.-J. Qi, Y. Jeon, R. Nieh, S. Gopalan, K. Onishi, and J. C. Lee, “Electrical characteristics of highly reliable ultrathin hafnium oxide gate dielectric,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 21(4), 181–183 (2000).
[Crossref]

Gutruf, P.

P. Gutruf, C. Zou, W. Withayachumnankul, M. Bhaskaran, S. Sriram, and C. Fumeaux, “Mechanically Tunable Dielectric Resonator Metasurfaces at Visible Frequencies,” ACS Nano 10(1), 133–141 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Han, S.

Y.-W. Huang, H. W. H. Lee, R. Sokhoyan, R. A. Pala, K. Thyagarajan, S. Han, D. P. Tsai, and H. A. Atwater, “Gate-Tunable Conducting Oxide Metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 16(9), 5319–5325 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hao, Y.

S. H. Mousavi, I. Kholmanov, K. B. Alici, D. Purtseladze, N. Arju, K. Tatar, D. Y. Fozdar, J. W. Suk, Y. Hao, A. B. Khanikaev, R. S. Ruoff, and G. Shvets, “Inductive Tuning of Fano-Resonant Metasurfaces Using Plasmonic Response of Graphene in the Mid-Infrared,” Nano Lett. 13(3), 1111–1117 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hasman, E.

Huang, Y.-W.

Y.-W. Huang, H. W. H. Lee, R. Sokhoyan, R. A. Pala, K. Thyagarajan, S. Han, D. P. Tsai, and H. A. Atwater, “Gate-Tunable Conducting Oxide Metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 16(9), 5319–5325 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jeon, Y.

L. Kang, B. H. Lee, W.-J. Qi, Y. Jeon, R. Nieh, S. Gopalan, K. Onishi, and J. C. Lee, “Electrical characteristics of highly reliable ultrathin hafnium oxide gate dielectric,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 21(4), 181–183 (2000).
[Crossref]

Kang, J.-H.

J. Park, J.-H. Kang, X. Liu, and M. L. Brongersma, “Electrically Tunable Epsilon-Near-Zero (ENZ) Metafilm Absorbers,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 15754 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kang, L.

L. Kang, B. H. Lee, W.-J. Qi, Y. Jeon, R. Nieh, S. Gopalan, K. Onishi, and J. C. Lee, “Electrical characteristics of highly reliable ultrathin hafnium oxide gate dielectric,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 21(4), 181–183 (2000).
[Crossref]

Khanikaev, A. B.

S. H. Mousavi, I. Kholmanov, K. B. Alici, D. Purtseladze, N. Arju, K. Tatar, D. Y. Fozdar, J. W. Suk, Y. Hao, A. B. Khanikaev, R. S. Ruoff, and G. Shvets, “Inductive Tuning of Fano-Resonant Metasurfaces Using Plasmonic Response of Graphene in the Mid-Infrared,” Nano Lett. 13(3), 1111–1117 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kholmanov, I.

S. H. Mousavi, I. Kholmanov, K. B. Alici, D. Purtseladze, N. Arju, K. Tatar, D. Y. Fozdar, J. W. Suk, Y. Hao, A. B. Khanikaev, R. S. Ruoff, and G. Shvets, “Inductive Tuning of Fano-Resonant Metasurfaces Using Plasmonic Response of Graphene in the Mid-Infrared,” Nano Lett. 13(3), 1111–1117 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Khorasaninejad, M.

M. Khorasaninejad, W. T. Chen, R. C. Devlin, J. Oh, A. Y. Zhu, and F. Capasso, “Metalenses at visible wavelengths: Diffraction-limited focusing and subwavelength resolution imaging,” Science 352(6290), 1190–1194 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kildishev, A. V.

X. Ni, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Metasurface holograms for visible light,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2807 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. V. Kildishev, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, “Planar Photonics with Metasurfaces,” Science 339(6125), 1232009 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, E.-S.

C.-S. Park, V. R. Shrestha, W. Yue, S. Gao, S.-S. Lee, E.-S. Kim, and D.-Y. Choi, “Structural color filters enabled by a dielectric metasurface incorporating hydrogenated amorphous silicon nanodisks,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 2556 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kivshar, Y.

I. Staude, A. E. Miroshnichenko, M. Decker, N. T. Fofang, S. Liu, E. Gonzales, J. Dominguez, T. S. Luk, D. N. Neshev, I. Brener, and Y. Kivshar, “Tailoring directional scattering through magnetic and electric resonances in subwavelength silicon nanodisks,” ACS Nano 7(9), 7824–7832 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kivshar, Y. S.

J. Sautter, I. Staude, M. Decker, E. Rusak, D. N. Neshev, I. Brener, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Active Tuning of All-Dielectric Metasurfaces,” ACS Nano 9(4), 4308–4315 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Decker, I. Staude, M. Falkner, J. Dominguez, D. N. Neshev, I. Brener, T. Pertsch, and Y. S. Kivshar, “High-Efficiency Dielectric Huygens’ Surfaces,” Adv. Optical Mater. 3(6), 813–820 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kleiner, V.

Klemm, M.

L. Zou, M. Lopez-Garcia, W. Withayachumnankul, C. M. Shah, A. Mitchell, M. Bhaskaran, S. Sriram, R. Oulton, M. Klemm, and C. Fumeaux, “Spectral and angular characteristics of dielectric resonator metasurface at optical frequencies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(19), 191109 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kuznetsov, A. I.

Y. F. Yu, A. Y. Zhu, R. Paniagua-Domínguez, Y. H. Fu, B. Luk’yanchuk, and A. I. Kuznetsov, “High-transmission dielectric metasurface with 2π phase control at visible wavelengths,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(4), 412–418 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lee, B. H.

L. Kang, B. H. Lee, W.-J. Qi, Y. Jeon, R. Nieh, S. Gopalan, K. Onishi, and J. C. Lee, “Electrical characteristics of highly reliable ultrathin hafnium oxide gate dielectric,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 21(4), 181–183 (2000).
[Crossref]

Lee, H. W. H.

Y.-W. Huang, H. W. H. Lee, R. Sokhoyan, R. A. Pala, K. Thyagarajan, S. Han, D. P. Tsai, and H. A. Atwater, “Gate-Tunable Conducting Oxide Metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 16(9), 5319–5325 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, J. C.

L. Kang, B. H. Lee, W.-J. Qi, Y. Jeon, R. Nieh, S. Gopalan, K. Onishi, and J. C. Lee, “Electrical characteristics of highly reliable ultrathin hafnium oxide gate dielectric,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 21(4), 181–183 (2000).
[Crossref]

Lee, S.-S.

C.-S. Park, V. R. Shrestha, W. Yue, S. Gao, S.-S. Lee, E.-S. Kim, and D.-Y. Choi, “Structural color filters enabled by a dielectric metasurface incorporating hydrogenated amorphous silicon nanodisks,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 2556 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, Z.

Z. Li and N. Yu, “Modulation of mid-infrared light using graphene-metal plasmonic antennas,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(13), 131108 (2013).
[Crossref]

Liu, S.

I. Staude, A. E. Miroshnichenko, M. Decker, N. T. Fofang, S. Liu, E. Gonzales, J. Dominguez, T. S. Luk, D. N. Neshev, I. Brener, and Y. Kivshar, “Tailoring directional scattering through magnetic and electric resonances in subwavelength silicon nanodisks,” ACS Nano 7(9), 7824–7832 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, X.

J. Park, J.-H. Kang, X. Liu, and M. L. Brongersma, “Electrically Tunable Epsilon-Near-Zero (ENZ) Metafilm Absorbers,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 15754 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lopez-Garcia, M.

L. Zou, M. Lopez-Garcia, W. Withayachumnankul, C. M. Shah, A. Mitchell, M. Bhaskaran, S. Sriram, R. Oulton, M. Klemm, and C. Fumeaux, “Spectral and angular characteristics of dielectric resonator metasurface at optical frequencies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(19), 191109 (2014).
[Crossref]

Luk, T. S.

I. Staude, A. E. Miroshnichenko, M. Decker, N. T. Fofang, S. Liu, E. Gonzales, J. Dominguez, T. S. Luk, D. N. Neshev, I. Brener, and Y. Kivshar, “Tailoring directional scattering through magnetic and electric resonances in subwavelength silicon nanodisks,” ACS Nano 7(9), 7824–7832 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Luk’yanchuk, B.

Y. F. Yu, A. Y. Zhu, R. Paniagua-Domínguez, Y. H. Fu, B. Luk’yanchuk, and A. I. Kuznetsov, “High-transmission dielectric metasurface with 2π phase control at visible wavelengths,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(4), 412–418 (2015).
[Crossref]

Michel, A.-K. U.

X. Yin, M. Schäferling, A.-K. U. Michel, A. Tittl, M. Wuttig, T. Taubner, and H. Giessen, “Active Chiral Plasmonics,” Nano Lett. 15(7), 4255–4260 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Miroshnichenko, A. E.

I. Staude, A. E. Miroshnichenko, M. Decker, N. T. Fofang, S. Liu, E. Gonzales, J. Dominguez, T. S. Luk, D. N. Neshev, I. Brener, and Y. Kivshar, “Tailoring directional scattering through magnetic and electric resonances in subwavelength silicon nanodisks,” ACS Nano 7(9), 7824–7832 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mitchell, A.

L. Zou, M. Lopez-Garcia, W. Withayachumnankul, C. M. Shah, A. Mitchell, M. Bhaskaran, S. Sriram, R. Oulton, M. Klemm, and C. Fumeaux, “Spectral and angular characteristics of dielectric resonator metasurface at optical frequencies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(19), 191109 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Zou, W. Withayachumnankul, C. M. Shah, A. Mitchell, M. Bhaskaran, S. Sriram, and C. Fumeaux, “Dielectric resonator nanoantennas at visible frequencies,” Opt. Express 21(1), 1344–1352 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mosallaei, H.

Mousavi, S. H.

S. H. Mousavi, I. Kholmanov, K. B. Alici, D. Purtseladze, N. Arju, K. Tatar, D. Y. Fozdar, J. W. Suk, Y. Hao, A. B. Khanikaev, R. S. Ruoff, and G. Shvets, “Inductive Tuning of Fano-Resonant Metasurfaces Using Plasmonic Response of Graphene in the Mid-Infrared,” Nano Lett. 13(3), 1111–1117 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Neshev, D. N.

J. Sautter, I. Staude, M. Decker, E. Rusak, D. N. Neshev, I. Brener, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Active Tuning of All-Dielectric Metasurfaces,” ACS Nano 9(4), 4308–4315 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Decker, I. Staude, M. Falkner, J. Dominguez, D. N. Neshev, I. Brener, T. Pertsch, and Y. S. Kivshar, “High-Efficiency Dielectric Huygens’ Surfaces,” Adv. Optical Mater. 3(6), 813–820 (2015).
[Crossref]

I. Staude, A. E. Miroshnichenko, M. Decker, N. T. Fofang, S. Liu, E. Gonzales, J. Dominguez, T. S. Luk, D. N. Neshev, I. Brener, and Y. Kivshar, “Tailoring directional scattering through magnetic and electric resonances in subwavelength silicon nanodisks,” ACS Nano 7(9), 7824–7832 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ni, X.

X. Ni, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Metasurface holograms for visible light,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2807 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nieh, R.

L. Kang, B. H. Lee, W.-J. Qi, Y. Jeon, R. Nieh, S. Gopalan, K. Onishi, and J. C. Lee, “Electrical characteristics of highly reliable ultrathin hafnium oxide gate dielectric,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 21(4), 181–183 (2000).
[Crossref]

Niv, A.

Oh, J.

M. Khorasaninejad, W. T. Chen, R. C. Devlin, J. Oh, A. Y. Zhu, and F. Capasso, “Metalenses at visible wavelengths: Diffraction-limited focusing and subwavelength resolution imaging,” Science 352(6290), 1190–1194 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Onishi, K.

L. Kang, B. H. Lee, W.-J. Qi, Y. Jeon, R. Nieh, S. Gopalan, K. Onishi, and J. C. Lee, “Electrical characteristics of highly reliable ultrathin hafnium oxide gate dielectric,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 21(4), 181–183 (2000).
[Crossref]

Oulton, R.

L. Zou, M. Lopez-Garcia, W. Withayachumnankul, C. M. Shah, A. Mitchell, M. Bhaskaran, S. Sriram, R. Oulton, M. Klemm, and C. Fumeaux, “Spectral and angular characteristics of dielectric resonator metasurface at optical frequencies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(19), 191109 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ozerov, I.

J. Proust, F. Bedu, B. Gallas, I. Ozerov, and N. Bonod, “All-dielectric colored metasurfaces with silicon mie resonators,” ACS Nano 10(8), 7761–7767 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pala, R. A.

Y.-W. Huang, H. W. H. Lee, R. Sokhoyan, R. A. Pala, K. Thyagarajan, S. Han, D. P. Tsai, and H. A. Atwater, “Gate-Tunable Conducting Oxide Metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 16(9), 5319–5325 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Paniagua-Domínguez, R.

Y. F. Yu, A. Y. Zhu, R. Paniagua-Domínguez, Y. H. Fu, B. Luk’yanchuk, and A. I. Kuznetsov, “High-transmission dielectric metasurface with 2π phase control at visible wavelengths,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(4), 412–418 (2015).
[Crossref]

Park, C.-S.

C.-S. Park, V. R. Shrestha, W. Yue, S. Gao, S.-S. Lee, E.-S. Kim, and D.-Y. Choi, “Structural color filters enabled by a dielectric metasurface incorporating hydrogenated amorphous silicon nanodisks,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 2556 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Park, J.

J. Park, J.-H. Kang, X. Liu, and M. L. Brongersma, “Electrically Tunable Epsilon-Near-Zero (ENZ) Metafilm Absorbers,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 15754 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pertsch, T.

M. Decker, I. Staude, M. Falkner, J. Dominguez, D. N. Neshev, I. Brener, T. Pertsch, and Y. S. Kivshar, “High-Efficiency Dielectric Huygens’ Surfaces,” Adv. Optical Mater. 3(6), 813–820 (2015).
[Crossref]

Proust, J.

J. Proust, F. Bedu, B. Gallas, I. Ozerov, and N. Bonod, “All-dielectric colored metasurfaces with silicon mie resonators,” ACS Nano 10(8), 7761–7767 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Purtseladze, D.

S. H. Mousavi, I. Kholmanov, K. B. Alici, D. Purtseladze, N. Arju, K. Tatar, D. Y. Fozdar, J. W. Suk, Y. Hao, A. B. Khanikaev, R. S. Ruoff, and G. Shvets, “Inductive Tuning of Fano-Resonant Metasurfaces Using Plasmonic Response of Graphene in the Mid-Infrared,” Nano Lett. 13(3), 1111–1117 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Qi, W.-J.

L. Kang, B. H. Lee, W.-J. Qi, Y. Jeon, R. Nieh, S. Gopalan, K. Onishi, and J. C. Lee, “Electrical characteristics of highly reliable ultrathin hafnium oxide gate dielectric,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 21(4), 181–183 (2000).
[Crossref]

Ruoff, R. S.

S. H. Mousavi, I. Kholmanov, K. B. Alici, D. Purtseladze, N. Arju, K. Tatar, D. Y. Fozdar, J. W. Suk, Y. Hao, A. B. Khanikaev, R. S. Ruoff, and G. Shvets, “Inductive Tuning of Fano-Resonant Metasurfaces Using Plasmonic Response of Graphene in the Mid-Infrared,” Nano Lett. 13(3), 1111–1117 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rusak, E.

J. Sautter, I. Staude, M. Decker, E. Rusak, D. N. Neshev, I. Brener, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Active Tuning of All-Dielectric Metasurfaces,” ACS Nano 9(4), 4308–4315 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sautter, J.

J. Sautter, I. Staude, M. Decker, E. Rusak, D. N. Neshev, I. Brener, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Active Tuning of All-Dielectric Metasurfaces,” ACS Nano 9(4), 4308–4315 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schäferling, M.

X. Yin, M. Schäferling, A.-K. U. Michel, A. Tittl, M. Wuttig, T. Taubner, and H. Giessen, “Active Chiral Plasmonics,” Nano Lett. 15(7), 4255–4260 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shah, C. M.

L. Zou, M. Lopez-Garcia, W. Withayachumnankul, C. M. Shah, A. Mitchell, M. Bhaskaran, S. Sriram, R. Oulton, M. Klemm, and C. Fumeaux, “Spectral and angular characteristics of dielectric resonator metasurface at optical frequencies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(19), 191109 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Zou, W. Withayachumnankul, C. M. Shah, A. Mitchell, M. Bhaskaran, S. Sriram, and C. Fumeaux, “Dielectric resonator nanoantennas at visible frequencies,” Opt. Express 21(1), 1344–1352 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shalaev, V. M.

X. Ni, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Metasurface holograms for visible light,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2807 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. V. Kildishev, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, “Planar Photonics with Metasurfaces,” Science 339(6125), 1232009 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shrestha, V. R.

C.-S. Park, V. R. Shrestha, W. Yue, S. Gao, S.-S. Lee, E.-S. Kim, and D.-Y. Choi, “Structural color filters enabled by a dielectric metasurface incorporating hydrogenated amorphous silicon nanodisks,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 2556 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shvets, G.

S. H. Mousavi, I. Kholmanov, K. B. Alici, D. Purtseladze, N. Arju, K. Tatar, D. Y. Fozdar, J. W. Suk, Y. Hao, A. B. Khanikaev, R. S. Ruoff, and G. Shvets, “Inductive Tuning of Fano-Resonant Metasurfaces Using Plasmonic Response of Graphene in the Mid-Infrared,” Nano Lett. 13(3), 1111–1117 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sokhoyan, R.

Y.-W. Huang, H. W. H. Lee, R. Sokhoyan, R. A. Pala, K. Thyagarajan, S. Han, D. P. Tsai, and H. A. Atwater, “Gate-Tunable Conducting Oxide Metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 16(9), 5319–5325 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sriram, S.

P. Gutruf, C. Zou, W. Withayachumnankul, M. Bhaskaran, S. Sriram, and C. Fumeaux, “Mechanically Tunable Dielectric Resonator Metasurfaces at Visible Frequencies,” ACS Nano 10(1), 133–141 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Zou, M. Lopez-Garcia, W. Withayachumnankul, C. M. Shah, A. Mitchell, M. Bhaskaran, S. Sriram, R. Oulton, M. Klemm, and C. Fumeaux, “Spectral and angular characteristics of dielectric resonator metasurface at optical frequencies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(19), 191109 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Zou, W. Withayachumnankul, C. M. Shah, A. Mitchell, M. Bhaskaran, S. Sriram, and C. Fumeaux, “Dielectric resonator nanoantennas at visible frequencies,” Opt. Express 21(1), 1344–1352 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Staude, I.

M. Decker, I. Staude, M. Falkner, J. Dominguez, D. N. Neshev, I. Brener, T. Pertsch, and Y. S. Kivshar, “High-Efficiency Dielectric Huygens’ Surfaces,” Adv. Optical Mater. 3(6), 813–820 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Sautter, I. Staude, M. Decker, E. Rusak, D. N. Neshev, I. Brener, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Active Tuning of All-Dielectric Metasurfaces,” ACS Nano 9(4), 4308–4315 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Staude, A. E. Miroshnichenko, M. Decker, N. T. Fofang, S. Liu, E. Gonzales, J. Dominguez, T. S. Luk, D. N. Neshev, I. Brener, and Y. Kivshar, “Tailoring directional scattering through magnetic and electric resonances in subwavelength silicon nanodisks,” ACS Nano 7(9), 7824–7832 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Suk, J. W.

S. H. Mousavi, I. Kholmanov, K. B. Alici, D. Purtseladze, N. Arju, K. Tatar, D. Y. Fozdar, J. W. Suk, Y. Hao, A. B. Khanikaev, R. S. Ruoff, and G. Shvets, “Inductive Tuning of Fano-Resonant Metasurfaces Using Plasmonic Response of Graphene in the Mid-Infrared,” Nano Lett. 13(3), 1111–1117 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tatar, K.

S. H. Mousavi, I. Kholmanov, K. B. Alici, D. Purtseladze, N. Arju, K. Tatar, D. Y. Fozdar, J. W. Suk, Y. Hao, A. B. Khanikaev, R. S. Ruoff, and G. Shvets, “Inductive Tuning of Fano-Resonant Metasurfaces Using Plasmonic Response of Graphene in the Mid-Infrared,” Nano Lett. 13(3), 1111–1117 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Taubner, T.

X. Yin, M. Schäferling, A.-K. U. Michel, A. Tittl, M. Wuttig, T. Taubner, and H. Giessen, “Active Chiral Plasmonics,” Nano Lett. 15(7), 4255–4260 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Thyagarajan, K.

Y.-W. Huang, H. W. H. Lee, R. Sokhoyan, R. A. Pala, K. Thyagarajan, S. Han, D. P. Tsai, and H. A. Atwater, “Gate-Tunable Conducting Oxide Metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 16(9), 5319–5325 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tittl, A.

X. Yin, M. Schäferling, A.-K. U. Michel, A. Tittl, M. Wuttig, T. Taubner, and H. Giessen, “Active Chiral Plasmonics,” Nano Lett. 15(7), 4255–4260 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tsai, D. P.

Y.-W. Huang, H. W. H. Lee, R. Sokhoyan, R. A. Pala, K. Thyagarajan, S. Han, D. P. Tsai, and H. A. Atwater, “Gate-Tunable Conducting Oxide Metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 16(9), 5319–5325 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Withayachumnankul, W.

P. Gutruf, C. Zou, W. Withayachumnankul, M. Bhaskaran, S. Sriram, and C. Fumeaux, “Mechanically Tunable Dielectric Resonator Metasurfaces at Visible Frequencies,” ACS Nano 10(1), 133–141 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Zou, M. Lopez-Garcia, W. Withayachumnankul, C. M. Shah, A. Mitchell, M. Bhaskaran, S. Sriram, R. Oulton, M. Klemm, and C. Fumeaux, “Spectral and angular characteristics of dielectric resonator metasurface at optical frequencies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(19), 191109 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Zou, W. Withayachumnankul, C. M. Shah, A. Mitchell, M. Bhaskaran, S. Sriram, and C. Fumeaux, “Dielectric resonator nanoantennas at visible frequencies,” Opt. Express 21(1), 1344–1352 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wuttig, M.

X. Yin, M. Schäferling, A.-K. U. Michel, A. Tittl, M. Wuttig, T. Taubner, and H. Giessen, “Active Chiral Plasmonics,” Nano Lett. 15(7), 4255–4260 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yin, X.

X. Yin, M. Schäferling, A.-K. U. Michel, A. Tittl, M. Wuttig, T. Taubner, and H. Giessen, “Active Chiral Plasmonics,” Nano Lett. 15(7), 4255–4260 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, N.

Z. Li and N. Yu, “Modulation of mid-infrared light using graphene-metal plasmonic antennas,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(13), 131108 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yu, Y. F.

Y. F. Yu, A. Y. Zhu, R. Paniagua-Domínguez, Y. H. Fu, B. Luk’yanchuk, and A. I. Kuznetsov, “High-transmission dielectric metasurface with 2π phase control at visible wavelengths,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(4), 412–418 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yue, W.

C.-S. Park, V. R. Shrestha, W. Yue, S. Gao, S.-S. Lee, E.-S. Kim, and D.-Y. Choi, “Structural color filters enabled by a dielectric metasurface incorporating hydrogenated amorphous silicon nanodisks,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 2556 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhu, A. Y.

M. Khorasaninejad, W. T. Chen, R. C. Devlin, J. Oh, A. Y. Zhu, and F. Capasso, “Metalenses at visible wavelengths: Diffraction-limited focusing and subwavelength resolution imaging,” Science 352(6290), 1190–1194 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. F. Yu, A. Y. Zhu, R. Paniagua-Domínguez, Y. H. Fu, B. Luk’yanchuk, and A. I. Kuznetsov, “High-transmission dielectric metasurface with 2π phase control at visible wavelengths,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(4), 412–418 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zou, C.

P. Gutruf, C. Zou, W. Withayachumnankul, M. Bhaskaran, S. Sriram, and C. Fumeaux, “Mechanically Tunable Dielectric Resonator Metasurfaces at Visible Frequencies,” ACS Nano 10(1), 133–141 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zou, L.

L. Zou, M. Lopez-Garcia, W. Withayachumnankul, C. M. Shah, A. Mitchell, M. Bhaskaran, S. Sriram, R. Oulton, M. Klemm, and C. Fumeaux, “Spectral and angular characteristics of dielectric resonator metasurface at optical frequencies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(19), 191109 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Zou, W. Withayachumnankul, C. M. Shah, A. Mitchell, M. Bhaskaran, S. Sriram, and C. Fumeaux, “Dielectric resonator nanoantennas at visible frequencies,” Opt. Express 21(1), 1344–1352 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

ACS Nano (4)

P. Gutruf, C. Zou, W. Withayachumnankul, M. Bhaskaran, S. Sriram, and C. Fumeaux, “Mechanically Tunable Dielectric Resonator Metasurfaces at Visible Frequencies,” ACS Nano 10(1), 133–141 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Sautter, I. Staude, M. Decker, E. Rusak, D. N. Neshev, I. Brener, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Active Tuning of All-Dielectric Metasurfaces,” ACS Nano 9(4), 4308–4315 (2015).
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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Schematic showing a single Si nanodisk antenna on a gold plate. The diameter and height of the nanodisk are 300 nm and 100 nm, respectively, and the periodic spacing of the antenna array is 800 nm. (b) Simulated reflectance (black solid line) and phase shift (red solid line) for the periodic array of the Si nanodisk antenna shown in (a). (c) Calculated electric field intensity in the x-z plane across the center of the nanodisk (upper panel) and in the x-y plane positioned 50 nm above from the bottom of the nanodisk (lower panel), and (d) magnetic field intensity in the y-z plane across the center of the nanodisk (upper panel) and in the x-y plane 50 nm above from the bottom of the nanodisk (lower panel) for an x-polarized normal plane wave incidence at the resonance wavelength of 1240 nm. The arrows on the color map indicate the directions of the fields.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) 3-D schematic of the actively tunable metasurface. A constituent resonator is drawn at a magnified scale. (b) View of the cross-section in the x-z and x-y planes across the center of the resonator.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Electron density in the ITO and Si regions under a voltage of 4 V applied on the gold contact and with 0V applied on the ITO contact. Data on the HfO2 and gold regions are ignored because the values are negligibly small. The enlarged plot in the right panel is of the area marked by the black dashed rectangle. (b) Electron density in the ITO and Si regions plotted along the x direction, as depicted by the white dashed arrow displayed in the magnified plot in the right panel of (a). (c) Wavelength versus complex permittivity variation for ITO at the interface of HfO2 and ITO under the various applied biases on the gold contact; 0V is applied on the ITO contact.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Real and (b) imaginary parts of the complex refractive index profiles at the wavelength of 1127 nm in the area of the resonator marked by the black dashed rectangle in Fig. 3(a). The 1-D white-line plot overlaid on the 2-D contour plot is the cross-sectional data along the horizontal line across the center of the 2-D plot. (c) Calculated reflectance and (d) phase shift for the 2-D periodic array of the active tunable resonators shown in Fig. 2 under the various voltages applied on the gold contact (VGold) when dSi = 280 nm, Λx = Λy = 970 nm, and when the x-polarized plane wave is normally incident. (e) Electric field of the reflected light at the wavelength of 1127 nm, plotted in a polar coordinate system (black solid dots). The phases of the black solid dots are marked with red solid dots on the same plots to show them clearly. The dots, when plotted clockwise starting from 189°, correspond to the data when VGold = [-4, −3, −2, −1, 0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, 0.6, 0.7, 0.8, 0.9, 1, 2, 3, 4] V. (f) Distribution of the electric field’s x component in the resonator at the wavelength of 1127 nm when VGold = 4 V. (g) The same distribution when VGold = −4 V.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Calculated reflectance and (b) phase shift for the 2-D periodic array of active tunable resonators with diameter (dSi) in the range of 90 ~140 nm and with VGold ranging from −4 to 4 V, with a step of 1 V. The periodic distance of the resonator (Λx = Λy) for each dSi is determined at the resonance condition of the resonator.

Equations (2)

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Δ ω r ω r 0 V { ( Δ ε E ) E 0 * + ( Δ μ H ) H 0 * } d V V ( ε | E 0 | 2 + μ | H 0 | 2 ) d V
ε = ε ω p 2 ω 2 + i Γ ω

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