Abstract

The responses of a polymer ridge waveguide Young interferometer with and without a bilayer of Al2O3/TiO2, fabricated by atomic layer deposition, are studied and compared when applied as an aqueous chemical sensor. The phase shift of the guided mode, as a result of the change in refractive index of the cover medium, is monitored. The results indicate that the over-coating affects the linearity of the sensor response. The effect of concentration on the linearity of the sensor response is investigated by applying different concentrations of water-ethanol solution. Although the performance of the sensor is improved by the additional layers, the study reveals a non-monotonic behavior of the device. We show that it comes mainly from the adsorption of ethanol molecules on the surface of the films. Such an understanding of the platform is crucial for sensing of analytes involving polar molecules.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]

2016 (3)

2015 (2)

C. Marichy, N. Donato, M. Latino, M. G. Willinger, J. P. Tessonnier, G. Neri, and N. Pinna, “Gas sensing properties and p-type response of ALD TiO2 coated carbon nanotubes,” Nanotechnol. 26, 024004 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. C. Ramirez, L. M. Lechuga, L. H. Gabrielli, and H. G. Hernandez-Figueroa, “Study of a low-cost trimodal polymer waveguide for interferometric optical biosensors,” Opt. Express 23, 11985–11994 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (5)

M. Demir, Ö. Barin, I. Karaduman, E. Yildiz, and S. Acar, “Low concentration of CO gas sensor by atomic layer deposition,” J. Phys. Sci. Appl. 4, 488–492 (2014).

J. Bai and B. Zhou, “Titanium Dioxide Nanomaterials for Sensor Applications,” Chem. Rev. 114, 10131–10176 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Häyrinen, M. Roussey, V. Gandhi, P. Stenberg, A. Säynätjoki, L. Karvonen, M. Kuittinen, and S. Honkanen, “Low-loss titanium dioxide strip waveguides fabricated by atomic layer deposition,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32, 208–212 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Hiltunen, J. Hiltunen, P. Stenberg, S. Aikio, L. Kurki, P. Vahimaa, and P. Karioja, “Polymeric slot waveguide interferometer for sensor applications,” Opt. Express 22, 7229–7237 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Hirvikorpi, R. Laine, M. Vähä-Nissi, V. Kilpi, E. Salo, W. Li, S. Lindfors, J. Vartiainen, E. Kenttä, J. Nikkola, A. Harlin, and J. Kostamo, “Barrier properties of plastic films coated with an Al2O3 layer by roll-to-toll atomic layer deposition,” Thin Solid Films 550, 164–169 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

J. Hiltunen, A. Kokkonen, J. Puustinen, M. Hiltunen, and J. Lappalainen, “UV-imprinted single-mode waveguides with low loss at visible wavelength,” IEEE Phot. Technol. Lett. 25, 996–998 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. Stenberg, M. Roussey, P. Ryczkowski, G. Genty, S. Honkanen, and M. Kuittinen, “A merged photonic crystal slot waveguide embedded in ALD-TiO2,” Opt. Express 21, 24154–24162 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (3)

M. Wang, J. Hiltunen, C. Liedert, S. Pearce, M. Charlton, L. Hakalahti, P. Karioja, and R. Myllylä, “Highly sensitive biosensor based on UV-imprinted layered polymeric-inorganic composite waveguides,” Opt. Express 20, 20309–20317 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Passaro, C. De Tullio, B. Troia, M. La Notte, G. Giannoccaro, and F. De Leonardis, “Recent advances in integrated photonic sensors,” Sensors 12, 15558–15598 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Cosentino, Q. Tan, M. Roussey, and H. P. Herzig, “Refractive index sensor based on slot waveguide cavity,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc.:RP 7, 12039 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

G. K. Hyde, S. M. Stewart, G. Scarel, G. N. Parsons, C. Shih, C. Shih, S. Lin, Y. Su, N. A. Monteiro-Riviere, and R. A. Narayan, “Atomic Layer Deposition of Titania on Cellulose Acetate for Enhanced Hemostasis,” Biotechnol J. 6, 213–223 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Roh, T. Chung, and B. Lee, “Overview of the Characteristics of Micro- and Nano-Structured Surface Plasmon Resonance Sensors,” Sensors 11, 1565–1588 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. Hirvikorpi, M. Vaha-Nissi, J. Nikkola, A. Harlin, and M. Karppinen, “Thin Al2O3 Barrier Coatings onto Temerature-Sensitive Packaging Materials by Atomic Layer Deposition,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 205, 5088–5092 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (4)

M. D. Stephens, G. Yuan, K. L. Lear, and D. S. Dandy, “Optical and physical characterization of a local evanescent array coupled biosensor: Use of evanescent field perturbations for multianalyte sensing,” Sens. Actuators. B Chem. 145, 769–774 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. K. Hyde, G. Scarel, J. C. Spagnola, Q. Peng, K. Lee, B. Gong, K. G. Roberts, K. M. Roth, C. A. Hanson, C. K. Devine, S. M. Stewart, D. Hojo, J. S. Na, J. S. Jur, and G. N. Parsons, “Atomic Layer Deposition and Abrupt Wetting Transitions on Nonwoven Poly-propylene and Woven Cotton Fabrics,” Langmuir 26, 2550–2558 (2010).
[Crossref]

R. Bruck and R. Hainberger, “Efficient coupling of narrow beams into polyimide waveguides by means of grating couplers with high-index coating,” Appl. Opt. 49, 1972–1978 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Alasaarela, T. Saastamoinen, J. Hiltunen, A. Säynätjoki, A. Tervonen, P. Stenberg, M. Kuittinen, and S. Honkanen, “Atomic layer deposited titanium dioxide and its application in resonant waveguide grating,” Appl. Opt. 49, 4321–4325 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (7)

Q. Liu and K. S. Chiang, “Refractive-index sensor based on long-range surface plasmon mode excitation with long-period waveguide grating,” Opt. Express 17, 7933–7942 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Hiltunen, M. Hiltunen, J. Puustinen, J. Lappalainen, and P. Karioja, “Fabrication of optical waveguides by imprinting: Usage of positive tone resist as a mould for UV-curable polymer,” Opt. Express,  17, 22813–22822 (2009).
[Crossref]

C. Barrios, “Optical Slot-Waveguide Based Biochemical Sensors,” Sensors 9, 4751–4765 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Mukundan, A. S. Anderson, W. K. Grace, K. M. Grace, N. Hartman, J. S. Martinez, and B. I. Swanson, “Waveguide-based biosensors for pathogen detection,” Sensors 9, 5783–5809 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Kashyap and G. Nemova, “Surface plasmon resonance-based fiber and planar waveguide sensors,” J. Sensors 2009, 1–9 (2009).
[Crossref]

R. G. Narayan, N. A. Monteiro-Riviere, R. L. Brigmon, M. J. Pellin, and J. W. Elam, “Atomic layer deposition of TiO2 thin films on nanoporous alumina templates: Medical applications,” JOM 61, 12–16 (2009).
[Crossref]

L. Yao, M. Zheng, H. Li, L. Ma, and W. Shen, “High-performance humidity sensors based on high-field anodized porous alumina films,” Nanotechnol. 20, 395501 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

H. Zhang, B. Chen, J. F. Banfield, and G. A. Waychunas, “Atomic structure of nanometer-sized amorphous TiO2,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 214106 (2008).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

R. L. Puurunen, “Surface chemistry of atomic layer deposition: A case study for the trimethylaluminum/water process,” J. Appl. Phys. 97, 121301 (2005).
[Crossref]

Z. Chen and C. Lu, “Humidity sensors: A review of materials and mechanisms,” Sensors Lett. 3, 274–295 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

V. Pore, A. Rahtu, M. Leskelä, M. Ritala, T. Sajavaara, and J. Keinonen, “Atomic layer deposition of photocatalytic TiO2 thin films from titanium tetramethoxide and water,” Chem. Vapor Deposition 10, 143–148 (2004).
[Crossref]

2002 (2)

E. Dickey, O. Varghese, K. Ong, D. Gong, M. Paulose, and C. Grimes, “Room Temperature Ammonia and Humidity Sensing Using Highly Ordered Nanoporous Alumina Films,” Sensors 2, 91–110 (2002).
[Crossref]

J. Aarika, A. Aidlaa, T. Uustarea, K. Kuklib, V. Sammelselgc, M. Ritalad, and M. Leskeläd, “Atomic layer deposition of TiO2 thin films from TiI4 and H2O,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 193, 277–286 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

G. D. Wilk, R. M. Wallace, and J. M. Anthony, “High-k gate dielectrics: Current status and materials properties considerations,” J. Appl. Phys. 89, 5243–5275 (2001).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

Aarika, J.

J. Aarika, A. Aidlaa, T. Uustarea, K. Kuklib, V. Sammelselgc, M. Ritalad, and M. Leskeläd, “Atomic layer deposition of TiO2 thin films from TiI4 and H2O,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 193, 277–286 (2002).
[Crossref]

Acar, S.

M. Demir, Ö. Barin, I. Karaduman, E. Yildiz, and S. Acar, “Low concentration of CO gas sensor by atomic layer deposition,” J. Phys. Sci. Appl. 4, 488–492 (2014).

Ahmadi, L.

Aidlaa, A.

J. Aarika, A. Aidlaa, T. Uustarea, K. Kuklib, V. Sammelselgc, M. Ritalad, and M. Leskeläd, “Atomic layer deposition of TiO2 thin films from TiI4 and H2O,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 193, 277–286 (2002).
[Crossref]

Aikio, S.

Alasaarela, T.

Anderson, A. S.

H. Mukundan, A. S. Anderson, W. K. Grace, K. M. Grace, N. Hartman, J. S. Martinez, and B. I. Swanson, “Waveguide-based biosensors for pathogen detection,” Sensors 9, 5783–5809 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Anthony, J. M.

G. D. Wilk, R. M. Wallace, and J. M. Anthony, “High-k gate dielectrics: Current status and materials properties considerations,” J. Appl. Phys. 89, 5243–5275 (2001).
[Crossref]

Bai, J.

J. Bai and B. Zhou, “Titanium Dioxide Nanomaterials for Sensor Applications,” Chem. Rev. 114, 10131–10176 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Banfield, J. F.

H. Zhang, B. Chen, J. F. Banfield, and G. A. Waychunas, “Atomic structure of nanometer-sized amorphous TiO2,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 214106 (2008).
[Crossref]

Barin, Ö.

M. Demir, Ö. Barin, I. Karaduman, E. Yildiz, and S. Acar, “Low concentration of CO gas sensor by atomic layer deposition,” J. Phys. Sci. Appl. 4, 488–492 (2014).

Barrios, C.

C. Barrios, “Optical Slot-Waveguide Based Biochemical Sensors,” Sensors 9, 4751–4765 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brigmon, R. L.

R. G. Narayan, N. A. Monteiro-Riviere, R. L. Brigmon, M. J. Pellin, and J. W. Elam, “Atomic layer deposition of TiO2 thin films on nanoporous alumina templates: Medical applications,” JOM 61, 12–16 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bruck, R.

Charlton, M.

Chen, B.

H. Zhang, B. Chen, J. F. Banfield, and G. A. Waychunas, “Atomic structure of nanometer-sized amorphous TiO2,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 214106 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chen, Z.

Z. Chen and C. Lu, “Humidity sensors: A review of materials and mechanisms,” Sensors Lett. 3, 274–295 (2005).
[Crossref]

Chiang, K. S.

Chung, T.

S. Roh, T. Chung, and B. Lee, “Overview of the Characteristics of Micro- and Nano-Structured Surface Plasmon Resonance Sensors,” Sensors 11, 1565–1588 (2011).
[Crossref]

Cosentino, A.

A. Cosentino, Q. Tan, M. Roussey, and H. P. Herzig, “Refractive index sensor based on slot waveguide cavity,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc.:RP 7, 12039 (2012).
[Crossref]

Dandy, D. S.

M. D. Stephens, G. Yuan, K. L. Lear, and D. S. Dandy, “Optical and physical characterization of a local evanescent array coupled biosensor: Use of evanescent field perturbations for multianalyte sensing,” Sens. Actuators. B Chem. 145, 769–774 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

De Leonardis, F.

V. Passaro, C. De Tullio, B. Troia, M. La Notte, G. Giannoccaro, and F. De Leonardis, “Recent advances in integrated photonic sensors,” Sensors 12, 15558–15598 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

De Tullio, C.

V. Passaro, C. De Tullio, B. Troia, M. La Notte, G. Giannoccaro, and F. De Leonardis, “Recent advances in integrated photonic sensors,” Sensors 12, 15558–15598 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Demir, M.

M. Demir, Ö. Barin, I. Karaduman, E. Yildiz, and S. Acar, “Low concentration of CO gas sensor by atomic layer deposition,” J. Phys. Sci. Appl. 4, 488–492 (2014).

Devine, C. K.

G. K. Hyde, G. Scarel, J. C. Spagnola, Q. Peng, K. Lee, B. Gong, K. G. Roberts, K. M. Roth, C. A. Hanson, C. K. Devine, S. M. Stewart, D. Hojo, J. S. Na, J. S. Jur, and G. N. Parsons, “Atomic Layer Deposition and Abrupt Wetting Transitions on Nonwoven Poly-propylene and Woven Cotton Fabrics,” Langmuir 26, 2550–2558 (2010).
[Crossref]

Dickey, E.

E. Dickey, O. Varghese, K. Ong, D. Gong, M. Paulose, and C. Grimes, “Room Temperature Ammonia and Humidity Sensing Using Highly Ordered Nanoporous Alumina Films,” Sensors 2, 91–110 (2002).
[Crossref]

Donato, N.

C. Marichy, N. Donato, M. Latino, M. G. Willinger, J. P. Tessonnier, G. Neri, and N. Pinna, “Gas sensing properties and p-type response of ALD TiO2 coated carbon nanotubes,” Nanotechnol. 26, 024004 (2015).
[Crossref]

Elam, J. W.

R. G. Narayan, N. A. Monteiro-Riviere, R. L. Brigmon, M. J. Pellin, and J. W. Elam, “Atomic layer deposition of TiO2 thin films on nanoporous alumina templates: Medical applications,” JOM 61, 12–16 (2009).
[Crossref]

Evans, C. C.

C. C. Evans, C. Liu, and J. Suntivich, “TiO2 nanophotonic sensors for efficient integrated evanescent Raman spectroscopy,” ACS Photonics 3, 1662–1669 (2016).
[Crossref]

Gabrielli, L. H.

Gandhi, V.

Genty, G.

Giannoccaro, G.

V. Passaro, C. De Tullio, B. Troia, M. La Notte, G. Giannoccaro, and F. De Leonardis, “Recent advances in integrated photonic sensors,” Sensors 12, 15558–15598 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gong, B.

G. K. Hyde, G. Scarel, J. C. Spagnola, Q. Peng, K. Lee, B. Gong, K. G. Roberts, K. M. Roth, C. A. Hanson, C. K. Devine, S. M. Stewart, D. Hojo, J. S. Na, J. S. Jur, and G. N. Parsons, “Atomic Layer Deposition and Abrupt Wetting Transitions on Nonwoven Poly-propylene and Woven Cotton Fabrics,” Langmuir 26, 2550–2558 (2010).
[Crossref]

Gong, D.

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H. Mukundan, A. S. Anderson, W. K. Grace, K. M. Grace, N. Hartman, J. S. Martinez, and B. I. Swanson, “Waveguide-based biosensors for pathogen detection,” Sensors 9, 5783–5809 (2009).
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T. Hirvikorpi, M. Vaha-Nissi, J. Nikkola, A. Harlin, and M. Karppinen, “Thin Al2O3 Barrier Coatings onto Temerature-Sensitive Packaging Materials by Atomic Layer Deposition,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 205, 5088–5092 (2011).
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H. Mukundan, A. S. Anderson, W. K. Grace, K. M. Grace, N. Hartman, J. S. Martinez, and B. I. Swanson, “Waveguide-based biosensors for pathogen detection,” Sensors 9, 5783–5809 (2009).
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T. Hirvikorpi, R. Laine, M. Vähä-Nissi, V. Kilpi, E. Salo, W. Li, S. Lindfors, J. Vartiainen, E. Kenttä, J. Nikkola, A. Harlin, and J. Kostamo, “Barrier properties of plastic films coated with an Al2O3 layer by roll-to-toll atomic layer deposition,” Thin Solid Films 550, 164–169 (2014).
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T. Hirvikorpi, M. Vaha-Nissi, J. Nikkola, A. Harlin, and M. Karppinen, “Thin Al2O3 Barrier Coatings onto Temerature-Sensitive Packaging Materials by Atomic Layer Deposition,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 205, 5088–5092 (2011).
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G. K. Hyde, G. Scarel, J. C. Spagnola, Q. Peng, K. Lee, B. Gong, K. G. Roberts, K. M. Roth, C. A. Hanson, C. K. Devine, S. M. Stewart, D. Hojo, J. S. Na, J. S. Jur, and G. N. Parsons, “Atomic Layer Deposition and Abrupt Wetting Transitions on Nonwoven Poly-propylene and Woven Cotton Fabrics,” Langmuir 26, 2550–2558 (2010).
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G. K. Hyde, S. M. Stewart, G. Scarel, G. N. Parsons, C. Shih, C. Shih, S. Lin, Y. Su, N. A. Monteiro-Riviere, and R. A. Narayan, “Atomic Layer Deposition of Titania on Cellulose Acetate for Enhanced Hemostasis,” Biotechnol J. 6, 213–223 (2011).
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G. K. Hyde, G. Scarel, J. C. Spagnola, Q. Peng, K. Lee, B. Gong, K. G. Roberts, K. M. Roth, C. A. Hanson, C. K. Devine, S. M. Stewart, D. Hojo, J. S. Na, J. S. Jur, and G. N. Parsons, “Atomic Layer Deposition and Abrupt Wetting Transitions on Nonwoven Poly-propylene and Woven Cotton Fabrics,” Langmuir 26, 2550–2558 (2010).
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Karioja, P.

Karppinen, M.

T. Hirvikorpi, M. Vaha-Nissi, J. Nikkola, A. Harlin, and M. Karppinen, “Thin Al2O3 Barrier Coatings onto Temerature-Sensitive Packaging Materials by Atomic Layer Deposition,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 205, 5088–5092 (2011).
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V. Pore, A. Rahtu, M. Leskelä, M. Ritala, T. Sajavaara, and J. Keinonen, “Atomic layer deposition of photocatalytic TiO2 thin films from titanium tetramethoxide and water,” Chem. Vapor Deposition 10, 143–148 (2004).
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T. Hirvikorpi, R. Laine, M. Vähä-Nissi, V. Kilpi, E. Salo, W. Li, S. Lindfors, J. Vartiainen, E. Kenttä, J. Nikkola, A. Harlin, and J. Kostamo, “Barrier properties of plastic films coated with an Al2O3 layer by roll-to-toll atomic layer deposition,” Thin Solid Films 550, 164–169 (2014).
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T. Hirvikorpi, R. Laine, M. Vähä-Nissi, V. Kilpi, E. Salo, W. Li, S. Lindfors, J. Vartiainen, E. Kenttä, J. Nikkola, A. Harlin, and J. Kostamo, “Barrier properties of plastic films coated with an Al2O3 layer by roll-to-toll atomic layer deposition,” Thin Solid Films 550, 164–169 (2014).
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J. Hiltunen, A. Kokkonen, J. Puustinen, M. Hiltunen, and J. Lappalainen, “UV-imprinted single-mode waveguides with low loss at visible wavelength,” IEEE Phot. Technol. Lett. 25, 996–998 (2013).
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Kostamo, J.

T. Hirvikorpi, R. Laine, M. Vähä-Nissi, V. Kilpi, E. Salo, W. Li, S. Lindfors, J. Vartiainen, E. Kenttä, J. Nikkola, A. Harlin, and J. Kostamo, “Barrier properties of plastic films coated with an Al2O3 layer by roll-to-toll atomic layer deposition,” Thin Solid Films 550, 164–169 (2014).
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Kuklib, K.

J. Aarika, A. Aidlaa, T. Uustarea, K. Kuklib, V. Sammelselgc, M. Ritalad, and M. Leskeläd, “Atomic layer deposition of TiO2 thin films from TiI4 and H2O,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 193, 277–286 (2002).
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La Notte, M.

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J. Hiltunen, A. Kokkonen, J. Puustinen, M. Hiltunen, and J. Lappalainen, “UV-imprinted single-mode waveguides with low loss at visible wavelength,” IEEE Phot. Technol. Lett. 25, 996–998 (2013).
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J. Hiltunen, M. Hiltunen, J. Puustinen, J. Lappalainen, and P. Karioja, “Fabrication of optical waveguides by imprinting: Usage of positive tone resist as a mould for UV-curable polymer,” Opt. Express,  17, 22813–22822 (2009).
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C. Marichy, N. Donato, M. Latino, M. G. Willinger, J. P. Tessonnier, G. Neri, and N. Pinna, “Gas sensing properties and p-type response of ALD TiO2 coated carbon nanotubes,” Nanotechnol. 26, 024004 (2015).
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G. K. Hyde, G. Scarel, J. C. Spagnola, Q. Peng, K. Lee, B. Gong, K. G. Roberts, K. M. Roth, C. A. Hanson, C. K. Devine, S. M. Stewart, D. Hojo, J. S. Na, J. S. Jur, and G. N. Parsons, “Atomic Layer Deposition and Abrupt Wetting Transitions on Nonwoven Poly-propylene and Woven Cotton Fabrics,” Langmuir 26, 2550–2558 (2010).
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V. Pore, A. Rahtu, M. Leskelä, M. Ritala, T. Sajavaara, and J. Keinonen, “Atomic layer deposition of photocatalytic TiO2 thin films from titanium tetramethoxide and water,” Chem. Vapor Deposition 10, 143–148 (2004).
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J. Aarika, A. Aidlaa, T. Uustarea, K. Kuklib, V. Sammelselgc, M. Ritalad, and M. Leskeläd, “Atomic layer deposition of TiO2 thin films from TiI4 and H2O,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 193, 277–286 (2002).
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L. Yao, M. Zheng, H. Li, L. Ma, and W. Shen, “High-performance humidity sensors based on high-field anodized porous alumina films,” Nanotechnol. 20, 395501 (2009).
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Li, W.

T. Hirvikorpi, R. Laine, M. Vähä-Nissi, V. Kilpi, E. Salo, W. Li, S. Lindfors, J. Vartiainen, E. Kenttä, J. Nikkola, A. Harlin, and J. Kostamo, “Barrier properties of plastic films coated with an Al2O3 layer by roll-to-toll atomic layer deposition,” Thin Solid Films 550, 164–169 (2014).
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Lin, S.

G. K. Hyde, S. M. Stewart, G. Scarel, G. N. Parsons, C. Shih, C. Shih, S. Lin, Y. Su, N. A. Monteiro-Riviere, and R. A. Narayan, “Atomic Layer Deposition of Titania on Cellulose Acetate for Enhanced Hemostasis,” Biotechnol J. 6, 213–223 (2011).
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T. Hirvikorpi, R. Laine, M. Vähä-Nissi, V. Kilpi, E. Salo, W. Li, S. Lindfors, J. Vartiainen, E. Kenttä, J. Nikkola, A. Harlin, and J. Kostamo, “Barrier properties of plastic films coated with an Al2O3 layer by roll-to-toll atomic layer deposition,” Thin Solid Films 550, 164–169 (2014).
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C. Marichy, N. Donato, M. Latino, M. G. Willinger, J. P. Tessonnier, G. Neri, and N. Pinna, “Gas sensing properties and p-type response of ALD TiO2 coated carbon nanotubes,” Nanotechnol. 26, 024004 (2015).
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Martinez, J. S.

H. Mukundan, A. S. Anderson, W. K. Grace, K. M. Grace, N. Hartman, J. S. Martinez, and B. I. Swanson, “Waveguide-based biosensors for pathogen detection,” Sensors 9, 5783–5809 (2009).
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G. K. Hyde, S. M. Stewart, G. Scarel, G. N. Parsons, C. Shih, C. Shih, S. Lin, Y. Su, N. A. Monteiro-Riviere, and R. A. Narayan, “Atomic Layer Deposition of Titania on Cellulose Acetate for Enhanced Hemostasis,” Biotechnol J. 6, 213–223 (2011).
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R. G. Narayan, N. A. Monteiro-Riviere, R. L. Brigmon, M. J. Pellin, and J. W. Elam, “Atomic layer deposition of TiO2 thin films on nanoporous alumina templates: Medical applications,” JOM 61, 12–16 (2009).
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Mukundan, H.

H. Mukundan, A. S. Anderson, W. K. Grace, K. M. Grace, N. Hartman, J. S. Martinez, and B. I. Swanson, “Waveguide-based biosensors for pathogen detection,” Sensors 9, 5783–5809 (2009).
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Myllylä, R.

Na, J. S.

G. K. Hyde, G. Scarel, J. C. Spagnola, Q. Peng, K. Lee, B. Gong, K. G. Roberts, K. M. Roth, C. A. Hanson, C. K. Devine, S. M. Stewart, D. Hojo, J. S. Na, J. S. Jur, and G. N. Parsons, “Atomic Layer Deposition and Abrupt Wetting Transitions on Nonwoven Poly-propylene and Woven Cotton Fabrics,” Langmuir 26, 2550–2558 (2010).
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G. K. Hyde, S. M. Stewart, G. Scarel, G. N. Parsons, C. Shih, C. Shih, S. Lin, Y. Su, N. A. Monteiro-Riviere, and R. A. Narayan, “Atomic Layer Deposition of Titania on Cellulose Acetate for Enhanced Hemostasis,” Biotechnol J. 6, 213–223 (2011).
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Narayan, R. G.

R. G. Narayan, N. A. Monteiro-Riviere, R. L. Brigmon, M. J. Pellin, and J. W. Elam, “Atomic layer deposition of TiO2 thin films on nanoporous alumina templates: Medical applications,” JOM 61, 12–16 (2009).
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R. Kashyap and G. Nemova, “Surface plasmon resonance-based fiber and planar waveguide sensors,” J. Sensors 2009, 1–9 (2009).
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C. Marichy, N. Donato, M. Latino, M. G. Willinger, J. P. Tessonnier, G. Neri, and N. Pinna, “Gas sensing properties and p-type response of ALD TiO2 coated carbon nanotubes,” Nanotechnol. 26, 024004 (2015).
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Nikkola, J.

T. Hirvikorpi, R. Laine, M. Vähä-Nissi, V. Kilpi, E. Salo, W. Li, S. Lindfors, J. Vartiainen, E. Kenttä, J. Nikkola, A. Harlin, and J. Kostamo, “Barrier properties of plastic films coated with an Al2O3 layer by roll-to-toll atomic layer deposition,” Thin Solid Films 550, 164–169 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Hirvikorpi, M. Vaha-Nissi, J. Nikkola, A. Harlin, and M. Karppinen, “Thin Al2O3 Barrier Coatings onto Temerature-Sensitive Packaging Materials by Atomic Layer Deposition,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 205, 5088–5092 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ong, K.

E. Dickey, O. Varghese, K. Ong, D. Gong, M. Paulose, and C. Grimes, “Room Temperature Ammonia and Humidity Sensing Using Highly Ordered Nanoporous Alumina Films,” Sensors 2, 91–110 (2002).
[Crossref]

Parsons, G. N.

G. K. Hyde, S. M. Stewart, G. Scarel, G. N. Parsons, C. Shih, C. Shih, S. Lin, Y. Su, N. A. Monteiro-Riviere, and R. A. Narayan, “Atomic Layer Deposition of Titania on Cellulose Acetate for Enhanced Hemostasis,” Biotechnol J. 6, 213–223 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. K. Hyde, G. Scarel, J. C. Spagnola, Q. Peng, K. Lee, B. Gong, K. G. Roberts, K. M. Roth, C. A. Hanson, C. K. Devine, S. M. Stewart, D. Hojo, J. S. Na, J. S. Jur, and G. N. Parsons, “Atomic Layer Deposition and Abrupt Wetting Transitions on Nonwoven Poly-propylene and Woven Cotton Fabrics,” Langmuir 26, 2550–2558 (2010).
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V. Passaro, C. De Tullio, B. Troia, M. La Notte, G. Giannoccaro, and F. De Leonardis, “Recent advances in integrated photonic sensors,” Sensors 12, 15558–15598 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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E. Dickey, O. Varghese, K. Ong, D. Gong, M. Paulose, and C. Grimes, “Room Temperature Ammonia and Humidity Sensing Using Highly Ordered Nanoporous Alumina Films,” Sensors 2, 91–110 (2002).
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Pearce, S.

Pellin, M. J.

R. G. Narayan, N. A. Monteiro-Riviere, R. L. Brigmon, M. J. Pellin, and J. W. Elam, “Atomic layer deposition of TiO2 thin films on nanoporous alumina templates: Medical applications,” JOM 61, 12–16 (2009).
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Peng, Q.

G. K. Hyde, G. Scarel, J. C. Spagnola, Q. Peng, K. Lee, B. Gong, K. G. Roberts, K. M. Roth, C. A. Hanson, C. K. Devine, S. M. Stewart, D. Hojo, J. S. Na, J. S. Jur, and G. N. Parsons, “Atomic Layer Deposition and Abrupt Wetting Transitions on Nonwoven Poly-propylene and Woven Cotton Fabrics,” Langmuir 26, 2550–2558 (2010).
[Crossref]

Pinna, N.

C. Marichy, N. Donato, M. Latino, M. G. Willinger, J. P. Tessonnier, G. Neri, and N. Pinna, “Gas sensing properties and p-type response of ALD TiO2 coated carbon nanotubes,” Nanotechnol. 26, 024004 (2015).
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Pore, V.

V. Pore, A. Rahtu, M. Leskelä, M. Ritala, T. Sajavaara, and J. Keinonen, “Atomic layer deposition of photocatalytic TiO2 thin films from titanium tetramethoxide and water,” Chem. Vapor Deposition 10, 143–148 (2004).
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Rahtu, A.

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Ramirez, J. C.

Ritala, M.

V. Pore, A. Rahtu, M. Leskelä, M. Ritala, T. Sajavaara, and J. Keinonen, “Atomic layer deposition of photocatalytic TiO2 thin films from titanium tetramethoxide and water,” Chem. Vapor Deposition 10, 143–148 (2004).
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Ritalad, M.

J. Aarika, A. Aidlaa, T. Uustarea, K. Kuklib, V. Sammelselgc, M. Ritalad, and M. Leskeläd, “Atomic layer deposition of TiO2 thin films from TiI4 and H2O,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 193, 277–286 (2002).
[Crossref]

Roberts, K. G.

G. K. Hyde, G. Scarel, J. C. Spagnola, Q. Peng, K. Lee, B. Gong, K. G. Roberts, K. M. Roth, C. A. Hanson, C. K. Devine, S. M. Stewart, D. Hojo, J. S. Na, J. S. Jur, and G. N. Parsons, “Atomic Layer Deposition and Abrupt Wetting Transitions on Nonwoven Poly-propylene and Woven Cotton Fabrics,” Langmuir 26, 2550–2558 (2010).
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S. Roh, T. Chung, and B. Lee, “Overview of the Characteristics of Micro- and Nano-Structured Surface Plasmon Resonance Sensors,” Sensors 11, 1565–1588 (2011).
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Roth, K. M.

G. K. Hyde, G. Scarel, J. C. Spagnola, Q. Peng, K. Lee, B. Gong, K. G. Roberts, K. M. Roth, C. A. Hanson, C. K. Devine, S. M. Stewart, D. Hojo, J. S. Na, J. S. Jur, and G. N. Parsons, “Atomic Layer Deposition and Abrupt Wetting Transitions on Nonwoven Poly-propylene and Woven Cotton Fabrics,” Langmuir 26, 2550–2558 (2010).
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Roussey, M.

Ryczkowski, P.

Saarinen, J.

Saastamoinen, T.

Sajavaara, T.

V. Pore, A. Rahtu, M. Leskelä, M. Ritala, T. Sajavaara, and J. Keinonen, “Atomic layer deposition of photocatalytic TiO2 thin films from titanium tetramethoxide and water,” Chem. Vapor Deposition 10, 143–148 (2004).
[Crossref]

Salo, E.

T. Hirvikorpi, R. Laine, M. Vähä-Nissi, V. Kilpi, E. Salo, W. Li, S. Lindfors, J. Vartiainen, E. Kenttä, J. Nikkola, A. Harlin, and J. Kostamo, “Barrier properties of plastic films coated with an Al2O3 layer by roll-to-toll atomic layer deposition,” Thin Solid Films 550, 164–169 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sammelselgc, V.

J. Aarika, A. Aidlaa, T. Uustarea, K. Kuklib, V. Sammelselgc, M. Ritalad, and M. Leskeläd, “Atomic layer deposition of TiO2 thin films from TiI4 and H2O,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 193, 277–286 (2002).
[Crossref]

Säynätjoki, A.

Scarel, G.

G. K. Hyde, S. M. Stewart, G. Scarel, G. N. Parsons, C. Shih, C. Shih, S. Lin, Y. Su, N. A. Monteiro-Riviere, and R. A. Narayan, “Atomic Layer Deposition of Titania on Cellulose Acetate for Enhanced Hemostasis,” Biotechnol J. 6, 213–223 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. K. Hyde, G. Scarel, J. C. Spagnola, Q. Peng, K. Lee, B. Gong, K. G. Roberts, K. M. Roth, C. A. Hanson, C. K. Devine, S. M. Stewart, D. Hojo, J. S. Na, J. S. Jur, and G. N. Parsons, “Atomic Layer Deposition and Abrupt Wetting Transitions on Nonwoven Poly-propylene and Woven Cotton Fabrics,” Langmuir 26, 2550–2558 (2010).
[Crossref]

Shen, W.

L. Yao, M. Zheng, H. Li, L. Ma, and W. Shen, “High-performance humidity sensors based on high-field anodized porous alumina films,” Nanotechnol. 20, 395501 (2009).
[Crossref]

Shih, C.

G. K. Hyde, S. M. Stewart, G. Scarel, G. N. Parsons, C. Shih, C. Shih, S. Lin, Y. Su, N. A. Monteiro-Riviere, and R. A. Narayan, “Atomic Layer Deposition of Titania on Cellulose Acetate for Enhanced Hemostasis,” Biotechnol J. 6, 213–223 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. K. Hyde, S. M. Stewart, G. Scarel, G. N. Parsons, C. Shih, C. Shih, S. Lin, Y. Su, N. A. Monteiro-Riviere, and R. A. Narayan, “Atomic Layer Deposition of Titania on Cellulose Acetate for Enhanced Hemostasis,” Biotechnol J. 6, 213–223 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Siitonen, S.

Spagnola, J. C.

G. K. Hyde, G. Scarel, J. C. Spagnola, Q. Peng, K. Lee, B. Gong, K. G. Roberts, K. M. Roth, C. A. Hanson, C. K. Devine, S. M. Stewart, D. Hojo, J. S. Na, J. S. Jur, and G. N. Parsons, “Atomic Layer Deposition and Abrupt Wetting Transitions on Nonwoven Poly-propylene and Woven Cotton Fabrics,” Langmuir 26, 2550–2558 (2010).
[Crossref]

Stenberg, P.

Stephens, M. D.

M. D. Stephens, G. Yuan, K. L. Lear, and D. S. Dandy, “Optical and physical characterization of a local evanescent array coupled biosensor: Use of evanescent field perturbations for multianalyte sensing,” Sens. Actuators. B Chem. 145, 769–774 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stewart, S. M.

G. K. Hyde, S. M. Stewart, G. Scarel, G. N. Parsons, C. Shih, C. Shih, S. Lin, Y. Su, N. A. Monteiro-Riviere, and R. A. Narayan, “Atomic Layer Deposition of Titania on Cellulose Acetate for Enhanced Hemostasis,” Biotechnol J. 6, 213–223 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. K. Hyde, G. Scarel, J. C. Spagnola, Q. Peng, K. Lee, B. Gong, K. G. Roberts, K. M. Roth, C. A. Hanson, C. K. Devine, S. M. Stewart, D. Hojo, J. S. Na, J. S. Jur, and G. N. Parsons, “Atomic Layer Deposition and Abrupt Wetting Transitions on Nonwoven Poly-propylene and Woven Cotton Fabrics,” Langmuir 26, 2550–2558 (2010).
[Crossref]

Su, Y.

G. K. Hyde, S. M. Stewart, G. Scarel, G. N. Parsons, C. Shih, C. Shih, S. Lin, Y. Su, N. A. Monteiro-Riviere, and R. A. Narayan, “Atomic Layer Deposition of Titania on Cellulose Acetate for Enhanced Hemostasis,” Biotechnol J. 6, 213–223 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Suntivich, J.

C. C. Evans, C. Liu, and J. Suntivich, “TiO2 nanophotonic sensors for efficient integrated evanescent Raman spectroscopy,” ACS Photonics 3, 1662–1669 (2016).
[Crossref]

Swanson, B. I.

H. Mukundan, A. S. Anderson, W. K. Grace, K. M. Grace, N. Hartman, J. S. Martinez, and B. I. Swanson, “Waveguide-based biosensors for pathogen detection,” Sensors 9, 5783–5809 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tan, Q.

A. Cosentino, Q. Tan, M. Roussey, and H. P. Herzig, “Refractive index sensor based on slot waveguide cavity,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc.:RP 7, 12039 (2012).
[Crossref]

Tervonen, A.

Tessonnier, J. P.

C. Marichy, N. Donato, M. Latino, M. G. Willinger, J. P. Tessonnier, G. Neri, and N. Pinna, “Gas sensing properties and p-type response of ALD TiO2 coated carbon nanotubes,” Nanotechnol. 26, 024004 (2015).
[Crossref]

Troia, B.

V. Passaro, C. De Tullio, B. Troia, M. La Notte, G. Giannoccaro, and F. De Leonardis, “Recent advances in integrated photonic sensors,” Sensors 12, 15558–15598 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Uustarea, T.

J. Aarika, A. Aidlaa, T. Uustarea, K. Kuklib, V. Sammelselgc, M. Ritalad, and M. Leskeläd, “Atomic layer deposition of TiO2 thin films from TiI4 and H2O,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 193, 277–286 (2002).
[Crossref]

Vaha-Nissi, M.

T. Hirvikorpi, M. Vaha-Nissi, J. Nikkola, A. Harlin, and M. Karppinen, “Thin Al2O3 Barrier Coatings onto Temerature-Sensitive Packaging Materials by Atomic Layer Deposition,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 205, 5088–5092 (2011).
[Crossref]

Vähä-Nissi, M.

T. Hirvikorpi, R. Laine, M. Vähä-Nissi, V. Kilpi, E. Salo, W. Li, S. Lindfors, J. Vartiainen, E. Kenttä, J. Nikkola, A. Harlin, and J. Kostamo, “Barrier properties of plastic films coated with an Al2O3 layer by roll-to-toll atomic layer deposition,” Thin Solid Films 550, 164–169 (2014).
[Crossref]

Vahimaa, P.

Varghese, O.

E. Dickey, O. Varghese, K. Ong, D. Gong, M. Paulose, and C. Grimes, “Room Temperature Ammonia and Humidity Sensing Using Highly Ordered Nanoporous Alumina Films,” Sensors 2, 91–110 (2002).
[Crossref]

Vartiainen, J.

T. Hirvikorpi, R. Laine, M. Vähä-Nissi, V. Kilpi, E. Salo, W. Li, S. Lindfors, J. Vartiainen, E. Kenttä, J. Nikkola, A. Harlin, and J. Kostamo, “Barrier properties of plastic films coated with an Al2O3 layer by roll-to-toll atomic layer deposition,” Thin Solid Films 550, 164–169 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wallace, R. M.

G. D. Wilk, R. M. Wallace, and J. M. Anthony, “High-k gate dielectrics: Current status and materials properties considerations,” J. Appl. Phys. 89, 5243–5275 (2001).
[Crossref]

Wang, M.

Waychunas, G. A.

H. Zhang, B. Chen, J. F. Banfield, and G. A. Waychunas, “Atomic structure of nanometer-sized amorphous TiO2,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 214106 (2008).
[Crossref]

Wilk, G. D.

G. D. Wilk, R. M. Wallace, and J. M. Anthony, “High-k gate dielectrics: Current status and materials properties considerations,” J. Appl. Phys. 89, 5243–5275 (2001).
[Crossref]

Willinger, M. G.

C. Marichy, N. Donato, M. Latino, M. G. Willinger, J. P. Tessonnier, G. Neri, and N. Pinna, “Gas sensing properties and p-type response of ALD TiO2 coated carbon nanotubes,” Nanotechnol. 26, 024004 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yao, L.

L. Yao, M. Zheng, H. Li, L. Ma, and W. Shen, “High-performance humidity sensors based on high-field anodized porous alumina films,” Nanotechnol. 20, 395501 (2009).
[Crossref]

Yildiz, E.

M. Demir, Ö. Barin, I. Karaduman, E. Yildiz, and S. Acar, “Low concentration of CO gas sensor by atomic layer deposition,” J. Phys. Sci. Appl. 4, 488–492 (2014).

Yuan, G.

M. D. Stephens, G. Yuan, K. L. Lear, and D. S. Dandy, “Optical and physical characterization of a local evanescent array coupled biosensor: Use of evanescent field perturbations for multianalyte sensing,” Sens. Actuators. B Chem. 145, 769–774 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, H.

H. Zhang, B. Chen, J. F. Banfield, and G. A. Waychunas, “Atomic structure of nanometer-sized amorphous TiO2,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 214106 (2008).
[Crossref]

Zheng, M.

L. Yao, M. Zheng, H. Li, L. Ma, and W. Shen, “High-performance humidity sensors based on high-field anodized porous alumina films,” Nanotechnol. 20, 395501 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zhou, B.

J. Bai and B. Zhou, “Titanium Dioxide Nanomaterials for Sensor Applications,” Chem. Rev. 114, 10131–10176 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

ACS Photonics (1)

C. C. Evans, C. Liu, and J. Suntivich, “TiO2 nanophotonic sensors for efficient integrated evanescent Raman spectroscopy,” ACS Photonics 3, 1662–1669 (2016).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Surf. Sci. (1)

J. Aarika, A. Aidlaa, T. Uustarea, K. Kuklib, V. Sammelselgc, M. Ritalad, and M. Leskeläd, “Atomic layer deposition of TiO2 thin films from TiI4 and H2O,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 193, 277–286 (2002).
[Crossref]

Biotechnol J. (1)

G. K. Hyde, S. M. Stewart, G. Scarel, G. N. Parsons, C. Shih, C. Shih, S. Lin, Y. Su, N. A. Monteiro-Riviere, and R. A. Narayan, “Atomic Layer Deposition of Titania on Cellulose Acetate for Enhanced Hemostasis,” Biotechnol J. 6, 213–223 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chem. Rev. (1)

J. Bai and B. Zhou, “Titanium Dioxide Nanomaterials for Sensor Applications,” Chem. Rev. 114, 10131–10176 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chem. Vapor Deposition (1)

V. Pore, A. Rahtu, M. Leskelä, M. Ritala, T. Sajavaara, and J. Keinonen, “Atomic layer deposition of photocatalytic TiO2 thin films from titanium tetramethoxide and water,” Chem. Vapor Deposition 10, 143–148 (2004).
[Crossref]

IEEE Phot. Technol. Lett. (1)

J. Hiltunen, A. Kokkonen, J. Puustinen, M. Hiltunen, and J. Lappalainen, “UV-imprinted single-mode waveguides with low loss at visible wavelength,” IEEE Phot. Technol. Lett. 25, 996–998 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

G. D. Wilk, R. M. Wallace, and J. M. Anthony, “High-k gate dielectrics: Current status and materials properties considerations,” J. Appl. Phys. 89, 5243–5275 (2001).
[Crossref]

R. L. Puurunen, “Surface chemistry of atomic layer deposition: A case study for the trimethylaluminum/water process,” J. Appl. Phys. 97, 121301 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Eur. Opt. Soc.:RP (1)

A. Cosentino, Q. Tan, M. Roussey, and H. P. Herzig, “Refractive index sensor based on slot waveguide cavity,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc.:RP 7, 12039 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Phys. Sci. Appl. (1)

M. Demir, Ö. Barin, I. Karaduman, E. Yildiz, and S. Acar, “Low concentration of CO gas sensor by atomic layer deposition,” J. Phys. Sci. Appl. 4, 488–492 (2014).

J. Sensors (1)

R. Kashyap and G. Nemova, “Surface plasmon resonance-based fiber and planar waveguide sensors,” J. Sensors 2009, 1–9 (2009).
[Crossref]

JOM (1)

R. G. Narayan, N. A. Monteiro-Riviere, R. L. Brigmon, M. J. Pellin, and J. W. Elam, “Atomic layer deposition of TiO2 thin films on nanoporous alumina templates: Medical applications,” JOM 61, 12–16 (2009).
[Crossref]

Langmuir (1)

G. K. Hyde, G. Scarel, J. C. Spagnola, Q. Peng, K. Lee, B. Gong, K. G. Roberts, K. M. Roth, C. A. Hanson, C. K. Devine, S. M. Stewart, D. Hojo, J. S. Na, J. S. Jur, and G. N. Parsons, “Atomic Layer Deposition and Abrupt Wetting Transitions on Nonwoven Poly-propylene and Woven Cotton Fabrics,” Langmuir 26, 2550–2558 (2010).
[Crossref]

Nanotechnol. (2)

L. Yao, M. Zheng, H. Li, L. Ma, and W. Shen, “High-performance humidity sensors based on high-field anodized porous alumina films,” Nanotechnol. 20, 395501 (2009).
[Crossref]

C. Marichy, N. Donato, M. Latino, M. G. Willinger, J. P. Tessonnier, G. Neri, and N. Pinna, “Gas sensing properties and p-type response of ALD TiO2 coated carbon nanotubes,” Nanotechnol. 26, 024004 (2015).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (8)

J. Hiltunen, M. Hiltunen, J. Puustinen, J. Lappalainen, and P. Karioja, “Fabrication of optical waveguides by imprinting: Usage of positive tone resist as a mould for UV-curable polymer,” Opt. Express,  17, 22813–22822 (2009).
[Crossref]

P. Stenberg, M. Roussey, P. Ryczkowski, G. Genty, S. Honkanen, and M. Kuittinen, “A merged photonic crystal slot waveguide embedded in ALD-TiO2,” Opt. Express 21, 24154–24162 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Hiltunen, J. Hiltunen, P. Stenberg, S. Aikio, L. Kurki, P. Vahimaa, and P. Karioja, “Polymeric slot waveguide interferometer for sensor applications,” Opt. Express 22, 7229–7237 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Liu and K. S. Chiang, “Refractive-index sensor based on long-range surface plasmon mode excitation with long-period waveguide grating,” Opt. Express 17, 7933–7942 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Ahmadi, M. Hiltunen, P. Stenberg, J. Hiltunen, S. Aikio, M. Roussey, J. Saarinen, and S. Honkanen, “Hybrid layered polymer slot waveguide Young interferometer,” Opt. Express 24, 10275–10285 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Aikio, J. Hiltunen, J. Hiitola-Keinänen, M. Hiltunen, V. Kontturi, S. Siitonen, J. Puustinen, and P. Karioja, “Disposable photonic integrated circuits for evanescent wave sensors by ultra-high volume roll-to-roll method,” Opt. Express 24, 2527–2541 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. C. Ramirez, L. M. Lechuga, L. H. Gabrielli, and H. G. Hernandez-Figueroa, “Study of a low-cost trimodal polymer waveguide for interferometric optical biosensors,” Opt. Express 23, 11985–11994 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Wang, J. Hiltunen, C. Liedert, S. Pearce, M. Charlton, L. Hakalahti, P. Karioja, and R. Myllylä, “Highly sensitive biosensor based on UV-imprinted layered polymeric-inorganic composite waveguides,” Opt. Express 20, 20309–20317 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

H. Zhang, B. Chen, J. F. Banfield, and G. A. Waychunas, “Atomic structure of nanometer-sized amorphous TiO2,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 214106 (2008).
[Crossref]

Sens. Actuators. B Chem. (1)

M. D. Stephens, G. Yuan, K. L. Lear, and D. S. Dandy, “Optical and physical characterization of a local evanescent array coupled biosensor: Use of evanescent field perturbations for multianalyte sensing,” Sens. Actuators. B Chem. 145, 769–774 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sensors (5)

C. Barrios, “Optical Slot-Waveguide Based Biochemical Sensors,” Sensors 9, 4751–4765 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Passaro, C. De Tullio, B. Troia, M. La Notte, G. Giannoccaro, and F. De Leonardis, “Recent advances in integrated photonic sensors,” Sensors 12, 15558–15598 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Mukundan, A. S. Anderson, W. K. Grace, K. M. Grace, N. Hartman, J. S. Martinez, and B. I. Swanson, “Waveguide-based biosensors for pathogen detection,” Sensors 9, 5783–5809 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Roh, T. Chung, and B. Lee, “Overview of the Characteristics of Micro- and Nano-Structured Surface Plasmon Resonance Sensors,” Sensors 11, 1565–1588 (2011).
[Crossref]

E. Dickey, O. Varghese, K. Ong, D. Gong, M. Paulose, and C. Grimes, “Room Temperature Ammonia and Humidity Sensing Using Highly Ordered Nanoporous Alumina Films,” Sensors 2, 91–110 (2002).
[Crossref]

Sensors Lett. (1)

Z. Chen and C. Lu, “Humidity sensors: A review of materials and mechanisms,” Sensors Lett. 3, 274–295 (2005).
[Crossref]

Surf. Coat. Technol. (1)

T. Hirvikorpi, M. Vaha-Nissi, J. Nikkola, A. Harlin, and M. Karppinen, “Thin Al2O3 Barrier Coatings onto Temerature-Sensitive Packaging Materials by Atomic Layer Deposition,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 205, 5088–5092 (2011).
[Crossref]

Thin Solid Films (1)

T. Hirvikorpi, R. Laine, M. Vähä-Nissi, V. Kilpi, E. Salo, W. Li, S. Lindfors, J. Vartiainen, E. Kenttä, J. Nikkola, A. Harlin, and J. Kostamo, “Barrier properties of plastic films coated with an Al2O3 layer by roll-to-toll atomic layer deposition,” Thin Solid Films 550, 164–169 (2014).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

Microresits technology website: http://www.microresist.de/en/products/hybrid-polymers/uv-lithography/ormocore-and-ormoclad (Sept.2017).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 a) 3D schematic view of the Young interferometer sensor including the two arms of different lengths and the sensing window; b) Schematic cross-section of the ALD-coated ridge waveguide.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Electric field profiles of the fundamental quasi-TE mode of a polymer strip waveguide a) without a coating at λ = 633 nm and b) with a bi-layer of Al2O3/TiO2 on the sides at λ = 975 nm. c) Field confinement factor (Γc) for quasi-TE and quasi-TM polarizations in the cover medium for a polymer ridge waveguide. d) confinement factors inside the waveguide and in the cover medium of the polymer ridge waveguide with a TiO2 layer on the sides only, for the quasi-TE polarization. SEM images, as insets, show the cross sections of the polymer waveguides before and after coating.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Time evolution of the phase change of the polymer Young interferometer for ethanol-water solution with three different concentrations. The shaded areas represent the time-slots where the sensor is in contact with the analyte.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Phase change of the Young interferometer after applying the ethanol-water solution of different concentrations: a) 0.000167 wt.%, b) 0.00167 wt.%, and c) 0.0167 wt.%. The shaded areas represent the time-slots where the sensor is in contact with the analyte.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 An illustration of the adsorption mechanism of ethanol (Et, in red) on the surface due to hydroxyl groups on the surface. a) the surface is saturated by water at time t = 0. b) Ethanol starts replacing water molecules on the surface. c) The amount of ethanol at the vicinity of the surface grows continuously. d) Ethanol saturated surface flushed with water. The two first layers are too stable to be replaced. e) No return to baseline because of the saturation of water by ethanol.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Contact angle of a water droplet on a non-etched a) ormocore, b) ALD-coated TiO2 layer, c) ALD-coated Al2O3 layer, and on an etched d) ormocore, e) ALD-coated TiO2 layer, f) ALD-coated Al2O3 layer. Contact angle of a droplet of the ethanol-water solution on a non-etched g) ormocore, h) ALD-coated TiO2 layer, and i) ALD-coated Al2O3, and on an etched j) ormocore, k) ALD-coated TiO2 layer, l) ALD-coated Al2O3 layer.

Equations (1)

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Γ i , c = i , c | Re { E × H } u z | d x d y total | Re { E × H } u z | d x d y ,

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