Abstract

We discuss misalignment-induced aberrations in a pair of crossed multilayer Laue lenses used for achieving a nanometer-scale x-ray point focus. We thoroughly investigate the impacts of two most important contributions, the orthogonality and the separation distance between two lenses. We find that misalignment in the orthogonality results in astigmatism at 45° and other inclination angles when coupled with a separation distance error. Theoretical explanation and experimental verification are provided. We show that to achieve a diffraction-limited point focus, accurate alignment of the azimuthal angle is required to ensure orthogonality between two lenses, and the required accuracy is scaled with the ratio of the focus size to the aperture size.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  5. C. Chang and A. Sakdinawat, “Ultra-high aspect ratio high-resolution nanofabrication for hard X-ray diffractive optics,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4243 (2014).
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  6. J. Vila-Comamala, Y. S. Pan, J. J. Lombardo, W. M. Harris, W. K. S. Chiu, C. David, and Y. X. Wang, “Zone-doubled Fresnel zone plates for high-resolution hard X-ray full-field transmission microscopy,” J. Synchro. Rad. 19, 705–709 (2012).
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. H. Yan, Y. S. Chu, J. Maser, E. Nazaretski, J. Kim, H. C. Kang, J. J. Lombardo, and W. K. S. Chiu, “Quantitative x-ray phase imaging at the nanoscale by multilayer Laue lenses,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1307 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. H. C. Kang, H. Yan, Y. S. Chu, S. Y. Lee, J. Kim, E. Nazaretski, C. Kim, O. Seo, D. Y. Noh, A. T. Macrander, G. B. Stephenson, and J. Maser, “Oxidation of PtNi nanoparticles studied by a scanning X-ray fluorescence microscope with multi-layer Laue lenses,” Nanoscale 5, 7184–7187 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. E. Nazaretski, K. Lauer, H. Yan, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, R. Conley, X. Huang, W. Xu, M. Lu, K. Gofron, S. Kalbfleisch, U. Wagner, C. Rau, and Y. S. Chu, “Pushing the limits: an instrument for hard X-ray imaging below 20 nm,” J. Synchro. Rad. 22, 336–341 (2015).
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
  25. S. Matsuyama, H. Mimura, H. Yumoto, K. Yamamura, Y. Sano, K. Endo, Y. Mori, Y. Nishino, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa, M. Yabashi, and K. Yamauchi, “Diffraction-limited two-dimensional hard-x-ray focusing at the 100 nm level using a Kirkpatrick-Baez mirror arrangement,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 083114 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  26. K. Yamauchi, Y. Kazuya, M. Hidekazu, S. Yasuhisa, S. Akira, E. Katsuyoshi, S. Alexei, Y. Makina, T. Kenji, I. Tetsuya, and M. Yuzo, “Two-dimensional Submicron Focusing of Hard X-rays by Two Elliptical Mirrors Fabricated by Plasma Chemical Vaporization Machining and Elastic Emission Machining,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42(11), 7129 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  27. H. Yan, V. Rose, D. Shu, E. Lima, H. C. Kang, R. Conley, C. Liu, N. Jahedi, A. T. Macrander, G. B. Stephenson, M. Holt, Y. S. Chu, M. Lu, and J. Maser, “Two dimensional hard x-ray nanofocusing with crossed multilayer Laue lenses,” Opt. Express 19(16), 15069–15076 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  28. H. Yan, J. Maser, H. C. Kang, A. Macrander, and B. Stephenson, “A theoretical study of two-dimensional point focusing by two multilayer Laue lenses,” Proc. SPIE 7077, 70770Q (2008).
    [Crossref]
  29. Here the discussion is restricted to the case where paraxial approximation is valid. It becomes invalid when NA is large, and there is additional effect on the point focus produced by two crossed linear optics. This is out of the scope of this paper and will not be discussed.
  30. M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of optics, (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1999).
    [Crossref]
  31. J. C. Wyant and K. Creath, “Basic Wavefront Aberration Theory for Optical metrology,” Applied Optics and Optical Engineering 11, 1–53 (1992).
  32. F. Liu, B. M. Robinson, P. J. Reardon, and J. M. Geary, “Analyzing optics test data on rectangular apertures using 2-D Chebyshev polynomials,” Opt. Eng. 50(4), 043609 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  33. H. Yan and Y. S. Chu, “Optimization of multilayer Laue lenses for a scanning X-ray microscope,” J. Synchro. Rad. 20, 89–97 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  34. P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, C. David, and F. Pfeiffer, “High-Resolution Scanning X-ray Diffraction Microscopy,” Science 321, 379–382 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2017 (3)

I. Mohacsi, I. Vartiainen, B. Rosner, M. Guizar-Sicairos, V. A. Guzenko, I. McNulty, R. Winarski, M. V. Holt, and C. David, “Interlaced zone plate optics for hard X-ray imaging in the 10 nm range,” Sci. Rep. 7, 43624 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Feng, Y. Qian, J. K. Cochran, Q. Z. Zhu, W. Hu, H. F. Yan, L. Li, X. J. Huang, Y. S. Chu, H. J. Liu, S. Yoo, and C. J. Liu, “Nanoscale measurement of trace element distributions in Spartina alterniflora root tissue during dormancy,” Sci. Rep. 7, 40420 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Cesar da Silva, A. Pacureanu, Y. Yang, S. Bohic, C. Morawe, R. Barrett, and P. Cloetens, “Efficient concentration of high-energy x-rays for diffraction-limited imaging resolution”, Optica 4(5), 492–495 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (2)

H. Yan, E. Nazaretski, K. Lauer, X. Huang, U. Wagner, C. Rau, M. Yusuf, I. Robinson, S. Kalbfleisch, L. Li, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, R. Conley, and Y. S. Chu, “Multimodality hard-x-ray imaging of a chromosome with nanoscale spatial resolution,” Sci. Rep. 6, 20112 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Conley, N. Bouet, Y. S. Chu, X. Huang, H. C. Kang, A. T. Macrander, J. Maser, E. Nazaretski, G. B. Stephenson, and H. Yan, “Multilayer Laue Lens: A Brief History and Current Status,” Synchrotron Radiation News 29, 16 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (6)

E. Nazaretski, K. Lauer, H. Yan, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, R. Conley, X. Huang, W. Xu, M. Lu, K. Gofron, S. Kalbfleisch, U. Wagner, C. Rau, and Y. S. Chu, “Pushing the limits: an instrument for hard X-ray imaging below 20 nm,” J. Synchro. Rad. 22, 336–341 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Berujon, E. Ziegler, and P. Cloetens, “X-ray pulse wavefront metrology using speckle tracking,” J. Synchro. Rad. 22, 886–894 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. Huang, R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, A. Macrander, J. Maser, H. Yan, E. Nazaretski, K. Lauer, R. Harder, I. K. Robinson, S. Kalbfleisch, and Y. S. Chu, “Achieving hard X-ray nanofocusing using a wedged multilayer Laue lens,” Opt. Express 23(10), 12496–12507 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Kubec, N. Kujala, R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, T. M. Mooney, D. M. Shu, J. Kirchman, K. Goetze, J. Maser, and A. Macrander, “Diffraction properties of multilayer Laue lenses with an aperture of 102 mu m and WSi2/Al bilayers,” Opt. Express 23(21), 27990–27997 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. T. Macrander, A. Kubec, R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, M. Wojcik, and J. Maser, “Efficiency of a multilayer-Laue-lens with a 102 m aperture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 081904 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. J. Morgan, M. Prasciolu, A. Andrejczuk, J. Krzywinski, A. Meents, D. Pennicard, H. Graafsma, A. Barty, R. J. Bean, M. Barthelmess, D. Oberthuer, O. Yefanov, A. Aquila, H. N. Chapman, and S. Bajt, “High numerical aperture multilayer Laue lenses,” Sci. Rep. 5, 09892 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

H. Yan, R. Conley, N. Bouet, and Y. S. Chu, “Hard x-ray nanofocusing by multilayer Laue lenses,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 47, 263001 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Chang and A. Sakdinawat, “Ultra-high aspect ratio high-resolution nanofabrication for hard X-ray diffractive optics,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4243 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (6)

H. Yan, Y. S. Chu, J. Maser, E. Nazaretski, J. Kim, H. C. Kang, J. J. Lombardo, and W. K. S. Chiu, “Quantitative x-ray phase imaging at the nanoscale by multilayer Laue lenses,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1307 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. C. Kang, H. Yan, Y. S. Chu, S. Y. Lee, J. Kim, E. Nazaretski, C. Kim, O. Seo, D. Y. Noh, A. T. Macrander, G. B. Stephenson, and J. Maser, “Oxidation of PtNi nanoparticles studied by a scanning X-ray fluorescence microscope with multi-layer Laue lenses,” Nanoscale 5, 7184–7187 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Nazaretski, J. Kim, H. Yan, K. Lauer, D. Eom, D. Shu, J. Maser, Z. Pesic, U. Wagner, C. Rau, and Y. S. Chu, “Performance and characterization of the prototype nm-scale spatial resolution scanning multilayer Laue lenses microscope,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84, 033701 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. J. Merthe, V. V. Yashchuk, K. A. Goldberg, K. Martin, T. Nobumichi, W. R. McKinney, N. A. Artemiev, R. S. Celestre, G. Y. Morrison, E. H. Anderson, B. V. Smith, E. E. Domning, S. B. Rekawa, and H. A. Padmore, “Methodology for optimal in situ alignment and setting of bendable optics for nearly diffraction-limited focusing of soft x-rays,” Opt. Eng. 52(3), 033603 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Yan and Y. S. Chu, “Optimization of multilayer Laue lenses for a scanning X-ray microscope,” J. Synchro. Rad. 20, 89–97 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. Huang, H. Yan, E. Nazaretski, R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, K. Lauer, L. Li, D. Eom, D. Legnini, R. Harder, I. K. Robinson, and Y. S. Chu, “11 nm hard X-ray focus from a large-aperture multilayer Laue lens,” Sci. Rep. 3, 3562 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (1)

J. Vila-Comamala, Y. S. Pan, J. J. Lombardo, W. M. Harris, W. K. S. Chiu, C. David, and Y. X. Wang, “Zone-doubled Fresnel zone plates for high-resolution hard X-ray full-field transmission microscopy,” J. Synchro. Rad. 19, 705–709 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (4)

K. Yamauchi, M. Hidekazu, K. Takashi, Y. Hirokatsu, H. Soichiro, M. Satoshi, A. Kenta, S. Yasuhisa, Y. Kazuya, I. Koji, N. Hiroki, K. Jangwoo, T. Kenji, N. Yoshinori, Y. Makina, and I. Tetsuya, “Single-nanometer focusing of hard x-rays by Kirkpatrick-Baez mirrors,” Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter 23, 394206 (2011).
[PubMed]

H. Yan, V. Rose, D. Shu, E. Lima, H. C. Kang, R. Conley, C. Liu, N. Jahedi, A. T. Macrander, G. B. Stephenson, M. Holt, Y. S. Chu, M. Lu, and J. Maser, “Two dimensional hard x-ray nanofocusing with crossed multilayer Laue lenses,” Opt. Express 19(16), 15069–15076 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Vila-Comamala, S. Gorelick, E. Fadrm, C. M. Kewish, A. Diaz, R. Barrett, V. A. Guzenko, M. Ritala, and C. David, “Ultra-high resolution zone-doubled diffractive X-ray optics for the multi-keV regime,” Opt. Express 19(22), 21333–21344 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Liu, B. M. Robinson, P. J. Reardon, and J. M. Geary, “Analyzing optics test data on rectangular apertures using 2-D Chebyshev polynomials,” Opt. Eng. 50(4), 043609 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

H. Mimura, S. Handa, T. Kimura, H. Yumoto, D. Yamakawa, H. Yokoyama, S. Matsuyama, K. Inagaki, K. Yamamura, Y. Sano, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Breaking the 10 nm barrier in hard-X-ray focusing,” Nat. Phys. 6, 122–125 (2010).
[Crossref]

C. G. Schroer, P. Boye, J. M. Feldkamp, J. Patommel, D. Samberg, A. Schropp, A. Schwab, S. Stephan, G. Falkenberg, G. Wellenreuther, and N. Reimers, “Hard X-ray nanoprobe at beamline P06 at PETRA III,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 616, 93–97 (2010).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, C. David, and F. Pfeiffer, “High-Resolution Scanning X-ray Diffraction Microscopy,” Science 321, 379–382 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yan, J. Maser, H. C. Kang, A. Macrander, and B. Stephenson, “A theoretical study of two-dimensional point focusing by two multilayer Laue lenses,” Proc. SPIE 7077, 70770Q (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

H. Yan, J. Maser, A. Macrander, Q. Shen, S. Vogt, G. B. Stephenson, and H. C. Kang, “Takagi-Taupin description of x-ray dynamical diffraction from diffractive optics with large numerical aperture,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 115438 (2007).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

S. Matsuyama, H. Mimura, H. Yumoto, K. Yamamura, Y. Sano, K. Endo, Y. Mori, Y. Nishino, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa, M. Yabashi, and K. Yamauchi, “Diffraction-limited two-dimensional hard-x-ray focusing at the 100 nm level using a Kirkpatrick-Baez mirror arrangement,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 083114 (2005).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

K. Yamauchi, Y. Kazuya, M. Hidekazu, S. Yasuhisa, S. Akira, E. Katsuyoshi, S. Alexei, Y. Makina, T. Kenji, I. Tetsuya, and M. Yuzo, “Two-dimensional Submicron Focusing of Hard X-rays by Two Elliptical Mirrors Fabricated by Plasma Chemical Vaporization Machining and Elastic Emission Machining,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42(11), 7129 (2003).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

J. C. Wyant and K. Creath, “Basic Wavefront Aberration Theory for Optical metrology,” Applied Optics and Optical Engineering 11, 1–53 (1992).

Akira, S.

K. Yamauchi, Y. Kazuya, M. Hidekazu, S. Yasuhisa, S. Akira, E. Katsuyoshi, S. Alexei, Y. Makina, T. Kenji, I. Tetsuya, and M. Yuzo, “Two-dimensional Submicron Focusing of Hard X-rays by Two Elliptical Mirrors Fabricated by Plasma Chemical Vaporization Machining and Elastic Emission Machining,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42(11), 7129 (2003).
[Crossref]

Alexei, S.

K. Yamauchi, Y. Kazuya, M. Hidekazu, S. Yasuhisa, S. Akira, E. Katsuyoshi, S. Alexei, Y. Makina, T. Kenji, I. Tetsuya, and M. Yuzo, “Two-dimensional Submicron Focusing of Hard X-rays by Two Elliptical Mirrors Fabricated by Plasma Chemical Vaporization Machining and Elastic Emission Machining,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42(11), 7129 (2003).
[Crossref]

Anderson, E. H.

D. J. Merthe, V. V. Yashchuk, K. A. Goldberg, K. Martin, T. Nobumichi, W. R. McKinney, N. A. Artemiev, R. S. Celestre, G. Y. Morrison, E. H. Anderson, B. V. Smith, E. E. Domning, S. B. Rekawa, and H. A. Padmore, “Methodology for optimal in situ alignment and setting of bendable optics for nearly diffraction-limited focusing of soft x-rays,” Opt. Eng. 52(3), 033603 (2013).
[Crossref]

Andrejczuk, A.

A. J. Morgan, M. Prasciolu, A. Andrejczuk, J. Krzywinski, A. Meents, D. Pennicard, H. Graafsma, A. Barty, R. J. Bean, M. Barthelmess, D. Oberthuer, O. Yefanov, A. Aquila, H. N. Chapman, and S. Bajt, “High numerical aperture multilayer Laue lenses,” Sci. Rep. 5, 09892 (2015).
[Crossref]

Aquila, A.

A. J. Morgan, M. Prasciolu, A. Andrejczuk, J. Krzywinski, A. Meents, D. Pennicard, H. Graafsma, A. Barty, R. J. Bean, M. Barthelmess, D. Oberthuer, O. Yefanov, A. Aquila, H. N. Chapman, and S. Bajt, “High numerical aperture multilayer Laue lenses,” Sci. Rep. 5, 09892 (2015).
[Crossref]

Artemiev, N. A.

D. J. Merthe, V. V. Yashchuk, K. A. Goldberg, K. Martin, T. Nobumichi, W. R. McKinney, N. A. Artemiev, R. S. Celestre, G. Y. Morrison, E. H. Anderson, B. V. Smith, E. E. Domning, S. B. Rekawa, and H. A. Padmore, “Methodology for optimal in situ alignment and setting of bendable optics for nearly diffraction-limited focusing of soft x-rays,” Opt. Eng. 52(3), 033603 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bajt, S.

A. J. Morgan, M. Prasciolu, A. Andrejczuk, J. Krzywinski, A. Meents, D. Pennicard, H. Graafsma, A. Barty, R. J. Bean, M. Barthelmess, D. Oberthuer, O. Yefanov, A. Aquila, H. N. Chapman, and S. Bajt, “High numerical aperture multilayer Laue lenses,” Sci. Rep. 5, 09892 (2015).
[Crossref]

Barrett, R.

Barthelmess, M.

A. J. Morgan, M. Prasciolu, A. Andrejczuk, J. Krzywinski, A. Meents, D. Pennicard, H. Graafsma, A. Barty, R. J. Bean, M. Barthelmess, D. Oberthuer, O. Yefanov, A. Aquila, H. N. Chapman, and S. Bajt, “High numerical aperture multilayer Laue lenses,” Sci. Rep. 5, 09892 (2015).
[Crossref]

Barty, A.

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E. Nazaretski, K. Lauer, H. Yan, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, R. Conley, X. Huang, W. Xu, M. Lu, K. Gofron, S. Kalbfleisch, U. Wagner, C. Rau, and Y. S. Chu, “Pushing the limits: an instrument for hard X-ray imaging below 20 nm,” J. Synchro. Rad. 22, 336–341 (2015).
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X. Huang, R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, A. Macrander, J. Maser, H. Yan, E. Nazaretski, K. Lauer, R. Harder, I. K. Robinson, S. Kalbfleisch, and Y. S. Chu, “Achieving hard X-ray nanofocusing using a wedged multilayer Laue lens,” Opt. Express 23(10), 12496–12507 (2015).
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X. Huang, H. Yan, E. Nazaretski, R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, K. Lauer, L. Li, D. Eom, D. Legnini, R. Harder, I. K. Robinson, and Y. S. Chu, “11 nm hard X-ray focus from a large-aperture multilayer Laue lens,” Sci. Rep. 3, 3562 (2013).
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I. Mohacsi, I. Vartiainen, B. Rosner, M. Guizar-Sicairos, V. A. Guzenko, I. McNulty, R. Winarski, M. V. Holt, and C. David, “Interlaced zone plate optics for hard X-ray imaging in the 10 nm range,” Sci. Rep. 7, 43624 (2017).
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J. Vila-Comamala, Y. S. Pan, J. J. Lombardo, W. M. Harris, W. K. S. Chiu, C. David, and Y. X. Wang, “Zone-doubled Fresnel zone plates for high-resolution hard X-ray full-field transmission microscopy,” J. Synchro. Rad. 19, 705–709 (2012).
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Holt, M. V.

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H. Feng, Y. Qian, J. K. Cochran, Q. Z. Zhu, W. Hu, H. F. Yan, L. Li, X. J. Huang, Y. S. Chu, H. J. Liu, S. Yoo, and C. J. Liu, “Nanoscale measurement of trace element distributions in Spartina alterniflora root tissue during dormancy,” Sci. Rep. 7, 40420 (2017).
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H. Yan, E. Nazaretski, K. Lauer, X. Huang, U. Wagner, C. Rau, M. Yusuf, I. Robinson, S. Kalbfleisch, L. Li, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, R. Conley, and Y. S. Chu, “Multimodality hard-x-ray imaging of a chromosome with nanoscale spatial resolution,” Sci. Rep. 6, 20112 (2016).
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[Crossref]

X. Huang, R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, A. Macrander, J. Maser, H. Yan, E. Nazaretski, K. Lauer, R. Harder, I. K. Robinson, S. Kalbfleisch, and Y. S. Chu, “Achieving hard X-ray nanofocusing using a wedged multilayer Laue lens,” Opt. Express 23(10), 12496–12507 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Nazaretski, K. Lauer, H. Yan, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, R. Conley, X. Huang, W. Xu, M. Lu, K. Gofron, S. Kalbfleisch, U. Wagner, C. Rau, and Y. S. Chu, “Pushing the limits: an instrument for hard X-ray imaging below 20 nm,” J. Synchro. Rad. 22, 336–341 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. Huang, H. Yan, E. Nazaretski, R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, K. Lauer, L. Li, D. Eom, D. Legnini, R. Harder, I. K. Robinson, and Y. S. Chu, “11 nm hard X-ray focus from a large-aperture multilayer Laue lens,” Sci. Rep. 3, 3562 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, X. J.

H. Feng, Y. Qian, J. K. Cochran, Q. Z. Zhu, W. Hu, H. F. Yan, L. Li, X. J. Huang, Y. S. Chu, H. J. Liu, S. Yoo, and C. J. Liu, “Nanoscale measurement of trace element distributions in Spartina alterniflora root tissue during dormancy,” Sci. Rep. 7, 40420 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Inagaki, K.

H. Mimura, S. Handa, T. Kimura, H. Yumoto, D. Yamakawa, H. Yokoyama, S. Matsuyama, K. Inagaki, K. Yamamura, Y. Sano, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Breaking the 10 nm barrier in hard-X-ray focusing,” Nat. Phys. 6, 122–125 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ishikawa, T.

H. Mimura, S. Handa, T. Kimura, H. Yumoto, D. Yamakawa, H. Yokoyama, S. Matsuyama, K. Inagaki, K. Yamamura, Y. Sano, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Breaking the 10 nm barrier in hard-X-ray focusing,” Nat. Phys. 6, 122–125 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. Matsuyama, H. Mimura, H. Yumoto, K. Yamamura, Y. Sano, K. Endo, Y. Mori, Y. Nishino, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa, M. Yabashi, and K. Yamauchi, “Diffraction-limited two-dimensional hard-x-ray focusing at the 100 nm level using a Kirkpatrick-Baez mirror arrangement,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 083114 (2005).
[Crossref]

Jahedi, N.

Jangwoo, K.

K. Yamauchi, M. Hidekazu, K. Takashi, Y. Hirokatsu, H. Soichiro, M. Satoshi, A. Kenta, S. Yasuhisa, Y. Kazuya, I. Koji, N. Hiroki, K. Jangwoo, T. Kenji, N. Yoshinori, Y. Makina, and I. Tetsuya, “Single-nanometer focusing of hard x-rays by Kirkpatrick-Baez mirrors,” Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter 23, 394206 (2011).
[PubMed]

Kalbfleisch, S.

H. Yan, E. Nazaretski, K. Lauer, X. Huang, U. Wagner, C. Rau, M. Yusuf, I. Robinson, S. Kalbfleisch, L. Li, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, R. Conley, and Y. S. Chu, “Multimodality hard-x-ray imaging of a chromosome with nanoscale spatial resolution,” Sci. Rep. 6, 20112 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Huang, R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, A. Macrander, J. Maser, H. Yan, E. Nazaretski, K. Lauer, R. Harder, I. K. Robinson, S. Kalbfleisch, and Y. S. Chu, “Achieving hard X-ray nanofocusing using a wedged multilayer Laue lens,” Opt. Express 23(10), 12496–12507 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Nazaretski, K. Lauer, H. Yan, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, R. Conley, X. Huang, W. Xu, M. Lu, K. Gofron, S. Kalbfleisch, U. Wagner, C. Rau, and Y. S. Chu, “Pushing the limits: an instrument for hard X-ray imaging below 20 nm,” J. Synchro. Rad. 22, 336–341 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kang, H. C.

R. Conley, N. Bouet, Y. S. Chu, X. Huang, H. C. Kang, A. T. Macrander, J. Maser, E. Nazaretski, G. B. Stephenson, and H. Yan, “Multilayer Laue Lens: A Brief History and Current Status,” Synchrotron Radiation News 29, 16 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. C. Kang, H. Yan, Y. S. Chu, S. Y. Lee, J. Kim, E. Nazaretski, C. Kim, O. Seo, D. Y. Noh, A. T. Macrander, G. B. Stephenson, and J. Maser, “Oxidation of PtNi nanoparticles studied by a scanning X-ray fluorescence microscope with multi-layer Laue lenses,” Nanoscale 5, 7184–7187 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yan, Y. S. Chu, J. Maser, E. Nazaretski, J. Kim, H. C. Kang, J. J. Lombardo, and W. K. S. Chiu, “Quantitative x-ray phase imaging at the nanoscale by multilayer Laue lenses,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1307 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yan, V. Rose, D. Shu, E. Lima, H. C. Kang, R. Conley, C. Liu, N. Jahedi, A. T. Macrander, G. B. Stephenson, M. Holt, Y. S. Chu, M. Lu, and J. Maser, “Two dimensional hard x-ray nanofocusing with crossed multilayer Laue lenses,” Opt. Express 19(16), 15069–15076 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yan, J. Maser, H. C. Kang, A. Macrander, and B. Stephenson, “A theoretical study of two-dimensional point focusing by two multilayer Laue lenses,” Proc. SPIE 7077, 70770Q (2008).
[Crossref]

H. Yan, J. Maser, A. Macrander, Q. Shen, S. Vogt, G. B. Stephenson, and H. C. Kang, “Takagi-Taupin description of x-ray dynamical diffraction from diffractive optics with large numerical aperture,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 115438 (2007).
[Crossref]

Katsuyoshi, E.

K. Yamauchi, Y. Kazuya, M. Hidekazu, S. Yasuhisa, S. Akira, E. Katsuyoshi, S. Alexei, Y. Makina, T. Kenji, I. Tetsuya, and M. Yuzo, “Two-dimensional Submicron Focusing of Hard X-rays by Two Elliptical Mirrors Fabricated by Plasma Chemical Vaporization Machining and Elastic Emission Machining,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42(11), 7129 (2003).
[Crossref]

Kazuya, Y.

K. Yamauchi, M. Hidekazu, K. Takashi, Y. Hirokatsu, H. Soichiro, M. Satoshi, A. Kenta, S. Yasuhisa, Y. Kazuya, I. Koji, N. Hiroki, K. Jangwoo, T. Kenji, N. Yoshinori, Y. Makina, and I. Tetsuya, “Single-nanometer focusing of hard x-rays by Kirkpatrick-Baez mirrors,” Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter 23, 394206 (2011).
[PubMed]

K. Yamauchi, Y. Kazuya, M. Hidekazu, S. Yasuhisa, S. Akira, E. Katsuyoshi, S. Alexei, Y. Makina, T. Kenji, I. Tetsuya, and M. Yuzo, “Two-dimensional Submicron Focusing of Hard X-rays by Two Elliptical Mirrors Fabricated by Plasma Chemical Vaporization Machining and Elastic Emission Machining,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42(11), 7129 (2003).
[Crossref]

Kenji, T.

K. Yamauchi, M. Hidekazu, K. Takashi, Y. Hirokatsu, H. Soichiro, M. Satoshi, A. Kenta, S. Yasuhisa, Y. Kazuya, I. Koji, N. Hiroki, K. Jangwoo, T. Kenji, N. Yoshinori, Y. Makina, and I. Tetsuya, “Single-nanometer focusing of hard x-rays by Kirkpatrick-Baez mirrors,” Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter 23, 394206 (2011).
[PubMed]

K. Yamauchi, Y. Kazuya, M. Hidekazu, S. Yasuhisa, S. Akira, E. Katsuyoshi, S. Alexei, Y. Makina, T. Kenji, I. Tetsuya, and M. Yuzo, “Two-dimensional Submicron Focusing of Hard X-rays by Two Elliptical Mirrors Fabricated by Plasma Chemical Vaporization Machining and Elastic Emission Machining,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42(11), 7129 (2003).
[Crossref]

Kenta, A.

K. Yamauchi, M. Hidekazu, K. Takashi, Y. Hirokatsu, H. Soichiro, M. Satoshi, A. Kenta, S. Yasuhisa, Y. Kazuya, I. Koji, N. Hiroki, K. Jangwoo, T. Kenji, N. Yoshinori, Y. Makina, and I. Tetsuya, “Single-nanometer focusing of hard x-rays by Kirkpatrick-Baez mirrors,” Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter 23, 394206 (2011).
[PubMed]

Kewish, C. M.

Kim, C.

H. C. Kang, H. Yan, Y. S. Chu, S. Y. Lee, J. Kim, E. Nazaretski, C. Kim, O. Seo, D. Y. Noh, A. T. Macrander, G. B. Stephenson, and J. Maser, “Oxidation of PtNi nanoparticles studied by a scanning X-ray fluorescence microscope with multi-layer Laue lenses,” Nanoscale 5, 7184–7187 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, J.

H. Yan, Y. S. Chu, J. Maser, E. Nazaretski, J. Kim, H. C. Kang, J. J. Lombardo, and W. K. S. Chiu, “Quantitative x-ray phase imaging at the nanoscale by multilayer Laue lenses,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1307 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. C. Kang, H. Yan, Y. S. Chu, S. Y. Lee, J. Kim, E. Nazaretski, C. Kim, O. Seo, D. Y. Noh, A. T. Macrander, G. B. Stephenson, and J. Maser, “Oxidation of PtNi nanoparticles studied by a scanning X-ray fluorescence microscope with multi-layer Laue lenses,” Nanoscale 5, 7184–7187 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Nazaretski, J. Kim, H. Yan, K. Lauer, D. Eom, D. Shu, J. Maser, Z. Pesic, U. Wagner, C. Rau, and Y. S. Chu, “Performance and characterization of the prototype nm-scale spatial resolution scanning multilayer Laue lenses microscope,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84, 033701 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kimura, T.

H. Mimura, S. Handa, T. Kimura, H. Yumoto, D. Yamakawa, H. Yokoyama, S. Matsuyama, K. Inagaki, K. Yamamura, Y. Sano, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Breaking the 10 nm barrier in hard-X-ray focusing,” Nat. Phys. 6, 122–125 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kirchman, J.

Koji, I.

K. Yamauchi, M. Hidekazu, K. Takashi, Y. Hirokatsu, H. Soichiro, M. Satoshi, A. Kenta, S. Yasuhisa, Y. Kazuya, I. Koji, N. Hiroki, K. Jangwoo, T. Kenji, N. Yoshinori, Y. Makina, and I. Tetsuya, “Single-nanometer focusing of hard x-rays by Kirkpatrick-Baez mirrors,” Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter 23, 394206 (2011).
[PubMed]

Krzywinski, J.

A. J. Morgan, M. Prasciolu, A. Andrejczuk, J. Krzywinski, A. Meents, D. Pennicard, H. Graafsma, A. Barty, R. J. Bean, M. Barthelmess, D. Oberthuer, O. Yefanov, A. Aquila, H. N. Chapman, and S. Bajt, “High numerical aperture multilayer Laue lenses,” Sci. Rep. 5, 09892 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kubec, A.

Kujala, N.

Lauer, K.

H. Yan, E. Nazaretski, K. Lauer, X. Huang, U. Wagner, C. Rau, M. Yusuf, I. Robinson, S. Kalbfleisch, L. Li, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, R. Conley, and Y. S. Chu, “Multimodality hard-x-ray imaging of a chromosome with nanoscale spatial resolution,” Sci. Rep. 6, 20112 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Huang, R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, A. Macrander, J. Maser, H. Yan, E. Nazaretski, K. Lauer, R. Harder, I. K. Robinson, S. Kalbfleisch, and Y. S. Chu, “Achieving hard X-ray nanofocusing using a wedged multilayer Laue lens,” Opt. Express 23(10), 12496–12507 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Nazaretski, K. Lauer, H. Yan, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, R. Conley, X. Huang, W. Xu, M. Lu, K. Gofron, S. Kalbfleisch, U. Wagner, C. Rau, and Y. S. Chu, “Pushing the limits: an instrument for hard X-ray imaging below 20 nm,” J. Synchro. Rad. 22, 336–341 (2015).
[Crossref]

E. Nazaretski, J. Kim, H. Yan, K. Lauer, D. Eom, D. Shu, J. Maser, Z. Pesic, U. Wagner, C. Rau, and Y. S. Chu, “Performance and characterization of the prototype nm-scale spatial resolution scanning multilayer Laue lenses microscope,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84, 033701 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Huang, H. Yan, E. Nazaretski, R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, K. Lauer, L. Li, D. Eom, D. Legnini, R. Harder, I. K. Robinson, and Y. S. Chu, “11 nm hard X-ray focus from a large-aperture multilayer Laue lens,” Sci. Rep. 3, 3562 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, S. Y.

H. C. Kang, H. Yan, Y. S. Chu, S. Y. Lee, J. Kim, E. Nazaretski, C. Kim, O. Seo, D. Y. Noh, A. T. Macrander, G. B. Stephenson, and J. Maser, “Oxidation of PtNi nanoparticles studied by a scanning X-ray fluorescence microscope with multi-layer Laue lenses,” Nanoscale 5, 7184–7187 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Legnini, D.

X. Huang, H. Yan, E. Nazaretski, R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, K. Lauer, L. Li, D. Eom, D. Legnini, R. Harder, I. K. Robinson, and Y. S. Chu, “11 nm hard X-ray focus from a large-aperture multilayer Laue lens,” Sci. Rep. 3, 3562 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, L.

H. Feng, Y. Qian, J. K. Cochran, Q. Z. Zhu, W. Hu, H. F. Yan, L. Li, X. J. Huang, Y. S. Chu, H. J. Liu, S. Yoo, and C. J. Liu, “Nanoscale measurement of trace element distributions in Spartina alterniflora root tissue during dormancy,” Sci. Rep. 7, 40420 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yan, E. Nazaretski, K. Lauer, X. Huang, U. Wagner, C. Rau, M. Yusuf, I. Robinson, S. Kalbfleisch, L. Li, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, R. Conley, and Y. S. Chu, “Multimodality hard-x-ray imaging of a chromosome with nanoscale spatial resolution,” Sci. Rep. 6, 20112 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Huang, H. Yan, E. Nazaretski, R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, K. Lauer, L. Li, D. Eom, D. Legnini, R. Harder, I. K. Robinson, and Y. S. Chu, “11 nm hard X-ray focus from a large-aperture multilayer Laue lens,” Sci. Rep. 3, 3562 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lima, E.

Liu, C.

Liu, C. J.

H. Feng, Y. Qian, J. K. Cochran, Q. Z. Zhu, W. Hu, H. F. Yan, L. Li, X. J. Huang, Y. S. Chu, H. J. Liu, S. Yoo, and C. J. Liu, “Nanoscale measurement of trace element distributions in Spartina alterniflora root tissue during dormancy,” Sci. Rep. 7, 40420 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, F.

F. Liu, B. M. Robinson, P. J. Reardon, and J. M. Geary, “Analyzing optics test data on rectangular apertures using 2-D Chebyshev polynomials,” Opt. Eng. 50(4), 043609 (2011).
[Crossref]

Liu, H. J.

H. Feng, Y. Qian, J. K. Cochran, Q. Z. Zhu, W. Hu, H. F. Yan, L. Li, X. J. Huang, Y. S. Chu, H. J. Liu, S. Yoo, and C. J. Liu, “Nanoscale measurement of trace element distributions in Spartina alterniflora root tissue during dormancy,” Sci. Rep. 7, 40420 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lombardo, J. J.

H. Yan, Y. S. Chu, J. Maser, E. Nazaretski, J. Kim, H. C. Kang, J. J. Lombardo, and W. K. S. Chiu, “Quantitative x-ray phase imaging at the nanoscale by multilayer Laue lenses,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1307 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Vila-Comamala, Y. S. Pan, J. J. Lombardo, W. M. Harris, W. K. S. Chiu, C. David, and Y. X. Wang, “Zone-doubled Fresnel zone plates for high-resolution hard X-ray full-field transmission microscopy,” J. Synchro. Rad. 19, 705–709 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lu, M.

E. Nazaretski, K. Lauer, H. Yan, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, R. Conley, X. Huang, W. Xu, M. Lu, K. Gofron, S. Kalbfleisch, U. Wagner, C. Rau, and Y. S. Chu, “Pushing the limits: an instrument for hard X-ray imaging below 20 nm,” J. Synchro. Rad. 22, 336–341 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Yan, V. Rose, D. Shu, E. Lima, H. C. Kang, R. Conley, C. Liu, N. Jahedi, A. T. Macrander, G. B. Stephenson, M. Holt, Y. S. Chu, M. Lu, and J. Maser, “Two dimensional hard x-ray nanofocusing with crossed multilayer Laue lenses,” Opt. Express 19(16), 15069–15076 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Macrander, A.

X. Huang, R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, A. Macrander, J. Maser, H. Yan, E. Nazaretski, K. Lauer, R. Harder, I. K. Robinson, S. Kalbfleisch, and Y. S. Chu, “Achieving hard X-ray nanofocusing using a wedged multilayer Laue lens,” Opt. Express 23(10), 12496–12507 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Kubec, N. Kujala, R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, T. M. Mooney, D. M. Shu, J. Kirchman, K. Goetze, J. Maser, and A. Macrander, “Diffraction properties of multilayer Laue lenses with an aperture of 102 mu m and WSi2/Al bilayers,” Opt. Express 23(21), 27990–27997 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yan, J. Maser, H. C. Kang, A. Macrander, and B. Stephenson, “A theoretical study of two-dimensional point focusing by two multilayer Laue lenses,” Proc. SPIE 7077, 70770Q (2008).
[Crossref]

H. Yan, J. Maser, A. Macrander, Q. Shen, S. Vogt, G. B. Stephenson, and H. C. Kang, “Takagi-Taupin description of x-ray dynamical diffraction from diffractive optics with large numerical aperture,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 115438 (2007).
[Crossref]

Macrander, A. T.

R. Conley, N. Bouet, Y. S. Chu, X. Huang, H. C. Kang, A. T. Macrander, J. Maser, E. Nazaretski, G. B. Stephenson, and H. Yan, “Multilayer Laue Lens: A Brief History and Current Status,” Synchrotron Radiation News 29, 16 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. T. Macrander, A. Kubec, R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, M. Wojcik, and J. Maser, “Efficiency of a multilayer-Laue-lens with a 102 m aperture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 081904 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. C. Kang, H. Yan, Y. S. Chu, S. Y. Lee, J. Kim, E. Nazaretski, C. Kim, O. Seo, D. Y. Noh, A. T. Macrander, G. B. Stephenson, and J. Maser, “Oxidation of PtNi nanoparticles studied by a scanning X-ray fluorescence microscope with multi-layer Laue lenses,” Nanoscale 5, 7184–7187 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yan, V. Rose, D. Shu, E. Lima, H. C. Kang, R. Conley, C. Liu, N. Jahedi, A. T. Macrander, G. B. Stephenson, M. Holt, Y. S. Chu, M. Lu, and J. Maser, “Two dimensional hard x-ray nanofocusing with crossed multilayer Laue lenses,” Opt. Express 19(16), 15069–15076 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Makina, Y.

K. Yamauchi, M. Hidekazu, K. Takashi, Y. Hirokatsu, H. Soichiro, M. Satoshi, A. Kenta, S. Yasuhisa, Y. Kazuya, I. Koji, N. Hiroki, K. Jangwoo, T. Kenji, N. Yoshinori, Y. Makina, and I. Tetsuya, “Single-nanometer focusing of hard x-rays by Kirkpatrick-Baez mirrors,” Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter 23, 394206 (2011).
[PubMed]

K. Yamauchi, Y. Kazuya, M. Hidekazu, S. Yasuhisa, S. Akira, E. Katsuyoshi, S. Alexei, Y. Makina, T. Kenji, I. Tetsuya, and M. Yuzo, “Two-dimensional Submicron Focusing of Hard X-rays by Two Elliptical Mirrors Fabricated by Plasma Chemical Vaporization Machining and Elastic Emission Machining,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42(11), 7129 (2003).
[Crossref]

Martin, K.

D. J. Merthe, V. V. Yashchuk, K. A. Goldberg, K. Martin, T. Nobumichi, W. R. McKinney, N. A. Artemiev, R. S. Celestre, G. Y. Morrison, E. H. Anderson, B. V. Smith, E. E. Domning, S. B. Rekawa, and H. A. Padmore, “Methodology for optimal in situ alignment and setting of bendable optics for nearly diffraction-limited focusing of soft x-rays,” Opt. Eng. 52(3), 033603 (2013).
[Crossref]

Maser, J.

R. Conley, N. Bouet, Y. S. Chu, X. Huang, H. C. Kang, A. T. Macrander, J. Maser, E. Nazaretski, G. B. Stephenson, and H. Yan, “Multilayer Laue Lens: A Brief History and Current Status,” Synchrotron Radiation News 29, 16 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. T. Macrander, A. Kubec, R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, M. Wojcik, and J. Maser, “Efficiency of a multilayer-Laue-lens with a 102 m aperture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 081904 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Kubec, N. Kujala, R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, T. M. Mooney, D. M. Shu, J. Kirchman, K. Goetze, J. Maser, and A. Macrander, “Diffraction properties of multilayer Laue lenses with an aperture of 102 mu m and WSi2/Al bilayers,” Opt. Express 23(21), 27990–27997 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Huang, R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, A. Macrander, J. Maser, H. Yan, E. Nazaretski, K. Lauer, R. Harder, I. K. Robinson, S. Kalbfleisch, and Y. S. Chu, “Achieving hard X-ray nanofocusing using a wedged multilayer Laue lens,” Opt. Express 23(10), 12496–12507 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. C. Kang, H. Yan, Y. S. Chu, S. Y. Lee, J. Kim, E. Nazaretski, C. Kim, O. Seo, D. Y. Noh, A. T. Macrander, G. B. Stephenson, and J. Maser, “Oxidation of PtNi nanoparticles studied by a scanning X-ray fluorescence microscope with multi-layer Laue lenses,” Nanoscale 5, 7184–7187 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yan, Y. S. Chu, J. Maser, E. Nazaretski, J. Kim, H. C. Kang, J. J. Lombardo, and W. K. S. Chiu, “Quantitative x-ray phase imaging at the nanoscale by multilayer Laue lenses,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1307 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Nazaretski, J. Kim, H. Yan, K. Lauer, D. Eom, D. Shu, J. Maser, Z. Pesic, U. Wagner, C. Rau, and Y. S. Chu, “Performance and characterization of the prototype nm-scale spatial resolution scanning multilayer Laue lenses microscope,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84, 033701 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yan, V. Rose, D. Shu, E. Lima, H. C. Kang, R. Conley, C. Liu, N. Jahedi, A. T. Macrander, G. B. Stephenson, M. Holt, Y. S. Chu, M. Lu, and J. Maser, “Two dimensional hard x-ray nanofocusing with crossed multilayer Laue lenses,” Opt. Express 19(16), 15069–15076 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yan, J. Maser, H. C. Kang, A. Macrander, and B. Stephenson, “A theoretical study of two-dimensional point focusing by two multilayer Laue lenses,” Proc. SPIE 7077, 70770Q (2008).
[Crossref]

H. Yan, J. Maser, A. Macrander, Q. Shen, S. Vogt, G. B. Stephenson, and H. C. Kang, “Takagi-Taupin description of x-ray dynamical diffraction from diffractive optics with large numerical aperture,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 115438 (2007).
[Crossref]

Matsuyama, S.

H. Mimura, S. Handa, T. Kimura, H. Yumoto, D. Yamakawa, H. Yokoyama, S. Matsuyama, K. Inagaki, K. Yamamura, Y. Sano, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Breaking the 10 nm barrier in hard-X-ray focusing,” Nat. Phys. 6, 122–125 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. Matsuyama, H. Mimura, H. Yumoto, K. Yamamura, Y. Sano, K. Endo, Y. Mori, Y. Nishino, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa, M. Yabashi, and K. Yamauchi, “Diffraction-limited two-dimensional hard-x-ray focusing at the 100 nm level using a Kirkpatrick-Baez mirror arrangement,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 083114 (2005).
[Crossref]

McKinney, W. R.

D. J. Merthe, V. V. Yashchuk, K. A. Goldberg, K. Martin, T. Nobumichi, W. R. McKinney, N. A. Artemiev, R. S. Celestre, G. Y. Morrison, E. H. Anderson, B. V. Smith, E. E. Domning, S. B. Rekawa, and H. A. Padmore, “Methodology for optimal in situ alignment and setting of bendable optics for nearly diffraction-limited focusing of soft x-rays,” Opt. Eng. 52(3), 033603 (2013).
[Crossref]

McNulty, I.

I. Mohacsi, I. Vartiainen, B. Rosner, M. Guizar-Sicairos, V. A. Guzenko, I. McNulty, R. Winarski, M. V. Holt, and C. David, “Interlaced zone plate optics for hard X-ray imaging in the 10 nm range,” Sci. Rep. 7, 43624 (2017).
[Crossref]

Meents, A.

A. J. Morgan, M. Prasciolu, A. Andrejczuk, J. Krzywinski, A. Meents, D. Pennicard, H. Graafsma, A. Barty, R. J. Bean, M. Barthelmess, D. Oberthuer, O. Yefanov, A. Aquila, H. N. Chapman, and S. Bajt, “High numerical aperture multilayer Laue lenses,” Sci. Rep. 5, 09892 (2015).
[Crossref]

Menzel, A.

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, C. David, and F. Pfeiffer, “High-Resolution Scanning X-ray Diffraction Microscopy,” Science 321, 379–382 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Merthe, D. J.

D. J. Merthe, V. V. Yashchuk, K. A. Goldberg, K. Martin, T. Nobumichi, W. R. McKinney, N. A. Artemiev, R. S. Celestre, G. Y. Morrison, E. H. Anderson, B. V. Smith, E. E. Domning, S. B. Rekawa, and H. A. Padmore, “Methodology for optimal in situ alignment and setting of bendable optics for nearly diffraction-limited focusing of soft x-rays,” Opt. Eng. 52(3), 033603 (2013).
[Crossref]

Mimura, H.

H. Mimura, S. Handa, T. Kimura, H. Yumoto, D. Yamakawa, H. Yokoyama, S. Matsuyama, K. Inagaki, K. Yamamura, Y. Sano, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Breaking the 10 nm barrier in hard-X-ray focusing,” Nat. Phys. 6, 122–125 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. Matsuyama, H. Mimura, H. Yumoto, K. Yamamura, Y. Sano, K. Endo, Y. Mori, Y. Nishino, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa, M. Yabashi, and K. Yamauchi, “Diffraction-limited two-dimensional hard-x-ray focusing at the 100 nm level using a Kirkpatrick-Baez mirror arrangement,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 083114 (2005).
[Crossref]

Mohacsi, I.

I. Mohacsi, I. Vartiainen, B. Rosner, M. Guizar-Sicairos, V. A. Guzenko, I. McNulty, R. Winarski, M. V. Holt, and C. David, “Interlaced zone plate optics for hard X-ray imaging in the 10 nm range,” Sci. Rep. 7, 43624 (2017).
[Crossref]

Mooney, T. M.

Morawe, C.

Morgan, A. J.

A. J. Morgan, M. Prasciolu, A. Andrejczuk, J. Krzywinski, A. Meents, D. Pennicard, H. Graafsma, A. Barty, R. J. Bean, M. Barthelmess, D. Oberthuer, O. Yefanov, A. Aquila, H. N. Chapman, and S. Bajt, “High numerical aperture multilayer Laue lenses,” Sci. Rep. 5, 09892 (2015).
[Crossref]

Mori, Y.

S. Matsuyama, H. Mimura, H. Yumoto, K. Yamamura, Y. Sano, K. Endo, Y. Mori, Y. Nishino, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa, M. Yabashi, and K. Yamauchi, “Diffraction-limited two-dimensional hard-x-ray focusing at the 100 nm level using a Kirkpatrick-Baez mirror arrangement,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 083114 (2005).
[Crossref]

Morrison, G. Y.

D. J. Merthe, V. V. Yashchuk, K. A. Goldberg, K. Martin, T. Nobumichi, W. R. McKinney, N. A. Artemiev, R. S. Celestre, G. Y. Morrison, E. H. Anderson, B. V. Smith, E. E. Domning, S. B. Rekawa, and H. A. Padmore, “Methodology for optimal in situ alignment and setting of bendable optics for nearly diffraction-limited focusing of soft x-rays,” Opt. Eng. 52(3), 033603 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nazaretski, E.

H. Yan, E. Nazaretski, K. Lauer, X. Huang, U. Wagner, C. Rau, M. Yusuf, I. Robinson, S. Kalbfleisch, L. Li, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, R. Conley, and Y. S. Chu, “Multimodality hard-x-ray imaging of a chromosome with nanoscale spatial resolution,” Sci. Rep. 6, 20112 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Conley, N. Bouet, Y. S. Chu, X. Huang, H. C. Kang, A. T. Macrander, J. Maser, E. Nazaretski, G. B. Stephenson, and H. Yan, “Multilayer Laue Lens: A Brief History and Current Status,” Synchrotron Radiation News 29, 16 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. Huang, R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, A. Macrander, J. Maser, H. Yan, E. Nazaretski, K. Lauer, R. Harder, I. K. Robinson, S. Kalbfleisch, and Y. S. Chu, “Achieving hard X-ray nanofocusing using a wedged multilayer Laue lens,” Opt. Express 23(10), 12496–12507 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Nazaretski, K. Lauer, H. Yan, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, R. Conley, X. Huang, W. Xu, M. Lu, K. Gofron, S. Kalbfleisch, U. Wagner, C. Rau, and Y. S. Chu, “Pushing the limits: an instrument for hard X-ray imaging below 20 nm,” J. Synchro. Rad. 22, 336–341 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Yan, Y. S. Chu, J. Maser, E. Nazaretski, J. Kim, H. C. Kang, J. J. Lombardo, and W. K. S. Chiu, “Quantitative x-ray phase imaging at the nanoscale by multilayer Laue lenses,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1307 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. C. Kang, H. Yan, Y. S. Chu, S. Y. Lee, J. Kim, E. Nazaretski, C. Kim, O. Seo, D. Y. Noh, A. T. Macrander, G. B. Stephenson, and J. Maser, “Oxidation of PtNi nanoparticles studied by a scanning X-ray fluorescence microscope with multi-layer Laue lenses,” Nanoscale 5, 7184–7187 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Nazaretski, J. Kim, H. Yan, K. Lauer, D. Eom, D. Shu, J. Maser, Z. Pesic, U. Wagner, C. Rau, and Y. S. Chu, “Performance and characterization of the prototype nm-scale spatial resolution scanning multilayer Laue lenses microscope,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84, 033701 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Huang, H. Yan, E. Nazaretski, R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, K. Lauer, L. Li, D. Eom, D. Legnini, R. Harder, I. K. Robinson, and Y. S. Chu, “11 nm hard X-ray focus from a large-aperture multilayer Laue lens,” Sci. Rep. 3, 3562 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nishino, Y.

H. Mimura, S. Handa, T. Kimura, H. Yumoto, D. Yamakawa, H. Yokoyama, S. Matsuyama, K. Inagaki, K. Yamamura, Y. Sano, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Breaking the 10 nm barrier in hard-X-ray focusing,” Nat. Phys. 6, 122–125 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. Matsuyama, H. Mimura, H. Yumoto, K. Yamamura, Y. Sano, K. Endo, Y. Mori, Y. Nishino, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa, M. Yabashi, and K. Yamauchi, “Diffraction-limited two-dimensional hard-x-ray focusing at the 100 nm level using a Kirkpatrick-Baez mirror arrangement,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 083114 (2005).
[Crossref]

Nobumichi, T.

D. J. Merthe, V. V. Yashchuk, K. A. Goldberg, K. Martin, T. Nobumichi, W. R. McKinney, N. A. Artemiev, R. S. Celestre, G. Y. Morrison, E. H. Anderson, B. V. Smith, E. E. Domning, S. B. Rekawa, and H. A. Padmore, “Methodology for optimal in situ alignment and setting of bendable optics for nearly diffraction-limited focusing of soft x-rays,” Opt. Eng. 52(3), 033603 (2013).
[Crossref]

Noh, D. Y.

H. C. Kang, H. Yan, Y. S. Chu, S. Y. Lee, J. Kim, E. Nazaretski, C. Kim, O. Seo, D. Y. Noh, A. T. Macrander, G. B. Stephenson, and J. Maser, “Oxidation of PtNi nanoparticles studied by a scanning X-ray fluorescence microscope with multi-layer Laue lenses,” Nanoscale 5, 7184–7187 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Oberthuer, D.

A. J. Morgan, M. Prasciolu, A. Andrejczuk, J. Krzywinski, A. Meents, D. Pennicard, H. Graafsma, A. Barty, R. J. Bean, M. Barthelmess, D. Oberthuer, O. Yefanov, A. Aquila, H. N. Chapman, and S. Bajt, “High numerical aperture multilayer Laue lenses,” Sci. Rep. 5, 09892 (2015).
[Crossref]

Pacureanu, A.

Padmore, H. A.

D. J. Merthe, V. V. Yashchuk, K. A. Goldberg, K. Martin, T. Nobumichi, W. R. McKinney, N. A. Artemiev, R. S. Celestre, G. Y. Morrison, E. H. Anderson, B. V. Smith, E. E. Domning, S. B. Rekawa, and H. A. Padmore, “Methodology for optimal in situ alignment and setting of bendable optics for nearly diffraction-limited focusing of soft x-rays,” Opt. Eng. 52(3), 033603 (2013).
[Crossref]

Pan, Y. S.

J. Vila-Comamala, Y. S. Pan, J. J. Lombardo, W. M. Harris, W. K. S. Chiu, C. David, and Y. X. Wang, “Zone-doubled Fresnel zone plates for high-resolution hard X-ray full-field transmission microscopy,” J. Synchro. Rad. 19, 705–709 (2012).
[Crossref]

Patommel, J.

C. G. Schroer, P. Boye, J. M. Feldkamp, J. Patommel, D. Samberg, A. Schropp, A. Schwab, S. Stephan, G. Falkenberg, G. Wellenreuther, and N. Reimers, “Hard X-ray nanoprobe at beamline P06 at PETRA III,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 616, 93–97 (2010).
[Crossref]

Pennicard, D.

A. J. Morgan, M. Prasciolu, A. Andrejczuk, J. Krzywinski, A. Meents, D. Pennicard, H. Graafsma, A. Barty, R. J. Bean, M. Barthelmess, D. Oberthuer, O. Yefanov, A. Aquila, H. N. Chapman, and S. Bajt, “High numerical aperture multilayer Laue lenses,” Sci. Rep. 5, 09892 (2015).
[Crossref]

Pesic, Z.

E. Nazaretski, J. Kim, H. Yan, K. Lauer, D. Eom, D. Shu, J. Maser, Z. Pesic, U. Wagner, C. Rau, and Y. S. Chu, “Performance and characterization of the prototype nm-scale spatial resolution scanning multilayer Laue lenses microscope,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84, 033701 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pfeiffer, F.

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, C. David, and F. Pfeiffer, “High-Resolution Scanning X-ray Diffraction Microscopy,” Science 321, 379–382 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Prasciolu, M.

A. J. Morgan, M. Prasciolu, A. Andrejczuk, J. Krzywinski, A. Meents, D. Pennicard, H. Graafsma, A. Barty, R. J. Bean, M. Barthelmess, D. Oberthuer, O. Yefanov, A. Aquila, H. N. Chapman, and S. Bajt, “High numerical aperture multilayer Laue lenses,” Sci. Rep. 5, 09892 (2015).
[Crossref]

Qian, Y.

H. Feng, Y. Qian, J. K. Cochran, Q. Z. Zhu, W. Hu, H. F. Yan, L. Li, X. J. Huang, Y. S. Chu, H. J. Liu, S. Yoo, and C. J. Liu, “Nanoscale measurement of trace element distributions in Spartina alterniflora root tissue during dormancy,” Sci. Rep. 7, 40420 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rau, C.

H. Yan, E. Nazaretski, K. Lauer, X. Huang, U. Wagner, C. Rau, M. Yusuf, I. Robinson, S. Kalbfleisch, L. Li, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, R. Conley, and Y. S. Chu, “Multimodality hard-x-ray imaging of a chromosome with nanoscale spatial resolution,” Sci. Rep. 6, 20112 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Nazaretski, K. Lauer, H. Yan, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, R. Conley, X. Huang, W. Xu, M. Lu, K. Gofron, S. Kalbfleisch, U. Wagner, C. Rau, and Y. S. Chu, “Pushing the limits: an instrument for hard X-ray imaging below 20 nm,” J. Synchro. Rad. 22, 336–341 (2015).
[Crossref]

E. Nazaretski, J. Kim, H. Yan, K. Lauer, D. Eom, D. Shu, J. Maser, Z. Pesic, U. Wagner, C. Rau, and Y. S. Chu, “Performance and characterization of the prototype nm-scale spatial resolution scanning multilayer Laue lenses microscope,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84, 033701 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Reardon, P. J.

F. Liu, B. M. Robinson, P. J. Reardon, and J. M. Geary, “Analyzing optics test data on rectangular apertures using 2-D Chebyshev polynomials,” Opt. Eng. 50(4), 043609 (2011).
[Crossref]

Reimers, N.

C. G. Schroer, P. Boye, J. M. Feldkamp, J. Patommel, D. Samberg, A. Schropp, A. Schwab, S. Stephan, G. Falkenberg, G. Wellenreuther, and N. Reimers, “Hard X-ray nanoprobe at beamline P06 at PETRA III,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 616, 93–97 (2010).
[Crossref]

Rekawa, S. B.

D. J. Merthe, V. V. Yashchuk, K. A. Goldberg, K. Martin, T. Nobumichi, W. R. McKinney, N. A. Artemiev, R. S. Celestre, G. Y. Morrison, E. H. Anderson, B. V. Smith, E. E. Domning, S. B. Rekawa, and H. A. Padmore, “Methodology for optimal in situ alignment and setting of bendable optics for nearly diffraction-limited focusing of soft x-rays,” Opt. Eng. 52(3), 033603 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ritala, M.

Robinson, B. M.

F. Liu, B. M. Robinson, P. J. Reardon, and J. M. Geary, “Analyzing optics test data on rectangular apertures using 2-D Chebyshev polynomials,” Opt. Eng. 50(4), 043609 (2011).
[Crossref]

Robinson, I.

H. Yan, E. Nazaretski, K. Lauer, X. Huang, U. Wagner, C. Rau, M. Yusuf, I. Robinson, S. Kalbfleisch, L. Li, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, R. Conley, and Y. S. Chu, “Multimodality hard-x-ray imaging of a chromosome with nanoscale spatial resolution,” Sci. Rep. 6, 20112 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Robinson, I. K.

X. Huang, R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, A. Macrander, J. Maser, H. Yan, E. Nazaretski, K. Lauer, R. Harder, I. K. Robinson, S. Kalbfleisch, and Y. S. Chu, “Achieving hard X-ray nanofocusing using a wedged multilayer Laue lens,” Opt. Express 23(10), 12496–12507 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Huang, H. Yan, E. Nazaretski, R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, K. Lauer, L. Li, D. Eom, D. Legnini, R. Harder, I. K. Robinson, and Y. S. Chu, “11 nm hard X-ray focus from a large-aperture multilayer Laue lens,” Sci. Rep. 3, 3562 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rose, V.

Rosner, B.

I. Mohacsi, I. Vartiainen, B. Rosner, M. Guizar-Sicairos, V. A. Guzenko, I. McNulty, R. Winarski, M. V. Holt, and C. David, “Interlaced zone plate optics for hard X-ray imaging in the 10 nm range,” Sci. Rep. 7, 43624 (2017).
[Crossref]

Sakdinawat, A.

C. Chang and A. Sakdinawat, “Ultra-high aspect ratio high-resolution nanofabrication for hard X-ray diffractive optics,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4243 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Samberg, D.

C. G. Schroer, P. Boye, J. M. Feldkamp, J. Patommel, D. Samberg, A. Schropp, A. Schwab, S. Stephan, G. Falkenberg, G. Wellenreuther, and N. Reimers, “Hard X-ray nanoprobe at beamline P06 at PETRA III,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 616, 93–97 (2010).
[Crossref]

Sano, Y.

H. Mimura, S. Handa, T. Kimura, H. Yumoto, D. Yamakawa, H. Yokoyama, S. Matsuyama, K. Inagaki, K. Yamamura, Y. Sano, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Breaking the 10 nm barrier in hard-X-ray focusing,” Nat. Phys. 6, 122–125 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. Matsuyama, H. Mimura, H. Yumoto, K. Yamamura, Y. Sano, K. Endo, Y. Mori, Y. Nishino, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa, M. Yabashi, and K. Yamauchi, “Diffraction-limited two-dimensional hard-x-ray focusing at the 100 nm level using a Kirkpatrick-Baez mirror arrangement,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 083114 (2005).
[Crossref]

Satoshi, M.

K. Yamauchi, M. Hidekazu, K. Takashi, Y. Hirokatsu, H. Soichiro, M. Satoshi, A. Kenta, S. Yasuhisa, Y. Kazuya, I. Koji, N. Hiroki, K. Jangwoo, T. Kenji, N. Yoshinori, Y. Makina, and I. Tetsuya, “Single-nanometer focusing of hard x-rays by Kirkpatrick-Baez mirrors,” Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter 23, 394206 (2011).
[PubMed]

Schroer, C. G.

C. G. Schroer, P. Boye, J. M. Feldkamp, J. Patommel, D. Samberg, A. Schropp, A. Schwab, S. Stephan, G. Falkenberg, G. Wellenreuther, and N. Reimers, “Hard X-ray nanoprobe at beamline P06 at PETRA III,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 616, 93–97 (2010).
[Crossref]

Schropp, A.

C. G. Schroer, P. Boye, J. M. Feldkamp, J. Patommel, D. Samberg, A. Schropp, A. Schwab, S. Stephan, G. Falkenberg, G. Wellenreuther, and N. Reimers, “Hard X-ray nanoprobe at beamline P06 at PETRA III,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 616, 93–97 (2010).
[Crossref]

Schwab, A.

C. G. Schroer, P. Boye, J. M. Feldkamp, J. Patommel, D. Samberg, A. Schropp, A. Schwab, S. Stephan, G. Falkenberg, G. Wellenreuther, and N. Reimers, “Hard X-ray nanoprobe at beamline P06 at PETRA III,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 616, 93–97 (2010).
[Crossref]

Seo, O.

H. C. Kang, H. Yan, Y. S. Chu, S. Y. Lee, J. Kim, E. Nazaretski, C. Kim, O. Seo, D. Y. Noh, A. T. Macrander, G. B. Stephenson, and J. Maser, “Oxidation of PtNi nanoparticles studied by a scanning X-ray fluorescence microscope with multi-layer Laue lenses,” Nanoscale 5, 7184–7187 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shen, Q.

H. Yan, J. Maser, A. Macrander, Q. Shen, S. Vogt, G. B. Stephenson, and H. C. Kang, “Takagi-Taupin description of x-ray dynamical diffraction from diffractive optics with large numerical aperture,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 115438 (2007).
[Crossref]

Shu, D.

E. Nazaretski, J. Kim, H. Yan, K. Lauer, D. Eom, D. Shu, J. Maser, Z. Pesic, U. Wagner, C. Rau, and Y. S. Chu, “Performance and characterization of the prototype nm-scale spatial resolution scanning multilayer Laue lenses microscope,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84, 033701 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yan, V. Rose, D. Shu, E. Lima, H. C. Kang, R. Conley, C. Liu, N. Jahedi, A. T. Macrander, G. B. Stephenson, M. Holt, Y. S. Chu, M. Lu, and J. Maser, “Two dimensional hard x-ray nanofocusing with crossed multilayer Laue lenses,” Opt. Express 19(16), 15069–15076 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shu, D. M.

Smith, B. V.

D. J. Merthe, V. V. Yashchuk, K. A. Goldberg, K. Martin, T. Nobumichi, W. R. McKinney, N. A. Artemiev, R. S. Celestre, G. Y. Morrison, E. H. Anderson, B. V. Smith, E. E. Domning, S. B. Rekawa, and H. A. Padmore, “Methodology for optimal in situ alignment and setting of bendable optics for nearly diffraction-limited focusing of soft x-rays,” Opt. Eng. 52(3), 033603 (2013).
[Crossref]

Soichiro, H.

K. Yamauchi, M. Hidekazu, K. Takashi, Y. Hirokatsu, H. Soichiro, M. Satoshi, A. Kenta, S. Yasuhisa, Y. Kazuya, I. Koji, N. Hiroki, K. Jangwoo, T. Kenji, N. Yoshinori, Y. Makina, and I. Tetsuya, “Single-nanometer focusing of hard x-rays by Kirkpatrick-Baez mirrors,” Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter 23, 394206 (2011).
[PubMed]

Stephan, S.

C. G. Schroer, P. Boye, J. M. Feldkamp, J. Patommel, D. Samberg, A. Schropp, A. Schwab, S. Stephan, G. Falkenberg, G. Wellenreuther, and N. Reimers, “Hard X-ray nanoprobe at beamline P06 at PETRA III,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 616, 93–97 (2010).
[Crossref]

Stephenson, B.

H. Yan, J. Maser, H. C. Kang, A. Macrander, and B. Stephenson, “A theoretical study of two-dimensional point focusing by two multilayer Laue lenses,” Proc. SPIE 7077, 70770Q (2008).
[Crossref]

Stephenson, G. B.

R. Conley, N. Bouet, Y. S. Chu, X. Huang, H. C. Kang, A. T. Macrander, J. Maser, E. Nazaretski, G. B. Stephenson, and H. Yan, “Multilayer Laue Lens: A Brief History and Current Status,” Synchrotron Radiation News 29, 16 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. C. Kang, H. Yan, Y. S. Chu, S. Y. Lee, J. Kim, E. Nazaretski, C. Kim, O. Seo, D. Y. Noh, A. T. Macrander, G. B. Stephenson, and J. Maser, “Oxidation of PtNi nanoparticles studied by a scanning X-ray fluorescence microscope with multi-layer Laue lenses,” Nanoscale 5, 7184–7187 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yan, V. Rose, D. Shu, E. Lima, H. C. Kang, R. Conley, C. Liu, N. Jahedi, A. T. Macrander, G. B. Stephenson, M. Holt, Y. S. Chu, M. Lu, and J. Maser, “Two dimensional hard x-ray nanofocusing with crossed multilayer Laue lenses,” Opt. Express 19(16), 15069–15076 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yan, J. Maser, A. Macrander, Q. Shen, S. Vogt, G. B. Stephenson, and H. C. Kang, “Takagi-Taupin description of x-ray dynamical diffraction from diffractive optics with large numerical aperture,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 115438 (2007).
[Crossref]

Takashi, K.

K. Yamauchi, M. Hidekazu, K. Takashi, Y. Hirokatsu, H. Soichiro, M. Satoshi, A. Kenta, S. Yasuhisa, Y. Kazuya, I. Koji, N. Hiroki, K. Jangwoo, T. Kenji, N. Yoshinori, Y. Makina, and I. Tetsuya, “Single-nanometer focusing of hard x-rays by Kirkpatrick-Baez mirrors,” Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter 23, 394206 (2011).
[PubMed]

Tamasaku, K.

H. Mimura, S. Handa, T. Kimura, H. Yumoto, D. Yamakawa, H. Yokoyama, S. Matsuyama, K. Inagaki, K. Yamamura, Y. Sano, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Breaking the 10 nm barrier in hard-X-ray focusing,” Nat. Phys. 6, 122–125 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. Matsuyama, H. Mimura, H. Yumoto, K. Yamamura, Y. Sano, K. Endo, Y. Mori, Y. Nishino, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa, M. Yabashi, and K. Yamauchi, “Diffraction-limited two-dimensional hard-x-ray focusing at the 100 nm level using a Kirkpatrick-Baez mirror arrangement,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 083114 (2005).
[Crossref]

Tetsuya, I.

K. Yamauchi, M. Hidekazu, K. Takashi, Y. Hirokatsu, H. Soichiro, M. Satoshi, A. Kenta, S. Yasuhisa, Y. Kazuya, I. Koji, N. Hiroki, K. Jangwoo, T. Kenji, N. Yoshinori, Y. Makina, and I. Tetsuya, “Single-nanometer focusing of hard x-rays by Kirkpatrick-Baez mirrors,” Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter 23, 394206 (2011).
[PubMed]

K. Yamauchi, Y. Kazuya, M. Hidekazu, S. Yasuhisa, S. Akira, E. Katsuyoshi, S. Alexei, Y. Makina, T. Kenji, I. Tetsuya, and M. Yuzo, “Two-dimensional Submicron Focusing of Hard X-rays by Two Elliptical Mirrors Fabricated by Plasma Chemical Vaporization Machining and Elastic Emission Machining,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42(11), 7129 (2003).
[Crossref]

Thibault, P.

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, C. David, and F. Pfeiffer, “High-Resolution Scanning X-ray Diffraction Microscopy,” Science 321, 379–382 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vartiainen, I.

I. Mohacsi, I. Vartiainen, B. Rosner, M. Guizar-Sicairos, V. A. Guzenko, I. McNulty, R. Winarski, M. V. Holt, and C. David, “Interlaced zone plate optics for hard X-ray imaging in the 10 nm range,” Sci. Rep. 7, 43624 (2017).
[Crossref]

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E. Nazaretski, K. Lauer, H. Yan, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, R. Conley, X. Huang, W. Xu, M. Lu, K. Gofron, S. Kalbfleisch, U. Wagner, C. Rau, and Y. S. Chu, “Pushing the limits: an instrument for hard X-ray imaging below 20 nm,” J. Synchro. Rad. 22, 336–341 (2015).
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E. Nazaretski, J. Kim, H. Yan, K. Lauer, D. Eom, D. Shu, J. Maser, Z. Pesic, U. Wagner, C. Rau, and Y. S. Chu, “Performance and characterization of the prototype nm-scale spatial resolution scanning multilayer Laue lenses microscope,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84, 033701 (2013).
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E. Nazaretski, K. Lauer, H. Yan, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, R. Conley, X. Huang, W. Xu, M. Lu, K. Gofron, S. Kalbfleisch, U. Wagner, C. Rau, and Y. S. Chu, “Pushing the limits: an instrument for hard X-ray imaging below 20 nm,” J. Synchro. Rad. 22, 336–341 (2015).
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E. Nazaretski, J. Kim, H. Yan, K. Lauer, D. Eom, D. Shu, J. Maser, Z. Pesic, U. Wagner, C. Rau, and Y. S. Chu, “Performance and characterization of the prototype nm-scale spatial resolution scanning multilayer Laue lenses microscope,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84, 033701 (2013).
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H. Yan and Y. S. Chu, “Optimization of multilayer Laue lenses for a scanning X-ray microscope,” J. Synchro. Rad. 20, 89–97 (2013).
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H. Yan, J. Maser, H. C. Kang, A. Macrander, and B. Stephenson, “A theoretical study of two-dimensional point focusing by two multilayer Laue lenses,” Proc. SPIE 7077, 70770Q (2008).
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H. Yan, J. Maser, A. Macrander, Q. Shen, S. Vogt, G. B. Stephenson, and H. C. Kang, “Takagi-Taupin description of x-ray dynamical diffraction from diffractive optics with large numerical aperture,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 115438 (2007).
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S. Matsuyama, H. Mimura, H. Yumoto, K. Yamamura, Y. Sano, K. Endo, Y. Mori, Y. Nishino, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa, M. Yabashi, and K. Yamauchi, “Diffraction-limited two-dimensional hard-x-ray focusing at the 100 nm level using a Kirkpatrick-Baez mirror arrangement,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 083114 (2005).
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H. Yan, E. Nazaretski, K. Lauer, X. Huang, U. Wagner, C. Rau, M. Yusuf, I. Robinson, S. Kalbfleisch, L. Li, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, R. Conley, and Y. S. Chu, “Multimodality hard-x-ray imaging of a chromosome with nanoscale spatial resolution,” Sci. Rep. 6, 20112 (2016).
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K. Yamauchi, Y. Kazuya, M. Hidekazu, S. Yasuhisa, S. Akira, E. Katsuyoshi, S. Alexei, Y. Makina, T. Kenji, I. Tetsuya, and M. Yuzo, “Two-dimensional Submicron Focusing of Hard X-rays by Two Elliptical Mirrors Fabricated by Plasma Chemical Vaporization Machining and Elastic Emission Machining,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42(11), 7129 (2003).
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H. Yan, E. Nazaretski, K. Lauer, X. Huang, U. Wagner, C. Rau, M. Yusuf, I. Robinson, S. Kalbfleisch, L. Li, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, R. Conley, and Y. S. Chu, “Multimodality hard-x-ray imaging of a chromosome with nanoscale spatial resolution,” Sci. Rep. 6, 20112 (2016).
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E. Nazaretski, K. Lauer, H. Yan, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, R. Conley, X. Huang, W. Xu, M. Lu, K. Gofron, S. Kalbfleisch, U. Wagner, C. Rau, and Y. S. Chu, “Pushing the limits: an instrument for hard X-ray imaging below 20 nm,” J. Synchro. Rad. 22, 336–341 (2015).
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X. Huang, R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, A. Macrander, J. Maser, H. Yan, E. Nazaretski, K. Lauer, R. Harder, I. K. Robinson, S. Kalbfleisch, and Y. S. Chu, “Achieving hard X-ray nanofocusing using a wedged multilayer Laue lens,” Opt. Express 23(10), 12496–12507 (2015).
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A. T. Macrander, A. Kubec, R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, M. Wojcik, and J. Maser, “Efficiency of a multilayer-Laue-lens with a 102 m aperture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 081904 (2015).
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X. Huang, H. Yan, E. Nazaretski, R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, K. Lauer, L. Li, D. Eom, D. Legnini, R. Harder, I. K. Robinson, and Y. S. Chu, “11 nm hard X-ray focus from a large-aperture multilayer Laue lens,” Sci. Rep. 3, 3562 (2013).
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H. Feng, Y. Qian, J. K. Cochran, Q. Z. Zhu, W. Hu, H. F. Yan, L. Li, X. J. Huang, Y. S. Chu, H. J. Liu, S. Yoo, and C. J. Liu, “Nanoscale measurement of trace element distributions in Spartina alterniflora root tissue during dormancy,” Sci. Rep. 7, 40420 (2017).
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Ziegler, E.

S. Berujon, E. Ziegler, and P. Cloetens, “X-ray pulse wavefront metrology using speckle tracking,” J. Synchro. Rad. 22, 886–894 (2015).
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Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

A. T. Macrander, A. Kubec, R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, M. Wojcik, and J. Maser, “Efficiency of a multilayer-Laue-lens with a 102 m aperture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 081904 (2015).
[Crossref]

Applied Optics and Optical Engineering (1)

J. C. Wyant and K. Creath, “Basic Wavefront Aberration Theory for Optical metrology,” Applied Optics and Optical Engineering 11, 1–53 (1992).

J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. (1)

H. Yan, R. Conley, N. Bouet, and Y. S. Chu, “Hard x-ray nanofocusing by multilayer Laue lenses,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 47, 263001 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Synchro. Rad. (4)

E. Nazaretski, K. Lauer, H. Yan, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, R. Conley, X. Huang, W. Xu, M. Lu, K. Gofron, S. Kalbfleisch, U. Wagner, C. Rau, and Y. S. Chu, “Pushing the limits: an instrument for hard X-ray imaging below 20 nm,” J. Synchro. Rad. 22, 336–341 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Berujon, E. Ziegler, and P. Cloetens, “X-ray pulse wavefront metrology using speckle tracking,” J. Synchro. Rad. 22, 886–894 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Yan and Y. S. Chu, “Optimization of multilayer Laue lenses for a scanning X-ray microscope,” J. Synchro. Rad. 20, 89–97 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Vila-Comamala, Y. S. Pan, J. J. Lombardo, W. M. Harris, W. K. S. Chiu, C. David, and Y. X. Wang, “Zone-doubled Fresnel zone plates for high-resolution hard X-ray full-field transmission microscopy,” J. Synchro. Rad. 19, 705–709 (2012).
[Crossref]

Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter (1)

K. Yamauchi, M. Hidekazu, K. Takashi, Y. Hirokatsu, H. Soichiro, M. Satoshi, A. Kenta, S. Yasuhisa, Y. Kazuya, I. Koji, N. Hiroki, K. Jangwoo, T. Kenji, N. Yoshinori, Y. Makina, and I. Tetsuya, “Single-nanometer focusing of hard x-rays by Kirkpatrick-Baez mirrors,” Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter 23, 394206 (2011).
[PubMed]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

K. Yamauchi, Y. Kazuya, M. Hidekazu, S. Yasuhisa, S. Akira, E. Katsuyoshi, S. Alexei, Y. Makina, T. Kenji, I. Tetsuya, and M. Yuzo, “Two-dimensional Submicron Focusing of Hard X-rays by Two Elliptical Mirrors Fabricated by Plasma Chemical Vaporization Machining and Elastic Emission Machining,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42(11), 7129 (2003).
[Crossref]

Nanoscale (1)

H. C. Kang, H. Yan, Y. S. Chu, S. Y. Lee, J. Kim, E. Nazaretski, C. Kim, O. Seo, D. Y. Noh, A. T. Macrander, G. B. Stephenson, and J. Maser, “Oxidation of PtNi nanoparticles studied by a scanning X-ray fluorescence microscope with multi-layer Laue lenses,” Nanoscale 5, 7184–7187 (2013).
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Nat. Commun. (1)

C. Chang and A. Sakdinawat, “Ultra-high aspect ratio high-resolution nanofabrication for hard X-ray diffractive optics,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4243 (2014).
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Nat. Phys. (1)

H. Mimura, S. Handa, T. Kimura, H. Yumoto, D. Yamakawa, H. Yokoyama, S. Matsuyama, K. Inagaki, K. Yamamura, Y. Sano, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Breaking the 10 nm barrier in hard-X-ray focusing,” Nat. Phys. 6, 122–125 (2010).
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Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A (1)

C. G. Schroer, P. Boye, J. M. Feldkamp, J. Patommel, D. Samberg, A. Schropp, A. Schwab, S. Stephan, G. Falkenberg, G. Wellenreuther, and N. Reimers, “Hard X-ray nanoprobe at beamline P06 at PETRA III,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 616, 93–97 (2010).
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Opt. Eng. (2)

D. J. Merthe, V. V. Yashchuk, K. A. Goldberg, K. Martin, T. Nobumichi, W. R. McKinney, N. A. Artemiev, R. S. Celestre, G. Y. Morrison, E. H. Anderson, B. V. Smith, E. E. Domning, S. B. Rekawa, and H. A. Padmore, “Methodology for optimal in situ alignment and setting of bendable optics for nearly diffraction-limited focusing of soft x-rays,” Opt. Eng. 52(3), 033603 (2013).
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Opt. Express (4)

Optica (1)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

H. Yan, J. Maser, A. Macrander, Q. Shen, S. Vogt, G. B. Stephenson, and H. C. Kang, “Takagi-Taupin description of x-ray dynamical diffraction from diffractive optics with large numerical aperture,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 115438 (2007).
[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (1)

H. Yan, J. Maser, H. C. Kang, A. Macrander, and B. Stephenson, “A theoretical study of two-dimensional point focusing by two multilayer Laue lenses,” Proc. SPIE 7077, 70770Q (2008).
[Crossref]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (2)

S. Matsuyama, H. Mimura, H. Yumoto, K. Yamamura, Y. Sano, K. Endo, Y. Mori, Y. Nishino, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa, M. Yabashi, and K. Yamauchi, “Diffraction-limited two-dimensional hard-x-ray focusing at the 100 nm level using a Kirkpatrick-Baez mirror arrangement,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 083114 (2005).
[Crossref]

E. Nazaretski, J. Kim, H. Yan, K. Lauer, D. Eom, D. Shu, J. Maser, Z. Pesic, U. Wagner, C. Rau, and Y. S. Chu, “Performance and characterization of the prototype nm-scale spatial resolution scanning multilayer Laue lenses microscope,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84, 033701 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sci. Rep. (6)

I. Mohacsi, I. Vartiainen, B. Rosner, M. Guizar-Sicairos, V. A. Guzenko, I. McNulty, R. Winarski, M. V. Holt, and C. David, “Interlaced zone plate optics for hard X-ray imaging in the 10 nm range,” Sci. Rep. 7, 43624 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Feng, Y. Qian, J. K. Cochran, Q. Z. Zhu, W. Hu, H. F. Yan, L. Li, X. J. Huang, Y. S. Chu, H. J. Liu, S. Yoo, and C. J. Liu, “Nanoscale measurement of trace element distributions in Spartina alterniflora root tissue during dormancy,” Sci. Rep. 7, 40420 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yan, E. Nazaretski, K. Lauer, X. Huang, U. Wagner, C. Rau, M. Yusuf, I. Robinson, S. Kalbfleisch, L. Li, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, R. Conley, and Y. S. Chu, “Multimodality hard-x-ray imaging of a chromosome with nanoscale spatial resolution,” Sci. Rep. 6, 20112 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yan, Y. S. Chu, J. Maser, E. Nazaretski, J. Kim, H. C. Kang, J. J. Lombardo, and W. K. S. Chiu, “Quantitative x-ray phase imaging at the nanoscale by multilayer Laue lenses,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1307 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Huang, H. Yan, E. Nazaretski, R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, K. Lauer, L. Li, D. Eom, D. Legnini, R. Harder, I. K. Robinson, and Y. S. Chu, “11 nm hard X-ray focus from a large-aperture multilayer Laue lens,” Sci. Rep. 3, 3562 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. J. Morgan, M. Prasciolu, A. Andrejczuk, J. Krzywinski, A. Meents, D. Pennicard, H. Graafsma, A. Barty, R. J. Bean, M. Barthelmess, D. Oberthuer, O. Yefanov, A. Aquila, H. N. Chapman, and S. Bajt, “High numerical aperture multilayer Laue lenses,” Sci. Rep. 5, 09892 (2015).
[Crossref]

Science (1)

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, C. David, and F. Pfeiffer, “High-Resolution Scanning X-ray Diffraction Microscopy,” Science 321, 379–382 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Synchrotron Radiation News (1)

R. Conley, N. Bouet, Y. S. Chu, X. Huang, H. C. Kang, A. T. Macrander, J. Maser, E. Nazaretski, G. B. Stephenson, and H. Yan, “Multilayer Laue Lens: A Brief History and Current Status,” Synchrotron Radiation News 29, 16 (2016).
[Crossref]

Other (2)

Here the discussion is restricted to the case where paraxial approximation is valid. It becomes invalid when NA is large, and there is additional effect on the point focus produced by two crossed linear optics. This is out of the scope of this paper and will not be discussed.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of optics, (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1999).
[Crossref]

Supplementary Material (2)

NameDescription
» Visualization 1       Propagation of the wavefield along the optical axis when there is no misalignment. The two focal planes can be seen overlap with each other.
» Visualization 2       Propagation of the wavefield along the optical axis when there is an 0.3 degree misalignment angle between two MLLs. Astigmatism occured along diagonal directions in two planes near the nominal focal plane.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic drawing of focusing x-rays into a point focus with two crossed MLLs. The upstream MLL is for vertical focusing and the downstream one for horizontal focusing. In order to fully align both lenses, in total eight degrees of freedom are required, as shown in the drawing.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a–d) Intensity distributions in the common focal plane in the presence of azimuthal misalignment angle of 0°, 0.01°, 0.05°, and 0.1°, respectively. They correspond to ϕ=0, 0.68λuv, 3.4λuv, and 6.8λuv. (e)-(f) the intensity distributions in planes ±7 µm away from the common focal plane shown in (d). Note line foci are tilted at 45°. In the presence of an error of 20 µm in the separation distance and an azimuthal misalignment angle of 0.1°, in two planes which are neither of the focal plane of the lens line foci tilted at other oblique angles can be seen in (g) and (h).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Reconstructed probe (top), reconstructed phase of the Au particle (middle) and the fluorescence image obtained in the same scan (bottom) under six different conditions. Without any misalignment and in the focal plane (a). With an azimuthal misalignment of 0.3° and in the focal plane (b). With an azimuthal misalignment of 0.3° and in planes 21 µm upstream (c) and downstream (d) to the focal plane. With an azimuthal misalignment of 0.3° and an error of 20 µm in the separation distance and in planes 34 µm upstream (e) and 13 µm downstream to the nominal focal plane. The insert pie image shows how the complex-valued wavefield of the probe is plotted (brightness for the amplitude and color for the phase).
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Orthogonality tolerance as a function of the focus size at different aperture size. Below 10 nm, the azimuthal angle misalignment has to be smaller than 0.01° for a lens with an aperture size of 50 µm. cγ = 0.9 is used in the calculation. (b) Separation distance tolerance as a function of the focus size at different energy.

Equations (10)

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t ( x , y ) = exp [ i k ( x 2 2 f 1 + y 2 2 f 2 ) ] , k = 2 π λ ,
Φ = C p ( x , y ) t ( x , y ) exp [ i k ( x 2 + y 2 2 L x x + y y L ) ] d x d y = C F [ p ( x , y ) exp ( i k ϕ ) ] ,
p ( x , y ) = { 1 , ( x , y ) A 0 , ( x , y ) A
ϕ ( u , v ) λ A 2 2 λ L ( c 1 u 2 + c 2 v 2 + c 3 u v ) , c 1 = ( 1 L f 1 ) , c 2 = ( 1 L f 2 ) , c 3 = ( L sin 2 γ f 2 ) , x = A u , y = A v .
c 1 u 2 + c 2 v 2 + c 3 u v = c 1 ( u + b v ) 2 , b = c 3 2 c 1
c 2 c 1 = ( c 3 2 c 1 ) 2 , c 1 0 .
L = a 2 ± a 2 2 4 a 1 a 3 2 a 1 , a 1 = 1 f 1 sin 2 2 γ 4 f 2 , a 2 = ( f 1 + f 2 ) , a 3 = f 1 f 2 .
γ < c γ λ f A 2 = c γ s A , s = 0.5 λ N A , N A = A 2 f .
ϕ = ( Z 3 + Z 4 cos 2 θ + Z 5 sin 2 θ ) ρ 2 , u = ρ cos θ , v = ρ sin θ .
ϕ = C 0 + C 3 ( 2 u 2 1 ) + C 4 u v + C 5 ( 2 v 2 1 ) .

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