Abstract

Microcavities based on group-III nitride material offer a notable platform for the investigation of light-matter interactions as well as the development of devices such as high efficiency light emitting diodes (LEDs) and low-threshold nanolasers. Disk or tube geometries in particular are attractive for low-threshold lasing applications due to their ability to support high finesse whispering gallery modes (WGMs) and small modal volumes. In this article we present the fabrication of homogenous and dense arrays of axial InGaN/GaN nanotubes via a combination of displacement Talbot lithography (DTL) for patterning and inductively coupled plasma top-down dry-etching. Optical characterization highlights the homogeneous emission from nanotube structures. Power-dependent continuous excitation reveals a non-uniform light distribution within a single nanotube, with vertical confinement between the bottom and top facets, and radial confinement within the active region. Finite-difference time-domain simulations, taking into account the particular shape of the outer diameter, indicate that the cavity mode of a single nanotube has a mixed WGM-vertical Fabry-Perot mode (FPM) nature. Additional simulations demonstrate that the improvement of the shape symmetry and dimensions primarily influence the Q-factor of the WGMs whereas the position of the active region impacts the coupling efficiency with one or a family of vertical FPMs. These results show that regular arrays of axial InGaN/GaN nanotubes can be achieved via a low-cost, fast and large-scale process based on DTL and top-down etching. These techniques open a new perspective for cost effective fabrication of nano-LED and nano-laser structures along with bio-chemical sensing applications.

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References

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2017 (1)

C. Li, J. B. Wright, S. Liu, P. Lu, J. J. Figiel, B. Leung, W. W. Chow, I. Brener, D. D. Koleske, T. S. Luk, D. F. Feezell, S. R. J. Brueck, and G. T. Wang, “Nonpolar InGaN/GaN core–shell single nanowire lasers,” Nano Lett. 17(2), 1049–1055 (2017).
[PubMed]

2016 (1)

J. Sellés, C. Brimont, G. Cassabois, P. Valvin, T. Guillet, I. Roland, Y. Zeng, X. Checoury, P. Boucaud, M. Mexis, F. Semond, and B. Gayral, “Deep-UV nitride-on-silicon microdisk lasers,” Sci. Rep. 6, 21650 (2016).
[PubMed]

2015 (6)

C. Li, S. Liu, A. Hurtado, J. B. Wright, H. Xu, T. S. Luk, J. J. Figiel, I. Brener, S. R. J. Brueck, and G. T. Wang, “Annular-Shaped Emission from Gallium Nitride Nanotube Lasers,” ACS Photonics 2(8), 1025–1029 (2015).

H. Abe, M. Narimatsu, T. Watanabe, T. Furumoto, Y. Yokouchi, Y. Nishijima, S. Kita, A. Tomitaka, S. Ota, Y. Takemura, and T. Baba, “Living-cell imaging using a photonic crystal nanolaser array,” Opt. Express 23(13), 17056–17066 (2015).
[PubMed]

R. Kirste, N. Rohrbaugh, I. Bryan, Z. Bryan, R. Collazo, and A. Ivanisevic, “Electronic Biosensors Based on III-Nitride Semiconductors,” Annu. Rev. Anal. Chem. (Palo Alto, Calif.) 8, 149–169 (2015).
[PubMed]

Y. Zhang, X. Zhang, K. H. Li, Y. F. Cheung, C. Feng, and H. W. Choi, “Advances in III-nitride semiconductor microdisk lasers,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 212, 960–973 (2015).

T. Kouno, M. Sakai, K. Kishino, and K. Hara, “Sensing operations based on hexagonal GaN microdisks acting as whispering-gallery mode optical microcavities,” Opt. Lett. 40(12), 2866–2869 (2015).
[PubMed]

K. H. Li, Y. F. Cheung, and H. W. Choi, “Whispering gallery mode lasing in optically isolated III-nitride nanorings,” Opt. Lett. 40(11), 2564–2567 (2015).
[PubMed]

2014 (4)

M. Athanasiou, R. Smith, B. Liu, and T. Wang, “Room temperature continuous-wave green lasing from an InGaN microdisk on silicon,” Sci. Rep. 4, 7250 (2014).
[PubMed]

C. Tessarek, R. Röder, T. Michalsky, S. Geburt, H. Franke, R. Schmidt-Grund, M. Heilmann, B. Hoffmann, C. Ronning, M. Grundmann, and S. Christiansen, “Improving the optical properties of self-catalyzed GaN microrods toward whispering gallery mode lasing,” ACS Photonics 1, 990–997 (2014).

M. T. Hill and M. C. Gather, “Advances in small lasers,” Nat. Photonics 8, 908–918 (2014).

C. Tessarek, M. Heilmann, and S. Christiansen, “Whispering gallery modes in GaN microdisks, microrods and nanorods grown by MOVPE,” Phys. Status Solidi., C Curr. Top. Solid State Phys. 11(3–4), 794–797 (2014).

2013 (1)

S. Paul, K. Maier, A. Das, F. Furtmayr, A. Helwig, J. Teubert, E. Monroy, G. Müller, and M. Eickhoff, “III-nitride nanostructures for optical gas detection and pH sensing,” Proc. SPIE 8725, 87250K (2013).

2012 (5)

Q. Li, J. B. Wright, W. W. Chow, T. S. Luk, I. Brener, L. F. Lester, and G. T. Wang, “Single-mode GaN nanowire lasers,” Opt. Express 20(16), 17873–17879 (2012).
[PubMed]

P. M. Coulon, M. Hugues, B. Alloing, E. Beraudo, M. Leroux, and J. Zúñiga-Pérez, “GaN microwires as optical microcavities: Whispering gallery modes Vs Fabry-Perot modes,” Opt. Express 20(17), 18707–18716 (2012).
[PubMed]

P. R. Edwards, L. K. Jagadamma, J. Bruckbauer, C. Liu, P. Shields, D. Allsopp, T. Wang, and R. W. Martin, “High-resolution cathodoluminescence hyperspectral imaging of nitride nanostructures,” Microsc. Microanal. 18(6), 1212–1219 (2012).
[PubMed]

K. H. Li, Z. Ma, and H. W. Choi, “Single-mode whispering gallery lasing from metal-clad GaN nanopillars,” Opt. Lett. 37(3), 374–376 (2012).
[PubMed]

C. P. Dietrich, M. Lange, T. Bontgen, and M. Grundmann, “The corner effect in hexagonal whispering gallery microresonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 141116 (2012).

2011 (2)

2010 (2)

T. Kouno, K. Kishino, and A. Kikuchi, “Whispering gallery mode in periodic InGaN-based hexagonal nanoring arrays grown by rf-MBE using Ti-mask selective-area growth,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 207(1), 37–40 (2010).

T. Kouno, K. Kishino, T. Suzuki, and M. Sakai, “Lasing Actions in GaN Tiny Hexagonal Nanoring Resonators,” IEEE Photonics J. 2, 1027 (2010).

2009 (1)

A.-L. Henneghien, B. Gayral, Y. Désières, and J.-M. Gérard, “Simulation of waveguiding and emitting properties of semiconductor nanowires with hexagonal or circular sections,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 26(12), 2396 (2009).

2008 (2)

T. C. Lu, C. C. Kao, H. C. Kuo, G. S. Huang, and S. C. Wang, “CW lasing of current injection blue GaN-based vertical cavity surface emitting laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 141102 (2008).

F. Vollmer and S. Arnold, “Whispering-gallery-mode biosensing: label-free detection down to single molecules,” Nat. Methods 5(7), 591–596 (2008).
[PubMed]

2007 (1)

A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, “Label-free, single-molecule detection with optical microcavities,” Science 317(5839), 783–787 (2007).
[PubMed]

2006 (3)

V. S. Ilchenko and A. B. Matsko, “Optical resonators with whispering-gallery modes—Part II: Applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1 (2006).

J. Goldberger, R. Fan, and P. Yang, “Inorganic nanotubes: a novel platform for nanofluidics,” Acc. Chem. Res. 39(4), 239–248 (2006).
[PubMed]

A. B. Matsko and V. S. Ilchenko, “Optical Resonators With Whispering-Gallery Modes—Part I: Basics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 3 (2006).

2003 (1)

J. Goldberger, R. He, Y. Zhang, S. Lee, H. Yan, H.-J. Choi, and P. Yang, “Single-crystal gallium nitride nanotubes,” Nature 422(6932), 599–602 (2003).
[PubMed]

1999 (2)

K. C. Zeng, L. Dai, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Optical resonance modes in InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well microring cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2563 (1999).

S. Chang, N. B. Rex, R. K. Chang, G. Chong, and L. J. Guido, “Stimulated emission and lasing in whispering-gallery mods of GaN microdisck cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 166–168 (1999).

1996 (1)

J. M. Redwing, D. A. S. Loeber, N. G. Anderson, M. A. Tischler, and J. S. Flynn, “An optically pumped GaN–AlGaN vertical cavity surface emitting laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1 (1996).

1910 (1)

L. Rayleigh, “The problem of the whispering gallery,” Philos. Mag. 20, 1001–1004 (1910).

Abe, H.

Alloing, B.

Allsopp, D.

P. R. Edwards, L. K. Jagadamma, J. Bruckbauer, C. Liu, P. Shields, D. Allsopp, T. Wang, and R. W. Martin, “High-resolution cathodoluminescence hyperspectral imaging of nitride nanostructures,” Microsc. Microanal. 18(6), 1212–1219 (2012).
[PubMed]

Anderson, N. G.

J. M. Redwing, D. A. S. Loeber, N. G. Anderson, M. A. Tischler, and J. S. Flynn, “An optically pumped GaN–AlGaN vertical cavity surface emitting laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1 (1996).

Armani, A. M.

A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, “Label-free, single-molecule detection with optical microcavities,” Science 317(5839), 783–787 (2007).
[PubMed]

Arnold, S.

F. Vollmer and S. Arnold, “Whispering-gallery-mode biosensing: label-free detection down to single molecules,” Nat. Methods 5(7), 591–596 (2008).
[PubMed]

Athanasiou, M.

M. Athanasiou, R. Smith, B. Liu, and T. Wang, “Room temperature continuous-wave green lasing from an InGaN microdisk on silicon,” Sci. Rep. 4, 7250 (2014).
[PubMed]

Baba, T.

Beraudo, E.

Bontgen, T.

C. P. Dietrich, M. Lange, T. Bontgen, and M. Grundmann, “The corner effect in hexagonal whispering gallery microresonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 141116 (2012).

Boucaud, P.

J. Sellés, C. Brimont, G. Cassabois, P. Valvin, T. Guillet, I. Roland, Y. Zeng, X. Checoury, P. Boucaud, M. Mexis, F. Semond, and B. Gayral, “Deep-UV nitride-on-silicon microdisk lasers,” Sci. Rep. 6, 21650 (2016).
[PubMed]

M. Mexis, S. Sergent, T. Guillet, C. Brimont, T. Bretagnon, B. Gil, F. Semond, M. Leroux, D. Néel, S. David, X. Chécoury, and P. Boucaud, “High quality factor nitride-based optical cavities: microdisks with embedded GaN/Al(Ga)N quantum dots,” Opt. Lett. 36(12), 2203–2205 (2011).
[PubMed]

Brener, I.

C. Li, J. B. Wright, S. Liu, P. Lu, J. J. Figiel, B. Leung, W. W. Chow, I. Brener, D. D. Koleske, T. S. Luk, D. F. Feezell, S. R. J. Brueck, and G. T. Wang, “Nonpolar InGaN/GaN core–shell single nanowire lasers,” Nano Lett. 17(2), 1049–1055 (2017).
[PubMed]

C. Li, S. Liu, A. Hurtado, J. B. Wright, H. Xu, T. S. Luk, J. J. Figiel, I. Brener, S. R. J. Brueck, and G. T. Wang, “Annular-Shaped Emission from Gallium Nitride Nanotube Lasers,” ACS Photonics 2(8), 1025–1029 (2015).

Q. Li, J. B. Wright, W. W. Chow, T. S. Luk, I. Brener, L. F. Lester, and G. T. Wang, “Single-mode GaN nanowire lasers,” Opt. Express 20(16), 17873–17879 (2012).
[PubMed]

Bretagnon, T.

Brimont, C.

J. Sellés, C. Brimont, G. Cassabois, P. Valvin, T. Guillet, I. Roland, Y. Zeng, X. Checoury, P. Boucaud, M. Mexis, F. Semond, and B. Gayral, “Deep-UV nitride-on-silicon microdisk lasers,” Sci. Rep. 6, 21650 (2016).
[PubMed]

M. Mexis, S. Sergent, T. Guillet, C. Brimont, T. Bretagnon, B. Gil, F. Semond, M. Leroux, D. Néel, S. David, X. Chécoury, and P. Boucaud, “High quality factor nitride-based optical cavities: microdisks with embedded GaN/Al(Ga)N quantum dots,” Opt. Lett. 36(12), 2203–2205 (2011).
[PubMed]

Bruckbauer, J.

P. R. Edwards, L. K. Jagadamma, J. Bruckbauer, C. Liu, P. Shields, D. Allsopp, T. Wang, and R. W. Martin, “High-resolution cathodoluminescence hyperspectral imaging of nitride nanostructures,” Microsc. Microanal. 18(6), 1212–1219 (2012).
[PubMed]

Brueck, S. R. J.

C. Li, J. B. Wright, S. Liu, P. Lu, J. J. Figiel, B. Leung, W. W. Chow, I. Brener, D. D. Koleske, T. S. Luk, D. F. Feezell, S. R. J. Brueck, and G. T. Wang, “Nonpolar InGaN/GaN core–shell single nanowire lasers,” Nano Lett. 17(2), 1049–1055 (2017).
[PubMed]

C. Li, S. Liu, A. Hurtado, J. B. Wright, H. Xu, T. S. Luk, J. J. Figiel, I. Brener, S. R. J. Brueck, and G. T. Wang, “Annular-Shaped Emission from Gallium Nitride Nanotube Lasers,” ACS Photonics 2(8), 1025–1029 (2015).

Bryan, I.

R. Kirste, N. Rohrbaugh, I. Bryan, Z. Bryan, R. Collazo, and A. Ivanisevic, “Electronic Biosensors Based on III-Nitride Semiconductors,” Annu. Rev. Anal. Chem. (Palo Alto, Calif.) 8, 149–169 (2015).
[PubMed]

Bryan, Z.

R. Kirste, N. Rohrbaugh, I. Bryan, Z. Bryan, R. Collazo, and A. Ivanisevic, “Electronic Biosensors Based on III-Nitride Semiconductors,” Annu. Rev. Anal. Chem. (Palo Alto, Calif.) 8, 149–169 (2015).
[PubMed]

Cassabois, G.

J. Sellés, C. Brimont, G. Cassabois, P. Valvin, T. Guillet, I. Roland, Y. Zeng, X. Checoury, P. Boucaud, M. Mexis, F. Semond, and B. Gayral, “Deep-UV nitride-on-silicon microdisk lasers,” Sci. Rep. 6, 21650 (2016).
[PubMed]

Chang, R. K.

S. Chang, N. B. Rex, R. K. Chang, G. Chong, and L. J. Guido, “Stimulated emission and lasing in whispering-gallery mods of GaN microdisck cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 166–168 (1999).

Chang, S.

S. Chang, N. B. Rex, R. K. Chang, G. Chong, and L. J. Guido, “Stimulated emission and lasing in whispering-gallery mods of GaN microdisck cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 166–168 (1999).

Checoury, X.

J. Sellés, C. Brimont, G. Cassabois, P. Valvin, T. Guillet, I. Roland, Y. Zeng, X. Checoury, P. Boucaud, M. Mexis, F. Semond, and B. Gayral, “Deep-UV nitride-on-silicon microdisk lasers,” Sci. Rep. 6, 21650 (2016).
[PubMed]

Chécoury, X.

Cheung, Y. F.

Y. Zhang, X. Zhang, K. H. Li, Y. F. Cheung, C. Feng, and H. W. Choi, “Advances in III-nitride semiconductor microdisk lasers,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 212, 960–973 (2015).

K. H. Li, Y. F. Cheung, and H. W. Choi, “Whispering gallery mode lasing in optically isolated III-nitride nanorings,” Opt. Lett. 40(11), 2564–2567 (2015).
[PubMed]

Choi, H. W.

Choi, H.-J.

J. Goldberger, R. He, Y. Zhang, S. Lee, H. Yan, H.-J. Choi, and P. Yang, “Single-crystal gallium nitride nanotubes,” Nature 422(6932), 599–602 (2003).
[PubMed]

Chong, G.

S. Chang, N. B. Rex, R. K. Chang, G. Chong, and L. J. Guido, “Stimulated emission and lasing in whispering-gallery mods of GaN microdisck cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 166–168 (1999).

Chow, W. W.

C. Li, J. B. Wright, S. Liu, P. Lu, J. J. Figiel, B. Leung, W. W. Chow, I. Brener, D. D. Koleske, T. S. Luk, D. F. Feezell, S. R. J. Brueck, and G. T. Wang, “Nonpolar InGaN/GaN core–shell single nanowire lasers,” Nano Lett. 17(2), 1049–1055 (2017).
[PubMed]

Q. Li, J. B. Wright, W. W. Chow, T. S. Luk, I. Brener, L. F. Lester, and G. T. Wang, “Single-mode GaN nanowire lasers,” Opt. Express 20(16), 17873–17879 (2012).
[PubMed]

Christiansen, S.

C. Tessarek, M. Heilmann, and S. Christiansen, “Whispering gallery modes in GaN microdisks, microrods and nanorods grown by MOVPE,” Phys. Status Solidi., C Curr. Top. Solid State Phys. 11(3–4), 794–797 (2014).

C. Tessarek, R. Röder, T. Michalsky, S. Geburt, H. Franke, R. Schmidt-Grund, M. Heilmann, B. Hoffmann, C. Ronning, M. Grundmann, and S. Christiansen, “Improving the optical properties of self-catalyzed GaN microrods toward whispering gallery mode lasing,” ACS Photonics 1, 990–997 (2014).

Collazo, R.

R. Kirste, N. Rohrbaugh, I. Bryan, Z. Bryan, R. Collazo, and A. Ivanisevic, “Electronic Biosensors Based on III-Nitride Semiconductors,” Annu. Rev. Anal. Chem. (Palo Alto, Calif.) 8, 149–169 (2015).
[PubMed]

Coulon, P. M.

Dai, L.

K. C. Zeng, L. Dai, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Optical resonance modes in InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well microring cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2563 (1999).

Das, A.

S. Paul, K. Maier, A. Das, F. Furtmayr, A. Helwig, J. Teubert, E. Monroy, G. Müller, and M. Eickhoff, “III-nitride nanostructures for optical gas detection and pH sensing,” Proc. SPIE 8725, 87250K (2013).

David, S.

Désières, Y.

A.-L. Henneghien, B. Gayral, Y. Désières, and J.-M. Gérard, “Simulation of waveguiding and emitting properties of semiconductor nanowires with hexagonal or circular sections,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 26(12), 2396 (2009).

Dietrich, C. P.

C. P. Dietrich, M. Lange, T. Bontgen, and M. Grundmann, “The corner effect in hexagonal whispering gallery microresonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 141116 (2012).

Edwards, P. R.

P. R. Edwards, L. K. Jagadamma, J. Bruckbauer, C. Liu, P. Shields, D. Allsopp, T. Wang, and R. W. Martin, “High-resolution cathodoluminescence hyperspectral imaging of nitride nanostructures,” Microsc. Microanal. 18(6), 1212–1219 (2012).
[PubMed]

Eickhoff, M.

S. Paul, K. Maier, A. Das, F. Furtmayr, A. Helwig, J. Teubert, E. Monroy, G. Müller, and M. Eickhoff, “III-nitride nanostructures for optical gas detection and pH sensing,” Proc. SPIE 8725, 87250K (2013).

Fan, R.

J. Goldberger, R. Fan, and P. Yang, “Inorganic nanotubes: a novel platform for nanofluidics,” Acc. Chem. Res. 39(4), 239–248 (2006).
[PubMed]

Feezell, D. F.

C. Li, J. B. Wright, S. Liu, P. Lu, J. J. Figiel, B. Leung, W. W. Chow, I. Brener, D. D. Koleske, T. S. Luk, D. F. Feezell, S. R. J. Brueck, and G. T. Wang, “Nonpolar InGaN/GaN core–shell single nanowire lasers,” Nano Lett. 17(2), 1049–1055 (2017).
[PubMed]

Feng, C.

Y. Zhang, X. Zhang, K. H. Li, Y. F. Cheung, C. Feng, and H. W. Choi, “Advances in III-nitride semiconductor microdisk lasers,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 212, 960–973 (2015).

Figiel, J. J.

C. Li, J. B. Wright, S. Liu, P. Lu, J. J. Figiel, B. Leung, W. W. Chow, I. Brener, D. D. Koleske, T. S. Luk, D. F. Feezell, S. R. J. Brueck, and G. T. Wang, “Nonpolar InGaN/GaN core–shell single nanowire lasers,” Nano Lett. 17(2), 1049–1055 (2017).
[PubMed]

C. Li, S. Liu, A. Hurtado, J. B. Wright, H. Xu, T. S. Luk, J. J. Figiel, I. Brener, S. R. J. Brueck, and G. T. Wang, “Annular-Shaped Emission from Gallium Nitride Nanotube Lasers,” ACS Photonics 2(8), 1025–1029 (2015).

Flagan, R. C.

A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, “Label-free, single-molecule detection with optical microcavities,” Science 317(5839), 783–787 (2007).
[PubMed]

Flynn, J. S.

J. M. Redwing, D. A. S. Loeber, N. G. Anderson, M. A. Tischler, and J. S. Flynn, “An optically pumped GaN–AlGaN vertical cavity surface emitting laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1 (1996).

Franke, H.

C. Tessarek, R. Röder, T. Michalsky, S. Geburt, H. Franke, R. Schmidt-Grund, M. Heilmann, B. Hoffmann, C. Ronning, M. Grundmann, and S. Christiansen, “Improving the optical properties of self-catalyzed GaN microrods toward whispering gallery mode lasing,” ACS Photonics 1, 990–997 (2014).

Fraser, S. E.

A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, “Label-free, single-molecule detection with optical microcavities,” Science 317(5839), 783–787 (2007).
[PubMed]

Furtmayr, F.

S. Paul, K. Maier, A. Das, F. Furtmayr, A. Helwig, J. Teubert, E. Monroy, G. Müller, and M. Eickhoff, “III-nitride nanostructures for optical gas detection and pH sensing,” Proc. SPIE 8725, 87250K (2013).

Furumoto, T.

Gather, M. C.

M. T. Hill and M. C. Gather, “Advances in small lasers,” Nat. Photonics 8, 908–918 (2014).

Gayral, B.

J. Sellés, C. Brimont, G. Cassabois, P. Valvin, T. Guillet, I. Roland, Y. Zeng, X. Checoury, P. Boucaud, M. Mexis, F. Semond, and B. Gayral, “Deep-UV nitride-on-silicon microdisk lasers,” Sci. Rep. 6, 21650 (2016).
[PubMed]

A.-L. Henneghien, B. Gayral, Y. Désières, and J.-M. Gérard, “Simulation of waveguiding and emitting properties of semiconductor nanowires with hexagonal or circular sections,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 26(12), 2396 (2009).

Geburt, S.

C. Tessarek, R. Röder, T. Michalsky, S. Geburt, H. Franke, R. Schmidt-Grund, M. Heilmann, B. Hoffmann, C. Ronning, M. Grundmann, and S. Christiansen, “Improving the optical properties of self-catalyzed GaN microrods toward whispering gallery mode lasing,” ACS Photonics 1, 990–997 (2014).

Gérard, J.-M.

A.-L. Henneghien, B. Gayral, Y. Désières, and J.-M. Gérard, “Simulation of waveguiding and emitting properties of semiconductor nanowires with hexagonal or circular sections,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 26(12), 2396 (2009).

Gil, B.

Goldberger, J.

J. Goldberger, R. Fan, and P. Yang, “Inorganic nanotubes: a novel platform for nanofluidics,” Acc. Chem. Res. 39(4), 239–248 (2006).
[PubMed]

J. Goldberger, R. He, Y. Zhang, S. Lee, H. Yan, H.-J. Choi, and P. Yang, “Single-crystal gallium nitride nanotubes,” Nature 422(6932), 599–602 (2003).
[PubMed]

Grundmann, M.

C. Tessarek, R. Röder, T. Michalsky, S. Geburt, H. Franke, R. Schmidt-Grund, M. Heilmann, B. Hoffmann, C. Ronning, M. Grundmann, and S. Christiansen, “Improving the optical properties of self-catalyzed GaN microrods toward whispering gallery mode lasing,” ACS Photonics 1, 990–997 (2014).

C. P. Dietrich, M. Lange, T. Bontgen, and M. Grundmann, “The corner effect in hexagonal whispering gallery microresonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 141116 (2012).

Guido, L. J.

S. Chang, N. B. Rex, R. K. Chang, G. Chong, and L. J. Guido, “Stimulated emission and lasing in whispering-gallery mods of GaN microdisck cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 166–168 (1999).

Guillet, T.

J. Sellés, C. Brimont, G. Cassabois, P. Valvin, T. Guillet, I. Roland, Y. Zeng, X. Checoury, P. Boucaud, M. Mexis, F. Semond, and B. Gayral, “Deep-UV nitride-on-silicon microdisk lasers,” Sci. Rep. 6, 21650 (2016).
[PubMed]

M. Mexis, S. Sergent, T. Guillet, C. Brimont, T. Bretagnon, B. Gil, F. Semond, M. Leroux, D. Néel, S. David, X. Chécoury, and P. Boucaud, “High quality factor nitride-based optical cavities: microdisks with embedded GaN/Al(Ga)N quantum dots,” Opt. Lett. 36(12), 2203–2205 (2011).
[PubMed]

Hara, K.

He, R.

J. Goldberger, R. He, Y. Zhang, S. Lee, H. Yan, H.-J. Choi, and P. Yang, “Single-crystal gallium nitride nanotubes,” Nature 422(6932), 599–602 (2003).
[PubMed]

Heilmann, M.

C. Tessarek, M. Heilmann, and S. Christiansen, “Whispering gallery modes in GaN microdisks, microrods and nanorods grown by MOVPE,” Phys. Status Solidi., C Curr. Top. Solid State Phys. 11(3–4), 794–797 (2014).

C. Tessarek, R. Röder, T. Michalsky, S. Geburt, H. Franke, R. Schmidt-Grund, M. Heilmann, B. Hoffmann, C. Ronning, M. Grundmann, and S. Christiansen, “Improving the optical properties of self-catalyzed GaN microrods toward whispering gallery mode lasing,” ACS Photonics 1, 990–997 (2014).

Helwig, A.

S. Paul, K. Maier, A. Das, F. Furtmayr, A. Helwig, J. Teubert, E. Monroy, G. Müller, and M. Eickhoff, “III-nitride nanostructures for optical gas detection and pH sensing,” Proc. SPIE 8725, 87250K (2013).

Hemmingsson, C.

C. Hemmingsson, G. Pozina, S. Khromov, and B. Monemar, “Growth of GaN nanotubes by halide vapor phase epitaxy,” Nanotechnology 22(8), 085602 (2011).
[PubMed]

Henneghien, A.-L.

A.-L. Henneghien, B. Gayral, Y. Désières, and J.-M. Gérard, “Simulation of waveguiding and emitting properties of semiconductor nanowires with hexagonal or circular sections,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 26(12), 2396 (2009).

Hill, M. T.

M. T. Hill and M. C. Gather, “Advances in small lasers,” Nat. Photonics 8, 908–918 (2014).

Hoffmann, B.

C. Tessarek, R. Röder, T. Michalsky, S. Geburt, H. Franke, R. Schmidt-Grund, M. Heilmann, B. Hoffmann, C. Ronning, M. Grundmann, and S. Christiansen, “Improving the optical properties of self-catalyzed GaN microrods toward whispering gallery mode lasing,” ACS Photonics 1, 990–997 (2014).

Huang, G. S.

T. C. Lu, C. C. Kao, H. C. Kuo, G. S. Huang, and S. C. Wang, “CW lasing of current injection blue GaN-based vertical cavity surface emitting laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 141102 (2008).

Hugues, M.

Hurtado, A.

C. Li, S. Liu, A. Hurtado, J. B. Wright, H. Xu, T. S. Luk, J. J. Figiel, I. Brener, S. R. J. Brueck, and G. T. Wang, “Annular-Shaped Emission from Gallium Nitride Nanotube Lasers,” ACS Photonics 2(8), 1025–1029 (2015).

Ilchenko, V. S.

V. S. Ilchenko and A. B. Matsko, “Optical resonators with whispering-gallery modes—Part II: Applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1 (2006).

A. B. Matsko and V. S. Ilchenko, “Optical Resonators With Whispering-Gallery Modes—Part I: Basics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 3 (2006).

Ivanisevic, A.

R. Kirste, N. Rohrbaugh, I. Bryan, Z. Bryan, R. Collazo, and A. Ivanisevic, “Electronic Biosensors Based on III-Nitride Semiconductors,” Annu. Rev. Anal. Chem. (Palo Alto, Calif.) 8, 149–169 (2015).
[PubMed]

Jagadamma, L. K.

P. R. Edwards, L. K. Jagadamma, J. Bruckbauer, C. Liu, P. Shields, D. Allsopp, T. Wang, and R. W. Martin, “High-resolution cathodoluminescence hyperspectral imaging of nitride nanostructures,” Microsc. Microanal. 18(6), 1212–1219 (2012).
[PubMed]

Jiang, H. X.

K. C. Zeng, L. Dai, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Optical resonance modes in InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well microring cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2563 (1999).

Kao, C. C.

T. C. Lu, C. C. Kao, H. C. Kuo, G. S. Huang, and S. C. Wang, “CW lasing of current injection blue GaN-based vertical cavity surface emitting laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 141102 (2008).

Khromov, S.

C. Hemmingsson, G. Pozina, S. Khromov, and B. Monemar, “Growth of GaN nanotubes by halide vapor phase epitaxy,” Nanotechnology 22(8), 085602 (2011).
[PubMed]

Kikuchi, A.

T. Kouno, K. Kishino, and A. Kikuchi, “Whispering gallery mode in periodic InGaN-based hexagonal nanoring arrays grown by rf-MBE using Ti-mask selective-area growth,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 207(1), 37–40 (2010).

Kirste, R.

R. Kirste, N. Rohrbaugh, I. Bryan, Z. Bryan, R. Collazo, and A. Ivanisevic, “Electronic Biosensors Based on III-Nitride Semiconductors,” Annu. Rev. Anal. Chem. (Palo Alto, Calif.) 8, 149–169 (2015).
[PubMed]

Kishino, K.

T. Kouno, M. Sakai, K. Kishino, and K. Hara, “Sensing operations based on hexagonal GaN microdisks acting as whispering-gallery mode optical microcavities,” Opt. Lett. 40(12), 2866–2869 (2015).
[PubMed]

T. Kouno, K. Kishino, and A. Kikuchi, “Whispering gallery mode in periodic InGaN-based hexagonal nanoring arrays grown by rf-MBE using Ti-mask selective-area growth,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 207(1), 37–40 (2010).

T. Kouno, K. Kishino, T. Suzuki, and M. Sakai, “Lasing Actions in GaN Tiny Hexagonal Nanoring Resonators,” IEEE Photonics J. 2, 1027 (2010).

Kita, S.

Koleske, D. D.

C. Li, J. B. Wright, S. Liu, P. Lu, J. J. Figiel, B. Leung, W. W. Chow, I. Brener, D. D. Koleske, T. S. Luk, D. F. Feezell, S. R. J. Brueck, and G. T. Wang, “Nonpolar InGaN/GaN core–shell single nanowire lasers,” Nano Lett. 17(2), 1049–1055 (2017).
[PubMed]

Kouno, T.

T. Kouno, M. Sakai, K. Kishino, and K. Hara, “Sensing operations based on hexagonal GaN microdisks acting as whispering-gallery mode optical microcavities,” Opt. Lett. 40(12), 2866–2869 (2015).
[PubMed]

T. Kouno, K. Kishino, and A. Kikuchi, “Whispering gallery mode in periodic InGaN-based hexagonal nanoring arrays grown by rf-MBE using Ti-mask selective-area growth,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 207(1), 37–40 (2010).

T. Kouno, K. Kishino, T. Suzuki, and M. Sakai, “Lasing Actions in GaN Tiny Hexagonal Nanoring Resonators,” IEEE Photonics J. 2, 1027 (2010).

Kulkarni, R. P.

A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, “Label-free, single-molecule detection with optical microcavities,” Science 317(5839), 783–787 (2007).
[PubMed]

Kuo, H. C.

T. C. Lu, C. C. Kao, H. C. Kuo, G. S. Huang, and S. C. Wang, “CW lasing of current injection blue GaN-based vertical cavity surface emitting laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 141102 (2008).

Lange, M.

C. P. Dietrich, M. Lange, T. Bontgen, and M. Grundmann, “The corner effect in hexagonal whispering gallery microresonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 141116 (2012).

Lee, S.

J. Goldberger, R. He, Y. Zhang, S. Lee, H. Yan, H.-J. Choi, and P. Yang, “Single-crystal gallium nitride nanotubes,” Nature 422(6932), 599–602 (2003).
[PubMed]

Leroux, M.

Lester, L. F.

Leung, B.

C. Li, J. B. Wright, S. Liu, P. Lu, J. J. Figiel, B. Leung, W. W. Chow, I. Brener, D. D. Koleske, T. S. Luk, D. F. Feezell, S. R. J. Brueck, and G. T. Wang, “Nonpolar InGaN/GaN core–shell single nanowire lasers,” Nano Lett. 17(2), 1049–1055 (2017).
[PubMed]

Li, C.

C. Li, J. B. Wright, S. Liu, P. Lu, J. J. Figiel, B. Leung, W. W. Chow, I. Brener, D. D. Koleske, T. S. Luk, D. F. Feezell, S. R. J. Brueck, and G. T. Wang, “Nonpolar InGaN/GaN core–shell single nanowire lasers,” Nano Lett. 17(2), 1049–1055 (2017).
[PubMed]

C. Li, S. Liu, A. Hurtado, J. B. Wright, H. Xu, T. S. Luk, J. J. Figiel, I. Brener, S. R. J. Brueck, and G. T. Wang, “Annular-Shaped Emission from Gallium Nitride Nanotube Lasers,” ACS Photonics 2(8), 1025–1029 (2015).

Li, K. H.

Li, Q.

Lin, J. Y.

K. C. Zeng, L. Dai, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Optical resonance modes in InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well microring cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2563 (1999).

Liu, B.

M. Athanasiou, R. Smith, B. Liu, and T. Wang, “Room temperature continuous-wave green lasing from an InGaN microdisk on silicon,” Sci. Rep. 4, 7250 (2014).
[PubMed]

Liu, C.

P. R. Edwards, L. K. Jagadamma, J. Bruckbauer, C. Liu, P. Shields, D. Allsopp, T. Wang, and R. W. Martin, “High-resolution cathodoluminescence hyperspectral imaging of nitride nanostructures,” Microsc. Microanal. 18(6), 1212–1219 (2012).
[PubMed]

Liu, S.

C. Li, J. B. Wright, S. Liu, P. Lu, J. J. Figiel, B. Leung, W. W. Chow, I. Brener, D. D. Koleske, T. S. Luk, D. F. Feezell, S. R. J. Brueck, and G. T. Wang, “Nonpolar InGaN/GaN core–shell single nanowire lasers,” Nano Lett. 17(2), 1049–1055 (2017).
[PubMed]

C. Li, S. Liu, A. Hurtado, J. B. Wright, H. Xu, T. S. Luk, J. J. Figiel, I. Brener, S. R. J. Brueck, and G. T. Wang, “Annular-Shaped Emission from Gallium Nitride Nanotube Lasers,” ACS Photonics 2(8), 1025–1029 (2015).

Loeber, D. A. S.

J. M. Redwing, D. A. S. Loeber, N. G. Anderson, M. A. Tischler, and J. S. Flynn, “An optically pumped GaN–AlGaN vertical cavity surface emitting laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1 (1996).

Lu, P.

C. Li, J. B. Wright, S. Liu, P. Lu, J. J. Figiel, B. Leung, W. W. Chow, I. Brener, D. D. Koleske, T. S. Luk, D. F. Feezell, S. R. J. Brueck, and G. T. Wang, “Nonpolar InGaN/GaN core–shell single nanowire lasers,” Nano Lett. 17(2), 1049–1055 (2017).
[PubMed]

Lu, T. C.

T. C. Lu, C. C. Kao, H. C. Kuo, G. S. Huang, and S. C. Wang, “CW lasing of current injection blue GaN-based vertical cavity surface emitting laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 141102 (2008).

Luk, T. S.

C. Li, J. B. Wright, S. Liu, P. Lu, J. J. Figiel, B. Leung, W. W. Chow, I. Brener, D. D. Koleske, T. S. Luk, D. F. Feezell, S. R. J. Brueck, and G. T. Wang, “Nonpolar InGaN/GaN core–shell single nanowire lasers,” Nano Lett. 17(2), 1049–1055 (2017).
[PubMed]

C. Li, S. Liu, A. Hurtado, J. B. Wright, H. Xu, T. S. Luk, J. J. Figiel, I. Brener, S. R. J. Brueck, and G. T. Wang, “Annular-Shaped Emission from Gallium Nitride Nanotube Lasers,” ACS Photonics 2(8), 1025–1029 (2015).

Q. Li, J. B. Wright, W. W. Chow, T. S. Luk, I. Brener, L. F. Lester, and G. T. Wang, “Single-mode GaN nanowire lasers,” Opt. Express 20(16), 17873–17879 (2012).
[PubMed]

Ma, Z.

Maier, K.

S. Paul, K. Maier, A. Das, F. Furtmayr, A. Helwig, J. Teubert, E. Monroy, G. Müller, and M. Eickhoff, “III-nitride nanostructures for optical gas detection and pH sensing,” Proc. SPIE 8725, 87250K (2013).

Martin, R. W.

P. R. Edwards, L. K. Jagadamma, J. Bruckbauer, C. Liu, P. Shields, D. Allsopp, T. Wang, and R. W. Martin, “High-resolution cathodoluminescence hyperspectral imaging of nitride nanostructures,” Microsc. Microanal. 18(6), 1212–1219 (2012).
[PubMed]

Matsko, A. B.

A. B. Matsko and V. S. Ilchenko, “Optical Resonators With Whispering-Gallery Modes—Part I: Basics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 3 (2006).

V. S. Ilchenko and A. B. Matsko, “Optical resonators with whispering-gallery modes—Part II: Applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1 (2006).

Mexis, M.

J. Sellés, C. Brimont, G. Cassabois, P. Valvin, T. Guillet, I. Roland, Y. Zeng, X. Checoury, P. Boucaud, M. Mexis, F. Semond, and B. Gayral, “Deep-UV nitride-on-silicon microdisk lasers,” Sci. Rep. 6, 21650 (2016).
[PubMed]

M. Mexis, S. Sergent, T. Guillet, C. Brimont, T. Bretagnon, B. Gil, F. Semond, M. Leroux, D. Néel, S. David, X. Chécoury, and P. Boucaud, “High quality factor nitride-based optical cavities: microdisks with embedded GaN/Al(Ga)N quantum dots,” Opt. Lett. 36(12), 2203–2205 (2011).
[PubMed]

Michalsky, T.

C. Tessarek, R. Röder, T. Michalsky, S. Geburt, H. Franke, R. Schmidt-Grund, M. Heilmann, B. Hoffmann, C. Ronning, M. Grundmann, and S. Christiansen, “Improving the optical properties of self-catalyzed GaN microrods toward whispering gallery mode lasing,” ACS Photonics 1, 990–997 (2014).

Monemar, B.

C. Hemmingsson, G. Pozina, S. Khromov, and B. Monemar, “Growth of GaN nanotubes by halide vapor phase epitaxy,” Nanotechnology 22(8), 085602 (2011).
[PubMed]

Monroy, E.

S. Paul, K. Maier, A. Das, F. Furtmayr, A. Helwig, J. Teubert, E. Monroy, G. Müller, and M. Eickhoff, “III-nitride nanostructures for optical gas detection and pH sensing,” Proc. SPIE 8725, 87250K (2013).

Müller, G.

S. Paul, K. Maier, A. Das, F. Furtmayr, A. Helwig, J. Teubert, E. Monroy, G. Müller, and M. Eickhoff, “III-nitride nanostructures for optical gas detection and pH sensing,” Proc. SPIE 8725, 87250K (2013).

Narimatsu, M.

Néel, D.

Nishijima, Y.

Ota, S.

Paul, S.

S. Paul, K. Maier, A. Das, F. Furtmayr, A. Helwig, J. Teubert, E. Monroy, G. Müller, and M. Eickhoff, “III-nitride nanostructures for optical gas detection and pH sensing,” Proc. SPIE 8725, 87250K (2013).

Pozina, G.

C. Hemmingsson, G. Pozina, S. Khromov, and B. Monemar, “Growth of GaN nanotubes by halide vapor phase epitaxy,” Nanotechnology 22(8), 085602 (2011).
[PubMed]

Rayleigh, L.

L. Rayleigh, “The problem of the whispering gallery,” Philos. Mag. 20, 1001–1004 (1910).

Redwing, J. M.

J. M. Redwing, D. A. S. Loeber, N. G. Anderson, M. A. Tischler, and J. S. Flynn, “An optically pumped GaN–AlGaN vertical cavity surface emitting laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1 (1996).

Rex, N. B.

S. Chang, N. B. Rex, R. K. Chang, G. Chong, and L. J. Guido, “Stimulated emission and lasing in whispering-gallery mods of GaN microdisck cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 166–168 (1999).

Röder, R.

C. Tessarek, R. Röder, T. Michalsky, S. Geburt, H. Franke, R. Schmidt-Grund, M. Heilmann, B. Hoffmann, C. Ronning, M. Grundmann, and S. Christiansen, “Improving the optical properties of self-catalyzed GaN microrods toward whispering gallery mode lasing,” ACS Photonics 1, 990–997 (2014).

Rohrbaugh, N.

R. Kirste, N. Rohrbaugh, I. Bryan, Z. Bryan, R. Collazo, and A. Ivanisevic, “Electronic Biosensors Based on III-Nitride Semiconductors,” Annu. Rev. Anal. Chem. (Palo Alto, Calif.) 8, 149–169 (2015).
[PubMed]

Roland, I.

J. Sellés, C. Brimont, G. Cassabois, P. Valvin, T. Guillet, I. Roland, Y. Zeng, X. Checoury, P. Boucaud, M. Mexis, F. Semond, and B. Gayral, “Deep-UV nitride-on-silicon microdisk lasers,” Sci. Rep. 6, 21650 (2016).
[PubMed]

Ronning, C.

C. Tessarek, R. Röder, T. Michalsky, S. Geburt, H. Franke, R. Schmidt-Grund, M. Heilmann, B. Hoffmann, C. Ronning, M. Grundmann, and S. Christiansen, “Improving the optical properties of self-catalyzed GaN microrods toward whispering gallery mode lasing,” ACS Photonics 1, 990–997 (2014).

Sakai, M.

T. Kouno, M. Sakai, K. Kishino, and K. Hara, “Sensing operations based on hexagonal GaN microdisks acting as whispering-gallery mode optical microcavities,” Opt. Lett. 40(12), 2866–2869 (2015).
[PubMed]

T. Kouno, K. Kishino, T. Suzuki, and M. Sakai, “Lasing Actions in GaN Tiny Hexagonal Nanoring Resonators,” IEEE Photonics J. 2, 1027 (2010).

Schmidt-Grund, R.

C. Tessarek, R. Röder, T. Michalsky, S. Geburt, H. Franke, R. Schmidt-Grund, M. Heilmann, B. Hoffmann, C. Ronning, M. Grundmann, and S. Christiansen, “Improving the optical properties of self-catalyzed GaN microrods toward whispering gallery mode lasing,” ACS Photonics 1, 990–997 (2014).

Sellés, J.

J. Sellés, C. Brimont, G. Cassabois, P. Valvin, T. Guillet, I. Roland, Y. Zeng, X. Checoury, P. Boucaud, M. Mexis, F. Semond, and B. Gayral, “Deep-UV nitride-on-silicon microdisk lasers,” Sci. Rep. 6, 21650 (2016).
[PubMed]

Semond, F.

J. Sellés, C. Brimont, G. Cassabois, P. Valvin, T. Guillet, I. Roland, Y. Zeng, X. Checoury, P. Boucaud, M. Mexis, F. Semond, and B. Gayral, “Deep-UV nitride-on-silicon microdisk lasers,” Sci. Rep. 6, 21650 (2016).
[PubMed]

M. Mexis, S. Sergent, T. Guillet, C. Brimont, T. Bretagnon, B. Gil, F. Semond, M. Leroux, D. Néel, S. David, X. Chécoury, and P. Boucaud, “High quality factor nitride-based optical cavities: microdisks with embedded GaN/Al(Ga)N quantum dots,” Opt. Lett. 36(12), 2203–2205 (2011).
[PubMed]

Sergent, S.

Shields, P.

P. R. Edwards, L. K. Jagadamma, J. Bruckbauer, C. Liu, P. Shields, D. Allsopp, T. Wang, and R. W. Martin, “High-resolution cathodoluminescence hyperspectral imaging of nitride nanostructures,” Microsc. Microanal. 18(6), 1212–1219 (2012).
[PubMed]

Smith, R.

M. Athanasiou, R. Smith, B. Liu, and T. Wang, “Room temperature continuous-wave green lasing from an InGaN microdisk on silicon,” Sci. Rep. 4, 7250 (2014).
[PubMed]

Suzuki, T.

T. Kouno, K. Kishino, T. Suzuki, and M. Sakai, “Lasing Actions in GaN Tiny Hexagonal Nanoring Resonators,” IEEE Photonics J. 2, 1027 (2010).

Takemura, Y.

Tessarek, C.

C. Tessarek, M. Heilmann, and S. Christiansen, “Whispering gallery modes in GaN microdisks, microrods and nanorods grown by MOVPE,” Phys. Status Solidi., C Curr. Top. Solid State Phys. 11(3–4), 794–797 (2014).

C. Tessarek, R. Röder, T. Michalsky, S. Geburt, H. Franke, R. Schmidt-Grund, M. Heilmann, B. Hoffmann, C. Ronning, M. Grundmann, and S. Christiansen, “Improving the optical properties of self-catalyzed GaN microrods toward whispering gallery mode lasing,” ACS Photonics 1, 990–997 (2014).

Teubert, J.

S. Paul, K. Maier, A. Das, F. Furtmayr, A. Helwig, J. Teubert, E. Monroy, G. Müller, and M. Eickhoff, “III-nitride nanostructures for optical gas detection and pH sensing,” Proc. SPIE 8725, 87250K (2013).

Tischler, M. A.

J. M. Redwing, D. A. S. Loeber, N. G. Anderson, M. A. Tischler, and J. S. Flynn, “An optically pumped GaN–AlGaN vertical cavity surface emitting laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1 (1996).

Tomitaka, A.

Vahala, K. J.

A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, “Label-free, single-molecule detection with optical microcavities,” Science 317(5839), 783–787 (2007).
[PubMed]

Valvin, P.

J. Sellés, C. Brimont, G. Cassabois, P. Valvin, T. Guillet, I. Roland, Y. Zeng, X. Checoury, P. Boucaud, M. Mexis, F. Semond, and B. Gayral, “Deep-UV nitride-on-silicon microdisk lasers,” Sci. Rep. 6, 21650 (2016).
[PubMed]

Vollmer, F.

F. Vollmer and S. Arnold, “Whispering-gallery-mode biosensing: label-free detection down to single molecules,” Nat. Methods 5(7), 591–596 (2008).
[PubMed]

Wang, G. T.

C. Li, J. B. Wright, S. Liu, P. Lu, J. J. Figiel, B. Leung, W. W. Chow, I. Brener, D. D. Koleske, T. S. Luk, D. F. Feezell, S. R. J. Brueck, and G. T. Wang, “Nonpolar InGaN/GaN core–shell single nanowire lasers,” Nano Lett. 17(2), 1049–1055 (2017).
[PubMed]

C. Li, S. Liu, A. Hurtado, J. B. Wright, H. Xu, T. S. Luk, J. J. Figiel, I. Brener, S. R. J. Brueck, and G. T. Wang, “Annular-Shaped Emission from Gallium Nitride Nanotube Lasers,” ACS Photonics 2(8), 1025–1029 (2015).

Q. Li, J. B. Wright, W. W. Chow, T. S. Luk, I. Brener, L. F. Lester, and G. T. Wang, “Single-mode GaN nanowire lasers,” Opt. Express 20(16), 17873–17879 (2012).
[PubMed]

Wang, S. C.

T. C. Lu, C. C. Kao, H. C. Kuo, G. S. Huang, and S. C. Wang, “CW lasing of current injection blue GaN-based vertical cavity surface emitting laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 141102 (2008).

Wang, T.

M. Athanasiou, R. Smith, B. Liu, and T. Wang, “Room temperature continuous-wave green lasing from an InGaN microdisk on silicon,” Sci. Rep. 4, 7250 (2014).
[PubMed]

P. R. Edwards, L. K. Jagadamma, J. Bruckbauer, C. Liu, P. Shields, D. Allsopp, T. Wang, and R. W. Martin, “High-resolution cathodoluminescence hyperspectral imaging of nitride nanostructures,” Microsc. Microanal. 18(6), 1212–1219 (2012).
[PubMed]

Watanabe, T.

Wright, J. B.

C. Li, J. B. Wright, S. Liu, P. Lu, J. J. Figiel, B. Leung, W. W. Chow, I. Brener, D. D. Koleske, T. S. Luk, D. F. Feezell, S. R. J. Brueck, and G. T. Wang, “Nonpolar InGaN/GaN core–shell single nanowire lasers,” Nano Lett. 17(2), 1049–1055 (2017).
[PubMed]

C. Li, S. Liu, A. Hurtado, J. B. Wright, H. Xu, T. S. Luk, J. J. Figiel, I. Brener, S. R. J. Brueck, and G. T. Wang, “Annular-Shaped Emission from Gallium Nitride Nanotube Lasers,” ACS Photonics 2(8), 1025–1029 (2015).

Q. Li, J. B. Wright, W. W. Chow, T. S. Luk, I. Brener, L. F. Lester, and G. T. Wang, “Single-mode GaN nanowire lasers,” Opt. Express 20(16), 17873–17879 (2012).
[PubMed]

Xu, H.

C. Li, S. Liu, A. Hurtado, J. B. Wright, H. Xu, T. S. Luk, J. J. Figiel, I. Brener, S. R. J. Brueck, and G. T. Wang, “Annular-Shaped Emission from Gallium Nitride Nanotube Lasers,” ACS Photonics 2(8), 1025–1029 (2015).

Yan, H.

J. Goldberger, R. He, Y. Zhang, S. Lee, H. Yan, H.-J. Choi, and P. Yang, “Single-crystal gallium nitride nanotubes,” Nature 422(6932), 599–602 (2003).
[PubMed]

Yang, P.

J. Goldberger, R. Fan, and P. Yang, “Inorganic nanotubes: a novel platform for nanofluidics,” Acc. Chem. Res. 39(4), 239–248 (2006).
[PubMed]

J. Goldberger, R. He, Y. Zhang, S. Lee, H. Yan, H.-J. Choi, and P. Yang, “Single-crystal gallium nitride nanotubes,” Nature 422(6932), 599–602 (2003).
[PubMed]

Yokouchi, Y.

Zeng, K. C.

K. C. Zeng, L. Dai, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Optical resonance modes in InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well microring cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2563 (1999).

Zeng, Y.

J. Sellés, C. Brimont, G. Cassabois, P. Valvin, T. Guillet, I. Roland, Y. Zeng, X. Checoury, P. Boucaud, M. Mexis, F. Semond, and B. Gayral, “Deep-UV nitride-on-silicon microdisk lasers,” Sci. Rep. 6, 21650 (2016).
[PubMed]

Zhang, X.

Y. Zhang, X. Zhang, K. H. Li, Y. F. Cheung, C. Feng, and H. W. Choi, “Advances in III-nitride semiconductor microdisk lasers,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 212, 960–973 (2015).

Zhang, Y.

Y. Zhang, X. Zhang, K. H. Li, Y. F. Cheung, C. Feng, and H. W. Choi, “Advances in III-nitride semiconductor microdisk lasers,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 212, 960–973 (2015).

J. Goldberger, R. He, Y. Zhang, S. Lee, H. Yan, H.-J. Choi, and P. Yang, “Single-crystal gallium nitride nanotubes,” Nature 422(6932), 599–602 (2003).
[PubMed]

Zúñiga-Pérez, J.

Acc. Chem. Res. (1)

J. Goldberger, R. Fan, and P. Yang, “Inorganic nanotubes: a novel platform for nanofluidics,” Acc. Chem. Res. 39(4), 239–248 (2006).
[PubMed]

ACS Photonics (2)

C. Tessarek, R. Röder, T. Michalsky, S. Geburt, H. Franke, R. Schmidt-Grund, M. Heilmann, B. Hoffmann, C. Ronning, M. Grundmann, and S. Christiansen, “Improving the optical properties of self-catalyzed GaN microrods toward whispering gallery mode lasing,” ACS Photonics 1, 990–997 (2014).

C. Li, S. Liu, A. Hurtado, J. B. Wright, H. Xu, T. S. Luk, J. J. Figiel, I. Brener, S. R. J. Brueck, and G. T. Wang, “Annular-Shaped Emission from Gallium Nitride Nanotube Lasers,” ACS Photonics 2(8), 1025–1029 (2015).

Annu. Rev. Anal. Chem. (Palo Alto, Calif.) (1)

R. Kirste, N. Rohrbaugh, I. Bryan, Z. Bryan, R. Collazo, and A. Ivanisevic, “Electronic Biosensors Based on III-Nitride Semiconductors,” Annu. Rev. Anal. Chem. (Palo Alto, Calif.) 8, 149–169 (2015).
[PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

K. C. Zeng, L. Dai, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Optical resonance modes in InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well microring cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2563 (1999).

C. P. Dietrich, M. Lange, T. Bontgen, and M. Grundmann, “The corner effect in hexagonal whispering gallery microresonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 141116 (2012).

S. Chang, N. B. Rex, R. K. Chang, G. Chong, and L. J. Guido, “Stimulated emission and lasing in whispering-gallery mods of GaN microdisck cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 166–168 (1999).

J. M. Redwing, D. A. S. Loeber, N. G. Anderson, M. A. Tischler, and J. S. Flynn, “An optically pumped GaN–AlGaN vertical cavity surface emitting laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1 (1996).

T. C. Lu, C. C. Kao, H. C. Kuo, G. S. Huang, and S. C. Wang, “CW lasing of current injection blue GaN-based vertical cavity surface emitting laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 141102 (2008).

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (2)

V. S. Ilchenko and A. B. Matsko, “Optical resonators with whispering-gallery modes—Part II: Applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1 (2006).

A. B. Matsko and V. S. Ilchenko, “Optical Resonators With Whispering-Gallery Modes—Part I: Basics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 3 (2006).

IEEE Photonics J. (1)

T. Kouno, K. Kishino, T. Suzuki, and M. Sakai, “Lasing Actions in GaN Tiny Hexagonal Nanoring Resonators,” IEEE Photonics J. 2, 1027 (2010).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

A.-L. Henneghien, B. Gayral, Y. Désières, and J.-M. Gérard, “Simulation of waveguiding and emitting properties of semiconductor nanowires with hexagonal or circular sections,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 26(12), 2396 (2009).

Microsc. Microanal. (1)

P. R. Edwards, L. K. Jagadamma, J. Bruckbauer, C. Liu, P. Shields, D. Allsopp, T. Wang, and R. W. Martin, “High-resolution cathodoluminescence hyperspectral imaging of nitride nanostructures,” Microsc. Microanal. 18(6), 1212–1219 (2012).
[PubMed]

Nano Lett. (1)

C. Li, J. B. Wright, S. Liu, P. Lu, J. J. Figiel, B. Leung, W. W. Chow, I. Brener, D. D. Koleske, T. S. Luk, D. F. Feezell, S. R. J. Brueck, and G. T. Wang, “Nonpolar InGaN/GaN core–shell single nanowire lasers,” Nano Lett. 17(2), 1049–1055 (2017).
[PubMed]

Nanotechnology (1)

C. Hemmingsson, G. Pozina, S. Khromov, and B. Monemar, “Growth of GaN nanotubes by halide vapor phase epitaxy,” Nanotechnology 22(8), 085602 (2011).
[PubMed]

Nat. Methods (1)

F. Vollmer and S. Arnold, “Whispering-gallery-mode biosensing: label-free detection down to single molecules,” Nat. Methods 5(7), 591–596 (2008).
[PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

M. T. Hill and M. C. Gather, “Advances in small lasers,” Nat. Photonics 8, 908–918 (2014).

Nature (1)

J. Goldberger, R. He, Y. Zhang, S. Lee, H. Yan, H.-J. Choi, and P. Yang, “Single-crystal gallium nitride nanotubes,” Nature 422(6932), 599–602 (2003).
[PubMed]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Philos. Mag. (1)

L. Rayleigh, “The problem of the whispering gallery,” Philos. Mag. 20, 1001–1004 (1910).

Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. (2)

T. Kouno, K. Kishino, and A. Kikuchi, “Whispering gallery mode in periodic InGaN-based hexagonal nanoring arrays grown by rf-MBE using Ti-mask selective-area growth,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 207(1), 37–40 (2010).

Y. Zhang, X. Zhang, K. H. Li, Y. F. Cheung, C. Feng, and H. W. Choi, “Advances in III-nitride semiconductor microdisk lasers,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 212, 960–973 (2015).

Phys. Status Solidi., C Curr. Top. Solid State Phys. (1)

C. Tessarek, M. Heilmann, and S. Christiansen, “Whispering gallery modes in GaN microdisks, microrods and nanorods grown by MOVPE,” Phys. Status Solidi., C Curr. Top. Solid State Phys. 11(3–4), 794–797 (2014).

Proc. SPIE (1)

S. Paul, K. Maier, A. Das, F. Furtmayr, A. Helwig, J. Teubert, E. Monroy, G. Müller, and M. Eickhoff, “III-nitride nanostructures for optical gas detection and pH sensing,” Proc. SPIE 8725, 87250K (2013).

Sci. Rep. (2)

M. Athanasiou, R. Smith, B. Liu, and T. Wang, “Room temperature continuous-wave green lasing from an InGaN microdisk on silicon,” Sci. Rep. 4, 7250 (2014).
[PubMed]

J. Sellés, C. Brimont, G. Cassabois, P. Valvin, T. Guillet, I. Roland, Y. Zeng, X. Checoury, P. Boucaud, M. Mexis, F. Semond, and B. Gayral, “Deep-UV nitride-on-silicon microdisk lasers,” Sci. Rep. 6, 21650 (2016).
[PubMed]

Science (1)

A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, “Label-free, single-molecule detection with optical microcavities,” Science 317(5839), 783–787 (2007).
[PubMed]

Other (1)

Lumerical Solutions, Inc., http://www.lumerical.com/tcad-products/fdtd/

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 SEM plan-view image of the resist mask after DTL exposure for a dose of (a) 100 mJ/cm2, (b) 200 mJ/cm2 and (c) 480 mJ/cm2.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) SEM cross-section image of the axial InGaN/GaN nanotube array obtained after the whole process for (a) low and (b) high magnification. The inset shows a SEM plan-view image of the axial InGaN/GaN nanotube array.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) SEM image of the axial InGaN/GaN nanotube array. (b) CL intensity image extracted from the hyperspectral data over a 350-650 nm spectral range. The white dashed line on the bottom left hand side represents the position of the line scan presented in (c). The white arrow and related number are associated to the CL spectra display in (d). (c) Line scan CL spectra as a function of the position along the InGaN/GaN axial SQW nanotube outer facet. (d) CL spectra extracted from the hyperspectral data set at SQW positions for various InGaN/GaN nanotubes.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) SEM images of a single dispersed InGaN/GaN nanotube. CCD images of a single InGaN/GaN nanotube pumped with µPL at (b) 41 kW/cm2, (c) 205 kW/cm2 and (d) 410 kW/cm2. InGaN/GaN nanotube spectra for a continuous CW 375 nm excitation at RT with (e) µPL and (f) confocal microscope technique.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Normalized E-field intensity of a 2.4 µm tall InGaN/GaN nanotube with a circular and non-circular shape. Plan-view of the E-field magnitude snapshot of the ~451 nm resonant mode for (b) a circular and (c) non-circular geometry.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Cross-section of the E-field magnitude snapshot of the 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 5th vertical orders of resonant FPMs component for (a-d) circular geometry and (e-h) non-circular geometry. The white dashed line delimit the bottom and top facets of the nanotube. The red line indicates the dipole/SQW position at 1820 nm. The green, purple and black lines are linked to the spectra in Fig. 8(b) and represent a gradual shift toward the middle of the nanotube with a 200 nm step.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Comparison between the normalized simulated field intensity and the normalized spectra for the employed CL/PL techniques.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 (a) E-field intensity of a 2.4 µm, 1.6 and 700 nm tall InGaN/GaN nanotube with a SQW 600nm bellow. (b) E-field intensity of a 2.4 µm tall InGaN/GaN nanotube with a SQW changing from the center of the nanotube at 1220 nm to the actual experimental position of the SQW at 1820 nm.

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