Abstract

In order to extend to 3-bit encoding, we propose notched-wheel structures as polarization insensitive coding metasurfaces to control terahertz wave reflection and suppress backward scattering. By using a coding sequence of “00110011…” along x-axis direction and 16 × 16 random coding sequence, we investigate the polarization insensitive properties of the coding metasurfaces. By designing the coding sequences of the basic coding elements, the terahertz wave reflection can be flexibly manipulated. Additionally, radar cross section (RCS) reduction in the backward direction is less than −10dB in a wide band. The present approach can offer application for novel terahertz manipulation devices.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. A. Mahdi, E. Mikhail, and M. Pinaki, “Spoof surface plasmon polariton beam splitter,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 6(6), 832–839 (2016).
  2. Z. Ghattan, T. Hasek, R. Wilk, M. Shahabadi, and M. Koch, “Sub-terahertz on-off switch based on a two-dimensional photonic crystal infiltrated by liquid crystals,” Opt. Commun. 287, 4623–4625 (2008).
  3. D. K. Gayen, T. Chattopadhyay, A. Bhattacharyya, S. Basak, and D. Dey, “All-optical half-adder/half-subtractor using terahertz optical asymmetric demultiplexer,” Appl. Opt. 53(36), 8400–8409 (2014).
    [PubMed]
  4. H. Tao, N. I. Landy, C. M. Bingham, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and W. J. Padilla, “A metamaterial absorber for the terahertz regime: Design, fabrication and characterization,” Opt. Express 16(10), 7181–7188 (2008).
    [PubMed]
  5. A. Farid, N. Laurita, B. Tehrani, J. Hester, M. Tentzeris, and N. Armitage, “Inkjet printed wire-grid polarizers for the THz frequency range,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves 38(3), 276–282 (2017).
  6. J. Li, “Terahertz modulator using photonic crystals,” Opt. Commun. 269, 98–101 (2007).
  7. R. Mendis, A. Nag, F. Chen, and D. M. Mittleman, “A tunable universal terahertz filter using artificial dielectrics based on parallel-plate waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(13), 131106 (2010).
  8. T. J. Cui, S. Liu, and L. Zhang, “Information metamaterials and metasurfaces,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 5, 3644–3668 (2017).
  9. M. Amin, M. Farhat, and H. Bağcı, “A nonlinear plasmonic resonator for three-state all-optical switching,” Opt. Express 22(6), 6966–6975 (2014).
    [PubMed]
  10. A. Silva, F. Monticone, G. Castaldi, V. Galdi, A. Alù, and N. Engheta, “Performing mathematical operations with metamaterials,” Science 343(6167), 160–163 (2014).
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    [PubMed]
  13. L. L. Huang, X. Z. Chen, H. Muhlendbernd, G. X. Li, B. F. Bai, Q. F. Tan, G. f. Jin, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Dispersionless phase discontinuties for controlling light propagation,” Nano Lett. 15, 1–15 (2012).
  14. J. A. Gordon, C. L. Holloway, and A. Dienstfrey, “A physical explanation of angle-independent reflection and transmission,” IEEE Antennas Wirel. Propag. Lett. 8, 1127–1130 (2009).
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  17. X. Gao, X. Han, W. P. Gao, H. O. Li, H. F. Ma, and T. J. Cui, “Ultra-wideband and high-efficiency liner polarization converter based on double V-shaped metasurface,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 10, 1109 (2015).
  18. Y. Lin, L. Wang, J. Gao, C. Y. Lu, H. S. Jiang, and W. Zeng, “Broadband working-waveband-tunable polarization converter based on anisotropic metasurface,” Appl. Phys. Express 10(3), 032001 (2017).
  19. Z. C. Li, W. W. Liu, H. Cheng, S. Q. Chen, and J. G. Tian, “Realizing broadband and invertible linear-to circular polarization converter with ultrathin single-layer metasurface,” Sci. Rep. 10, 1038 (2015).
  20. S. L. Sun, Q. Hen, S. Y. Xiao, Q. Xu, X. Li, and L. Zhou, “Girdient-index meta-surfaces as a bridge linking propagation waves and surface waves,” Nat. Mater. 10, 1038 (2013).
  21. C. Pfeiffer and A. Grbic, “Cascaded metasurfaces for complete phase and polarization control,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 231116 (2013).
  22. Q. Wang, X. Zhang, Y. Xu, J. Gu, Y. Li, Z. Tian, R. Singh, S. Zhang, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Broadband metasurface holograms: toward complete phase and amplitude engineering,” Sci. Rep. 6, 32867 (2016).
    [PubMed]
  23. J. X. Li, S. Q. Chen, H. F. Yang, J. J. Li, P. Yu, H. Cheng, C. Z. Gu, H. T. Chen, and J. G. Tian, “Simultaneous control of light polarization and phase distributions using plasmonic metasurface,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 10, 1002 (2014).
  24. L. Liu, X. Zhang, M. Kenney, X. Su, N. Xu, C. Ouyang, Y. Shi, J. Han, W. Zhang, and S. Zhang, “Broadband metasurfaces with simultaneous control of phase and amplitude,” Adv. Mater. 26(29), 5031–5036 (2014).
    [PubMed]
  25. M. Scalora, G. D’Aguanno, N. Mattiucci, M. J. Bloemer, D. de Ceglia, M. Centini, A. Mandatori, C. Sibilia, N. Akozbek, M. G. Cappeddu, M. Fowler, and J. W. Haus, “Negative refraction and sub-wavelength focusing in the visible range using transparent metallo-dielectric stacks,” Opt. Express 15(2), 508–523 (2007).
    [PubMed]
  26. K. Kitamura, K. Sakai, and S. Noda, “Sub-wavelength focal spot with long depth of focus generated by radially polarized, narrow-width annular beam,” Opt. Express 18(5), 4518–4525 (2010).
    [PubMed]
  27. T. J. Cui, M. Q. Qi, X. Wang, J. Zhao, and Q. Cheng, “Coding metamaterials, digital metamaterials and programming metamaterials,” Light Sci. Appl. 3, e218 (2014).
  28. L. Liang, M. Wei, X. Yan, D. Wei, D. Liang, J. Han, X. Ding, G. Zhang, and J. Yao, “Broadband and wide-angle RCS reduction using a 2-bit coding ultrathin metasurface at terahertz frequencies,” Sci. Rep. 6, 39252 (2016).
    [PubMed]
  29. S. Liu, T. J. Cui, Q. Xu, D. Bao, L. L. Du, X. Wan, W. X. Tang, C. M. Ouyang, X. Y. Zhou, H. Yuan, H. F. Ma, W. X. Jiang, J. G. Han, W. L. Zhang, and Q. Cheng, “Anisotropic coding metamaterials and their powerful manipulation of differently polarized terahertz waves,” Light Sci. Appl. 5, e16076 (2016).
  30. K. Chen, Y. Feng, Z. Yang, L. Cui, J. Zhao, B. Zhu, and T. Jiang, “Geometric phase coded metasurface: from polarization dependent directive electromagnetic wave scattering to diffusion-like scattering,” Sci. Rep. 6, 35968 (2016).
    [PubMed]
  31. L. Liang, M. Qi, J. Yang, X. Shen, J. Zhai, W. Xu, B. Jin, W. Liu, Y. Feng, C. Zhang, H. Lu, H. T. Chen, L. Kang, W. Xu, J. Chen, T. J. Cui, P. Wu, and S. Liu, “Anomalous terahertz reflection and scattering by flexible and conformal coding metamaterials,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3, 1374–1380 (2015).

2017 (3)

T. J. Cui, S. Liu, and L. Zhang, “Information metamaterials and metasurfaces,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 5, 3644–3668 (2017).

A. Farid, N. Laurita, B. Tehrani, J. Hester, M. Tentzeris, and N. Armitage, “Inkjet printed wire-grid polarizers for the THz frequency range,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves 38(3), 276–282 (2017).

Y. Lin, L. Wang, J. Gao, C. Y. Lu, H. S. Jiang, and W. Zeng, “Broadband working-waveband-tunable polarization converter based on anisotropic metasurface,” Appl. Phys. Express 10(3), 032001 (2017).

2016 (5)

A. Mahdi, E. Mikhail, and M. Pinaki, “Spoof surface plasmon polariton beam splitter,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 6(6), 832–839 (2016).

Q. Wang, X. Zhang, Y. Xu, J. Gu, Y. Li, Z. Tian, R. Singh, S. Zhang, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Broadband metasurface holograms: toward complete phase and amplitude engineering,” Sci. Rep. 6, 32867 (2016).
[PubMed]

L. Liang, M. Wei, X. Yan, D. Wei, D. Liang, J. Han, X. Ding, G. Zhang, and J. Yao, “Broadband and wide-angle RCS reduction using a 2-bit coding ultrathin metasurface at terahertz frequencies,” Sci. Rep. 6, 39252 (2016).
[PubMed]

S. Liu, T. J. Cui, Q. Xu, D. Bao, L. L. Du, X. Wan, W. X. Tang, C. M. Ouyang, X. Y. Zhou, H. Yuan, H. F. Ma, W. X. Jiang, J. G. Han, W. L. Zhang, and Q. Cheng, “Anisotropic coding metamaterials and their powerful manipulation of differently polarized terahertz waves,” Light Sci. Appl. 5, e16076 (2016).

K. Chen, Y. Feng, Z. Yang, L. Cui, J. Zhao, B. Zhu, and T. Jiang, “Geometric phase coded metasurface: from polarization dependent directive electromagnetic wave scattering to diffusion-like scattering,” Sci. Rep. 6, 35968 (2016).
[PubMed]

2015 (3)

L. Liang, M. Qi, J. Yang, X. Shen, J. Zhai, W. Xu, B. Jin, W. Liu, Y. Feng, C. Zhang, H. Lu, H. T. Chen, L. Kang, W. Xu, J. Chen, T. J. Cui, P. Wu, and S. Liu, “Anomalous terahertz reflection and scattering by flexible and conformal coding metamaterials,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3, 1374–1380 (2015).

X. Gao, X. Han, W. P. Gao, H. O. Li, H. F. Ma, and T. J. Cui, “Ultra-wideband and high-efficiency liner polarization converter based on double V-shaped metasurface,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 10, 1109 (2015).

Z. C. Li, W. W. Liu, H. Cheng, S. Q. Chen, and J. G. Tian, “Realizing broadband and invertible linear-to circular polarization converter with ultrathin single-layer metasurface,” Sci. Rep. 10, 1038 (2015).

2014 (6)

D. K. Gayen, T. Chattopadhyay, A. Bhattacharyya, S. Basak, and D. Dey, “All-optical half-adder/half-subtractor using terahertz optical asymmetric demultiplexer,” Appl. Opt. 53(36), 8400–8409 (2014).
[PubMed]

M. Amin, M. Farhat, and H. Bağcı, “A nonlinear plasmonic resonator for three-state all-optical switching,” Opt. Express 22(6), 6966–6975 (2014).
[PubMed]

A. Silva, F. Monticone, G. Castaldi, V. Galdi, A. Alù, and N. Engheta, “Performing mathematical operations with metamaterials,” Science 343(6167), 160–163 (2014).
[PubMed]

J. X. Li, S. Q. Chen, H. F. Yang, J. J. Li, P. Yu, H. Cheng, C. Z. Gu, H. T. Chen, and J. G. Tian, “Simultaneous control of light polarization and phase distributions using plasmonic metasurface,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 10, 1002 (2014).

L. Liu, X. Zhang, M. Kenney, X. Su, N. Xu, C. Ouyang, Y. Shi, J. Han, W. Zhang, and S. Zhang, “Broadband metasurfaces with simultaneous control of phase and amplitude,” Adv. Mater. 26(29), 5031–5036 (2014).
[PubMed]

T. J. Cui, M. Q. Qi, X. Wang, J. Zhao, and Q. Cheng, “Coding metamaterials, digital metamaterials and programming metamaterials,” Light Sci. Appl. 3, e218 (2014).

2013 (3)

M. B. Pu, P. Chen, C. T. Wang, Y. Q. Wang, Z. Y. Zhao, C. G. Hu, C. Huang, and X. G. Luo, “Broadband anomalous reflection based on gradient low-Q meta-surfaace,” AIP Adv. 3, 052136 (2013).

S. L. Sun, Q. Hen, S. Y. Xiao, Q. Xu, X. Li, and L. Zhou, “Girdient-index meta-surfaces as a bridge linking propagation waves and surface waves,” Nat. Mater. 10, 1038 (2013).

C. Pfeiffer and A. Grbic, “Cascaded metasurfaces for complete phase and polarization control,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 231116 (2013).

2012 (2)

L. L. Huang, X. Z. Chen, H. Muhlendbernd, G. X. Li, B. F. Bai, Q. F. Tan, G. f. Jin, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Dispersionless phase discontinuties for controlling light propagation,” Nano Lett. 15, 1–15 (2012).

S. Sun, K. Y. Yang, C. M. Wang, T. K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W. T. Kung, G. Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband anomalous reflection by gradient meta-surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6223–6229 (2012).
[PubMed]

2011 (1)

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[PubMed]

2010 (2)

R. Mendis, A. Nag, F. Chen, and D. M. Mittleman, “A tunable universal terahertz filter using artificial dielectrics based on parallel-plate waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(13), 131106 (2010).

K. Kitamura, K. Sakai, and S. Noda, “Sub-wavelength focal spot with long depth of focus generated by radially polarized, narrow-width annular beam,” Opt. Express 18(5), 4518–4525 (2010).
[PubMed]

2009 (1)

J. A. Gordon, C. L. Holloway, and A. Dienstfrey, “A physical explanation of angle-independent reflection and transmission,” IEEE Antennas Wirel. Propag. Lett. 8, 1127–1130 (2009).

2008 (2)

H. Tao, N. I. Landy, C. M. Bingham, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and W. J. Padilla, “A metamaterial absorber for the terahertz regime: Design, fabrication and characterization,” Opt. Express 16(10), 7181–7188 (2008).
[PubMed]

Z. Ghattan, T. Hasek, R. Wilk, M. Shahabadi, and M. Koch, “Sub-terahertz on-off switch based on a two-dimensional photonic crystal infiltrated by liquid crystals,” Opt. Commun. 287, 4623–4625 (2008).

2007 (3)

H. J. Lezec, J. A. Dionne, and H. A. Atwater, “Negative refraction at visible frequencies,” Science 316(5823), 430–432 (2007).
[PubMed]

J. Li, “Terahertz modulator using photonic crystals,” Opt. Commun. 269, 98–101 (2007).

M. Scalora, G. D’Aguanno, N. Mattiucci, M. J. Bloemer, D. de Ceglia, M. Centini, A. Mandatori, C. Sibilia, N. Akozbek, M. G. Cappeddu, M. Fowler, and J. W. Haus, “Negative refraction and sub-wavelength focusing in the visible range using transparent metallo-dielectric stacks,” Opt. Express 15(2), 508–523 (2007).
[PubMed]

Aieta, F.

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[PubMed]

Akozbek, N.

Alù, A.

A. Silva, F. Monticone, G. Castaldi, V. Galdi, A. Alù, and N. Engheta, “Performing mathematical operations with metamaterials,” Science 343(6167), 160–163 (2014).
[PubMed]

Amin, M.

Armitage, N.

A. Farid, N. Laurita, B. Tehrani, J. Hester, M. Tentzeris, and N. Armitage, “Inkjet printed wire-grid polarizers for the THz frequency range,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves 38(3), 276–282 (2017).

Atwater, H. A.

H. J. Lezec, J. A. Dionne, and H. A. Atwater, “Negative refraction at visible frequencies,” Science 316(5823), 430–432 (2007).
[PubMed]

Averitt, R. D.

Bagci, H.

Bai, B. F.

L. L. Huang, X. Z. Chen, H. Muhlendbernd, G. X. Li, B. F. Bai, Q. F. Tan, G. f. Jin, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Dispersionless phase discontinuties for controlling light propagation,” Nano Lett. 15, 1–15 (2012).

Bao, D.

S. Liu, T. J. Cui, Q. Xu, D. Bao, L. L. Du, X. Wan, W. X. Tang, C. M. Ouyang, X. Y. Zhou, H. Yuan, H. F. Ma, W. X. Jiang, J. G. Han, W. L. Zhang, and Q. Cheng, “Anisotropic coding metamaterials and their powerful manipulation of differently polarized terahertz waves,” Light Sci. Appl. 5, e16076 (2016).

Basak, S.

Bhattacharyya, A.

Bingham, C. M.

Bloemer, M. J.

Capasso, F.

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[PubMed]

Cappeddu, M. G.

Castaldi, G.

A. Silva, F. Monticone, G. Castaldi, V. Galdi, A. Alù, and N. Engheta, “Performing mathematical operations with metamaterials,” Science 343(6167), 160–163 (2014).
[PubMed]

Centini, M.

Chattopadhyay, T.

Chen, F.

R. Mendis, A. Nag, F. Chen, and D. M. Mittleman, “A tunable universal terahertz filter using artificial dielectrics based on parallel-plate waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(13), 131106 (2010).

Chen, H. T.

L. Liang, M. Qi, J. Yang, X. Shen, J. Zhai, W. Xu, B. Jin, W. Liu, Y. Feng, C. Zhang, H. Lu, H. T. Chen, L. Kang, W. Xu, J. Chen, T. J. Cui, P. Wu, and S. Liu, “Anomalous terahertz reflection and scattering by flexible and conformal coding metamaterials,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3, 1374–1380 (2015).

J. X. Li, S. Q. Chen, H. F. Yang, J. J. Li, P. Yu, H. Cheng, C. Z. Gu, H. T. Chen, and J. G. Tian, “Simultaneous control of light polarization and phase distributions using plasmonic metasurface,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 10, 1002 (2014).

Chen, J.

L. Liang, M. Qi, J. Yang, X. Shen, J. Zhai, W. Xu, B. Jin, W. Liu, Y. Feng, C. Zhang, H. Lu, H. T. Chen, L. Kang, W. Xu, J. Chen, T. J. Cui, P. Wu, and S. Liu, “Anomalous terahertz reflection and scattering by flexible and conformal coding metamaterials,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3, 1374–1380 (2015).

Chen, K.

K. Chen, Y. Feng, Z. Yang, L. Cui, J. Zhao, B. Zhu, and T. Jiang, “Geometric phase coded metasurface: from polarization dependent directive electromagnetic wave scattering to diffusion-like scattering,” Sci. Rep. 6, 35968 (2016).
[PubMed]

Chen, P.

M. B. Pu, P. Chen, C. T. Wang, Y. Q. Wang, Z. Y. Zhao, C. G. Hu, C. Huang, and X. G. Luo, “Broadband anomalous reflection based on gradient low-Q meta-surfaace,” AIP Adv. 3, 052136 (2013).

Chen, S. Q.

Z. C. Li, W. W. Liu, H. Cheng, S. Q. Chen, and J. G. Tian, “Realizing broadband and invertible linear-to circular polarization converter with ultrathin single-layer metasurface,” Sci. Rep. 10, 1038 (2015).

J. X. Li, S. Q. Chen, H. F. Yang, J. J. Li, P. Yu, H. Cheng, C. Z. Gu, H. T. Chen, and J. G. Tian, “Simultaneous control of light polarization and phase distributions using plasmonic metasurface,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 10, 1002 (2014).

Chen, W. T.

S. Sun, K. Y. Yang, C. M. Wang, T. K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W. T. Kung, G. Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband anomalous reflection by gradient meta-surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6223–6229 (2012).
[PubMed]

Chen, X. Z.

L. L. Huang, X. Z. Chen, H. Muhlendbernd, G. X. Li, B. F. Bai, Q. F. Tan, G. f. Jin, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Dispersionless phase discontinuties for controlling light propagation,” Nano Lett. 15, 1–15 (2012).

Cheng, H.

Z. C. Li, W. W. Liu, H. Cheng, S. Q. Chen, and J. G. Tian, “Realizing broadband and invertible linear-to circular polarization converter with ultrathin single-layer metasurface,” Sci. Rep. 10, 1038 (2015).

J. X. Li, S. Q. Chen, H. F. Yang, J. J. Li, P. Yu, H. Cheng, C. Z. Gu, H. T. Chen, and J. G. Tian, “Simultaneous control of light polarization and phase distributions using plasmonic metasurface,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 10, 1002 (2014).

Cheng, Q.

S. Liu, T. J. Cui, Q. Xu, D. Bao, L. L. Du, X. Wan, W. X. Tang, C. M. Ouyang, X. Y. Zhou, H. Yuan, H. F. Ma, W. X. Jiang, J. G. Han, W. L. Zhang, and Q. Cheng, “Anisotropic coding metamaterials and their powerful manipulation of differently polarized terahertz waves,” Light Sci. Appl. 5, e16076 (2016).

T. J. Cui, M. Q. Qi, X. Wang, J. Zhao, and Q. Cheng, “Coding metamaterials, digital metamaterials and programming metamaterials,” Light Sci. Appl. 3, e218 (2014).

Cui, L.

K. Chen, Y. Feng, Z. Yang, L. Cui, J. Zhao, B. Zhu, and T. Jiang, “Geometric phase coded metasurface: from polarization dependent directive electromagnetic wave scattering to diffusion-like scattering,” Sci. Rep. 6, 35968 (2016).
[PubMed]

Cui, T. J.

T. J. Cui, S. Liu, and L. Zhang, “Information metamaterials and metasurfaces,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 5, 3644–3668 (2017).

S. Liu, T. J. Cui, Q. Xu, D. Bao, L. L. Du, X. Wan, W. X. Tang, C. M. Ouyang, X. Y. Zhou, H. Yuan, H. F. Ma, W. X. Jiang, J. G. Han, W. L. Zhang, and Q. Cheng, “Anisotropic coding metamaterials and their powerful manipulation of differently polarized terahertz waves,” Light Sci. Appl. 5, e16076 (2016).

X. Gao, X. Han, W. P. Gao, H. O. Li, H. F. Ma, and T. J. Cui, “Ultra-wideband and high-efficiency liner polarization converter based on double V-shaped metasurface,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 10, 1109 (2015).

L. Liang, M. Qi, J. Yang, X. Shen, J. Zhai, W. Xu, B. Jin, W. Liu, Y. Feng, C. Zhang, H. Lu, H. T. Chen, L. Kang, W. Xu, J. Chen, T. J. Cui, P. Wu, and S. Liu, “Anomalous terahertz reflection and scattering by flexible and conformal coding metamaterials,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3, 1374–1380 (2015).

T. J. Cui, M. Q. Qi, X. Wang, J. Zhao, and Q. Cheng, “Coding metamaterials, digital metamaterials and programming metamaterials,” Light Sci. Appl. 3, e218 (2014).

D’Aguanno, G.

de Ceglia, D.

Dey, D.

Dienstfrey, A.

J. A. Gordon, C. L. Holloway, and A. Dienstfrey, “A physical explanation of angle-independent reflection and transmission,” IEEE Antennas Wirel. Propag. Lett. 8, 1127–1130 (2009).

Ding, X.

L. Liang, M. Wei, X. Yan, D. Wei, D. Liang, J. Han, X. Ding, G. Zhang, and J. Yao, “Broadband and wide-angle RCS reduction using a 2-bit coding ultrathin metasurface at terahertz frequencies,” Sci. Rep. 6, 39252 (2016).
[PubMed]

Dionne, J. A.

H. J. Lezec, J. A. Dionne, and H. A. Atwater, “Negative refraction at visible frequencies,” Science 316(5823), 430–432 (2007).
[PubMed]

Du, L. L.

S. Liu, T. J. Cui, Q. Xu, D. Bao, L. L. Du, X. Wan, W. X. Tang, C. M. Ouyang, X. Y. Zhou, H. Yuan, H. F. Ma, W. X. Jiang, J. G. Han, W. L. Zhang, and Q. Cheng, “Anisotropic coding metamaterials and their powerful manipulation of differently polarized terahertz waves,” Light Sci. Appl. 5, e16076 (2016).

Engheta, N.

A. Silva, F. Monticone, G. Castaldi, V. Galdi, A. Alù, and N. Engheta, “Performing mathematical operations with metamaterials,” Science 343(6167), 160–163 (2014).
[PubMed]

Farhat, M.

Farid, A.

A. Farid, N. Laurita, B. Tehrani, J. Hester, M. Tentzeris, and N. Armitage, “Inkjet printed wire-grid polarizers for the THz frequency range,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves 38(3), 276–282 (2017).

Feng, Y.

K. Chen, Y. Feng, Z. Yang, L. Cui, J. Zhao, B. Zhu, and T. Jiang, “Geometric phase coded metasurface: from polarization dependent directive electromagnetic wave scattering to diffusion-like scattering,” Sci. Rep. 6, 35968 (2016).
[PubMed]

L. Liang, M. Qi, J. Yang, X. Shen, J. Zhai, W. Xu, B. Jin, W. Liu, Y. Feng, C. Zhang, H. Lu, H. T. Chen, L. Kang, W. Xu, J. Chen, T. J. Cui, P. Wu, and S. Liu, “Anomalous terahertz reflection and scattering by flexible and conformal coding metamaterials,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3, 1374–1380 (2015).

Fowler, M.

Gaburro, Z.

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[PubMed]

Galdi, V.

A. Silva, F. Monticone, G. Castaldi, V. Galdi, A. Alù, and N. Engheta, “Performing mathematical operations with metamaterials,” Science 343(6167), 160–163 (2014).
[PubMed]

Gao, J.

Y. Lin, L. Wang, J. Gao, C. Y. Lu, H. S. Jiang, and W. Zeng, “Broadband working-waveband-tunable polarization converter based on anisotropic metasurface,” Appl. Phys. Express 10(3), 032001 (2017).

Gao, W. P.

X. Gao, X. Han, W. P. Gao, H. O. Li, H. F. Ma, and T. J. Cui, “Ultra-wideband and high-efficiency liner polarization converter based on double V-shaped metasurface,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 10, 1109 (2015).

Gao, X.

X. Gao, X. Han, W. P. Gao, H. O. Li, H. F. Ma, and T. J. Cui, “Ultra-wideband and high-efficiency liner polarization converter based on double V-shaped metasurface,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 10, 1109 (2015).

Gayen, D. K.

Genevet, P.

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[PubMed]

Ghattan, Z.

Z. Ghattan, T. Hasek, R. Wilk, M. Shahabadi, and M. Koch, “Sub-terahertz on-off switch based on a two-dimensional photonic crystal infiltrated by liquid crystals,” Opt. Commun. 287, 4623–4625 (2008).

Gordon, J. A.

J. A. Gordon, C. L. Holloway, and A. Dienstfrey, “A physical explanation of angle-independent reflection and transmission,” IEEE Antennas Wirel. Propag. Lett. 8, 1127–1130 (2009).

Grbic, A.

C. Pfeiffer and A. Grbic, “Cascaded metasurfaces for complete phase and polarization control,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 231116 (2013).

Gu, C. Z.

J. X. Li, S. Q. Chen, H. F. Yang, J. J. Li, P. Yu, H. Cheng, C. Z. Gu, H. T. Chen, and J. G. Tian, “Simultaneous control of light polarization and phase distributions using plasmonic metasurface,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 10, 1002 (2014).

Gu, J.

Q. Wang, X. Zhang, Y. Xu, J. Gu, Y. Li, Z. Tian, R. Singh, S. Zhang, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Broadband metasurface holograms: toward complete phase and amplitude engineering,” Sci. Rep. 6, 32867 (2016).
[PubMed]

Guo, G. Y.

S. Sun, K. Y. Yang, C. M. Wang, T. K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W. T. Kung, G. Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband anomalous reflection by gradient meta-surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6223–6229 (2012).
[PubMed]

Han, J.

Q. Wang, X. Zhang, Y. Xu, J. Gu, Y. Li, Z. Tian, R. Singh, S. Zhang, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Broadband metasurface holograms: toward complete phase and amplitude engineering,” Sci. Rep. 6, 32867 (2016).
[PubMed]

L. Liang, M. Wei, X. Yan, D. Wei, D. Liang, J. Han, X. Ding, G. Zhang, and J. Yao, “Broadband and wide-angle RCS reduction using a 2-bit coding ultrathin metasurface at terahertz frequencies,” Sci. Rep. 6, 39252 (2016).
[PubMed]

L. Liu, X. Zhang, M. Kenney, X. Su, N. Xu, C. Ouyang, Y. Shi, J. Han, W. Zhang, and S. Zhang, “Broadband metasurfaces with simultaneous control of phase and amplitude,” Adv. Mater. 26(29), 5031–5036 (2014).
[PubMed]

Han, J. G.

S. Liu, T. J. Cui, Q. Xu, D. Bao, L. L. Du, X. Wan, W. X. Tang, C. M. Ouyang, X. Y. Zhou, H. Yuan, H. F. Ma, W. X. Jiang, J. G. Han, W. L. Zhang, and Q. Cheng, “Anisotropic coding metamaterials and their powerful manipulation of differently polarized terahertz waves,” Light Sci. Appl. 5, e16076 (2016).

Han, X.

X. Gao, X. Han, W. P. Gao, H. O. Li, H. F. Ma, and T. J. Cui, “Ultra-wideband and high-efficiency liner polarization converter based on double V-shaped metasurface,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 10, 1109 (2015).

Hasek, T.

Z. Ghattan, T. Hasek, R. Wilk, M. Shahabadi, and M. Koch, “Sub-terahertz on-off switch based on a two-dimensional photonic crystal infiltrated by liquid crystals,” Opt. Commun. 287, 4623–4625 (2008).

Haus, J. W.

He, Q.

S. Sun, K. Y. Yang, C. M. Wang, T. K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W. T. Kung, G. Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband anomalous reflection by gradient meta-surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6223–6229 (2012).
[PubMed]

Hen, Q.

S. L. Sun, Q. Hen, S. Y. Xiao, Q. Xu, X. Li, and L. Zhou, “Girdient-index meta-surfaces as a bridge linking propagation waves and surface waves,” Nat. Mater. 10, 1038 (2013).

Hester, J.

A. Farid, N. Laurita, B. Tehrani, J. Hester, M. Tentzeris, and N. Armitage, “Inkjet printed wire-grid polarizers for the THz frequency range,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves 38(3), 276–282 (2017).

Holloway, C. L.

J. A. Gordon, C. L. Holloway, and A. Dienstfrey, “A physical explanation of angle-independent reflection and transmission,” IEEE Antennas Wirel. Propag. Lett. 8, 1127–1130 (2009).

Hu, C. G.

M. B. Pu, P. Chen, C. T. Wang, Y. Q. Wang, Z. Y. Zhao, C. G. Hu, C. Huang, and X. G. Luo, “Broadband anomalous reflection based on gradient low-Q meta-surfaace,” AIP Adv. 3, 052136 (2013).

Huang, C.

M. B. Pu, P. Chen, C. T. Wang, Y. Q. Wang, Z. Y. Zhao, C. G. Hu, C. Huang, and X. G. Luo, “Broadband anomalous reflection based on gradient low-Q meta-surfaace,” AIP Adv. 3, 052136 (2013).

Huang, L. L.

L. L. Huang, X. Z. Chen, H. Muhlendbernd, G. X. Li, B. F. Bai, Q. F. Tan, G. f. Jin, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Dispersionless phase discontinuties for controlling light propagation,” Nano Lett. 15, 1–15 (2012).

Jiang, H. S.

Y. Lin, L. Wang, J. Gao, C. Y. Lu, H. S. Jiang, and W. Zeng, “Broadband working-waveband-tunable polarization converter based on anisotropic metasurface,” Appl. Phys. Express 10(3), 032001 (2017).

Jiang, T.

K. Chen, Y. Feng, Z. Yang, L. Cui, J. Zhao, B. Zhu, and T. Jiang, “Geometric phase coded metasurface: from polarization dependent directive electromagnetic wave scattering to diffusion-like scattering,” Sci. Rep. 6, 35968 (2016).
[PubMed]

Jiang, W. X.

S. Liu, T. J. Cui, Q. Xu, D. Bao, L. L. Du, X. Wan, W. X. Tang, C. M. Ouyang, X. Y. Zhou, H. Yuan, H. F. Ma, W. X. Jiang, J. G. Han, W. L. Zhang, and Q. Cheng, “Anisotropic coding metamaterials and their powerful manipulation of differently polarized terahertz waves,” Light Sci. Appl. 5, e16076 (2016).

Jin, B.

L. Liang, M. Qi, J. Yang, X. Shen, J. Zhai, W. Xu, B. Jin, W. Liu, Y. Feng, C. Zhang, H. Lu, H. T. Chen, L. Kang, W. Xu, J. Chen, T. J. Cui, P. Wu, and S. Liu, “Anomalous terahertz reflection and scattering by flexible and conformal coding metamaterials,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3, 1374–1380 (2015).

Jin, G. f.

L. L. Huang, X. Z. Chen, H. Muhlendbernd, G. X. Li, B. F. Bai, Q. F. Tan, G. f. Jin, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Dispersionless phase discontinuties for controlling light propagation,” Nano Lett. 15, 1–15 (2012).

Juan, T. K.

S. Sun, K. Y. Yang, C. M. Wang, T. K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W. T. Kung, G. Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband anomalous reflection by gradient meta-surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6223–6229 (2012).
[PubMed]

Kang, L.

L. Liang, M. Qi, J. Yang, X. Shen, J. Zhai, W. Xu, B. Jin, W. Liu, Y. Feng, C. Zhang, H. Lu, H. T. Chen, L. Kang, W. Xu, J. Chen, T. J. Cui, P. Wu, and S. Liu, “Anomalous terahertz reflection and scattering by flexible and conformal coding metamaterials,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3, 1374–1380 (2015).

Kats, M. A.

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[PubMed]

Kenney, M.

L. Liu, X. Zhang, M. Kenney, X. Su, N. Xu, C. Ouyang, Y. Shi, J. Han, W. Zhang, and S. Zhang, “Broadband metasurfaces with simultaneous control of phase and amplitude,” Adv. Mater. 26(29), 5031–5036 (2014).
[PubMed]

Kitamura, K.

Koch, M.

Z. Ghattan, T. Hasek, R. Wilk, M. Shahabadi, and M. Koch, “Sub-terahertz on-off switch based on a two-dimensional photonic crystal infiltrated by liquid crystals,” Opt. Commun. 287, 4623–4625 (2008).

Kung, W. T.

S. Sun, K. Y. Yang, C. M. Wang, T. K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W. T. Kung, G. Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband anomalous reflection by gradient meta-surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6223–6229 (2012).
[PubMed]

Landy, N. I.

Laurita, N.

A. Farid, N. Laurita, B. Tehrani, J. Hester, M. Tentzeris, and N. Armitage, “Inkjet printed wire-grid polarizers for the THz frequency range,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves 38(3), 276–282 (2017).

Lezec, H. J.

H. J. Lezec, J. A. Dionne, and H. A. Atwater, “Negative refraction at visible frequencies,” Science 316(5823), 430–432 (2007).
[PubMed]

Li, G. X.

L. L. Huang, X. Z. Chen, H. Muhlendbernd, G. X. Li, B. F. Bai, Q. F. Tan, G. f. Jin, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Dispersionless phase discontinuties for controlling light propagation,” Nano Lett. 15, 1–15 (2012).

Li, H. O.

X. Gao, X. Han, W. P. Gao, H. O. Li, H. F. Ma, and T. J. Cui, “Ultra-wideband and high-efficiency liner polarization converter based on double V-shaped metasurface,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 10, 1109 (2015).

Li, J.

J. Li, “Terahertz modulator using photonic crystals,” Opt. Commun. 269, 98–101 (2007).

Li, J. J.

J. X. Li, S. Q. Chen, H. F. Yang, J. J. Li, P. Yu, H. Cheng, C. Z. Gu, H. T. Chen, and J. G. Tian, “Simultaneous control of light polarization and phase distributions using plasmonic metasurface,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 10, 1002 (2014).

Li, J. X.

J. X. Li, S. Q. Chen, H. F. Yang, J. J. Li, P. Yu, H. Cheng, C. Z. Gu, H. T. Chen, and J. G. Tian, “Simultaneous control of light polarization and phase distributions using plasmonic metasurface,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 10, 1002 (2014).

Li, X.

S. L. Sun, Q. Hen, S. Y. Xiao, Q. Xu, X. Li, and L. Zhou, “Girdient-index meta-surfaces as a bridge linking propagation waves and surface waves,” Nat. Mater. 10, 1038 (2013).

Li, Y.

Q. Wang, X. Zhang, Y. Xu, J. Gu, Y. Li, Z. Tian, R. Singh, S. Zhang, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Broadband metasurface holograms: toward complete phase and amplitude engineering,” Sci. Rep. 6, 32867 (2016).
[PubMed]

Li, Z. C.

Z. C. Li, W. W. Liu, H. Cheng, S. Q. Chen, and J. G. Tian, “Realizing broadband and invertible linear-to circular polarization converter with ultrathin single-layer metasurface,” Sci. Rep. 10, 1038 (2015).

Liang, D.

L. Liang, M. Wei, X. Yan, D. Wei, D. Liang, J. Han, X. Ding, G. Zhang, and J. Yao, “Broadband and wide-angle RCS reduction using a 2-bit coding ultrathin metasurface at terahertz frequencies,” Sci. Rep. 6, 39252 (2016).
[PubMed]

Liang, L.

L. Liang, M. Wei, X. Yan, D. Wei, D. Liang, J. Han, X. Ding, G. Zhang, and J. Yao, “Broadband and wide-angle RCS reduction using a 2-bit coding ultrathin metasurface at terahertz frequencies,” Sci. Rep. 6, 39252 (2016).
[PubMed]

L. Liang, M. Qi, J. Yang, X. Shen, J. Zhai, W. Xu, B. Jin, W. Liu, Y. Feng, C. Zhang, H. Lu, H. T. Chen, L. Kang, W. Xu, J. Chen, T. J. Cui, P. Wu, and S. Liu, “Anomalous terahertz reflection and scattering by flexible and conformal coding metamaterials,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3, 1374–1380 (2015).

Liao, C. Y.

S. Sun, K. Y. Yang, C. M. Wang, T. K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W. T. Kung, G. Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband anomalous reflection by gradient meta-surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6223–6229 (2012).
[PubMed]

Lin, Y.

Y. Lin, L. Wang, J. Gao, C. Y. Lu, H. S. Jiang, and W. Zeng, “Broadband working-waveband-tunable polarization converter based on anisotropic metasurface,” Appl. Phys. Express 10(3), 032001 (2017).

Liu, L.

L. Liu, X. Zhang, M. Kenney, X. Su, N. Xu, C. Ouyang, Y. Shi, J. Han, W. Zhang, and S. Zhang, “Broadband metasurfaces with simultaneous control of phase and amplitude,” Adv. Mater. 26(29), 5031–5036 (2014).
[PubMed]

Liu, S.

T. J. Cui, S. Liu, and L. Zhang, “Information metamaterials and metasurfaces,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 5, 3644–3668 (2017).

S. Liu, T. J. Cui, Q. Xu, D. Bao, L. L. Du, X. Wan, W. X. Tang, C. M. Ouyang, X. Y. Zhou, H. Yuan, H. F. Ma, W. X. Jiang, J. G. Han, W. L. Zhang, and Q. Cheng, “Anisotropic coding metamaterials and their powerful manipulation of differently polarized terahertz waves,” Light Sci. Appl. 5, e16076 (2016).

L. Liang, M. Qi, J. Yang, X. Shen, J. Zhai, W. Xu, B. Jin, W. Liu, Y. Feng, C. Zhang, H. Lu, H. T. Chen, L. Kang, W. Xu, J. Chen, T. J. Cui, P. Wu, and S. Liu, “Anomalous terahertz reflection and scattering by flexible and conformal coding metamaterials,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3, 1374–1380 (2015).

Liu, W.

L. Liang, M. Qi, J. Yang, X. Shen, J. Zhai, W. Xu, B. Jin, W. Liu, Y. Feng, C. Zhang, H. Lu, H. T. Chen, L. Kang, W. Xu, J. Chen, T. J. Cui, P. Wu, and S. Liu, “Anomalous terahertz reflection and scattering by flexible and conformal coding metamaterials,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3, 1374–1380 (2015).

Liu, W. W.

Z. C. Li, W. W. Liu, H. Cheng, S. Q. Chen, and J. G. Tian, “Realizing broadband and invertible linear-to circular polarization converter with ultrathin single-layer metasurface,” Sci. Rep. 10, 1038 (2015).

Lu, C. Y.

Y. Lin, L. Wang, J. Gao, C. Y. Lu, H. S. Jiang, and W. Zeng, “Broadband working-waveband-tunable polarization converter based on anisotropic metasurface,” Appl. Phys. Express 10(3), 032001 (2017).

Lu, H.

L. Liang, M. Qi, J. Yang, X. Shen, J. Zhai, W. Xu, B. Jin, W. Liu, Y. Feng, C. Zhang, H. Lu, H. T. Chen, L. Kang, W. Xu, J. Chen, T. J. Cui, P. Wu, and S. Liu, “Anomalous terahertz reflection and scattering by flexible and conformal coding metamaterials,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3, 1374–1380 (2015).

Luo, X. G.

M. B. Pu, P. Chen, C. T. Wang, Y. Q. Wang, Z. Y. Zhao, C. G. Hu, C. Huang, and X. G. Luo, “Broadband anomalous reflection based on gradient low-Q meta-surfaace,” AIP Adv. 3, 052136 (2013).

Ma, H. F.

S. Liu, T. J. Cui, Q. Xu, D. Bao, L. L. Du, X. Wan, W. X. Tang, C. M. Ouyang, X. Y. Zhou, H. Yuan, H. F. Ma, W. X. Jiang, J. G. Han, W. L. Zhang, and Q. Cheng, “Anisotropic coding metamaterials and their powerful manipulation of differently polarized terahertz waves,” Light Sci. Appl. 5, e16076 (2016).

X. Gao, X. Han, W. P. Gao, H. O. Li, H. F. Ma, and T. J. Cui, “Ultra-wideband and high-efficiency liner polarization converter based on double V-shaped metasurface,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 10, 1109 (2015).

Mahdi, A.

A. Mahdi, E. Mikhail, and M. Pinaki, “Spoof surface plasmon polariton beam splitter,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 6(6), 832–839 (2016).

Mandatori, A.

Mattiucci, N.

Mendis, R.

R. Mendis, A. Nag, F. Chen, and D. M. Mittleman, “A tunable universal terahertz filter using artificial dielectrics based on parallel-plate waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(13), 131106 (2010).

Mikhail, E.

A. Mahdi, E. Mikhail, and M. Pinaki, “Spoof surface plasmon polariton beam splitter,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 6(6), 832–839 (2016).

Mittleman, D. M.

R. Mendis, A. Nag, F. Chen, and D. M. Mittleman, “A tunable universal terahertz filter using artificial dielectrics based on parallel-plate waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(13), 131106 (2010).

Monticone, F.

A. Silva, F. Monticone, G. Castaldi, V. Galdi, A. Alù, and N. Engheta, “Performing mathematical operations with metamaterials,” Science 343(6167), 160–163 (2014).
[PubMed]

Muhlendbernd, H.

L. L. Huang, X. Z. Chen, H. Muhlendbernd, G. X. Li, B. F. Bai, Q. F. Tan, G. f. Jin, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Dispersionless phase discontinuties for controlling light propagation,” Nano Lett. 15, 1–15 (2012).

Nag, A.

R. Mendis, A. Nag, F. Chen, and D. M. Mittleman, “A tunable universal terahertz filter using artificial dielectrics based on parallel-plate waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(13), 131106 (2010).

Noda, S.

Ouyang, C.

L. Liu, X. Zhang, M. Kenney, X. Su, N. Xu, C. Ouyang, Y. Shi, J. Han, W. Zhang, and S. Zhang, “Broadband metasurfaces with simultaneous control of phase and amplitude,” Adv. Mater. 26(29), 5031–5036 (2014).
[PubMed]

Ouyang, C. M.

S. Liu, T. J. Cui, Q. Xu, D. Bao, L. L. Du, X. Wan, W. X. Tang, C. M. Ouyang, X. Y. Zhou, H. Yuan, H. F. Ma, W. X. Jiang, J. G. Han, W. L. Zhang, and Q. Cheng, “Anisotropic coding metamaterials and their powerful manipulation of differently polarized terahertz waves,” Light Sci. Appl. 5, e16076 (2016).

Padilla, W. J.

Pfeiffer, C.

C. Pfeiffer and A. Grbic, “Cascaded metasurfaces for complete phase and polarization control,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 231116 (2013).

Pinaki, M.

A. Mahdi, E. Mikhail, and M. Pinaki, “Spoof surface plasmon polariton beam splitter,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 6(6), 832–839 (2016).

Pu, M. B.

M. B. Pu, P. Chen, C. T. Wang, Y. Q. Wang, Z. Y. Zhao, C. G. Hu, C. Huang, and X. G. Luo, “Broadband anomalous reflection based on gradient low-Q meta-surfaace,” AIP Adv. 3, 052136 (2013).

Qi, M.

L. Liang, M. Qi, J. Yang, X. Shen, J. Zhai, W. Xu, B. Jin, W. Liu, Y. Feng, C. Zhang, H. Lu, H. T. Chen, L. Kang, W. Xu, J. Chen, T. J. Cui, P. Wu, and S. Liu, “Anomalous terahertz reflection and scattering by flexible and conformal coding metamaterials,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3, 1374–1380 (2015).

Qi, M. Q.

T. J. Cui, M. Q. Qi, X. Wang, J. Zhao, and Q. Cheng, “Coding metamaterials, digital metamaterials and programming metamaterials,” Light Sci. Appl. 3, e218 (2014).

Sakai, K.

Scalora, M.

Shahabadi, M.

Z. Ghattan, T. Hasek, R. Wilk, M. Shahabadi, and M. Koch, “Sub-terahertz on-off switch based on a two-dimensional photonic crystal infiltrated by liquid crystals,” Opt. Commun. 287, 4623–4625 (2008).

Shen, X.

L. Liang, M. Qi, J. Yang, X. Shen, J. Zhai, W. Xu, B. Jin, W. Liu, Y. Feng, C. Zhang, H. Lu, H. T. Chen, L. Kang, W. Xu, J. Chen, T. J. Cui, P. Wu, and S. Liu, “Anomalous terahertz reflection and scattering by flexible and conformal coding metamaterials,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3, 1374–1380 (2015).

Shi, Y.

L. Liu, X. Zhang, M. Kenney, X. Su, N. Xu, C. Ouyang, Y. Shi, J. Han, W. Zhang, and S. Zhang, “Broadband metasurfaces with simultaneous control of phase and amplitude,” Adv. Mater. 26(29), 5031–5036 (2014).
[PubMed]

Sibilia, C.

Silva, A.

A. Silva, F. Monticone, G. Castaldi, V. Galdi, A. Alù, and N. Engheta, “Performing mathematical operations with metamaterials,” Science 343(6167), 160–163 (2014).
[PubMed]

Singh, R.

Q. Wang, X. Zhang, Y. Xu, J. Gu, Y. Li, Z. Tian, R. Singh, S. Zhang, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Broadband metasurface holograms: toward complete phase and amplitude engineering,” Sci. Rep. 6, 32867 (2016).
[PubMed]

Su, X.

L. Liu, X. Zhang, M. Kenney, X. Su, N. Xu, C. Ouyang, Y. Shi, J. Han, W. Zhang, and S. Zhang, “Broadband metasurfaces with simultaneous control of phase and amplitude,” Adv. Mater. 26(29), 5031–5036 (2014).
[PubMed]

Sun, S.

S. Sun, K. Y. Yang, C. M. Wang, T. K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W. T. Kung, G. Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband anomalous reflection by gradient meta-surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6223–6229 (2012).
[PubMed]

Sun, S. L.

S. L. Sun, Q. Hen, S. Y. Xiao, Q. Xu, X. Li, and L. Zhou, “Girdient-index meta-surfaces as a bridge linking propagation waves and surface waves,” Nat. Mater. 10, 1038 (2013).

Tan, Q. F.

L. L. Huang, X. Z. Chen, H. Muhlendbernd, G. X. Li, B. F. Bai, Q. F. Tan, G. f. Jin, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Dispersionless phase discontinuties for controlling light propagation,” Nano Lett. 15, 1–15 (2012).

Tang, W. X.

S. Liu, T. J. Cui, Q. Xu, D. Bao, L. L. Du, X. Wan, W. X. Tang, C. M. Ouyang, X. Y. Zhou, H. Yuan, H. F. Ma, W. X. Jiang, J. G. Han, W. L. Zhang, and Q. Cheng, “Anisotropic coding metamaterials and their powerful manipulation of differently polarized terahertz waves,” Light Sci. Appl. 5, e16076 (2016).

Tao, H.

Tehrani, B.

A. Farid, N. Laurita, B. Tehrani, J. Hester, M. Tentzeris, and N. Armitage, “Inkjet printed wire-grid polarizers for the THz frequency range,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves 38(3), 276–282 (2017).

Tentzeris, M.

A. Farid, N. Laurita, B. Tehrani, J. Hester, M. Tentzeris, and N. Armitage, “Inkjet printed wire-grid polarizers for the THz frequency range,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves 38(3), 276–282 (2017).

Tetienne, J. P.

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[PubMed]

Tian, J. G.

Z. C. Li, W. W. Liu, H. Cheng, S. Q. Chen, and J. G. Tian, “Realizing broadband and invertible linear-to circular polarization converter with ultrathin single-layer metasurface,” Sci. Rep. 10, 1038 (2015).

J. X. Li, S. Q. Chen, H. F. Yang, J. J. Li, P. Yu, H. Cheng, C. Z. Gu, H. T. Chen, and J. G. Tian, “Simultaneous control of light polarization and phase distributions using plasmonic metasurface,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 10, 1002 (2014).

Tian, Z.

Q. Wang, X. Zhang, Y. Xu, J. Gu, Y. Li, Z. Tian, R. Singh, S. Zhang, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Broadband metasurface holograms: toward complete phase and amplitude engineering,” Sci. Rep. 6, 32867 (2016).
[PubMed]

Tsai, D. P.

S. Sun, K. Y. Yang, C. M. Wang, T. K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W. T. Kung, G. Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband anomalous reflection by gradient meta-surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6223–6229 (2012).
[PubMed]

Wan, X.

S. Liu, T. J. Cui, Q. Xu, D. Bao, L. L. Du, X. Wan, W. X. Tang, C. M. Ouyang, X. Y. Zhou, H. Yuan, H. F. Ma, W. X. Jiang, J. G. Han, W. L. Zhang, and Q. Cheng, “Anisotropic coding metamaterials and their powerful manipulation of differently polarized terahertz waves,” Light Sci. Appl. 5, e16076 (2016).

Wang, C. M.

S. Sun, K. Y. Yang, C. M. Wang, T. K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W. T. Kung, G. Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband anomalous reflection by gradient meta-surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6223–6229 (2012).
[PubMed]

Wang, C. T.

M. B. Pu, P. Chen, C. T. Wang, Y. Q. Wang, Z. Y. Zhao, C. G. Hu, C. Huang, and X. G. Luo, “Broadband anomalous reflection based on gradient low-Q meta-surfaace,” AIP Adv. 3, 052136 (2013).

Wang, L.

Y. Lin, L. Wang, J. Gao, C. Y. Lu, H. S. Jiang, and W. Zeng, “Broadband working-waveband-tunable polarization converter based on anisotropic metasurface,” Appl. Phys. Express 10(3), 032001 (2017).

Wang, Q.

Q. Wang, X. Zhang, Y. Xu, J. Gu, Y. Li, Z. Tian, R. Singh, S. Zhang, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Broadband metasurface holograms: toward complete phase and amplitude engineering,” Sci. Rep. 6, 32867 (2016).
[PubMed]

Wang, X.

T. J. Cui, M. Q. Qi, X. Wang, J. Zhao, and Q. Cheng, “Coding metamaterials, digital metamaterials and programming metamaterials,” Light Sci. Appl. 3, e218 (2014).

Wang, Y. Q.

M. B. Pu, P. Chen, C. T. Wang, Y. Q. Wang, Z. Y. Zhao, C. G. Hu, C. Huang, and X. G. Luo, “Broadband anomalous reflection based on gradient low-Q meta-surfaace,” AIP Adv. 3, 052136 (2013).

Wei, D.

L. Liang, M. Wei, X. Yan, D. Wei, D. Liang, J. Han, X. Ding, G. Zhang, and J. Yao, “Broadband and wide-angle RCS reduction using a 2-bit coding ultrathin metasurface at terahertz frequencies,” Sci. Rep. 6, 39252 (2016).
[PubMed]

Wei, M.

L. Liang, M. Wei, X. Yan, D. Wei, D. Liang, J. Han, X. Ding, G. Zhang, and J. Yao, “Broadband and wide-angle RCS reduction using a 2-bit coding ultrathin metasurface at terahertz frequencies,” Sci. Rep. 6, 39252 (2016).
[PubMed]

Wilk, R.

Z. Ghattan, T. Hasek, R. Wilk, M. Shahabadi, and M. Koch, “Sub-terahertz on-off switch based on a two-dimensional photonic crystal infiltrated by liquid crystals,” Opt. Commun. 287, 4623–4625 (2008).

Wu, P.

L. Liang, M. Qi, J. Yang, X. Shen, J. Zhai, W. Xu, B. Jin, W. Liu, Y. Feng, C. Zhang, H. Lu, H. T. Chen, L. Kang, W. Xu, J. Chen, T. J. Cui, P. Wu, and S. Liu, “Anomalous terahertz reflection and scattering by flexible and conformal coding metamaterials,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3, 1374–1380 (2015).

Xiao, S.

S. Sun, K. Y. Yang, C. M. Wang, T. K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W. T. Kung, G. Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband anomalous reflection by gradient meta-surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6223–6229 (2012).
[PubMed]

Xiao, S. Y.

S. L. Sun, Q. Hen, S. Y. Xiao, Q. Xu, X. Li, and L. Zhou, “Girdient-index meta-surfaces as a bridge linking propagation waves and surface waves,” Nat. Mater. 10, 1038 (2013).

Xu, N.

L. Liu, X. Zhang, M. Kenney, X. Su, N. Xu, C. Ouyang, Y. Shi, J. Han, W. Zhang, and S. Zhang, “Broadband metasurfaces with simultaneous control of phase and amplitude,” Adv. Mater. 26(29), 5031–5036 (2014).
[PubMed]

Xu, Q.

S. Liu, T. J. Cui, Q. Xu, D. Bao, L. L. Du, X. Wan, W. X. Tang, C. M. Ouyang, X. Y. Zhou, H. Yuan, H. F. Ma, W. X. Jiang, J. G. Han, W. L. Zhang, and Q. Cheng, “Anisotropic coding metamaterials and their powerful manipulation of differently polarized terahertz waves,” Light Sci. Appl. 5, e16076 (2016).

S. L. Sun, Q. Hen, S. Y. Xiao, Q. Xu, X. Li, and L. Zhou, “Girdient-index meta-surfaces as a bridge linking propagation waves and surface waves,” Nat. Mater. 10, 1038 (2013).

Xu, W.

L. Liang, M. Qi, J. Yang, X. Shen, J. Zhai, W. Xu, B. Jin, W. Liu, Y. Feng, C. Zhang, H. Lu, H. T. Chen, L. Kang, W. Xu, J. Chen, T. J. Cui, P. Wu, and S. Liu, “Anomalous terahertz reflection and scattering by flexible and conformal coding metamaterials,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3, 1374–1380 (2015).

L. Liang, M. Qi, J. Yang, X. Shen, J. Zhai, W. Xu, B. Jin, W. Liu, Y. Feng, C. Zhang, H. Lu, H. T. Chen, L. Kang, W. Xu, J. Chen, T. J. Cui, P. Wu, and S. Liu, “Anomalous terahertz reflection and scattering by flexible and conformal coding metamaterials,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3, 1374–1380 (2015).

Xu, Y.

Q. Wang, X. Zhang, Y. Xu, J. Gu, Y. Li, Z. Tian, R. Singh, S. Zhang, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Broadband metasurface holograms: toward complete phase and amplitude engineering,” Sci. Rep. 6, 32867 (2016).
[PubMed]

Yan, X.

L. Liang, M. Wei, X. Yan, D. Wei, D. Liang, J. Han, X. Ding, G. Zhang, and J. Yao, “Broadband and wide-angle RCS reduction using a 2-bit coding ultrathin metasurface at terahertz frequencies,” Sci. Rep. 6, 39252 (2016).
[PubMed]

Yang, H. F.

J. X. Li, S. Q. Chen, H. F. Yang, J. J. Li, P. Yu, H. Cheng, C. Z. Gu, H. T. Chen, and J. G. Tian, “Simultaneous control of light polarization and phase distributions using plasmonic metasurface,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 10, 1002 (2014).

Yang, J.

L. Liang, M. Qi, J. Yang, X. Shen, J. Zhai, W. Xu, B. Jin, W. Liu, Y. Feng, C. Zhang, H. Lu, H. T. Chen, L. Kang, W. Xu, J. Chen, T. J. Cui, P. Wu, and S. Liu, “Anomalous terahertz reflection and scattering by flexible and conformal coding metamaterials,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3, 1374–1380 (2015).

Yang, K. Y.

S. Sun, K. Y. Yang, C. M. Wang, T. K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W. T. Kung, G. Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband anomalous reflection by gradient meta-surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6223–6229 (2012).
[PubMed]

Yang, Z.

K. Chen, Y. Feng, Z. Yang, L. Cui, J. Zhao, B. Zhu, and T. Jiang, “Geometric phase coded metasurface: from polarization dependent directive electromagnetic wave scattering to diffusion-like scattering,” Sci. Rep. 6, 35968 (2016).
[PubMed]

Yao, J.

L. Liang, M. Wei, X. Yan, D. Wei, D. Liang, J. Han, X. Ding, G. Zhang, and J. Yao, “Broadband and wide-angle RCS reduction using a 2-bit coding ultrathin metasurface at terahertz frequencies,” Sci. Rep. 6, 39252 (2016).
[PubMed]

Yu, N.

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[PubMed]

Yu, P.

J. X. Li, S. Q. Chen, H. F. Yang, J. J. Li, P. Yu, H. Cheng, C. Z. Gu, H. T. Chen, and J. G. Tian, “Simultaneous control of light polarization and phase distributions using plasmonic metasurface,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 10, 1002 (2014).

Yuan, H.

S. Liu, T. J. Cui, Q. Xu, D. Bao, L. L. Du, X. Wan, W. X. Tang, C. M. Ouyang, X. Y. Zhou, H. Yuan, H. F. Ma, W. X. Jiang, J. G. Han, W. L. Zhang, and Q. Cheng, “Anisotropic coding metamaterials and their powerful manipulation of differently polarized terahertz waves,” Light Sci. Appl. 5, e16076 (2016).

Zeng, W.

Y. Lin, L. Wang, J. Gao, C. Y. Lu, H. S. Jiang, and W. Zeng, “Broadband working-waveband-tunable polarization converter based on anisotropic metasurface,” Appl. Phys. Express 10(3), 032001 (2017).

Zentgraf, T.

L. L. Huang, X. Z. Chen, H. Muhlendbernd, G. X. Li, B. F. Bai, Q. F. Tan, G. f. Jin, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Dispersionless phase discontinuties for controlling light propagation,” Nano Lett. 15, 1–15 (2012).

Zhai, J.

L. Liang, M. Qi, J. Yang, X. Shen, J. Zhai, W. Xu, B. Jin, W. Liu, Y. Feng, C. Zhang, H. Lu, H. T. Chen, L. Kang, W. Xu, J. Chen, T. J. Cui, P. Wu, and S. Liu, “Anomalous terahertz reflection and scattering by flexible and conformal coding metamaterials,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3, 1374–1380 (2015).

Zhang, C.

L. Liang, M. Qi, J. Yang, X. Shen, J. Zhai, W. Xu, B. Jin, W. Liu, Y. Feng, C. Zhang, H. Lu, H. T. Chen, L. Kang, W. Xu, J. Chen, T. J. Cui, P. Wu, and S. Liu, “Anomalous terahertz reflection and scattering by flexible and conformal coding metamaterials,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3, 1374–1380 (2015).

Zhang, G.

L. Liang, M. Wei, X. Yan, D. Wei, D. Liang, J. Han, X. Ding, G. Zhang, and J. Yao, “Broadband and wide-angle RCS reduction using a 2-bit coding ultrathin metasurface at terahertz frequencies,” Sci. Rep. 6, 39252 (2016).
[PubMed]

Zhang, L.

T. J. Cui, S. Liu, and L. Zhang, “Information metamaterials and metasurfaces,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 5, 3644–3668 (2017).

Zhang, S.

Q. Wang, X. Zhang, Y. Xu, J. Gu, Y. Li, Z. Tian, R. Singh, S. Zhang, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Broadband metasurface holograms: toward complete phase and amplitude engineering,” Sci. Rep. 6, 32867 (2016).
[PubMed]

L. Liu, X. Zhang, M. Kenney, X. Su, N. Xu, C. Ouyang, Y. Shi, J. Han, W. Zhang, and S. Zhang, “Broadband metasurfaces with simultaneous control of phase and amplitude,” Adv. Mater. 26(29), 5031–5036 (2014).
[PubMed]

L. L. Huang, X. Z. Chen, H. Muhlendbernd, G. X. Li, B. F. Bai, Q. F. Tan, G. f. Jin, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Dispersionless phase discontinuties for controlling light propagation,” Nano Lett. 15, 1–15 (2012).

Zhang, W.

Q. Wang, X. Zhang, Y. Xu, J. Gu, Y. Li, Z. Tian, R. Singh, S. Zhang, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Broadband metasurface holograms: toward complete phase and amplitude engineering,” Sci. Rep. 6, 32867 (2016).
[PubMed]

L. Liu, X. Zhang, M. Kenney, X. Su, N. Xu, C. Ouyang, Y. Shi, J. Han, W. Zhang, and S. Zhang, “Broadband metasurfaces with simultaneous control of phase and amplitude,” Adv. Mater. 26(29), 5031–5036 (2014).
[PubMed]

Zhang, W. L.

S. Liu, T. J. Cui, Q. Xu, D. Bao, L. L. Du, X. Wan, W. X. Tang, C. M. Ouyang, X. Y. Zhou, H. Yuan, H. F. Ma, W. X. Jiang, J. G. Han, W. L. Zhang, and Q. Cheng, “Anisotropic coding metamaterials and their powerful manipulation of differently polarized terahertz waves,” Light Sci. Appl. 5, e16076 (2016).

Zhang, X.

Q. Wang, X. Zhang, Y. Xu, J. Gu, Y. Li, Z. Tian, R. Singh, S. Zhang, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Broadband metasurface holograms: toward complete phase and amplitude engineering,” Sci. Rep. 6, 32867 (2016).
[PubMed]

L. Liu, X. Zhang, M. Kenney, X. Su, N. Xu, C. Ouyang, Y. Shi, J. Han, W. Zhang, and S. Zhang, “Broadband metasurfaces with simultaneous control of phase and amplitude,” Adv. Mater. 26(29), 5031–5036 (2014).
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H. Tao, N. I. Landy, C. M. Bingham, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and W. J. Padilla, “A metamaterial absorber for the terahertz regime: Design, fabrication and characterization,” Opt. Express 16(10), 7181–7188 (2008).
[PubMed]

Zhao, J.

K. Chen, Y. Feng, Z. Yang, L. Cui, J. Zhao, B. Zhu, and T. Jiang, “Geometric phase coded metasurface: from polarization dependent directive electromagnetic wave scattering to diffusion-like scattering,” Sci. Rep. 6, 35968 (2016).
[PubMed]

T. J. Cui, M. Q. Qi, X. Wang, J. Zhao, and Q. Cheng, “Coding metamaterials, digital metamaterials and programming metamaterials,” Light Sci. Appl. 3, e218 (2014).

Zhao, Z. Y.

M. B. Pu, P. Chen, C. T. Wang, Y. Q. Wang, Z. Y. Zhao, C. G. Hu, C. Huang, and X. G. Luo, “Broadband anomalous reflection based on gradient low-Q meta-surfaace,” AIP Adv. 3, 052136 (2013).

Zhou, L.

S. L. Sun, Q. Hen, S. Y. Xiao, Q. Xu, X. Li, and L. Zhou, “Girdient-index meta-surfaces as a bridge linking propagation waves and surface waves,” Nat. Mater. 10, 1038 (2013).

S. Sun, K. Y. Yang, C. M. Wang, T. K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W. T. Kung, G. Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband anomalous reflection by gradient meta-surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6223–6229 (2012).
[PubMed]

Zhou, X. Y.

S. Liu, T. J. Cui, Q. Xu, D. Bao, L. L. Du, X. Wan, W. X. Tang, C. M. Ouyang, X. Y. Zhou, H. Yuan, H. F. Ma, W. X. Jiang, J. G. Han, W. L. Zhang, and Q. Cheng, “Anisotropic coding metamaterials and their powerful manipulation of differently polarized terahertz waves,” Light Sci. Appl. 5, e16076 (2016).

Zhu, B.

K. Chen, Y. Feng, Z. Yang, L. Cui, J. Zhao, B. Zhu, and T. Jiang, “Geometric phase coded metasurface: from polarization dependent directive electromagnetic wave scattering to diffusion-like scattering,” Sci. Rep. 6, 35968 (2016).
[PubMed]

Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

J. X. Li, S. Q. Chen, H. F. Yang, J. J. Li, P. Yu, H. Cheng, C. Z. Gu, H. T. Chen, and J. G. Tian, “Simultaneous control of light polarization and phase distributions using plasmonic metasurface,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 10, 1002 (2014).

Adv. Mater. (1)

L. Liu, X. Zhang, M. Kenney, X. Su, N. Xu, C. Ouyang, Y. Shi, J. Han, W. Zhang, and S. Zhang, “Broadband metasurfaces with simultaneous control of phase and amplitude,” Adv. Mater. 26(29), 5031–5036 (2014).
[PubMed]

Adv. Opt. Mater. (1)

L. Liang, M. Qi, J. Yang, X. Shen, J. Zhai, W. Xu, B. Jin, W. Liu, Y. Feng, C. Zhang, H. Lu, H. T. Chen, L. Kang, W. Xu, J. Chen, T. J. Cui, P. Wu, and S. Liu, “Anomalous terahertz reflection and scattering by flexible and conformal coding metamaterials,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3, 1374–1380 (2015).

AIP Adv. (1)

M. B. Pu, P. Chen, C. T. Wang, Y. Q. Wang, Z. Y. Zhao, C. G. Hu, C. Huang, and X. G. Luo, “Broadband anomalous reflection based on gradient low-Q meta-surfaace,” AIP Adv. 3, 052136 (2013).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Express (1)

Y. Lin, L. Wang, J. Gao, C. Y. Lu, H. S. Jiang, and W. Zeng, “Broadband working-waveband-tunable polarization converter based on anisotropic metasurface,” Appl. Phys. Express 10(3), 032001 (2017).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

C. Pfeiffer and A. Grbic, “Cascaded metasurfaces for complete phase and polarization control,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 231116 (2013).

R. Mendis, A. Nag, F. Chen, and D. M. Mittleman, “A tunable universal terahertz filter using artificial dielectrics based on parallel-plate waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(13), 131106 (2010).

IEEE Antennas Wirel. Propag. Lett. (1)

J. A. Gordon, C. L. Holloway, and A. Dienstfrey, “A physical explanation of angle-independent reflection and transmission,” IEEE Antennas Wirel. Propag. Lett. 8, 1127–1130 (2009).

IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. (1)

X. Gao, X. Han, W. P. Gao, H. O. Li, H. F. Ma, and T. J. Cui, “Ultra-wideband and high-efficiency liner polarization converter based on double V-shaped metasurface,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 10, 1109 (2015).

IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. (1)

A. Mahdi, E. Mikhail, and M. Pinaki, “Spoof surface plasmon polariton beam splitter,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 6(6), 832–839 (2016).

J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves (1)

A. Farid, N. Laurita, B. Tehrani, J. Hester, M. Tentzeris, and N. Armitage, “Inkjet printed wire-grid polarizers for the THz frequency range,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves 38(3), 276–282 (2017).

J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices (1)

T. J. Cui, S. Liu, and L. Zhang, “Information metamaterials and metasurfaces,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 5, 3644–3668 (2017).

Light Sci. Appl. (2)

T. J. Cui, M. Q. Qi, X. Wang, J. Zhao, and Q. Cheng, “Coding metamaterials, digital metamaterials and programming metamaterials,” Light Sci. Appl. 3, e218 (2014).

S. Liu, T. J. Cui, Q. Xu, D. Bao, L. L. Du, X. Wan, W. X. Tang, C. M. Ouyang, X. Y. Zhou, H. Yuan, H. F. Ma, W. X. Jiang, J. G. Han, W. L. Zhang, and Q. Cheng, “Anisotropic coding metamaterials and their powerful manipulation of differently polarized terahertz waves,” Light Sci. Appl. 5, e16076 (2016).

Nano Lett. (2)

S. Sun, K. Y. Yang, C. M. Wang, T. K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W. T. Kung, G. Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband anomalous reflection by gradient meta-surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6223–6229 (2012).
[PubMed]

L. L. Huang, X. Z. Chen, H. Muhlendbernd, G. X. Li, B. F. Bai, Q. F. Tan, G. f. Jin, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Dispersionless phase discontinuties for controlling light propagation,” Nano Lett. 15, 1–15 (2012).

Nat. Mater. (1)

S. L. Sun, Q. Hen, S. Y. Xiao, Q. Xu, X. Li, and L. Zhou, “Girdient-index meta-surfaces as a bridge linking propagation waves and surface waves,” Nat. Mater. 10, 1038 (2013).

Opt. Commun. (2)

Z. Ghattan, T. Hasek, R. Wilk, M. Shahabadi, and M. Koch, “Sub-terahertz on-off switch based on a two-dimensional photonic crystal infiltrated by liquid crystals,” Opt. Commun. 287, 4623–4625 (2008).

J. Li, “Terahertz modulator using photonic crystals,” Opt. Commun. 269, 98–101 (2007).

Opt. Express (4)

Sci. Rep. (4)

L. Liang, M. Wei, X. Yan, D. Wei, D. Liang, J. Han, X. Ding, G. Zhang, and J. Yao, “Broadband and wide-angle RCS reduction using a 2-bit coding ultrathin metasurface at terahertz frequencies,” Sci. Rep. 6, 39252 (2016).
[PubMed]

K. Chen, Y. Feng, Z. Yang, L. Cui, J. Zhao, B. Zhu, and T. Jiang, “Geometric phase coded metasurface: from polarization dependent directive electromagnetic wave scattering to diffusion-like scattering,” Sci. Rep. 6, 35968 (2016).
[PubMed]

Q. Wang, X. Zhang, Y. Xu, J. Gu, Y. Li, Z. Tian, R. Singh, S. Zhang, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Broadband metasurface holograms: toward complete phase and amplitude engineering,” Sci. Rep. 6, 32867 (2016).
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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Side-view and (b) top-view schematic of the digital elements, (c) Random coding metasurfaces, (d) The designed 1-, 2-, and 3-bit coding particles using different-scale notched-wheels.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Simulated reflection magnitude (a) and phase (b) of the eight basic digital elements.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Simulated 3D- and 2D- scattering patterns of the coding metasurface with different coding sequences at 1.2THz. (3(a),3(c),3(e)) 3D far-field scattering patterns of the metasurface with the coding sequences “00000…, 00110011…, 001001…,” respectively. Corresponding 2D scattering patterns of the metasurface (3(b),3(d),3(f)); (3(g),3(i))3D far-field scattering patterns of the metasurface with the different lattice sizes of 3 × 3 arrays and 3 × 6 arrays in the chessboard distribution, respectively. (3(j),3(k)) Corresponding 2D scattering patterns with the θ = 32.4°and θ = 25.1°, respectively.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Simulated 3D and 2D scattering patterns of the 2-bit coding metasurfaces with different coding sequences at 1.2THz. (4(a), 4(c)) 3D and (4(b), 4(d)) 2D scattering patterns with the coding sequence “00, 01, 10, 11…”along x- and y-axis direction, respectively. (4(e), 4(g)) 3D- and (4(f), 4(h)) 2D scattering patterns with the coding sequence “01, 01, 11, 11…”along x- and y-axis direction, respectively. 4(i) 3D- and 4(j) 2D- scattering patterns with the coding sequence “00, 01/11, 10…”
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Simulated 3D- and 2D- scattering patterns of the coding metasurfaces at 1.2THz with disparate coding sequence. (5(a), 5(c)) 3D- and (5(b), 5(d)) 2D- scattering patterns with the sequence of “000, 001, 010, 011, 100, 101, 110, 111…”along x-orientation or y-orientation, respectively; (5(e), 5(g)) 3D- and (5(f), 5(h)) 2D- scattering patterns with the sequence that has a 45° constant gradient along x- or y-direction while with a phase difference of 180° in the y- or x-direction; 5(i) 3D- and 5(j) 2D- scattering patterns of the coding metasurface with a period of three coding elements along y-orientation and has a gradient of 45° along x-orientation.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 16 × 16 random coding sequences
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 3D-scattering patterns of the random coding metasurfaces at (a) 0.4THz, (b)1.0THz, (c) 1.55THz, and (d) 1.8THz. 2D-scattering patterns of the random coding metasurface on the xoz plane at (e) 0.4THz, (f)1.0THz, (g) 1.55THz, and (h) 1.8THz. Scattering patterns of the same sized metallic slab on the xoz-plane at (i) 0.4THz, (j)1.0THz, (k) 1.55THz, and (l) 1.8THz.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Simulated results of the coding metasurfaces with the 1-bit coding sequence of “0, 0, 1, 1, 0, 0, 1, 1…”under linearly polarized (a), left-handed (b)and right-handed (c) circularly polarized plane waves incidence at 1.2THz on the xoz-plane. Simulated results of the coding metasurfaces with random coding sequence under linearly polarized (d), left-handed (e) and right-handed (f) circularly polarized plane waves incidence at 1.2THz on the xoz-plane.

Equations (2)

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f( θ,φ )= f e ( θ,φ ) m=1 M n=1 N exp{ i{ φ( m,n ) +K D x sinθ ( m 1 2 )cosφ+K D y ( n 1 2 )cosφsinφ } }
f( θ,φ )= m=1 M exp i(K D x (m 1 2 )sinθcosφ+mπ) n=1 N expi( K D y (n 1 2 )cosφsinφ+nπ)

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