Abstract

Uniform illuminance over the expanded exit pupil is an important requirement for waveguide display systems with a wide field of view (FOV). To address this issue, we develop a monochromatic binocular waveguide display in this paper. Two surface-relief diffraction gratings are designed as in-couplers and out-couplers. The parameters of the gratings are optimized to achieve uniform diffraction efficiency distributions over a broad angular range. The grating couplers enable the system to realize a diagonal FOV of 40°. A freeform surface prism is designed as the projection optics. The diameters of the two exit pupils are 12 mm in the expanding direction at an eye relief of 19 mm.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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References

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2015 (2)

2014 (2)

2013 (3)

J. Yang, W. Liu, W. Lv, D. Zhang, F. He, Z. Wei, and Y. Kang, “Method of achieving a wide field-of-view head-mounted display with small distortion,” Opt. Lett. 38(12), 2035–2037 (2013).
[PubMed]

B. Kress and T. Starner, “A review of head-mounted displays (HMD) technologies and applications for consumer electronics,” Proc. SPIE 8720, 87200A (2013).

K. Sarayeddine and K. Mirza, “Key challenges to affordable see through wearable displays: the missing link for mobile AR mass deployment,” Proc. SPIE 8720, 87200D (2013).

2009 (2)

H. Mukawa, K. Akutsu, I. Matsumura, S. Nakano, T. Yoshida, M. Kuwahara, and K. Aiki, “A full-color eyewear display using planar waveguides with reflection volume holograms,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 17(3), 185–193 (2009).

D. Cheng, Y. Wang, H. Hua, and M. M. Talha, “Design of an optical see-through head-mounted display with a low f-number and large field of view using a freeform prism,” Appl. Opt. 48(14), 2655–2668 (2009).
[PubMed]

2007 (2)

2006 (2)

2002 (1)

M. M. Bayer, “Retinal scanning display: a novel HMD approach for Army aviation,” Proc. SPIE 4711, 202 (2002).

2000 (1)

1999 (1)

S. Yamazaki, K. Inoguchi, Y. Saito, H. Morishima, and N. Taniguchi, “Thin, wide field-of -view HMD with free-form-surface prism and applications,” Proc. SPIE 3639, 453–462 (1999).

1995 (2)

Aiki, K.

H. Mukawa, K. Akutsu, I. Matsumura, S. Nakano, T. Yoshida, M. Kuwahara, and K. Aiki, “A full-color eyewear display using planar waveguides with reflection volume holograms,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 17(3), 185–193 (2009).

H. Mukawa, K. Akutsu, I. Matsumura, S. Nakano, T. Yoshida, M. Kuwahara, K. Aiki, and M. Ogawa, “A full color eyewear display using holographic planar waveguides,” SID International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers39(1), 89–92 (2008).

Akutsu, K.

H. Mukawa, K. Akutsu, I. Matsumura, S. Nakano, T. Yoshida, M. Kuwahara, and K. Aiki, “A full-color eyewear display using planar waveguides with reflection volume holograms,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 17(3), 185–193 (2009).

H. Mukawa, K. Akutsu, I. Matsumura, S. Nakano, T. Yoshida, M. Kuwahara, K. Aiki, and M. Ogawa, “A full color eyewear display using holographic planar waveguides,” SID International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers39(1), 89–92 (2008).

Amitai, Y.

Y. Amitai, “A two-dimensional aperture expander for ultra-compact, high-performance head-worn displays,” SID International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers36(1), 360–363(2005).

Bauer, A.

Bayer, M. M.

M. M. Bayer, “Retinal scanning display: a novel HMD approach for Army aviation,” Proc. SPIE 4711, 202 (2002).

Cheng, D.

Eisen, L.

Friesem, A. A.

Gao, C.

Gaylord, T. K.

Girardot, A.

Golub, M.

Grann, E. B.

Gurwich, I.

Ha, Y.

Han, J.

He, F.

Hou, Q.

Hu, Y.

Hua, H.

Inoguchi, K.

S. Yamazaki, K. Inoguchi, Y. Saito, H. Morishima, and N. Taniguchi, “Thin, wide field-of -view HMD with free-form-surface prism and applications,” Proc. SPIE 3639, 453–462 (1999).

Jin, G.

Kang, Y.

Kress, B.

B. Kress and T. Starner, “A review of head-mounted displays (HMD) technologies and applications for consumer electronics,” Proc. SPIE 8720, 87200A (2013).

Kuwahara, M.

H. Mukawa, K. Akutsu, I. Matsumura, S. Nakano, T. Yoshida, M. Kuwahara, and K. Aiki, “A full-color eyewear display using planar waveguides with reflection volume holograms,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 17(3), 185–193 (2009).

H. Mukawa, K. Akutsu, I. Matsumura, S. Nakano, T. Yoshida, M. Kuwahara, K. Aiki, and M. Ogawa, “A full color eyewear display using holographic planar waveguides,” SID International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers39(1), 89–92 (2008).

Laakkonen, P.

Levola, T.

Liu, J.

Liu, W.

Lv, W.

Martins, R.

Matsumura, I.

H. Mukawa, K. Akutsu, I. Matsumura, S. Nakano, T. Yoshida, M. Kuwahara, and K. Aiki, “A full-color eyewear display using planar waveguides with reflection volume holograms,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 17(3), 185–193 (2009).

H. Mukawa, K. Akutsu, I. Matsumura, S. Nakano, T. Yoshida, M. Kuwahara, K. Aiki, and M. Ogawa, “A full color eyewear display using holographic planar waveguides,” SID International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers39(1), 89–92 (2008).

Meyklyar, M.

Mirza, K.

K. Sarayeddine and K. Mirza, “Key challenges to affordable see through wearable displays: the missing link for mobile AR mass deployment,” Proc. SPIE 8720, 87200D (2013).

Moharam, M. G.

Morishima, H.

S. Yamazaki, K. Inoguchi, Y. Saito, H. Morishima, and N. Taniguchi, “Thin, wide field-of -view HMD with free-form-surface prism and applications,” Proc. SPIE 3639, 453–462 (1999).

Mukawa, H.

H. Mukawa, K. Akutsu, I. Matsumura, S. Nakano, T. Yoshida, M. Kuwahara, and K. Aiki, “A full-color eyewear display using planar waveguides with reflection volume holograms,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 17(3), 185–193 (2009).

H. Mukawa, K. Akutsu, I. Matsumura, S. Nakano, T. Yoshida, M. Kuwahara, K. Aiki, and M. Ogawa, “A full color eyewear display using holographic planar waveguides,” SID International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers39(1), 89–92 (2008).

Nakano, S.

H. Mukawa, K. Akutsu, I. Matsumura, S. Nakano, T. Yoshida, M. Kuwahara, and K. Aiki, “A full-color eyewear display using planar waveguides with reflection volume holograms,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 17(3), 185–193 (2009).

H. Mukawa, K. Akutsu, I. Matsumura, S. Nakano, T. Yoshida, M. Kuwahara, K. Aiki, and M. Ogawa, “A full color eyewear display using holographic planar waveguides,” SID International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers39(1), 89–92 (2008).

Ogawa, M.

H. Mukawa, K. Akutsu, I. Matsumura, S. Nakano, T. Yoshida, M. Kuwahara, K. Aiki, and M. Ogawa, “A full color eyewear display using holographic planar waveguides,” SID International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers39(1), 89–92 (2008).

Pommet, D. A.

Rolland, J.

Rolland, J. P.

Saito, Y.

S. Yamazaki, K. Inoguchi, Y. Saito, H. Morishima, and N. Taniguchi, “Thin, wide field-of -view HMD with free-form-surface prism and applications,” Proc. SPIE 3639, 453–462 (1999).

Sarayeddine, K.

K. Sarayeddine and K. Mirza, “Key challenges to affordable see through wearable displays: the missing link for mobile AR mass deployment,” Proc. SPIE 8720, 87200D (2013).

Shaoulov, V.

Song, W.

Starner, T.

B. Kress and T. Starner, “A review of head-mounted displays (HMD) technologies and applications for consumer electronics,” Proc. SPIE 8720, 87200A (2013).

Talha, M. M.

Taniguchi, N.

S. Yamazaki, K. Inoguchi, Y. Saito, H. Morishima, and N. Taniguchi, “Thin, wide field-of -view HMD with free-form-surface prism and applications,” Proc. SPIE 3639, 453–462 (1999).

Valera, M. S.

I. K. Wilmington and M. S. Valera, “Waveguide‐based display technology,” SID International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers44(51), 278–280 (2013).

Wang, Q.

Wang, Y.

Wei, Z.

Weiss, V.

Wilmington, I. K.

I. K. Wilmington and M. S. Valera, “Waveguide‐based display technology,” SID International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers44(51), 278–280 (2013).

Xu, C.

Yamazaki, S.

S. Yamazaki, K. Inoguchi, Y. Saito, H. Morishima, and N. Taniguchi, “Thin, wide field-of -view HMD with free-form-surface prism and applications,” Proc. SPIE 3639, 453–462 (1999).

Yang, J.

Yao, X.

Yoshida, T.

H. Mukawa, K. Akutsu, I. Matsumura, S. Nakano, T. Yoshida, M. Kuwahara, and K. Aiki, “A full-color eyewear display using planar waveguides with reflection volume holograms,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 17(3), 185–193 (2009).

H. Mukawa, K. Akutsu, I. Matsumura, S. Nakano, T. Yoshida, M. Kuwahara, K. Aiki, and M. Ogawa, “A full color eyewear display using holographic planar waveguides,” SID International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers39(1), 89–92 (2008).

Zhang, D.

Appl. Opt. (4)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (2)

J. Soc. Inf. Disp. (2)

T. Levola, “Diffractive optics for virtual reality display,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 14(5), 467–475 (2006).

H. Mukawa, K. Akutsu, I. Matsumura, S. Nakano, T. Yoshida, M. Kuwahara, and K. Aiki, “A full-color eyewear display using planar waveguides with reflection volume holograms,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 17(3), 185–193 (2009).

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. SPIE (4)

B. Kress and T. Starner, “A review of head-mounted displays (HMD) technologies and applications for consumer electronics,” Proc. SPIE 8720, 87200A (2013).

K. Sarayeddine and K. Mirza, “Key challenges to affordable see through wearable displays: the missing link for mobile AR mass deployment,” Proc. SPIE 8720, 87200D (2013).

M. M. Bayer, “Retinal scanning display: a novel HMD approach for Army aviation,” Proc. SPIE 4711, 202 (2002).

S. Yamazaki, K. Inoguchi, Y. Saito, H. Morishima, and N. Taniguchi, “Thin, wide field-of -view HMD with free-form-surface prism and applications,” Proc. SPIE 3639, 453–462 (1999).

Other (6)

A. Travis, “Wide field-of-view virtual image projector,” U.S. Patent 20,130,021,392 A1 (January 24, 2013).

A. Travis, “Wide field-of-view virtual image projector,” U.S. Patent 20,130,329,301 A1 (December 12, 2013).

Y. Amitai, “A two-dimensional aperture expander for ultra-compact, high-performance head-worn displays,” SID International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers36(1), 360–363(2005).

H. Mukawa, K. Akutsu, I. Matsumura, S. Nakano, T. Yoshida, M. Kuwahara, K. Aiki, and M. Ogawa, “A full color eyewear display using holographic planar waveguides,” SID International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers39(1), 89–92 (2008).

I. K. Wilmington and M. S. Valera, “Waveguide‐based display technology,” SID International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers44(51), 278–280 (2013).

M. Simmonds and R. Howard, “A projection display with a rod-like, rectangular cross-section waveguide and a plate-like waveguide, each of them having a diffraction grating,” W. O. Patent 2007/029034A1 (March 15, 2007).

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Schematic of waveguide display configuration. (b) Geometry of planar waveguide with a grating in-coupler and out-coupler.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Structures and diffraction order distributions of grating (a) in-coupler and (b) out-coupler.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Efficiency distributions of grating (a) in-coupler and (b) out-coupler with horizontal and vertical incident angles.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Ray-tracing of exit light in all fields that reaches both exit pupils from two sides of the combined waveguide. (b) Schematic of ray paths of exit light in the margin field inside the combined waveguide.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a), (b), (c) Ray-tracings of exit light in all fields from the left, right and both sides that reaches the left exit pupil, respectively. (d), (e), (f) the corresponding normalized illuminance distributions of the marginal field (–16.5°H, 12°V) across the left exit pupil.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Comparison of illuminance uniformities of five typical fields: marginal fields (–16.5°H, 12°V), (16.5°H, 12°V), half-marginal fields (–8.25°H, 6°V), (8.25°H, 6°V) and center field (0°H, 0°V) between separated and combined waveguides. The diffraction angles of the five typical fields are around 39.5°, 44.7°, 51.4°, 59.6°, 70.6°.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 (a) Ray paths of extra in-coming light. (b) Gaps between exit light beams in center field.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Schematic of equivalent exit pupil.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Optical layouts of the FFS prism in the (a) sagittal and (b) tangential plane.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 (a) MTF curves and (b) distortion grid of the FFS prism collimator.
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 Overall layout of the binocular waveguide display.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Optimized parameters and diffraction efficiencies of grating couplers

Tables Icon

Table 2 Effects of slight variations of parameters

Equations (10)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

k i = 2π λ n 0 ( sin θ 0 cos φ 0 ,sin θ 0 sin φ 0 ,cos θ 0 ),
k m = 2π λ n 1 ( sinθ ' m cosφ ' m ,sinθ ' m sinφ ' m ,cosθ ' m ),
n 1 sinθ ' m sinφ ' m = n 0 sin θ 0 sin φ 0 =γ n 1 sinθ ' m cosφ ' m = n 0 sin θ 0 cos φ 0 +m λ T = α 0 +m λ T ,
T< λ 1 γ 2 α 0 .
γ 2 + [ α 0 + 2λ T ] 2 > n 1 > γ 2 + [ α 0 + λ T ] 2 .
Γ η =1 η max η min η max + η min ,
sin 2 θ ' 1r sin 2 θ ' 1l = 4 n 0 λ n 1 2 T sin θ 0 cos φ 0 .
Γ I =1 I max I min I max + I min ,
D=2dtanθ',
{ θ u2' >arcsin(1/n) y P b2 y P b3 >0 y P b2' y P b3 >0 z P b2 z P b3 >2.5 2.5> z P b4 z P u3 >0.5 5> y P b4 y P u3 >3 5> y P u4 y P u2' >2 z P u4 z P u2' >1 z P u1 z P u2 >3 .

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