Abstract

Quantum dots can be used in white LEDs for lighting applications to fill the spectral gaps in the combined emission spectrum of the blue pumping LED and a broad band phosphor, in order to improve the source color rendering properties. Because quantum dots are low scattering materials, their use can also reduce the amount of backscattered light which can increase the overall efficiency of the white LED. The absorption spectrum and narrow emission spectrum of quantum dots can be easily tuned by altering their synthesis parameters. Due to the re-absorption events between the different luminescent materials and the light interaction with the LED package, determining the optimal quantum dot properties is a highly non-trivial task. In this paper we propose a methodology to select the optimal quantum dot to be combined with a broad band phosphor in order to realize a white LED with optimal luminous efficacy and CRI. The methodology is based on accurate and efficient simulations using the extended adding-doubling approach that take into account all the optical interactions. The method is elaborated for the specific case of a hybrid, remote phosphor white LED with YAG:Ce phosphor in combination with InP/CdxZn1−xSe type quantum dots. The absorption and emission spectrum of the quantum dots are generated in function of three synthesis parameters (core size, shell size and cadmium fraction) by a semi-empirical ‘quantum dot model’ to include the continuous tunability of these spectra. The sufficiently fast simulations allow to scan the full parameter space consisting of these synthesis parameters and luminescent material concentrations in terms of CRI and efficacy. A conclusive visualization of the final performance allows to make a well-considered trade-off between these performance parameters. For the hybrid white remote phosphor LED with YAG:Ce and InP/CdxZn1−xSe quantum dots a CRI Ra = 90 (with R9>50) and an overall efficacy of 110 lm/W is found.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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References

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2017 (3)

K. T. Shimizu, M. Böhmer, D. Estrada, S. Gangwal, S. Grabowski, H. Bechtel, E. Kang, K. J. Vampola, D. Chamberlin, O. B. Shchekin, and J. Bhardwaj, “Toward commercial realization of quantum dot based white light-emitting diodes for general illumination,” Photonics Res. 5(2), A1–A6 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Abé, J. J. Joos, L. I. D. J. Martin, and Z. Hens, “Hybrid remote quantum dot/powder phosphor designs for display backlights,” Light Sci. Appl. 6(6), e16271 (2017).
[Crossref]

D. Dupont, M. D. Tessier, P. F. Smet, and Z. Hens, “Indium Phosphide-Based Quantum Dots with Shell-Enhanced Absorption for Luminescent Down-Conversion,” Adv. Mater 29, 1700686 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (2)

A. Córreia, H. cornelissen, S. Leyre, P. Hanselaer, and Y. Meuret, “Determination of volume scattering parameters that reproduce the luminance characteristics of diffusers,” Opt. Express 24(11), 11727–11738 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Bin, R. Hu, and X. Luo, “Quantum dots-converted light-emitting diodes packaging for lighting and display: status and perspectives,” J. Electron. Packag. 138(2), 020803 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (2)

J. Ryckaert, S. Leyre, P. Hanselaer, and Y. Meuret, “Simulation of white LEDs with a planar luminescent layer using the extended Adding-Doubling method,” Proc. SPIE 32, 96290K (2015).

J. Ryckaert, S. Leyre, P. Hanselaer, and Y. Meuret, “Determination of the optimal amount of scattering in a wavelength conversion plate for white LEDs,” Opt. Express 23(24), A1629–A1641 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (4)

Y.-S. Cho, Y.-D. Huh, C. R. Park, and Y. R. Do, “Preparation with laser ablation and photoluminescence of Y3Al5O12: Ce nanophosphors,” Electron. Mater. Lett. 10(2), 461–465 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. S. Steckel, J. Ho, and S. Coe-Sullivan, “QDs Generate Light for Next-Generation Displays,” Photonics Spectra 48(9), 55–61 (2014).

P. Acuña, S. Leyre, J. Audenaert, Y. Meuret, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaer, “Power and photon budget of a remote phosphor LED module,” Opt. Express 22(104), A1079–A1092 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Leyre, J. Ryckaert, P. Acuña, J. Audenaert, Y. Meuret, G. Durinck, J. Hofkens, G. Durinck, and P. Hanselaer, “A hybrid tool for spectral ray tracing simulations of luminescent cascade systems,” Opt. Express 22(20), 24582–24593 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (4)

S. Leyre, F. B. Leloup, J. Audenaert, G. Durinck, J. Hofkens, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaer, “Determination of the bulk scattering parameters of diffusing materials,” Appl. Opt. 52(18), 4083–4090 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Acuña, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaer, “Thermal issues of a remote phosphor light engine,” Proceedings of the 12th Pan American conference on Lighting 12, 291–295 (2013).

S.-R. Chung, K.-W. Wang, and M.-W. Wang, “Hybrid YAG/CdSe Quantum Dots Phosphors for White Light-Emitting Diodes,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 13(6), 4358–4363 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Leyre, E. Coutino-Gonzalez, J. J. Joos, J. Ryckaert, Y. Meuret, D. Poelman, P. F. Smet, G. Durinck, J. Hofkens, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaer, “Absolute determination of photoluminescence quantum efficiency using an integrating sphere setup,” Rev. Sci. Intrum. 85(12), 123115 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

Y. Shuai, N. T. Tran, J. P. You, and F. G. Shi, “Phosphor size dependence of lumen efficiency and spatial CCT uniformity for typical white LED emitters,” Proc. Electron. Components Technol. Conf. 62, 2025–2028 (2012).

S. Leyre, G. Durinck, B. Van Giel, W. Saeys, J. Hofkens, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaer, “Extended adding-doubling method for fluorescent applications,” Opt. Express 20(16), 17856–17872 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (4)

J. Chen and X. Intex, “Comparison of Monte Carlo methods for fluorescence molecular tomography-computational efficiency,” Med. Phys. 38(10), 5788–5798 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Chung, H. J. Yu, S. H. Park, B. H. Chun, and S. H. Kim, “YAG and CdSe/ZnSe nanoparticles hybrid phosphor for white LED with high color rendering index,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 126(1), 162–166 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. de Mello Donegá, “Synthesis and properties of colloidal heteronanocrystals,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 40(3), 1512–1546 (2011).
[Crossref]

P. F. Smet, A. B. Parmentier, and D. Poelman, “Selecting Conversion Phosphors for White Light-Emitting Diodes,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 158(6), R37–R54 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

S. Ye., F. Xiao, Y. X. Pan, Y. Y. Ma, and Q. Y. Zhang, “Phosphors in phosphor-converted white light-emitting diodes: Recent advances in materials, techniques and properties,” Mater. Sci. Eng. R Reports 71(1), 1–34 (2010).
[Crossref]

D. Bera, L. Qian, T. K. Tseng, and P. H. Holloway, “Quantum dots and their multimodal applications: A review,” Mater. (Basel). 3(4), 2260–2345 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (3)

N. T. Tran, F. G. Shi, and J. P. You, “Effect of Phosphor Particle Size on Luminous Efficacy of Phosphor-Converted White LED,” J. Light. Technol. 27(22), 5145–5150 (2009).
[Crossref]

Z. Liu, S. Liu, K. Wang, and X. Luo, “Status and prospects for phosphor-based white LED packaging,” Front. Optoelectron. China 2(2), 119–140 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. Michiue, T. Miyoshi, T. Yanamoto, T. Kozaki, S.-i. Nagahama, Y. Narukawa, M. Sano, T. Yamada, and T. Mukai, “Recent development of nitride LEDs and LDs,” Proc. SPIE 7216, 72161Z (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (6)

Y. Narukawa, M. Sano, T. Sakamoto, T. Yamada, and T. Mukai, “Successful fabrication of white light emitting diodes by using extremely high external quantum efficiency blue chips,” Phys. Status Solidi Appl. Mater. Sci. 205(5), 1081–1085 (2008).
[Crossref]

F. B. Leloup, S. Forment, P. Dutré, M. R. Pointer, and P. Hanselaer, “Design of an instrument for measuring the spectral bidirectional scatter distribution function,” Appl. Opt. bfseries 47(29), 5454–5467 (2008).
[Crossref]

T. J. Deerinck, “The application of fluorescent quantum dots to confocal, multiphoton, and electron microscopic imaging,” Toxicol. Pathol. 36(1), 112–116 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. S. Jang, H. Yang, S. W. Kim, J. Y. Han, S. G. Lee, and D. Y. Jeon, “White light-emitting diodes with excellent color rendering based on organically capped CdSe quantum dots and Sr3SiO5:Ce 3+, Li+ phosphors,” Adv. Mater. 20(14), 2696–2702 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Hoelen, H. Borel, J. de Graaf, M. Keuper, M. Lankhorst, C. Mutter, L. Waumans, and R. Wegh, “Remote phosphor LED modules for general illumination: toward 200 lm/W general lighting LED light sources,” Proc. SPIE 7058, 70580M (2008).
[Crossref]

M. Zachau, D. Becker, D. Berben, T. Fiedler, F. Jermann, and F. Zwaschka, “Phosphors for solid state lighting,” Proc. SPIE 6910, 691010 (2008).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

N. Narendran, Y. Gu, J. P. Freyssinier, H. Yu, and L. Deng, “Solid-state lighting: Failure analysis of white LEDs,” J. Cryst. Growth 268(3), 449–456 (2004).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

P. Reiss, J. Bleuse, and A. Pron, “Highly Luminescent CdSe/ZnSe Core/Shell Nanocrystals of Low Size Dispersion,” Nano Lett. bfseries 2(7), 781–784 (2002).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

I. Knez and C. Kers, “Effects of Indoor Lighting, Gender, and Age on Mood and Cognitive Performance,” Environ. Behav. 32(6), 817–831 (2000).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

I. Knez and I. Enmarker, “Effects of Office Lighting on Mood and Cognitive Performance And A Gender Effect in Work-Related Judgment,” Environ. Behav. 30(4), 553–567 (1998).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

1980 (1)

Abé, S.

S. Abé, J. J. Joos, L. I. D. J. Martin, and Z. Hens, “Hybrid remote quantum dot/powder phosphor designs for display backlights,” Light Sci. Appl. 6(6), e16271 (2017).
[Crossref]

Acuña, P.

Audenaert, J.

Bechtel, H.

K. T. Shimizu, M. Böhmer, D. Estrada, S. Gangwal, S. Grabowski, H. Bechtel, E. Kang, K. J. Vampola, D. Chamberlin, O. B. Shchekin, and J. Bhardwaj, “Toward commercial realization of quantum dot based white light-emitting diodes for general illumination,” Photonics Res. 5(2), A1–A6 (2017).
[Crossref]

Becker, D.

M. Zachau, D. Becker, D. Berben, T. Fiedler, F. Jermann, and F. Zwaschka, “Phosphors for solid state lighting,” Proc. SPIE 6910, 691010 (2008).
[Crossref]

Bera, D.

D. Bera, L. Qian, T. K. Tseng, and P. H. Holloway, “Quantum dots and their multimodal applications: A review,” Mater. (Basel). 3(4), 2260–2345 (2010).
[Crossref]

Berben, D.

M. Zachau, D. Becker, D. Berben, T. Fiedler, F. Jermann, and F. Zwaschka, “Phosphors for solid state lighting,” Proc. SPIE 6910, 691010 (2008).
[Crossref]

Bhardwaj, J.

K. T. Shimizu, M. Böhmer, D. Estrada, S. Gangwal, S. Grabowski, H. Bechtel, E. Kang, K. J. Vampola, D. Chamberlin, O. B. Shchekin, and J. Bhardwaj, “Toward commercial realization of quantum dot based white light-emitting diodes for general illumination,” Photonics Res. 5(2), A1–A6 (2017).
[Crossref]

Bin, X.

X. Bin, R. Hu, and X. Luo, “Quantum dots-converted light-emitting diodes packaging for lighting and display: status and perspectives,” J. Electron. Packag. 138(2), 020803 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bleuse, J.

P. Reiss, J. Bleuse, and A. Pron, “Highly Luminescent CdSe/ZnSe Core/Shell Nanocrystals of Low Size Dispersion,” Nano Lett. bfseries 2(7), 781–784 (2002).
[Crossref]

Böhmer, M.

K. T. Shimizu, M. Böhmer, D. Estrada, S. Gangwal, S. Grabowski, H. Bechtel, E. Kang, K. J. Vampola, D. Chamberlin, O. B. Shchekin, and J. Bhardwaj, “Toward commercial realization of quantum dot based white light-emitting diodes for general illumination,” Photonics Res. 5(2), A1–A6 (2017).
[Crossref]

Borel, H.

C. Hoelen, H. Borel, J. de Graaf, M. Keuper, M. Lankhorst, C. Mutter, L. Waumans, and R. Wegh, “Remote phosphor LED modules for general illumination: toward 200 lm/W general lighting LED light sources,” Proc. SPIE 7058, 70580M (2008).
[Crossref]

Chamberlin, D.

K. T. Shimizu, M. Böhmer, D. Estrada, S. Gangwal, S. Grabowski, H. Bechtel, E. Kang, K. J. Vampola, D. Chamberlin, O. B. Shchekin, and J. Bhardwaj, “Toward commercial realization of quantum dot based white light-emitting diodes for general illumination,” Photonics Res. 5(2), A1–A6 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chen, J.

J. Chen and X. Intex, “Comparison of Monte Carlo methods for fluorescence molecular tomography-computational efficiency,” Med. Phys. 38(10), 5788–5798 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cho, Y.-S.

Y.-S. Cho, Y.-D. Huh, C. R. Park, and Y. R. Do, “Preparation with laser ablation and photoluminescence of Y3Al5O12: Ce nanophosphors,” Electron. Mater. Lett. 10(2), 461–465 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chun, B. H.

W. Chung, H. J. Yu, S. H. Park, B. H. Chun, and S. H. Kim, “YAG and CdSe/ZnSe nanoparticles hybrid phosphor for white LED with high color rendering index,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 126(1), 162–166 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chung, S.-R.

S.-R. Chung, K.-W. Wang, and M.-W. Wang, “Hybrid YAG/CdSe Quantum Dots Phosphors for White Light-Emitting Diodes,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 13(6), 4358–4363 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chung, W.

W. Chung, H. J. Yu, S. H. Park, B. H. Chun, and S. H. Kim, “YAG and CdSe/ZnSe nanoparticles hybrid phosphor for white LED with high color rendering index,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 126(1), 162–166 (2011).
[Crossref]

Coe-Sullivan, S.

J. S. Steckel, J. Ho, and S. Coe-Sullivan, “QDs Generate Light for Next-Generation Displays,” Photonics Spectra 48(9), 55–61 (2014).

cornelissen, H.

Córreia, A.

Coutino-Gonzalez, E.

S. Leyre, E. Coutino-Gonzalez, J. J. Joos, J. Ryckaert, Y. Meuret, D. Poelman, P. F. Smet, G. Durinck, J. Hofkens, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaer, “Absolute determination of photoluminescence quantum efficiency using an integrating sphere setup,” Rev. Sci. Intrum. 85(12), 123115 (2013).
[Crossref]

de Graaf, J.

C. Hoelen, H. Borel, J. de Graaf, M. Keuper, M. Lankhorst, C. Mutter, L. Waumans, and R. Wegh, “Remote phosphor LED modules for general illumination: toward 200 lm/W general lighting LED light sources,” Proc. SPIE 7058, 70580M (2008).
[Crossref]

de Mello Donegá, C.

C. de Mello Donegá, “Synthesis and properties of colloidal heteronanocrystals,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 40(3), 1512–1546 (2011).
[Crossref]

Deconinck, G.

P. Acuña, S. Leyre, J. Audenaert, Y. Meuret, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaer, “Power and photon budget of a remote phosphor LED module,” Opt. Express 22(104), A1079–A1092 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Acuña, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaer, “Thermal issues of a remote phosphor light engine,” Proceedings of the 12th Pan American conference on Lighting 12, 291–295 (2013).

S. Leyre, F. B. Leloup, J. Audenaert, G. Durinck, J. Hofkens, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaer, “Determination of the bulk scattering parameters of diffusing materials,” Appl. Opt. 52(18), 4083–4090 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Leyre, E. Coutino-Gonzalez, J. J. Joos, J. Ryckaert, Y. Meuret, D. Poelman, P. F. Smet, G. Durinck, J. Hofkens, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaer, “Absolute determination of photoluminescence quantum efficiency using an integrating sphere setup,” Rev. Sci. Intrum. 85(12), 123115 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Leyre, G. Durinck, B. Van Giel, W. Saeys, J. Hofkens, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaer, “Extended adding-doubling method for fluorescent applications,” Opt. Express 20(16), 17856–17872 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Leyre, G. Durinck, J. Hofkens, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaert, “Experimental determination of the absorption and scattering properties of YAG:Ce phosphor,” Lighth. Energy Environ., DTu4C.4 (2014).

Deerinck, T. J.

T. J. Deerinck, “The application of fluorescent quantum dots to confocal, multiphoton, and electron microscopic imaging,” Toxicol. Pathol. 36(1), 112–116 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Deng, L.

N. Narendran, Y. Gu, J. P. Freyssinier, H. Yu, and L. Deng, “Solid-state lighting: Failure analysis of white LEDs,” J. Cryst. Growth 268(3), 449–456 (2004).
[Crossref]

Devarajan, M.

P. H. Yuen, H. H. Shiung, and M. Devarajan, “Influence of phosphor packaging configurations on the optical performance of Chip on Board phosphor converted Warm White LEDs,” in Proceedings of the 5th Asia Sympposium on Quality Electronic Design (IEEE, 2013), pp. 329–333.

Do, Y. R.

Y.-S. Cho, Y.-D. Huh, C. R. Park, and Y. R. Do, “Preparation with laser ablation and photoluminescence of Y3Al5O12: Ce nanophosphors,” Electron. Mater. Lett. 10(2), 461–465 (2014).
[Crossref]

Dupont, D.

D. Dupont, M. D. Tessier, P. F. Smet, and Z. Hens, “Indium Phosphide-Based Quantum Dots with Shell-Enhanced Absorption for Luminescent Down-Conversion,” Adv. Mater 29, 1700686 (2017).
[Crossref]

Durinck, G.

Dutré, P.

F. B. Leloup, S. Forment, P. Dutré, M. R. Pointer, and P. Hanselaer, “Design of an instrument for measuring the spectral bidirectional scatter distribution function,” Appl. Opt. bfseries 47(29), 5454–5467 (2008).
[Crossref]

Enmarker, I.

I. Knez and I. Enmarker, “Effects of Office Lighting on Mood and Cognitive Performance And A Gender Effect in Work-Related Judgment,” Environ. Behav. 30(4), 553–567 (1998).
[Crossref]

Estrada, D.

K. T. Shimizu, M. Böhmer, D. Estrada, S. Gangwal, S. Grabowski, H. Bechtel, E. Kang, K. J. Vampola, D. Chamberlin, O. B. Shchekin, and J. Bhardwaj, “Toward commercial realization of quantum dot based white light-emitting diodes for general illumination,” Photonics Res. 5(2), A1–A6 (2017).
[Crossref]

Fiedler, T.

M. Zachau, D. Becker, D. Berben, T. Fiedler, F. Jermann, and F. Zwaschka, “Phosphors for solid state lighting,” Proc. SPIE 6910, 691010 (2008).
[Crossref]

Forment, S.

F. B. Leloup, S. Forment, P. Dutré, M. R. Pointer, and P. Hanselaer, “Design of an instrument for measuring the spectral bidirectional scatter distribution function,” Appl. Opt. bfseries 47(29), 5454–5467 (2008).
[Crossref]

Freyssinier, J. P.

N. Narendran, Y. Gu, J. P. Freyssinier, H. Yu, and L. Deng, “Solid-state lighting: Failure analysis of white LEDs,” J. Cryst. Growth 268(3), 449–456 (2004).
[Crossref]

Gangwal, S.

K. T. Shimizu, M. Böhmer, D. Estrada, S. Gangwal, S. Grabowski, H. Bechtel, E. Kang, K. J. Vampola, D. Chamberlin, O. B. Shchekin, and J. Bhardwaj, “Toward commercial realization of quantum dot based white light-emitting diodes for general illumination,” Photonics Res. 5(2), A1–A6 (2017).
[Crossref]

Grabowski, S.

K. T. Shimizu, M. Böhmer, D. Estrada, S. Gangwal, S. Grabowski, H. Bechtel, E. Kang, K. J. Vampola, D. Chamberlin, O. B. Shchekin, and J. Bhardwaj, “Toward commercial realization of quantum dot based white light-emitting diodes for general illumination,” Photonics Res. 5(2), A1–A6 (2017).
[Crossref]

Gu, Y.

N. Narendran, Y. Gu, J. P. Freyssinier, H. Yu, and L. Deng, “Solid-state lighting: Failure analysis of white LEDs,” J. Cryst. Growth 268(3), 449–456 (2004).
[Crossref]

Han, J. Y.

H. S. Jang, H. Yang, S. W. Kim, J. Y. Han, S. G. Lee, and D. Y. Jeon, “White light-emitting diodes with excellent color rendering based on organically capped CdSe quantum dots and Sr3SiO5:Ce 3+, Li+ phosphors,” Adv. Mater. 20(14), 2696–2702 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hanselaer, P.

A. Córreia, H. cornelissen, S. Leyre, P. Hanselaer, and Y. Meuret, “Determination of volume scattering parameters that reproduce the luminance characteristics of diffusers,” Opt. Express 24(11), 11727–11738 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Ryckaert, S. Leyre, P. Hanselaer, and Y. Meuret, “Simulation of white LEDs with a planar luminescent layer using the extended Adding-Doubling method,” Proc. SPIE 32, 96290K (2015).

J. Ryckaert, S. Leyre, P. Hanselaer, and Y. Meuret, “Determination of the optimal amount of scattering in a wavelength conversion plate for white LEDs,” Opt. Express 23(24), A1629–A1641 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Acuña, S. Leyre, J. Audenaert, Y. Meuret, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaer, “Power and photon budget of a remote phosphor LED module,” Opt. Express 22(104), A1079–A1092 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Leyre, J. Ryckaert, P. Acuña, J. Audenaert, Y. Meuret, G. Durinck, J. Hofkens, G. Durinck, and P. Hanselaer, “A hybrid tool for spectral ray tracing simulations of luminescent cascade systems,” Opt. Express 22(20), 24582–24593 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Leyre, E. Coutino-Gonzalez, J. J. Joos, J. Ryckaert, Y. Meuret, D. Poelman, P. F. Smet, G. Durinck, J. Hofkens, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaer, “Absolute determination of photoluminescence quantum efficiency using an integrating sphere setup,” Rev. Sci. Intrum. 85(12), 123115 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Leyre, F. B. Leloup, J. Audenaert, G. Durinck, J. Hofkens, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaer, “Determination of the bulk scattering parameters of diffusing materials,” Appl. Opt. 52(18), 4083–4090 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Acuña, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaer, “Thermal issues of a remote phosphor light engine,” Proceedings of the 12th Pan American conference on Lighting 12, 291–295 (2013).

S. Leyre, G. Durinck, B. Van Giel, W. Saeys, J. Hofkens, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaer, “Extended adding-doubling method for fluorescent applications,” Opt. Express 20(16), 17856–17872 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. B. Leloup, S. Forment, P. Dutré, M. R. Pointer, and P. Hanselaer, “Design of an instrument for measuring the spectral bidirectional scatter distribution function,” Appl. Opt. bfseries 47(29), 5454–5467 (2008).
[Crossref]

Hanselaert, P.

S. Leyre, G. Durinck, J. Hofkens, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaert, “Experimental determination of the absorption and scattering properties of YAG:Ce phosphor,” Lighth. Energy Environ., DTu4C.4 (2014).

Hens, Z.

S. Abé, J. J. Joos, L. I. D. J. Martin, and Z. Hens, “Hybrid remote quantum dot/powder phosphor designs for display backlights,” Light Sci. Appl. 6(6), e16271 (2017).
[Crossref]

D. Dupont, M. D. Tessier, P. F. Smet, and Z. Hens, “Indium Phosphide-Based Quantum Dots with Shell-Enhanced Absorption for Luminescent Down-Conversion,” Adv. Mater 29, 1700686 (2017).
[Crossref]

Ho, J.

J. S. Steckel, J. Ho, and S. Coe-Sullivan, “QDs Generate Light for Next-Generation Displays,” Photonics Spectra 48(9), 55–61 (2014).

Hoelen, C.

C. Hoelen, H. Borel, J. de Graaf, M. Keuper, M. Lankhorst, C. Mutter, L. Waumans, and R. Wegh, “Remote phosphor LED modules for general illumination: toward 200 lm/W general lighting LED light sources,” Proc. SPIE 7058, 70580M (2008).
[Crossref]

Hofkens, J.

S. Leyre, J. Ryckaert, P. Acuña, J. Audenaert, Y. Meuret, G. Durinck, J. Hofkens, G. Durinck, and P. Hanselaer, “A hybrid tool for spectral ray tracing simulations of luminescent cascade systems,” Opt. Express 22(20), 24582–24593 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Leyre, E. Coutino-Gonzalez, J. J. Joos, J. Ryckaert, Y. Meuret, D. Poelman, P. F. Smet, G. Durinck, J. Hofkens, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaer, “Absolute determination of photoluminescence quantum efficiency using an integrating sphere setup,” Rev. Sci. Intrum. 85(12), 123115 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Leyre, F. B. Leloup, J. Audenaert, G. Durinck, J. Hofkens, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaer, “Determination of the bulk scattering parameters of diffusing materials,” Appl. Opt. 52(18), 4083–4090 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Leyre, G. Durinck, B. Van Giel, W. Saeys, J. Hofkens, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaer, “Extended adding-doubling method for fluorescent applications,” Opt. Express 20(16), 17856–17872 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Leyre, G. Durinck, J. Hofkens, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaert, “Experimental determination of the absorption and scattering properties of YAG:Ce phosphor,” Lighth. Energy Environ., DTu4C.4 (2014).

Holloway, P. H.

D. Bera, L. Qian, T. K. Tseng, and P. H. Holloway, “Quantum dots and their multimodal applications: A review,” Mater. (Basel). 3(4), 2260–2345 (2010).
[Crossref]

Hu, R.

X. Bin, R. Hu, and X. Luo, “Quantum dots-converted light-emitting diodes packaging for lighting and display: status and perspectives,” J. Electron. Packag. 138(2), 020803 (2016).
[Crossref]

Huh, Y.-D.

Y.-S. Cho, Y.-D. Huh, C. R. Park, and Y. R. Do, “Preparation with laser ablation and photoluminescence of Y3Al5O12: Ce nanophosphors,” Electron. Mater. Lett. 10(2), 461–465 (2014).
[Crossref]

Intex, X.

J. Chen and X. Intex, “Comparison of Monte Carlo methods for fluorescence molecular tomography-computational efficiency,” Med. Phys. 38(10), 5788–5798 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jang, H. S.

H. S. Jang, H. Yang, S. W. Kim, J. Y. Han, S. G. Lee, and D. Y. Jeon, “White light-emitting diodes with excellent color rendering based on organically capped CdSe quantum dots and Sr3SiO5:Ce 3+, Li+ phosphors,” Adv. Mater. 20(14), 2696–2702 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jeon, D. Y.

H. S. Jang, H. Yang, S. W. Kim, J. Y. Han, S. G. Lee, and D. Y. Jeon, “White light-emitting diodes with excellent color rendering based on organically capped CdSe quantum dots and Sr3SiO5:Ce 3+, Li+ phosphors,” Adv. Mater. 20(14), 2696–2702 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jermann, F.

M. Zachau, D. Becker, D. Berben, T. Fiedler, F. Jermann, and F. Zwaschka, “Phosphors for solid state lighting,” Proc. SPIE 6910, 691010 (2008).
[Crossref]

Joos, J. J.

S. Abé, J. J. Joos, L. I. D. J. Martin, and Z. Hens, “Hybrid remote quantum dot/powder phosphor designs for display backlights,” Light Sci. Appl. 6(6), e16271 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Leyre, E. Coutino-Gonzalez, J. J. Joos, J. Ryckaert, Y. Meuret, D. Poelman, P. F. Smet, G. Durinck, J. Hofkens, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaer, “Absolute determination of photoluminescence quantum efficiency using an integrating sphere setup,” Rev. Sci. Intrum. 85(12), 123115 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kang, E.

K. T. Shimizu, M. Böhmer, D. Estrada, S. Gangwal, S. Grabowski, H. Bechtel, E. Kang, K. J. Vampola, D. Chamberlin, O. B. Shchekin, and J. Bhardwaj, “Toward commercial realization of quantum dot based white light-emitting diodes for general illumination,” Photonics Res. 5(2), A1–A6 (2017).
[Crossref]

Kers, C.

I. Knez and C. Kers, “Effects of Indoor Lighting, Gender, and Age on Mood and Cognitive Performance,” Environ. Behav. 32(6), 817–831 (2000).
[Crossref]

Keuper, M.

C. Hoelen, H. Borel, J. de Graaf, M. Keuper, M. Lankhorst, C. Mutter, L. Waumans, and R. Wegh, “Remote phosphor LED modules for general illumination: toward 200 lm/W general lighting LED light sources,” Proc. SPIE 7058, 70580M (2008).
[Crossref]

Kim, S. H.

W. Chung, H. J. Yu, S. H. Park, B. H. Chun, and S. H. Kim, “YAG and CdSe/ZnSe nanoparticles hybrid phosphor for white LED with high color rendering index,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 126(1), 162–166 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kim, S. W.

H. S. Jang, H. Yang, S. W. Kim, J. Y. Han, S. G. Lee, and D. Y. Jeon, “White light-emitting diodes with excellent color rendering based on organically capped CdSe quantum dots and Sr3SiO5:Ce 3+, Li+ phosphors,” Adv. Mater. 20(14), 2696–2702 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Knez, I.

I. Knez and C. Kers, “Effects of Indoor Lighting, Gender, and Age on Mood and Cognitive Performance,” Environ. Behav. 32(6), 817–831 (2000).
[Crossref]

I. Knez and I. Enmarker, “Effects of Office Lighting on Mood and Cognitive Performance And A Gender Effect in Work-Related Judgment,” Environ. Behav. 30(4), 553–567 (1998).
[Crossref]

Kozaki, T.

A. Michiue, T. Miyoshi, T. Yanamoto, T. Kozaki, S.-i. Nagahama, Y. Narukawa, M. Sano, T. Yamada, and T. Mukai, “Recent development of nitride LEDs and LDs,” Proc. SPIE 7216, 72161Z (2009).
[Crossref]

Lankhorst, M.

C. Hoelen, H. Borel, J. de Graaf, M. Keuper, M. Lankhorst, C. Mutter, L. Waumans, and R. Wegh, “Remote phosphor LED modules for general illumination: toward 200 lm/W general lighting LED light sources,” Proc. SPIE 7058, 70580M (2008).
[Crossref]

Lee, S. G.

H. S. Jang, H. Yang, S. W. Kim, J. Y. Han, S. G. Lee, and D. Y. Jeon, “White light-emitting diodes with excellent color rendering based on organically capped CdSe quantum dots and Sr3SiO5:Ce 3+, Li+ phosphors,” Adv. Mater. 20(14), 2696–2702 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Leloup, F. B.

S. Leyre, F. B. Leloup, J. Audenaert, G. Durinck, J. Hofkens, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaer, “Determination of the bulk scattering parameters of diffusing materials,” Appl. Opt. 52(18), 4083–4090 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. B. Leloup, S. Forment, P. Dutré, M. R. Pointer, and P. Hanselaer, “Design of an instrument for measuring the spectral bidirectional scatter distribution function,” Appl. Opt. bfseries 47(29), 5454–5467 (2008).
[Crossref]

Leyre, S.

A. Córreia, H. cornelissen, S. Leyre, P. Hanselaer, and Y. Meuret, “Determination of volume scattering parameters that reproduce the luminance characteristics of diffusers,” Opt. Express 24(11), 11727–11738 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Ryckaert, S. Leyre, P. Hanselaer, and Y. Meuret, “Simulation of white LEDs with a planar luminescent layer using the extended Adding-Doubling method,” Proc. SPIE 32, 96290K (2015).

J. Ryckaert, S. Leyre, P. Hanselaer, and Y. Meuret, “Determination of the optimal amount of scattering in a wavelength conversion plate for white LEDs,” Opt. Express 23(24), A1629–A1641 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Acuña, S. Leyre, J. Audenaert, Y. Meuret, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaer, “Power and photon budget of a remote phosphor LED module,” Opt. Express 22(104), A1079–A1092 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Leyre, J. Ryckaert, P. Acuña, J. Audenaert, Y. Meuret, G. Durinck, J. Hofkens, G. Durinck, and P. Hanselaer, “A hybrid tool for spectral ray tracing simulations of luminescent cascade systems,” Opt. Express 22(20), 24582–24593 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Leyre, E. Coutino-Gonzalez, J. J. Joos, J. Ryckaert, Y. Meuret, D. Poelman, P. F. Smet, G. Durinck, J. Hofkens, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaer, “Absolute determination of photoluminescence quantum efficiency using an integrating sphere setup,” Rev. Sci. Intrum. 85(12), 123115 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Leyre, F. B. Leloup, J. Audenaert, G. Durinck, J. Hofkens, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaer, “Determination of the bulk scattering parameters of diffusing materials,” Appl. Opt. 52(18), 4083–4090 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Leyre, G. Durinck, B. Van Giel, W. Saeys, J. Hofkens, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaer, “Extended adding-doubling method for fluorescent applications,” Opt. Express 20(16), 17856–17872 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Leyre, G. Durinck, J. Hofkens, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaert, “Experimental determination of the absorption and scattering properties of YAG:Ce phosphor,” Lighth. Energy Environ., DTu4C.4 (2014).

Liu, S.

Z. Liu, S. Liu, K. Wang, and X. Luo, “Status and prospects for phosphor-based white LED packaging,” Front. Optoelectron. China 2(2), 119–140 (2009).
[Crossref]

Liu, Z.

Z. Liu, S. Liu, K. Wang, and X. Luo, “Status and prospects for phosphor-based white LED packaging,” Front. Optoelectron. China 2(2), 119–140 (2009).
[Crossref]

Luo, X.

X. Bin, R. Hu, and X. Luo, “Quantum dots-converted light-emitting diodes packaging for lighting and display: status and perspectives,” J. Electron. Packag. 138(2), 020803 (2016).
[Crossref]

Z. Liu, S. Liu, K. Wang, and X. Luo, “Status and prospects for phosphor-based white LED packaging,” Front. Optoelectron. China 2(2), 119–140 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ma, Y. Y.

S. Ye., F. Xiao, Y. X. Pan, Y. Y. Ma, and Q. Y. Zhang, “Phosphors in phosphor-converted white light-emitting diodes: Recent advances in materials, techniques and properties,” Mater. Sci. Eng. R Reports 71(1), 1–34 (2010).
[Crossref]

Martin, L. I. D. J.

S. Abé, J. J. Joos, L. I. D. J. Martin, and Z. Hens, “Hybrid remote quantum dot/powder phosphor designs for display backlights,” Light Sci. Appl. 6(6), e16271 (2017).
[Crossref]

McCormick, N. J.

Meuret, Y.

Michiue, A.

A. Michiue, T. Miyoshi, T. Yanamoto, T. Kozaki, S.-i. Nagahama, Y. Narukawa, M. Sano, T. Yamada, and T. Mukai, “Recent development of nitride LEDs and LDs,” Proc. SPIE 7216, 72161Z (2009).
[Crossref]

Miyoshi, T.

A. Michiue, T. Miyoshi, T. Yanamoto, T. Kozaki, S.-i. Nagahama, Y. Narukawa, M. Sano, T. Yamada, and T. Mukai, “Recent development of nitride LEDs and LDs,” Proc. SPIE 7216, 72161Z (2009).
[Crossref]

Mukai, T.

A. Michiue, T. Miyoshi, T. Yanamoto, T. Kozaki, S.-i. Nagahama, Y. Narukawa, M. Sano, T. Yamada, and T. Mukai, “Recent development of nitride LEDs and LDs,” Proc. SPIE 7216, 72161Z (2009).
[Crossref]

Y. Narukawa, M. Sano, T. Sakamoto, T. Yamada, and T. Mukai, “Successful fabrication of white light emitting diodes by using extremely high external quantum efficiency blue chips,” Phys. Status Solidi Appl. Mater. Sci. 205(5), 1081–1085 (2008).
[Crossref]

Mutter, C.

C. Hoelen, H. Borel, J. de Graaf, M. Keuper, M. Lankhorst, C. Mutter, L. Waumans, and R. Wegh, “Remote phosphor LED modules for general illumination: toward 200 lm/W general lighting LED light sources,” Proc. SPIE 7058, 70580M (2008).
[Crossref]

Nagahama, S.-i.

A. Michiue, T. Miyoshi, T. Yanamoto, T. Kozaki, S.-i. Nagahama, Y. Narukawa, M. Sano, T. Yamada, and T. Mukai, “Recent development of nitride LEDs and LDs,” Proc. SPIE 7216, 72161Z (2009).
[Crossref]

Narendran, N.

N. Narendran, Y. Gu, J. P. Freyssinier, H. Yu, and L. Deng, “Solid-state lighting: Failure analysis of white LEDs,” J. Cryst. Growth 268(3), 449–456 (2004).
[Crossref]

Narukawa, Y.

A. Michiue, T. Miyoshi, T. Yanamoto, T. Kozaki, S.-i. Nagahama, Y. Narukawa, M. Sano, T. Yamada, and T. Mukai, “Recent development of nitride LEDs and LDs,” Proc. SPIE 7216, 72161Z (2009).
[Crossref]

Y. Narukawa, M. Sano, T. Sakamoto, T. Yamada, and T. Mukai, “Successful fabrication of white light emitting diodes by using extremely high external quantum efficiency blue chips,” Phys. Status Solidi Appl. Mater. Sci. 205(5), 1081–1085 (2008).
[Crossref]

Pan, Y. X.

S. Ye., F. Xiao, Y. X. Pan, Y. Y. Ma, and Q. Y. Zhang, “Phosphors in phosphor-converted white light-emitting diodes: Recent advances in materials, techniques and properties,” Mater. Sci. Eng. R Reports 71(1), 1–34 (2010).
[Crossref]

Park, C. R.

Y.-S. Cho, Y.-D. Huh, C. R. Park, and Y. R. Do, “Preparation with laser ablation and photoluminescence of Y3Al5O12: Ce nanophosphors,” Electron. Mater. Lett. 10(2), 461–465 (2014).
[Crossref]

Park, S. H.

W. Chung, H. J. Yu, S. H. Park, B. H. Chun, and S. H. Kim, “YAG and CdSe/ZnSe nanoparticles hybrid phosphor for white LED with high color rendering index,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 126(1), 162–166 (2011).
[Crossref]

Parmentier, A. B.

P. F. Smet, A. B. Parmentier, and D. Poelman, “Selecting Conversion Phosphors for White Light-Emitting Diodes,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 158(6), R37–R54 (2011).
[Crossref]

Poelman, D.

S. Leyre, E. Coutino-Gonzalez, J. J. Joos, J. Ryckaert, Y. Meuret, D. Poelman, P. F. Smet, G. Durinck, J. Hofkens, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaer, “Absolute determination of photoluminescence quantum efficiency using an integrating sphere setup,” Rev. Sci. Intrum. 85(12), 123115 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. F. Smet, A. B. Parmentier, and D. Poelman, “Selecting Conversion Phosphors for White Light-Emitting Diodes,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 158(6), R37–R54 (2011).
[Crossref]

Pointer, M. R.

F. B. Leloup, S. Forment, P. Dutré, M. R. Pointer, and P. Hanselaer, “Design of an instrument for measuring the spectral bidirectional scatter distribution function,” Appl. Opt. bfseries 47(29), 5454–5467 (2008).
[Crossref]

Prahl, S. A.

Pron, A.

P. Reiss, J. Bleuse, and A. Pron, “Highly Luminescent CdSe/ZnSe Core/Shell Nanocrystals of Low Size Dispersion,” Nano Lett. bfseries 2(7), 781–784 (2002).
[Crossref]

Qian, L.

D. Bera, L. Qian, T. K. Tseng, and P. H. Holloway, “Quantum dots and their multimodal applications: A review,” Mater. (Basel). 3(4), 2260–2345 (2010).
[Crossref]

Reiss, P.

P. Reiss, J. Bleuse, and A. Pron, “Highly Luminescent CdSe/ZnSe Core/Shell Nanocrystals of Low Size Dispersion,” Nano Lett. bfseries 2(7), 781–784 (2002).
[Crossref]

Reynolds, L. O.

Ryckaert, J.

J. Ryckaert, S. Leyre, P. Hanselaer, and Y. Meuret, “Simulation of white LEDs with a planar luminescent layer using the extended Adding-Doubling method,” Proc. SPIE 32, 96290K (2015).

J. Ryckaert, S. Leyre, P. Hanselaer, and Y. Meuret, “Determination of the optimal amount of scattering in a wavelength conversion plate for white LEDs,” Opt. Express 23(24), A1629–A1641 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Leyre, J. Ryckaert, P. Acuña, J. Audenaert, Y. Meuret, G. Durinck, J. Hofkens, G. Durinck, and P. Hanselaer, “A hybrid tool for spectral ray tracing simulations of luminescent cascade systems,” Opt. Express 22(20), 24582–24593 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Leyre, E. Coutino-Gonzalez, J. J. Joos, J. Ryckaert, Y. Meuret, D. Poelman, P. F. Smet, G. Durinck, J. Hofkens, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaer, “Absolute determination of photoluminescence quantum efficiency using an integrating sphere setup,” Rev. Sci. Intrum. 85(12), 123115 (2013).
[Crossref]

Saeys, W.

Sakamoto, T.

Y. Narukawa, M. Sano, T. Sakamoto, T. Yamada, and T. Mukai, “Successful fabrication of white light emitting diodes by using extremely high external quantum efficiency blue chips,” Phys. Status Solidi Appl. Mater. Sci. 205(5), 1081–1085 (2008).
[Crossref]

Sano, M.

A. Michiue, T. Miyoshi, T. Yanamoto, T. Kozaki, S.-i. Nagahama, Y. Narukawa, M. Sano, T. Yamada, and T. Mukai, “Recent development of nitride LEDs and LDs,” Proc. SPIE 7216, 72161Z (2009).
[Crossref]

Y. Narukawa, M. Sano, T. Sakamoto, T. Yamada, and T. Mukai, “Successful fabrication of white light emitting diodes by using extremely high external quantum efficiency blue chips,” Phys. Status Solidi Appl. Mater. Sci. 205(5), 1081–1085 (2008).
[Crossref]

Shchekin, O. B.

K. T. Shimizu, M. Böhmer, D. Estrada, S. Gangwal, S. Grabowski, H. Bechtel, E. Kang, K. J. Vampola, D. Chamberlin, O. B. Shchekin, and J. Bhardwaj, “Toward commercial realization of quantum dot based white light-emitting diodes for general illumination,” Photonics Res. 5(2), A1–A6 (2017).
[Crossref]

Shi, F. G.

Y. Shuai, N. T. Tran, J. P. You, and F. G. Shi, “Phosphor size dependence of lumen efficiency and spatial CCT uniformity for typical white LED emitters,” Proc. Electron. Components Technol. Conf. 62, 2025–2028 (2012).

N. T. Tran, F. G. Shi, and J. P. You, “Effect of Phosphor Particle Size on Luminous Efficacy of Phosphor-Converted White LED,” J. Light. Technol. 27(22), 5145–5150 (2009).
[Crossref]

Shimizu, K. T.

K. T. Shimizu, M. Böhmer, D. Estrada, S. Gangwal, S. Grabowski, H. Bechtel, E. Kang, K. J. Vampola, D. Chamberlin, O. B. Shchekin, and J. Bhardwaj, “Toward commercial realization of quantum dot based white light-emitting diodes for general illumination,” Photonics Res. 5(2), A1–A6 (2017).
[Crossref]

Shiung, H. H.

P. H. Yuen, H. H. Shiung, and M. Devarajan, “Influence of phosphor packaging configurations on the optical performance of Chip on Board phosphor converted Warm White LEDs,” in Proceedings of the 5th Asia Sympposium on Quality Electronic Design (IEEE, 2013), pp. 329–333.

Shuai, Y.

Y. Shuai, N. T. Tran, J. P. You, and F. G. Shi, “Phosphor size dependence of lumen efficiency and spatial CCT uniformity for typical white LED emitters,” Proc. Electron. Components Technol. Conf. 62, 2025–2028 (2012).

Smet, P. F.

D. Dupont, M. D. Tessier, P. F. Smet, and Z. Hens, “Indium Phosphide-Based Quantum Dots with Shell-Enhanced Absorption for Luminescent Down-Conversion,” Adv. Mater 29, 1700686 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Leyre, E. Coutino-Gonzalez, J. J. Joos, J. Ryckaert, Y. Meuret, D. Poelman, P. F. Smet, G. Durinck, J. Hofkens, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaer, “Absolute determination of photoluminescence quantum efficiency using an integrating sphere setup,” Rev. Sci. Intrum. 85(12), 123115 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. F. Smet, A. B. Parmentier, and D. Poelman, “Selecting Conversion Phosphors for White Light-Emitting Diodes,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 158(6), R37–R54 (2011).
[Crossref]

Steckel, J. S.

J. S. Steckel, J. Ho, and S. Coe-Sullivan, “QDs Generate Light for Next-Generation Displays,” Photonics Spectra 48(9), 55–61 (2014).

Tessier, M. D.

D. Dupont, M. D. Tessier, P. F. Smet, and Z. Hens, “Indium Phosphide-Based Quantum Dots with Shell-Enhanced Absorption for Luminescent Down-Conversion,” Adv. Mater 29, 1700686 (2017).
[Crossref]

Tran, N. T.

Y. Shuai, N. T. Tran, J. P. You, and F. G. Shi, “Phosphor size dependence of lumen efficiency and spatial CCT uniformity for typical white LED emitters,” Proc. Electron. Components Technol. Conf. 62, 2025–2028 (2012).

N. T. Tran, F. G. Shi, and J. P. You, “Effect of Phosphor Particle Size on Luminous Efficacy of Phosphor-Converted White LED,” J. Light. Technol. 27(22), 5145–5150 (2009).
[Crossref]

Tseng, T. K.

D. Bera, L. Qian, T. K. Tseng, and P. H. Holloway, “Quantum dots and their multimodal applications: A review,” Mater. (Basel). 3(4), 2260–2345 (2010).
[Crossref]

Vampola, K. J.

K. T. Shimizu, M. Böhmer, D. Estrada, S. Gangwal, S. Grabowski, H. Bechtel, E. Kang, K. J. Vampola, D. Chamberlin, O. B. Shchekin, and J. Bhardwaj, “Toward commercial realization of quantum dot based white light-emitting diodes for general illumination,” Photonics Res. 5(2), A1–A6 (2017).
[Crossref]

van Gemert, M. J.

Van Giel, B.

Wang, K.

Z. Liu, S. Liu, K. Wang, and X. Luo, “Status and prospects for phosphor-based white LED packaging,” Front. Optoelectron. China 2(2), 119–140 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wang, K.-W.

S.-R. Chung, K.-W. Wang, and M.-W. Wang, “Hybrid YAG/CdSe Quantum Dots Phosphors for White Light-Emitting Diodes,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 13(6), 4358–4363 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, M.-W.

S.-R. Chung, K.-W. Wang, and M.-W. Wang, “Hybrid YAG/CdSe Quantum Dots Phosphors for White Light-Emitting Diodes,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 13(6), 4358–4363 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Waumans, L.

C. Hoelen, H. Borel, J. de Graaf, M. Keuper, M. Lankhorst, C. Mutter, L. Waumans, and R. Wegh, “Remote phosphor LED modules for general illumination: toward 200 lm/W general lighting LED light sources,” Proc. SPIE 7058, 70580M (2008).
[Crossref]

Wegh, R.

C. Hoelen, H. Borel, J. de Graaf, M. Keuper, M. Lankhorst, C. Mutter, L. Waumans, and R. Wegh, “Remote phosphor LED modules for general illumination: toward 200 lm/W general lighting LED light sources,” Proc. SPIE 7058, 70580M (2008).
[Crossref]

Welch, A. J.

Xiao, F.

S. Ye., F. Xiao, Y. X. Pan, Y. Y. Ma, and Q. Y. Zhang, “Phosphors in phosphor-converted white light-emitting diodes: Recent advances in materials, techniques and properties,” Mater. Sci. Eng. R Reports 71(1), 1–34 (2010).
[Crossref]

Yamada, T.

A. Michiue, T. Miyoshi, T. Yanamoto, T. Kozaki, S.-i. Nagahama, Y. Narukawa, M. Sano, T. Yamada, and T. Mukai, “Recent development of nitride LEDs and LDs,” Proc. SPIE 7216, 72161Z (2009).
[Crossref]

Y. Narukawa, M. Sano, T. Sakamoto, T. Yamada, and T. Mukai, “Successful fabrication of white light emitting diodes by using extremely high external quantum efficiency blue chips,” Phys. Status Solidi Appl. Mater. Sci. 205(5), 1081–1085 (2008).
[Crossref]

Yanamoto, T.

A. Michiue, T. Miyoshi, T. Yanamoto, T. Kozaki, S.-i. Nagahama, Y. Narukawa, M. Sano, T. Yamada, and T. Mukai, “Recent development of nitride LEDs and LDs,” Proc. SPIE 7216, 72161Z (2009).
[Crossref]

Yang, H.

H. S. Jang, H. Yang, S. W. Kim, J. Y. Han, S. G. Lee, and D. Y. Jeon, “White light-emitting diodes with excellent color rendering based on organically capped CdSe quantum dots and Sr3SiO5:Ce 3+, Li+ phosphors,” Adv. Mater. 20(14), 2696–2702 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ye., S.

S. Ye., F. Xiao, Y. X. Pan, Y. Y. Ma, and Q. Y. Zhang, “Phosphors in phosphor-converted white light-emitting diodes: Recent advances in materials, techniques and properties,” Mater. Sci. Eng. R Reports 71(1), 1–34 (2010).
[Crossref]

You, J. P.

Y. Shuai, N. T. Tran, J. P. You, and F. G. Shi, “Phosphor size dependence of lumen efficiency and spatial CCT uniformity for typical white LED emitters,” Proc. Electron. Components Technol. Conf. 62, 2025–2028 (2012).

N. T. Tran, F. G. Shi, and J. P. You, “Effect of Phosphor Particle Size on Luminous Efficacy of Phosphor-Converted White LED,” J. Light. Technol. 27(22), 5145–5150 (2009).
[Crossref]

Yu, H.

N. Narendran, Y. Gu, J. P. Freyssinier, H. Yu, and L. Deng, “Solid-state lighting: Failure analysis of white LEDs,” J. Cryst. Growth 268(3), 449–456 (2004).
[Crossref]

Yu, H. J.

W. Chung, H. J. Yu, S. H. Park, B. H. Chun, and S. H. Kim, “YAG and CdSe/ZnSe nanoparticles hybrid phosphor for white LED with high color rendering index,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 126(1), 162–166 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yuen, P. H.

P. H. Yuen, H. H. Shiung, and M. Devarajan, “Influence of phosphor packaging configurations on the optical performance of Chip on Board phosphor converted Warm White LEDs,” in Proceedings of the 5th Asia Sympposium on Quality Electronic Design (IEEE, 2013), pp. 329–333.

Zachau, M.

M. Zachau, D. Becker, D. Berben, T. Fiedler, F. Jermann, and F. Zwaschka, “Phosphors for solid state lighting,” Proc. SPIE 6910, 691010 (2008).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Q. Y.

S. Ye., F. Xiao, Y. X. Pan, Y. Y. Ma, and Q. Y. Zhang, “Phosphors in phosphor-converted white light-emitting diodes: Recent advances in materials, techniques and properties,” Mater. Sci. Eng. R Reports 71(1), 1–34 (2010).
[Crossref]

Zwaschka, F.

M. Zachau, D. Becker, D. Berben, T. Fiedler, F. Jermann, and F. Zwaschka, “Phosphors for solid state lighting,” Proc. SPIE 6910, 691010 (2008).
[Crossref]

Adv. Mater (1)

D. Dupont, M. D. Tessier, P. F. Smet, and Z. Hens, “Indium Phosphide-Based Quantum Dots with Shell-Enhanced Absorption for Luminescent Down-Conversion,” Adv. Mater 29, 1700686 (2017).
[Crossref]

Adv. Mater. (1)

H. S. Jang, H. Yang, S. W. Kim, J. Y. Han, S. G. Lee, and D. Y. Jeon, “White light-emitting diodes with excellent color rendering based on organically capped CdSe quantum dots and Sr3SiO5:Ce 3+, Li+ phosphors,” Adv. Mater. 20(14), 2696–2702 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Opt. bfseries (1)

F. B. Leloup, S. Forment, P. Dutré, M. R. Pointer, and P. Hanselaer, “Design of an instrument for measuring the spectral bidirectional scatter distribution function,” Appl. Opt. bfseries 47(29), 5454–5467 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chem. Soc. Rev. (1)

C. de Mello Donegá, “Synthesis and properties of colloidal heteronanocrystals,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 40(3), 1512–1546 (2011).
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Y.-S. Cho, Y.-D. Huh, C. R. Park, and Y. R. Do, “Preparation with laser ablation and photoluminescence of Y3Al5O12: Ce nanophosphors,” Electron. Mater. Lett. 10(2), 461–465 (2014).
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[Crossref]

Front. Optoelectron. China (1)

Z. Liu, S. Liu, K. Wang, and X. Luo, “Status and prospects for phosphor-based white LED packaging,” Front. Optoelectron. China 2(2), 119–140 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Cryst. Growth (1)

N. Narendran, Y. Gu, J. P. Freyssinier, H. Yu, and L. Deng, “Solid-state lighting: Failure analysis of white LEDs,” J. Cryst. Growth 268(3), 449–456 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. Electrochem. Soc. (1)

P. F. Smet, A. B. Parmentier, and D. Poelman, “Selecting Conversion Phosphors for White Light-Emitting Diodes,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 158(6), R37–R54 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Electron. Packag. (1)

X. Bin, R. Hu, and X. Luo, “Quantum dots-converted light-emitting diodes packaging for lighting and display: status and perspectives,” J. Electron. Packag. 138(2), 020803 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Light. Technol. (1)

N. T. Tran, F. G. Shi, and J. P. You, “Effect of Phosphor Particle Size on Luminous Efficacy of Phosphor-Converted White LED,” J. Light. Technol. 27(22), 5145–5150 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. (1)

S.-R. Chung, K.-W. Wang, and M.-W. Wang, “Hybrid YAG/CdSe Quantum Dots Phosphors for White Light-Emitting Diodes,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 13(6), 4358–4363 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Light Sci. Appl. (1)

S. Abé, J. J. Joos, L. I. D. J. Martin, and Z. Hens, “Hybrid remote quantum dot/powder phosphor designs for display backlights,” Light Sci. Appl. 6(6), e16271 (2017).
[Crossref]

Mater. (Basel). (1)

D. Bera, L. Qian, T. K. Tseng, and P. H. Holloway, “Quantum dots and their multimodal applications: A review,” Mater. (Basel). 3(4), 2260–2345 (2010).
[Crossref]

Mater. Chem. Phys. (1)

W. Chung, H. J. Yu, S. H. Park, B. H. Chun, and S. H. Kim, “YAG and CdSe/ZnSe nanoparticles hybrid phosphor for white LED with high color rendering index,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 126(1), 162–166 (2011).
[Crossref]

Mater. Sci. Eng. R Reports (1)

S. Ye., F. Xiao, Y. X. Pan, Y. Y. Ma, and Q. Y. Zhang, “Phosphors in phosphor-converted white light-emitting diodes: Recent advances in materials, techniques and properties,” Mater. Sci. Eng. R Reports 71(1), 1–34 (2010).
[Crossref]

Med. Phys. (1)

J. Chen and X. Intex, “Comparison of Monte Carlo methods for fluorescence molecular tomography-computational efficiency,” Med. Phys. 38(10), 5788–5798 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nano Lett. bfseries (1)

P. Reiss, J. Bleuse, and A. Pron, “Highly Luminescent CdSe/ZnSe Core/Shell Nanocrystals of Low Size Dispersion,” Nano Lett. bfseries 2(7), 781–784 (2002).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (5)

Photonics Res. (1)

K. T. Shimizu, M. Böhmer, D. Estrada, S. Gangwal, S. Grabowski, H. Bechtel, E. Kang, K. J. Vampola, D. Chamberlin, O. B. Shchekin, and J. Bhardwaj, “Toward commercial realization of quantum dot based white light-emitting diodes for general illumination,” Photonics Res. 5(2), A1–A6 (2017).
[Crossref]

Photonics Spectra (1)

J. S. Steckel, J. Ho, and S. Coe-Sullivan, “QDs Generate Light for Next-Generation Displays,” Photonics Spectra 48(9), 55–61 (2014).

Phys. Status Solidi Appl. Mater. Sci. (1)

Y. Narukawa, M. Sano, T. Sakamoto, T. Yamada, and T. Mukai, “Successful fabrication of white light emitting diodes by using extremely high external quantum efficiency blue chips,” Phys. Status Solidi Appl. Mater. Sci. 205(5), 1081–1085 (2008).
[Crossref]

Proc. Electron. Components Technol. Conf. (1)

Y. Shuai, N. T. Tran, J. P. You, and F. G. Shi, “Phosphor size dependence of lumen efficiency and spatial CCT uniformity for typical white LED emitters,” Proc. Electron. Components Technol. Conf. 62, 2025–2028 (2012).

Proc. SPIE (4)

M. Zachau, D. Becker, D. Berben, T. Fiedler, F. Jermann, and F. Zwaschka, “Phosphors for solid state lighting,” Proc. SPIE 6910, 691010 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Ryckaert, S. Leyre, P. Hanselaer, and Y. Meuret, “Simulation of white LEDs with a planar luminescent layer using the extended Adding-Doubling method,” Proc. SPIE 32, 96290K (2015).

A. Michiue, T. Miyoshi, T. Yanamoto, T. Kozaki, S.-i. Nagahama, Y. Narukawa, M. Sano, T. Yamada, and T. Mukai, “Recent development of nitride LEDs and LDs,” Proc. SPIE 7216, 72161Z (2009).
[Crossref]

C. Hoelen, H. Borel, J. de Graaf, M. Keuper, M. Lankhorst, C. Mutter, L. Waumans, and R. Wegh, “Remote phosphor LED modules for general illumination: toward 200 lm/W general lighting LED light sources,” Proc. SPIE 7058, 70580M (2008).
[Crossref]

Proceedings of the 12th Pan American conference on Lighting (1)

P. Acuña, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaer, “Thermal issues of a remote phosphor light engine,” Proceedings of the 12th Pan American conference on Lighting 12, 291–295 (2013).

Rev. Sci. Intrum. (1)

S. Leyre, E. Coutino-Gonzalez, J. J. Joos, J. Ryckaert, Y. Meuret, D. Poelman, P. F. Smet, G. Durinck, J. Hofkens, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaer, “Absolute determination of photoluminescence quantum efficiency using an integrating sphere setup,” Rev. Sci. Intrum. 85(12), 123115 (2013).
[Crossref]

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T. J. Deerinck, “The application of fluorescent quantum dots to confocal, multiphoton, and electron microscopic imaging,” Toxicol. Pathol. 36(1), 112–116 (2008).
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MATLAB 2016b, “The Matworks, inc.,” Natick, Massachusetts, United States.

LightTools 8.4.0, “Synopsys Optical Solutions,” Mountain view, Colifornia, United States.

CIE, “Chromaticity difference Specification for Light Sources,” CIE TN 001, 5 (2014).

S. Leyre, G. Durinck, J. Hofkens, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaert, “Experimental determination of the absorption and scattering properties of YAG:Ce phosphor,” Lighth. Energy Environ., DTu4C.4 (2014).

Xicato® Technology, “Next Generation Corrected Cold Phosphor Technology®,” (Xicato®, 2017), http://www.xicato.com/technology/next-generation-corrected-cold-phosphor-technology%C2%AE .

OSRAM Opto Semiconductors Product Catalog, “OSLON® SSL 120 Colors GD CSSPM1.14,” (OSRAM Opto Semiconductors, 2017), http://www.osram-os.com/osram_os/en/products/product-catalog/leds-for-general-lighting/oslon-ssl-colors/oslon-ssl-120-colors/gd-csspm1.14/index.jsp .

P. H. Yuen, H. H. Shiung, and M. Devarajan, “Influence of phosphor packaging configurations on the optical performance of Chip on Board phosphor converted Warm White LEDs,” in Proceedings of the 5th Asia Sympposium on Quality Electronic Design (IEEE, 2013), pp. 329–333.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic representation of the simulated LED package with a cylindrical reflector cup, blue LED and a WCE containing phosphor and quantum dots.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 YAG:Ce phosphor simulation input parameters.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Influence of QD synthesis parameters: core size (dC), shell size (dS), cadmium fraction (xCd), on the resulting absorption coefficient (μa) and emission spectrum (λem).
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Comparison between QD model and experimental data.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 The spectral power distribution (left) and intensity distribution (right) calculated with the extended AD simulation tool (implemented in MATLAB) and Monte Carlo simulations performed with LightTools show good confirmation.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Flow chart of the optimization methodology.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 CRI Ra (left) and the luminous efficacy (right) of the considered LED configuration with different quantum dot synthesis parameters, resulting in white light with a nominal CCT = 3500 K, with CRI = 80 and CRI = 90 contour lines.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Peak emission wavelengths of the QDs with corresponding quantum dot synthesis parameters. CRI = 80 and CRI = 90 contour lines are shown in red.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Input Variables for Comparing the MC and AD Simulations.

Equations (1)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ν I ( ν ) z = ( μ a + μ s ) I ( ν ) + μ s 1 + 1 P ( ν , ν ) I ( ν ) d ν + w ( Δ λ j M ) i = 1 N { μ a ( Δ λ i X ) Q E ( Δ λ i X ) λ j M λ i X [ 1 + 1 1 2 I ( ν , Δ λ i X ) d ν ] Δ λ i X }

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