Abstract

A transparent electrode is an essential component that has a strong influence on the extraction of light from organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) due to its effect on both electrical and optical performance. In this work, we present theoretical studies, full wave simulations, and experimental results to evaluate the influence of the thickness of epsilon negative tri-metal layer (TML) electrodes on the performance of red phosphorescent OLEDs (PHOLEDs) via an optical microcavity effect. The results show that the external quantum efficiency of the optimized TML-based red PHOLED of 17.6% is significantly improved, and it is approximately 40% higher than that of the conventional indium tin oxide (ITO)-based red PHOLED of 12.5%.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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References

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2017 (1)

H. W. Lee, B.-H. Choi, S. E. Lee, J.-H. Lee, and Y. K. Kim, “Optical transmission characteristics of epsilon negative tri-metal layer electrode for OLED,” J. Lumin. 188, 112–117 (2017).

2015 (1)

H. W. Lee, J. W. Lee, S. E. Lee, X. Zhang, Y. S. Choi, J. Park, and Y. K. Kim, “Trilayer metal electrode as an anode in red phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 67(3), 568–573 (2015).

2013 (3)

J. R. Koo, S. J. Lee, H. W. Lee, D. H. Lee, H. J. Yang, W. Y. Kim, and Y. K. Kim, “Flexible bottom-emitting white organic light-emitting diodes with semitransparent Ni/Ag/Ni anode,” Opt. Express 21(9), 11086–11094 (2013).
[PubMed]

P. Lei, C. Hsu, and Y. Fan, “Flexible organic light-emitting diodes on a polyethersulfone (PES) substrate using Al-doped ZnO anode grown by dual-plasma-enhanced metalorganic deposition system,” Org. Electron. 14(1), 236–249 (2013).

C. Murawski, K. Leo, and M. C. Gather, “Efficiency roll-off in organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 25(47), 6801–6827 (2013).
[PubMed]

2012 (2)

H. Park, P. R. Brown, V. Bulović, and J. Kong, “Graphene as transparent conducting electrodes in organic photovoltaics: Studies in graphene morphology, hole transporting layers, and counter electrodes,” Nano Lett. 12(1), 133–140 (2012).
[PubMed]

K. Goushi, K. Yoshida, K. Sato, and C. Adachi, “Organic light-emitting diodes employing efficient reverse intersystem crossing for triplet-to-singlet state conversion,” Nat. Photonics 6, 253–258 (2012).

2011 (4)

M. A. McCarthy, B. Liu, E. P. Donoghue, I. Kravchenko, D. Y. Kim, F. So, and A. G. Rinzler, “Low-voltage, low-power, organic light-emitting transistors for active matrix displays,” Science 332(6029), 570–573 (2011).
[PubMed]

J. H. Seo, B. M. Seo, J. R. Koo, K. H. Lee, J. N. You, S. S. Yoon, and Y. K. Kim, “Blue organic light-emitting diodes with efficient host-dopant energy level alignment,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 11(3), S356–S358 (2011).

Z. B. Wang, M. G. Helander, J. Qiu, D. P. Puzzo, M. T. Greiner, Z. M. Hudson, S. Wang, Z. W. Liu, and Z. H. Lu, “Unlocking the full potential of organic light-emitting diodes on flexible plastic,” Nat. Photonics 5, 753–757 (2011).

S. Choi, S. J. Kim, C. Fuentes-Hernandez, and B. Kippelen, “ITO-free large-area organic light-emitting diodes with an integrated metal grid,” Opt. Express 19(Suppl 4), A793–A803 (2011).
[PubMed]

2010 (2)

Y. F. Lan, W. C. Peng, Y. H. Lo, and J. L. He, “Durability under mechanical bending of the indium tin oxide films deposited on polymer substrate by thermionically enhanced sputtering,” Org. Electron. 11(4), 670–676 (2010).

H. Cho, C. Yun, and S. Yoo, “Multilayer transparent electrode for organic light-emitting diodes: tuning its optical characteristics,” Opt. Express 18(4), 3404–3414 (2010).
[PubMed]

2009 (2)

M. Thomschke, R. Nitsche, M. Furno, and K. Leo, “Optimized efficiency and angular emission characteristics of white top-emitting organic electroluminescent diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(8), 083303 (2009).

H. Cho, C. Yun, J. Park, and S. Yoo, “Highly flexible organic light-emitting diodes based on ZnS/Ag/WO3 multilayer transparent electrodes,” Org. Electron. 10(6), 1163–1169 (2009).

2002 (1)

I. Bardi, R. Remski, D. Perry, and Z. Cendes, “Plane wave scattering from frequency-selective surfaces by the finite-element method,” IEEE Trans. Magn. 382, 641–644 (2002).

2001 (1)

H. Hirayama, K. Kaneda, H. Yamashita, Y. Yamaji, and Y. Monden, “Visualization of optical phenomena caused by multilayer films based on wave optics,” Vis. Comput. 17(2), 106–120 (2001).

1998 (1)

1994 (1)

D. G. Deppe, C. Lei, C. C. Lin, and D. L. Huffaker, “Spontaneous emission from planar microstructures,” J. Mod. Opt. 41(2), 325–344 (1994).

1991 (1)

D. Kröner, “Absorbing boundary conditions for the linearized Euler equations in 2-D,” Math. Comput. 57(195), 153–167 (1991).

1968 (1)

V. G. Veselago, “The electrodynamics of substances with simultaneously negative value of ε and μ,” Sov. Phys. Uspekihi 10(4), 509–514 (1968).

Adachi, C.

K. Goushi, K. Yoshida, K. Sato, and C. Adachi, “Organic light-emitting diodes employing efficient reverse intersystem crossing for triplet-to-singlet state conversion,” Nat. Photonics 6, 253–258 (2012).

Bardi, I.

I. Bardi, R. Remski, D. Perry, and Z. Cendes, “Plane wave scattering from frequency-selective surfaces by the finite-element method,” IEEE Trans. Magn. 382, 641–644 (2002).

Brown, P. R.

H. Park, P. R. Brown, V. Bulović, and J. Kong, “Graphene as transparent conducting electrodes in organic photovoltaics: Studies in graphene morphology, hole transporting layers, and counter electrodes,” Nano Lett. 12(1), 133–140 (2012).
[PubMed]

Bulovic, V.

H. Park, P. R. Brown, V. Bulović, and J. Kong, “Graphene as transparent conducting electrodes in organic photovoltaics: Studies in graphene morphology, hole transporting layers, and counter electrodes,” Nano Lett. 12(1), 133–140 (2012).
[PubMed]

Cendes, Z.

I. Bardi, R. Remski, D. Perry, and Z. Cendes, “Plane wave scattering from frequency-selective surfaces by the finite-element method,” IEEE Trans. Magn. 382, 641–644 (2002).

Cho, H.

H. Cho, C. Yun, and S. Yoo, “Multilayer transparent electrode for organic light-emitting diodes: tuning its optical characteristics,” Opt. Express 18(4), 3404–3414 (2010).
[PubMed]

H. Cho, C. Yun, J. Park, and S. Yoo, “Highly flexible organic light-emitting diodes based on ZnS/Ag/WO3 multilayer transparent electrodes,” Org. Electron. 10(6), 1163–1169 (2009).

Choi, B.-H.

H. W. Lee, B.-H. Choi, S. E. Lee, J.-H. Lee, and Y. K. Kim, “Optical transmission characteristics of epsilon negative tri-metal layer electrode for OLED,” J. Lumin. 188, 112–117 (2017).

Choi, S.

Choi, Y. S.

H. W. Lee, J. W. Lee, S. E. Lee, X. Zhang, Y. S. Choi, J. Park, and Y. K. Kim, “Trilayer metal electrode as an anode in red phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 67(3), 568–573 (2015).

Deppe, D. G.

D. G. Deppe, C. Lei, C. C. Lin, and D. L. Huffaker, “Spontaneous emission from planar microstructures,” J. Mod. Opt. 41(2), 325–344 (1994).

Djurišic, A. B.

Donoghue, E. P.

M. A. McCarthy, B. Liu, E. P. Donoghue, I. Kravchenko, D. Y. Kim, F. So, and A. G. Rinzler, “Low-voltage, low-power, organic light-emitting transistors for active matrix displays,” Science 332(6029), 570–573 (2011).
[PubMed]

Elazar, J. M.

Fan, Y.

P. Lei, C. Hsu, and Y. Fan, “Flexible organic light-emitting diodes on a polyethersulfone (PES) substrate using Al-doped ZnO anode grown by dual-plasma-enhanced metalorganic deposition system,” Org. Electron. 14(1), 236–249 (2013).

Fuentes-Hernandez, C.

Furno, M.

M. Thomschke, R. Nitsche, M. Furno, and K. Leo, “Optimized efficiency and angular emission characteristics of white top-emitting organic electroluminescent diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(8), 083303 (2009).

Gather, M. C.

C. Murawski, K. Leo, and M. C. Gather, “Efficiency roll-off in organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 25(47), 6801–6827 (2013).
[PubMed]

Goushi, K.

K. Goushi, K. Yoshida, K. Sato, and C. Adachi, “Organic light-emitting diodes employing efficient reverse intersystem crossing for triplet-to-singlet state conversion,” Nat. Photonics 6, 253–258 (2012).

Greiner, M. T.

Z. B. Wang, M. G. Helander, J. Qiu, D. P. Puzzo, M. T. Greiner, Z. M. Hudson, S. Wang, Z. W. Liu, and Z. H. Lu, “Unlocking the full potential of organic light-emitting diodes on flexible plastic,” Nat. Photonics 5, 753–757 (2011).

He, J. L.

Y. F. Lan, W. C. Peng, Y. H. Lo, and J. L. He, “Durability under mechanical bending of the indium tin oxide films deposited on polymer substrate by thermionically enhanced sputtering,” Org. Electron. 11(4), 670–676 (2010).

Helander, M. G.

Z. B. Wang, M. G. Helander, J. Qiu, D. P. Puzzo, M. T. Greiner, Z. M. Hudson, S. Wang, Z. W. Liu, and Z. H. Lu, “Unlocking the full potential of organic light-emitting diodes on flexible plastic,” Nat. Photonics 5, 753–757 (2011).

Hirayama, H.

H. Hirayama, K. Kaneda, H. Yamashita, Y. Yamaji, and Y. Monden, “Visualization of optical phenomena caused by multilayer films based on wave optics,” Vis. Comput. 17(2), 106–120 (2001).

Hsu, C.

P. Lei, C. Hsu, and Y. Fan, “Flexible organic light-emitting diodes on a polyethersulfone (PES) substrate using Al-doped ZnO anode grown by dual-plasma-enhanced metalorganic deposition system,” Org. Electron. 14(1), 236–249 (2013).

Hudson, Z. M.

Z. B. Wang, M. G. Helander, J. Qiu, D. P. Puzzo, M. T. Greiner, Z. M. Hudson, S. Wang, Z. W. Liu, and Z. H. Lu, “Unlocking the full potential of organic light-emitting diodes on flexible plastic,” Nat. Photonics 5, 753–757 (2011).

Huffaker, D. L.

D. G. Deppe, C. Lei, C. C. Lin, and D. L. Huffaker, “Spontaneous emission from planar microstructures,” J. Mod. Opt. 41(2), 325–344 (1994).

Kaneda, K.

H. Hirayama, K. Kaneda, H. Yamashita, Y. Yamaji, and Y. Monden, “Visualization of optical phenomena caused by multilayer films based on wave optics,” Vis. Comput. 17(2), 106–120 (2001).

Kim, D. Y.

M. A. McCarthy, B. Liu, E. P. Donoghue, I. Kravchenko, D. Y. Kim, F. So, and A. G. Rinzler, “Low-voltage, low-power, organic light-emitting transistors for active matrix displays,” Science 332(6029), 570–573 (2011).
[PubMed]

Kim, S. J.

Kim, W. Y.

Kim, Y. K.

H. W. Lee, B.-H. Choi, S. E. Lee, J.-H. Lee, and Y. K. Kim, “Optical transmission characteristics of epsilon negative tri-metal layer electrode for OLED,” J. Lumin. 188, 112–117 (2017).

H. W. Lee, J. W. Lee, S. E. Lee, X. Zhang, Y. S. Choi, J. Park, and Y. K. Kim, “Trilayer metal electrode as an anode in red phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 67(3), 568–573 (2015).

J. R. Koo, S. J. Lee, H. W. Lee, D. H. Lee, H. J. Yang, W. Y. Kim, and Y. K. Kim, “Flexible bottom-emitting white organic light-emitting diodes with semitransparent Ni/Ag/Ni anode,” Opt. Express 21(9), 11086–11094 (2013).
[PubMed]

J. H. Seo, B. M. Seo, J. R. Koo, K. H. Lee, J. N. You, S. S. Yoon, and Y. K. Kim, “Blue organic light-emitting diodes with efficient host-dopant energy level alignment,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 11(3), S356–S358 (2011).

Kippelen, B.

Kong, J.

H. Park, P. R. Brown, V. Bulović, and J. Kong, “Graphene as transparent conducting electrodes in organic photovoltaics: Studies in graphene morphology, hole transporting layers, and counter electrodes,” Nano Lett. 12(1), 133–140 (2012).
[PubMed]

Koo, J. R.

J. R. Koo, S. J. Lee, H. W. Lee, D. H. Lee, H. J. Yang, W. Y. Kim, and Y. K. Kim, “Flexible bottom-emitting white organic light-emitting diodes with semitransparent Ni/Ag/Ni anode,” Opt. Express 21(9), 11086–11094 (2013).
[PubMed]

J. H. Seo, B. M. Seo, J. R. Koo, K. H. Lee, J. N. You, S. S. Yoon, and Y. K. Kim, “Blue organic light-emitting diodes with efficient host-dopant energy level alignment,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 11(3), S356–S358 (2011).

Kravchenko, I.

M. A. McCarthy, B. Liu, E. P. Donoghue, I. Kravchenko, D. Y. Kim, F. So, and A. G. Rinzler, “Low-voltage, low-power, organic light-emitting transistors for active matrix displays,” Science 332(6029), 570–573 (2011).
[PubMed]

Kröner, D.

D. Kröner, “Absorbing boundary conditions for the linearized Euler equations in 2-D,” Math. Comput. 57(195), 153–167 (1991).

Lan, Y. F.

Y. F. Lan, W. C. Peng, Y. H. Lo, and J. L. He, “Durability under mechanical bending of the indium tin oxide films deposited on polymer substrate by thermionically enhanced sputtering,” Org. Electron. 11(4), 670–676 (2010).

Lee, D. H.

Lee, H. W.

H. W. Lee, B.-H. Choi, S. E. Lee, J.-H. Lee, and Y. K. Kim, “Optical transmission characteristics of epsilon negative tri-metal layer electrode for OLED,” J. Lumin. 188, 112–117 (2017).

H. W. Lee, J. W. Lee, S. E. Lee, X. Zhang, Y. S. Choi, J. Park, and Y. K. Kim, “Trilayer metal electrode as an anode in red phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 67(3), 568–573 (2015).

J. R. Koo, S. J. Lee, H. W. Lee, D. H. Lee, H. J. Yang, W. Y. Kim, and Y. K. Kim, “Flexible bottom-emitting white organic light-emitting diodes with semitransparent Ni/Ag/Ni anode,” Opt. Express 21(9), 11086–11094 (2013).
[PubMed]

Lee, J. W.

H. W. Lee, J. W. Lee, S. E. Lee, X. Zhang, Y. S. Choi, J. Park, and Y. K. Kim, “Trilayer metal electrode as an anode in red phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 67(3), 568–573 (2015).

Lee, J.-H.

H. W. Lee, B.-H. Choi, S. E. Lee, J.-H. Lee, and Y. K. Kim, “Optical transmission characteristics of epsilon negative tri-metal layer electrode for OLED,” J. Lumin. 188, 112–117 (2017).

Lee, K. H.

J. H. Seo, B. M. Seo, J. R. Koo, K. H. Lee, J. N. You, S. S. Yoon, and Y. K. Kim, “Blue organic light-emitting diodes with efficient host-dopant energy level alignment,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 11(3), S356–S358 (2011).

Lee, S. E.

H. W. Lee, B.-H. Choi, S. E. Lee, J.-H. Lee, and Y. K. Kim, “Optical transmission characteristics of epsilon negative tri-metal layer electrode for OLED,” J. Lumin. 188, 112–117 (2017).

H. W. Lee, J. W. Lee, S. E. Lee, X. Zhang, Y. S. Choi, J. Park, and Y. K. Kim, “Trilayer metal electrode as an anode in red phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 67(3), 568–573 (2015).

Lee, S. J.

Lei, C.

D. G. Deppe, C. Lei, C. C. Lin, and D. L. Huffaker, “Spontaneous emission from planar microstructures,” J. Mod. Opt. 41(2), 325–344 (1994).

Lei, P.

P. Lei, C. Hsu, and Y. Fan, “Flexible organic light-emitting diodes on a polyethersulfone (PES) substrate using Al-doped ZnO anode grown by dual-plasma-enhanced metalorganic deposition system,” Org. Electron. 14(1), 236–249 (2013).

Leo, K.

C. Murawski, K. Leo, and M. C. Gather, “Efficiency roll-off in organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 25(47), 6801–6827 (2013).
[PubMed]

M. Thomschke, R. Nitsche, M. Furno, and K. Leo, “Optimized efficiency and angular emission characteristics of white top-emitting organic electroluminescent diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(8), 083303 (2009).

Lin, C. C.

D. G. Deppe, C. Lei, C. C. Lin, and D. L. Huffaker, “Spontaneous emission from planar microstructures,” J. Mod. Opt. 41(2), 325–344 (1994).

Liu, B.

M. A. McCarthy, B. Liu, E. P. Donoghue, I. Kravchenko, D. Y. Kim, F. So, and A. G. Rinzler, “Low-voltage, low-power, organic light-emitting transistors for active matrix displays,” Science 332(6029), 570–573 (2011).
[PubMed]

Liu, Z. W.

Z. B. Wang, M. G. Helander, J. Qiu, D. P. Puzzo, M. T. Greiner, Z. M. Hudson, S. Wang, Z. W. Liu, and Z. H. Lu, “Unlocking the full potential of organic light-emitting diodes on flexible plastic,” Nat. Photonics 5, 753–757 (2011).

Lo, Y. H.

Y. F. Lan, W. C. Peng, Y. H. Lo, and J. L. He, “Durability under mechanical bending of the indium tin oxide films deposited on polymer substrate by thermionically enhanced sputtering,” Org. Electron. 11(4), 670–676 (2010).

Lu, Z. H.

Z. B. Wang, M. G. Helander, J. Qiu, D. P. Puzzo, M. T. Greiner, Z. M. Hudson, S. Wang, Z. W. Liu, and Z. H. Lu, “Unlocking the full potential of organic light-emitting diodes on flexible plastic,” Nat. Photonics 5, 753–757 (2011).

Majewski, M. L.

McCarthy, M. A.

M. A. McCarthy, B. Liu, E. P. Donoghue, I. Kravchenko, D. Y. Kim, F. So, and A. G. Rinzler, “Low-voltage, low-power, organic light-emitting transistors for active matrix displays,” Science 332(6029), 570–573 (2011).
[PubMed]

Monden, Y.

H. Hirayama, K. Kaneda, H. Yamashita, Y. Yamaji, and Y. Monden, “Visualization of optical phenomena caused by multilayer films based on wave optics,” Vis. Comput. 17(2), 106–120 (2001).

Murawski, C.

C. Murawski, K. Leo, and M. C. Gather, “Efficiency roll-off in organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 25(47), 6801–6827 (2013).
[PubMed]

Nitsche, R.

M. Thomschke, R. Nitsche, M. Furno, and K. Leo, “Optimized efficiency and angular emission characteristics of white top-emitting organic electroluminescent diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(8), 083303 (2009).

Park, H.

H. Park, P. R. Brown, V. Bulović, and J. Kong, “Graphene as transparent conducting electrodes in organic photovoltaics: Studies in graphene morphology, hole transporting layers, and counter electrodes,” Nano Lett. 12(1), 133–140 (2012).
[PubMed]

Park, J.

H. W. Lee, J. W. Lee, S. E. Lee, X. Zhang, Y. S. Choi, J. Park, and Y. K. Kim, “Trilayer metal electrode as an anode in red phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 67(3), 568–573 (2015).

H. Cho, C. Yun, J. Park, and S. Yoo, “Highly flexible organic light-emitting diodes based on ZnS/Ag/WO3 multilayer transparent electrodes,” Org. Electron. 10(6), 1163–1169 (2009).

Peng, W. C.

Y. F. Lan, W. C. Peng, Y. H. Lo, and J. L. He, “Durability under mechanical bending of the indium tin oxide films deposited on polymer substrate by thermionically enhanced sputtering,” Org. Electron. 11(4), 670–676 (2010).

Perry, D.

I. Bardi, R. Remski, D. Perry, and Z. Cendes, “Plane wave scattering from frequency-selective surfaces by the finite-element method,” IEEE Trans. Magn. 382, 641–644 (2002).

Puzzo, D. P.

Z. B. Wang, M. G. Helander, J. Qiu, D. P. Puzzo, M. T. Greiner, Z. M. Hudson, S. Wang, Z. W. Liu, and Z. H. Lu, “Unlocking the full potential of organic light-emitting diodes on flexible plastic,” Nat. Photonics 5, 753–757 (2011).

Qiu, J.

Z. B. Wang, M. G. Helander, J. Qiu, D. P. Puzzo, M. T. Greiner, Z. M. Hudson, S. Wang, Z. W. Liu, and Z. H. Lu, “Unlocking the full potential of organic light-emitting diodes on flexible plastic,” Nat. Photonics 5, 753–757 (2011).

Rakic, A. D.

Remski, R.

I. Bardi, R. Remski, D. Perry, and Z. Cendes, “Plane wave scattering from frequency-selective surfaces by the finite-element method,” IEEE Trans. Magn. 382, 641–644 (2002).

Rinzler, A. G.

M. A. McCarthy, B. Liu, E. P. Donoghue, I. Kravchenko, D. Y. Kim, F. So, and A. G. Rinzler, “Low-voltage, low-power, organic light-emitting transistors for active matrix displays,” Science 332(6029), 570–573 (2011).
[PubMed]

Sato, K.

K. Goushi, K. Yoshida, K. Sato, and C. Adachi, “Organic light-emitting diodes employing efficient reverse intersystem crossing for triplet-to-singlet state conversion,” Nat. Photonics 6, 253–258 (2012).

Seo, B. M.

J. H. Seo, B. M. Seo, J. R. Koo, K. H. Lee, J. N. You, S. S. Yoon, and Y. K. Kim, “Blue organic light-emitting diodes with efficient host-dopant energy level alignment,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 11(3), S356–S358 (2011).

Seo, J. H.

J. H. Seo, B. M. Seo, J. R. Koo, K. H. Lee, J. N. You, S. S. Yoon, and Y. K. Kim, “Blue organic light-emitting diodes with efficient host-dopant energy level alignment,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 11(3), S356–S358 (2011).

So, F.

M. A. McCarthy, B. Liu, E. P. Donoghue, I. Kravchenko, D. Y. Kim, F. So, and A. G. Rinzler, “Low-voltage, low-power, organic light-emitting transistors for active matrix displays,” Science 332(6029), 570–573 (2011).
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M. Thomschke, R. Nitsche, M. Furno, and K. Leo, “Optimized efficiency and angular emission characteristics of white top-emitting organic electroluminescent diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(8), 083303 (2009).

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V. G. Veselago, “The electrodynamics of substances with simultaneously negative value of ε and μ,” Sov. Phys. Uspekihi 10(4), 509–514 (1968).

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Z. B. Wang, M. G. Helander, J. Qiu, D. P. Puzzo, M. T. Greiner, Z. M. Hudson, S. Wang, Z. W. Liu, and Z. H. Lu, “Unlocking the full potential of organic light-emitting diodes on flexible plastic,” Nat. Photonics 5, 753–757 (2011).

Wang, Z. B.

Z. B. Wang, M. G. Helander, J. Qiu, D. P. Puzzo, M. T. Greiner, Z. M. Hudson, S. Wang, Z. W. Liu, and Z. H. Lu, “Unlocking the full potential of organic light-emitting diodes on flexible plastic,” Nat. Photonics 5, 753–757 (2011).

Yamaji, Y.

H. Hirayama, K. Kaneda, H. Yamashita, Y. Yamaji, and Y. Monden, “Visualization of optical phenomena caused by multilayer films based on wave optics,” Vis. Comput. 17(2), 106–120 (2001).

Yamashita, H.

H. Hirayama, K. Kaneda, H. Yamashita, Y. Yamaji, and Y. Monden, “Visualization of optical phenomena caused by multilayer films based on wave optics,” Vis. Comput. 17(2), 106–120 (2001).

Yang, H. J.

Yoo, S.

H. Cho, C. Yun, and S. Yoo, “Multilayer transparent electrode for organic light-emitting diodes: tuning its optical characteristics,” Opt. Express 18(4), 3404–3414 (2010).
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H. Cho, C. Yun, J. Park, and S. Yoo, “Highly flexible organic light-emitting diodes based on ZnS/Ag/WO3 multilayer transparent electrodes,” Org. Electron. 10(6), 1163–1169 (2009).

Yoon, S. S.

J. H. Seo, B. M. Seo, J. R. Koo, K. H. Lee, J. N. You, S. S. Yoon, and Y. K. Kim, “Blue organic light-emitting diodes with efficient host-dopant energy level alignment,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 11(3), S356–S358 (2011).

Yoshida, K.

K. Goushi, K. Yoshida, K. Sato, and C. Adachi, “Organic light-emitting diodes employing efficient reverse intersystem crossing for triplet-to-singlet state conversion,” Nat. Photonics 6, 253–258 (2012).

You, J. N.

J. H. Seo, B. M. Seo, J. R. Koo, K. H. Lee, J. N. You, S. S. Yoon, and Y. K. Kim, “Blue organic light-emitting diodes with efficient host-dopant energy level alignment,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 11(3), S356–S358 (2011).

Yun, C.

H. Cho, C. Yun, and S. Yoo, “Multilayer transparent electrode for organic light-emitting diodes: tuning its optical characteristics,” Opt. Express 18(4), 3404–3414 (2010).
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H. Cho, C. Yun, J. Park, and S. Yoo, “Highly flexible organic light-emitting diodes based on ZnS/Ag/WO3 multilayer transparent electrodes,” Org. Electron. 10(6), 1163–1169 (2009).

Zhang, X.

H. W. Lee, J. W. Lee, S. E. Lee, X. Zhang, Y. S. Choi, J. Park, and Y. K. Kim, “Trilayer metal electrode as an anode in red phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 67(3), 568–573 (2015).

Adv. Mater. (1)

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M. Thomschke, R. Nitsche, M. Furno, and K. Leo, “Optimized efficiency and angular emission characteristics of white top-emitting organic electroluminescent diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(8), 083303 (2009).

Curr. Appl. Phys. (1)

J. H. Seo, B. M. Seo, J. R. Koo, K. H. Lee, J. N. You, S. S. Yoon, and Y. K. Kim, “Blue organic light-emitting diodes with efficient host-dopant energy level alignment,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 11(3), S356–S358 (2011).

IEEE Trans. Magn. (1)

I. Bardi, R. Remski, D. Perry, and Z. Cendes, “Plane wave scattering from frequency-selective surfaces by the finite-element method,” IEEE Trans. Magn. 382, 641–644 (2002).

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H. W. Lee, J. W. Lee, S. E. Lee, X. Zhang, Y. S. Choi, J. Park, and Y. K. Kim, “Trilayer metal electrode as an anode in red phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 67(3), 568–573 (2015).

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H. W. Lee, B.-H. Choi, S. E. Lee, J.-H. Lee, and Y. K. Kim, “Optical transmission characteristics of epsilon negative tri-metal layer electrode for OLED,” J. Lumin. 188, 112–117 (2017).

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Nat. Photonics (2)

Z. B. Wang, M. G. Helander, J. Qiu, D. P. Puzzo, M. T. Greiner, Z. M. Hudson, S. Wang, Z. W. Liu, and Z. H. Lu, “Unlocking the full potential of organic light-emitting diodes on flexible plastic,” Nat. Photonics 5, 753–757 (2011).

K. Goushi, K. Yoshida, K. Sato, and C. Adachi, “Organic light-emitting diodes employing efficient reverse intersystem crossing for triplet-to-singlet state conversion,” Nat. Photonics 6, 253–258 (2012).

Opt. Express (3)

Org. Electron. (3)

H. Cho, C. Yun, J. Park, and S. Yoo, “Highly flexible organic light-emitting diodes based on ZnS/Ag/WO3 multilayer transparent electrodes,” Org. Electron. 10(6), 1163–1169 (2009).

Y. F. Lan, W. C. Peng, Y. H. Lo, and J. L. He, “Durability under mechanical bending of the indium tin oxide films deposited on polymer substrate by thermionically enhanced sputtering,” Org. Electron. 11(4), 670–676 (2010).

P. Lei, C. Hsu, and Y. Fan, “Flexible organic light-emitting diodes on a polyethersulfone (PES) substrate using Al-doped ZnO anode grown by dual-plasma-enhanced metalorganic deposition system,” Org. Electron. 14(1), 236–249 (2013).

Science (1)

M. A. McCarthy, B. Liu, E. P. Donoghue, I. Kravchenko, D. Y. Kim, F. So, and A. G. Rinzler, “Low-voltage, low-power, organic light-emitting transistors for active matrix displays,” Science 332(6029), 570–573 (2011).
[PubMed]

Sov. Phys. Uspekihi (1)

V. G. Veselago, “The electrodynamics of substances with simultaneously negative value of ε and μ,” Sov. Phys. Uspekihi 10(4), 509–514 (1968).

Vis. Comput. (1)

H. Hirayama, K. Kaneda, H. Yamashita, Y. Yamaji, and Y. Monden, “Visualization of optical phenomena caused by multilayer films based on wave optics,” Vis. Comput. 17(2), 106–120 (2001).

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Ansys HFSS 12, HFSS online help, Technical notes.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic of a multilayer metal film
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Schematic device structure of the red PHOLED and (b) Microcavity structure
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Simulated results of two-beam interference factor (fTI(λ)), Fabry–Perot interference factor (fFP (λ)), and cavity enhancement factor (Gcav(λ)) for various thicknesses of Ag
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Schematic structures (unit cells) of (a) tri-metal thin layer films, and (b) modeled tri-metal thin layer films that use the symmetry approach (M-S and FPs boundary conditions for TM and TE waves)
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Schematic structures (unit cells) of (a) TML-based red PHOLED, (b) compact TML-based red PHOLED with only one organic layer, and (c) modeled compact TML-based red PHOLED that use the symmetry approach (M-S and PML boundary conditions with a dipole placed at the center of the organic layer)
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Comparison of transmittance results of TML electrodes from calculation, simulation, and experimental measurements in the visible range
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 The intensity of light with various devices: (a) calculation data, (b) experimental data
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Comparison of measured electrical and optical properties of various devices: (a) LE and EQE improvement factors from the ITO-based red PHOLED to the TML-based red PHOLEDs, (b) EQE, and (c) LE as a function of luminance

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Optical Properties of the Red PHOLEDs

Equations (12)

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r TEj = n j1 cos θ j1 n j cos θ j n j1 cos θ j1 + n j cos θ j
r TMj = n j cos θ j1 n j1 cos θ j n j cos θ j1 + n j1 cos θ j
t TEj = 2 n j1 cos θ j1 n j1 cos θ j1 + n j cos θ j
t TMj = 2 n j1 cos θ j1 n j cos θ j1 + n j1 cos θ j
γ Nj+1 = r j + γ Nj e 2i φ j 1+ r j γ Nj e 2i φ j
τ Nj+1 = t j τ Nj e i φ j 1+ r j γ Nj e 2i φ j
φ j =(ω/c) n j d j cos θ j1
I c (λ)= I 0 (λ)× G cav (λ)
G cav (λ)= f FB (λ)× f TI (λ)
f FB (λ)= T Anode ( 1 R Cathode R Anode ) 2 +4 R Cathode R Anode sin 2 ( Δϕ 2 )
Δϕ= ϕ Cathode ϕ Anode + 4π n org z 0 cos( ϕ org,EML ) λ
f TI (λ)=1+ R Cathode +2 R Cathode cos( ϕ Cathode + 4π n org z 0 cos( ϕ org,EML ) λ )

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