Abstract

We report a color tunable display consisting of two passive-matrix micro-LED array chips. The device has combined vertically stacked blue and green passive-matrix LED array chips sandwiched by a transparent bonding material. We demonstrate that vertically stacked blue and green micro-pixels are independently controllable with operation of four color modes. Moreover, the color of each pixel is tunable in the entire wavelength from the blue to green region (450 nm - 540 nm) by applying pulse-width-modulation bias voltage. This study is meaningful in that a dual color micro-LED array with a vertically stacked subpixel structure is realized.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
OSA Recommended Articles
48 × 48 pixelated addressable full-color micro display based on flip-chip micro LEDs

Yang Li, Jin Tao, Yongzhou Zhao, Jiaxian Wang, Jinguang Lv, Yuxin Qin, Jingqiu Liang, and Weibiao Wang
Appl. Opt. 58(31) 8383-8389 (2019)

On-chip GaN-based dual-color micro-LED arrays and their application in visible light communication

J. F. C. Carreira, E. Xie, R. Bian, C. Chen, J. J. D. McKendry, B. Guilhabert, H. Haas, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson
Opt. Express 27(20) A1517-A1528 (2019)

Color-tunable organic light-emitting diodes with vertically stacked blue, green, and red colors for lighting and display applications

Hyunkoo Lee, Hyunsu Cho, Chun-Won Byun, Jun-Han Han, Byoung-Hwa Kwon, Sukyung Choi, Jonghee Lee, and Nam Sung Cho
Opt. Express 26(14) 18351-18361 (2018)

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. J. R. Bonar, G. J. Valentine, Z. Gong, J. Small, and S. Gorton, “High-brightness low-power consumption microLED arrays,” Proc. SPIE 9768, 97680Y1 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  2. J. Day, J. Li, D. Y. C. Lie, C. Bradford, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “III-Nitride full-scale high-resolution microdisplays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(3), 031116 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  3. G. Chen, M. Craven, A. Kim, A. Munkholm, S. Watanabe, M. Camras, W. Götz, and F. Steranka, “Performance of high-power III-nitride light emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 205(5), 1086–1092 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  4. S. Pimputkar, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Prospects for LED lighting,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 180–182 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  5. P. Tian, J. J. D. McKendry, Z. Gong, S. Zhang, S. Watson, D. Zhu, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, A. E. Kelly, C. J. Humphreys, and M. D. Dawson, “Characteristics and applications of micro-pixelated GaN-based light emitting diodes on Si substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 115(3), 033112 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  6. W. C. Chong, W. K. Cho, Z. J. Liu, C. H. Wang, and K. M. Lau, “1700 Pixels Per Inch (PPI) Passive-Matrix Micro-LED Display Powered by ASIC,” in 2014 IEEE Compound Semiconductor Integrated Circuit Symposium (CSICS, 2014), pp. 1–4.
    [Crossref]
  7. X. Bao, J. Liang, Z. Liang, W. Wang, C. Tian, Y. Qin, and J. Lü, “Design and fabrication of AlGaInP-based micro-light-emitting-diode array devices,” Opt. Laser Technol. 78, 34–41 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  8. M. Akhter, J. S. Lee, P. P. Maaskant, M. Rensing, N. Nudds, P. O. Brien, P. Degenaar, and B. Corbett, “A LED Micro-Display with 90×90 pixels on a 80 μm pitch,” in 2015 European Microelectronics Packaging Conference (EMPC, 2015), pp. 1–5.
  9. Z. Liu, W. C. Chong, K. M. Wong, and K. M. Lau, “GaN-based LED micro-displays for wearable applications,” Microelectron. Eng. 148, 98–103 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  10. S.-B. Shin, K.-I. Iijima, H. Okada, S. Iwayama, and A. Wakahara, “Design and Fabrication of Large Scale Micro-LED Arrays and Silicon Driver for OEIC Devices,” IEICE Trans. Electron. E95, 898–903 (2012).
  11. S. Zhang, S. Watson, J. J. D. McKendry, D. Massoubre, A. Cogman, E. Gu, R. K. Henderson, A. E. Kelly, and M. D. Dawson, “1.5 Gbit/s Multi-Channel Visible Light Communications Using CMOS-Controlled GaN-Based LEDs,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(8), 1211–1216 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  12. M. Funato, K. Hayashi, M. Ueda, Y. Kawakami, Y. Narukawa, and T. Mukai, “Emission color tunable light-emitting diodes composed of InGaN multifacet quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(2), 021126 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  13. Y. J. Hong, C. H. Lee, A. Yoon, M. Kim, H.-K. Seong, H. J. Chung, C. Sone, Y. J. Park, and G.-C. Yi, “Visible-color-tunable light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 23(29), 3284–3288 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. Y. Tchoe, J. Jo, M. Kim, J. Heo, G. Yoo, C. Sone, and G.-C. Yi, “Variable-Color Light-Emitting Diodes Using GaN Microdonut Arrays,” Adv. Mater. 26(19), 3019–3023 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. Y. F. Cheung and H. W. Choi, “Color-Tunable and Phosphor-Free White-Light Multilayered Light-Emitting Diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 60(1), 333–338 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  16. K. N. Hui, X. H. Wang, Z. L. Li, P. T. Lai, and H. W. Choi, “Design of vertically-stacked polychromatic light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 17(12), 9873–9878 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. W. Hou, C. Stark, S. You, L. Zhao, T. Detchprohm, and C. Wetzel, “Evaluation of metal/indium-tin-oxide for transparent low-resistance contacts to p-type GaN,” Appl. Opt. 51(23), 5596–5600 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. S.-I. Park, Y. Xiong, R.-H. Kim, P. Elvikis, M. Meitl, D.-H. Kim, J. Wu, J. Yoon, C.-J. Yu, Z. Liu, Y. Huang, K. C. Hwang, P. Ferreira, X. Li, K. Choquette, and J. A. Rogers, “Printed assemblies of inorganic light-emitting diodes for deformable and semitransparent displays,” Science 325(5943), 977–981 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (2)

J. R. Bonar, G. J. Valentine, Z. Gong, J. Small, and S. Gorton, “High-brightness low-power consumption microLED arrays,” Proc. SPIE 9768, 97680Y1 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. Bao, J. Liang, Z. Liang, W. Wang, C. Tian, Y. Qin, and J. Lü, “Design and fabrication of AlGaInP-based micro-light-emitting-diode array devices,” Opt. Laser Technol. 78, 34–41 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (1)

Z. Liu, W. C. Chong, K. M. Wong, and K. M. Lau, “GaN-based LED micro-displays for wearable applications,” Microelectron. Eng. 148, 98–103 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

P. Tian, J. J. D. McKendry, Z. Gong, S. Zhang, S. Watson, D. Zhu, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, A. E. Kelly, C. J. Humphreys, and M. D. Dawson, “Characteristics and applications of micro-pixelated GaN-based light emitting diodes on Si substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 115(3), 033112 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Tchoe, J. Jo, M. Kim, J. Heo, G. Yoo, C. Sone, and G.-C. Yi, “Variable-Color Light-Emitting Diodes Using GaN Microdonut Arrays,” Adv. Mater. 26(19), 3019–3023 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (2)

2012 (2)

S.-B. Shin, K.-I. Iijima, H. Okada, S. Iwayama, and A. Wakahara, “Design and Fabrication of Large Scale Micro-LED Arrays and Silicon Driver for OEIC Devices,” IEICE Trans. Electron. E95, 898–903 (2012).

W. Hou, C. Stark, S. You, L. Zhao, T. Detchprohm, and C. Wetzel, “Evaluation of metal/indium-tin-oxide for transparent low-resistance contacts to p-type GaN,” Appl. Opt. 51(23), 5596–5600 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

Y. J. Hong, C. H. Lee, A. Yoon, M. Kim, H.-K. Seong, H. J. Chung, C. Sone, Y. J. Park, and G.-C. Yi, “Visible-color-tunable light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 23(29), 3284–3288 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Day, J. Li, D. Y. C. Lie, C. Bradford, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “III-Nitride full-scale high-resolution microdisplays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(3), 031116 (2011).
[Crossref]

2009 (3)

S. Pimputkar, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Prospects for LED lighting,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 180–182 (2009).
[Crossref]

S.-I. Park, Y. Xiong, R.-H. Kim, P. Elvikis, M. Meitl, D.-H. Kim, J. Wu, J. Yoon, C.-J. Yu, Z. Liu, Y. Huang, K. C. Hwang, P. Ferreira, X. Li, K. Choquette, and J. A. Rogers, “Printed assemblies of inorganic light-emitting diodes for deformable and semitransparent displays,” Science 325(5943), 977–981 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. N. Hui, X. H. Wang, Z. L. Li, P. T. Lai, and H. W. Choi, “Design of vertically-stacked polychromatic light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 17(12), 9873–9878 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

G. Chen, M. Craven, A. Kim, A. Munkholm, S. Watanabe, M. Camras, W. Götz, and F. Steranka, “Performance of high-power III-nitride light emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 205(5), 1086–1092 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. Funato, K. Hayashi, M. Ueda, Y. Kawakami, Y. Narukawa, and T. Mukai, “Emission color tunable light-emitting diodes composed of InGaN multifacet quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(2), 021126 (2008).
[Crossref]

Akhter, M.

M. Akhter, J. S. Lee, P. P. Maaskant, M. Rensing, N. Nudds, P. O. Brien, P. Degenaar, and B. Corbett, “A LED Micro-Display with 90×90 pixels on a 80 μm pitch,” in 2015 European Microelectronics Packaging Conference (EMPC, 2015), pp. 1–5.

Bao, X.

X. Bao, J. Liang, Z. Liang, W. Wang, C. Tian, Y. Qin, and J. Lü, “Design and fabrication of AlGaInP-based micro-light-emitting-diode array devices,” Opt. Laser Technol. 78, 34–41 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bonar, J. R.

J. R. Bonar, G. J. Valentine, Z. Gong, J. Small, and S. Gorton, “High-brightness low-power consumption microLED arrays,” Proc. SPIE 9768, 97680Y1 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bradford, C.

J. Day, J. Li, D. Y. C. Lie, C. Bradford, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “III-Nitride full-scale high-resolution microdisplays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(3), 031116 (2011).
[Crossref]

Brien, P. O.

M. Akhter, J. S. Lee, P. P. Maaskant, M. Rensing, N. Nudds, P. O. Brien, P. Degenaar, and B. Corbett, “A LED Micro-Display with 90×90 pixels on a 80 μm pitch,” in 2015 European Microelectronics Packaging Conference (EMPC, 2015), pp. 1–5.

Camras, M.

G. Chen, M. Craven, A. Kim, A. Munkholm, S. Watanabe, M. Camras, W. Götz, and F. Steranka, “Performance of high-power III-nitride light emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 205(5), 1086–1092 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chen, G.

G. Chen, M. Craven, A. Kim, A. Munkholm, S. Watanabe, M. Camras, W. Götz, and F. Steranka, “Performance of high-power III-nitride light emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 205(5), 1086–1092 (2008).
[Crossref]

Cheung, Y. F.

Y. F. Cheung and H. W. Choi, “Color-Tunable and Phosphor-Free White-Light Multilayered Light-Emitting Diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 60(1), 333–338 (2013).
[Crossref]

Cho, W. K.

W. C. Chong, W. K. Cho, Z. J. Liu, C. H. Wang, and K. M. Lau, “1700 Pixels Per Inch (PPI) Passive-Matrix Micro-LED Display Powered by ASIC,” in 2014 IEEE Compound Semiconductor Integrated Circuit Symposium (CSICS, 2014), pp. 1–4.
[Crossref]

Choi, H. W.

Y. F. Cheung and H. W. Choi, “Color-Tunable and Phosphor-Free White-Light Multilayered Light-Emitting Diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 60(1), 333–338 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. N. Hui, X. H. Wang, Z. L. Li, P. T. Lai, and H. W. Choi, “Design of vertically-stacked polychromatic light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 17(12), 9873–9878 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chong, W. C.

Z. Liu, W. C. Chong, K. M. Wong, and K. M. Lau, “GaN-based LED micro-displays for wearable applications,” Microelectron. Eng. 148, 98–103 (2015).
[Crossref]

W. C. Chong, W. K. Cho, Z. J. Liu, C. H. Wang, and K. M. Lau, “1700 Pixels Per Inch (PPI) Passive-Matrix Micro-LED Display Powered by ASIC,” in 2014 IEEE Compound Semiconductor Integrated Circuit Symposium (CSICS, 2014), pp. 1–4.
[Crossref]

Choquette, K.

S.-I. Park, Y. Xiong, R.-H. Kim, P. Elvikis, M. Meitl, D.-H. Kim, J. Wu, J. Yoon, C.-J. Yu, Z. Liu, Y. Huang, K. C. Hwang, P. Ferreira, X. Li, K. Choquette, and J. A. Rogers, “Printed assemblies of inorganic light-emitting diodes for deformable and semitransparent displays,” Science 325(5943), 977–981 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chung, H. J.

Y. J. Hong, C. H. Lee, A. Yoon, M. Kim, H.-K. Seong, H. J. Chung, C. Sone, Y. J. Park, and G.-C. Yi, “Visible-color-tunable light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 23(29), 3284–3288 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cogman, A.

Corbett, B.

M. Akhter, J. S. Lee, P. P. Maaskant, M. Rensing, N. Nudds, P. O. Brien, P. Degenaar, and B. Corbett, “A LED Micro-Display with 90×90 pixels on a 80 μm pitch,” in 2015 European Microelectronics Packaging Conference (EMPC, 2015), pp. 1–5.

Craven, M.

G. Chen, M. Craven, A. Kim, A. Munkholm, S. Watanabe, M. Camras, W. Götz, and F. Steranka, “Performance of high-power III-nitride light emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 205(5), 1086–1092 (2008).
[Crossref]

Dawson, M. D.

P. Tian, J. J. D. McKendry, Z. Gong, S. Zhang, S. Watson, D. Zhu, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, A. E. Kelly, C. J. Humphreys, and M. D. Dawson, “Characteristics and applications of micro-pixelated GaN-based light emitting diodes on Si substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 115(3), 033112 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Zhang, S. Watson, J. J. D. McKendry, D. Massoubre, A. Cogman, E. Gu, R. K. Henderson, A. E. Kelly, and M. D. Dawson, “1.5 Gbit/s Multi-Channel Visible Light Communications Using CMOS-Controlled GaN-Based LEDs,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(8), 1211–1216 (2013).
[Crossref]

Day, J.

J. Day, J. Li, D. Y. C. Lie, C. Bradford, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “III-Nitride full-scale high-resolution microdisplays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(3), 031116 (2011).
[Crossref]

Degenaar, P.

M. Akhter, J. S. Lee, P. P. Maaskant, M. Rensing, N. Nudds, P. O. Brien, P. Degenaar, and B. Corbett, “A LED Micro-Display with 90×90 pixels on a 80 μm pitch,” in 2015 European Microelectronics Packaging Conference (EMPC, 2015), pp. 1–5.

DenBaars, S. P.

S. Pimputkar, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Prospects for LED lighting,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 180–182 (2009).
[Crossref]

Detchprohm, T.

Elvikis, P.

S.-I. Park, Y. Xiong, R.-H. Kim, P. Elvikis, M. Meitl, D.-H. Kim, J. Wu, J. Yoon, C.-J. Yu, Z. Liu, Y. Huang, K. C. Hwang, P. Ferreira, X. Li, K. Choquette, and J. A. Rogers, “Printed assemblies of inorganic light-emitting diodes for deformable and semitransparent displays,” Science 325(5943), 977–981 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ferreira, P.

S.-I. Park, Y. Xiong, R.-H. Kim, P. Elvikis, M. Meitl, D.-H. Kim, J. Wu, J. Yoon, C.-J. Yu, Z. Liu, Y. Huang, K. C. Hwang, P. Ferreira, X. Li, K. Choquette, and J. A. Rogers, “Printed assemblies of inorganic light-emitting diodes for deformable and semitransparent displays,” Science 325(5943), 977–981 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Funato, M.

M. Funato, K. Hayashi, M. Ueda, Y. Kawakami, Y. Narukawa, and T. Mukai, “Emission color tunable light-emitting diodes composed of InGaN multifacet quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(2), 021126 (2008).
[Crossref]

Gong, Z.

J. R. Bonar, G. J. Valentine, Z. Gong, J. Small, and S. Gorton, “High-brightness low-power consumption microLED arrays,” Proc. SPIE 9768, 97680Y1 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. Tian, J. J. D. McKendry, Z. Gong, S. Zhang, S. Watson, D. Zhu, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, A. E. Kelly, C. J. Humphreys, and M. D. Dawson, “Characteristics and applications of micro-pixelated GaN-based light emitting diodes on Si substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 115(3), 033112 (2014).
[Crossref]

Gorton, S.

J. R. Bonar, G. J. Valentine, Z. Gong, J. Small, and S. Gorton, “High-brightness low-power consumption microLED arrays,” Proc. SPIE 9768, 97680Y1 (2016).
[Crossref]

Götz, W.

G. Chen, M. Craven, A. Kim, A. Munkholm, S. Watanabe, M. Camras, W. Götz, and F. Steranka, “Performance of high-power III-nitride light emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 205(5), 1086–1092 (2008).
[Crossref]

Gu, E.

P. Tian, J. J. D. McKendry, Z. Gong, S. Zhang, S. Watson, D. Zhu, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, A. E. Kelly, C. J. Humphreys, and M. D. Dawson, “Characteristics and applications of micro-pixelated GaN-based light emitting diodes on Si substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 115(3), 033112 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Zhang, S. Watson, J. J. D. McKendry, D. Massoubre, A. Cogman, E. Gu, R. K. Henderson, A. E. Kelly, and M. D. Dawson, “1.5 Gbit/s Multi-Channel Visible Light Communications Using CMOS-Controlled GaN-Based LEDs,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(8), 1211–1216 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hayashi, K.

M. Funato, K. Hayashi, M. Ueda, Y. Kawakami, Y. Narukawa, and T. Mukai, “Emission color tunable light-emitting diodes composed of InGaN multifacet quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(2), 021126 (2008).
[Crossref]

Henderson, R. K.

Heo, J.

Y. Tchoe, J. Jo, M. Kim, J. Heo, G. Yoo, C. Sone, and G.-C. Yi, “Variable-Color Light-Emitting Diodes Using GaN Microdonut Arrays,” Adv. Mater. 26(19), 3019–3023 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hong, Y. J.

Y. J. Hong, C. H. Lee, A. Yoon, M. Kim, H.-K. Seong, H. J. Chung, C. Sone, Y. J. Park, and G.-C. Yi, “Visible-color-tunable light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 23(29), 3284–3288 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hou, W.

Huang, Y.

S.-I. Park, Y. Xiong, R.-H. Kim, P. Elvikis, M. Meitl, D.-H. Kim, J. Wu, J. Yoon, C.-J. Yu, Z. Liu, Y. Huang, K. C. Hwang, P. Ferreira, X. Li, K. Choquette, and J. A. Rogers, “Printed assemblies of inorganic light-emitting diodes for deformable and semitransparent displays,” Science 325(5943), 977–981 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hui, K. N.

Humphreys, C. J.

P. Tian, J. J. D. McKendry, Z. Gong, S. Zhang, S. Watson, D. Zhu, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, A. E. Kelly, C. J. Humphreys, and M. D. Dawson, “Characteristics and applications of micro-pixelated GaN-based light emitting diodes on Si substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 115(3), 033112 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hwang, K. C.

S.-I. Park, Y. Xiong, R.-H. Kim, P. Elvikis, M. Meitl, D.-H. Kim, J. Wu, J. Yoon, C.-J. Yu, Z. Liu, Y. Huang, K. C. Hwang, P. Ferreira, X. Li, K. Choquette, and J. A. Rogers, “Printed assemblies of inorganic light-emitting diodes for deformable and semitransparent displays,” Science 325(5943), 977–981 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Iijima, K.-I.

S.-B. Shin, K.-I. Iijima, H. Okada, S. Iwayama, and A. Wakahara, “Design and Fabrication of Large Scale Micro-LED Arrays and Silicon Driver for OEIC Devices,” IEICE Trans. Electron. E95, 898–903 (2012).

Iwayama, S.

S.-B. Shin, K.-I. Iijima, H. Okada, S. Iwayama, and A. Wakahara, “Design and Fabrication of Large Scale Micro-LED Arrays and Silicon Driver for OEIC Devices,” IEICE Trans. Electron. E95, 898–903 (2012).

Jiang, H. X.

J. Day, J. Li, D. Y. C. Lie, C. Bradford, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “III-Nitride full-scale high-resolution microdisplays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(3), 031116 (2011).
[Crossref]

Jo, J.

Y. Tchoe, J. Jo, M. Kim, J. Heo, G. Yoo, C. Sone, and G.-C. Yi, “Variable-Color Light-Emitting Diodes Using GaN Microdonut Arrays,” Adv. Mater. 26(19), 3019–3023 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kawakami, Y.

M. Funato, K. Hayashi, M. Ueda, Y. Kawakami, Y. Narukawa, and T. Mukai, “Emission color tunable light-emitting diodes composed of InGaN multifacet quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(2), 021126 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kelly, A. E.

P. Tian, J. J. D. McKendry, Z. Gong, S. Zhang, S. Watson, D. Zhu, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, A. E. Kelly, C. J. Humphreys, and M. D. Dawson, “Characteristics and applications of micro-pixelated GaN-based light emitting diodes on Si substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 115(3), 033112 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Zhang, S. Watson, J. J. D. McKendry, D. Massoubre, A. Cogman, E. Gu, R. K. Henderson, A. E. Kelly, and M. D. Dawson, “1.5 Gbit/s Multi-Channel Visible Light Communications Using CMOS-Controlled GaN-Based LEDs,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(8), 1211–1216 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kim, A.

G. Chen, M. Craven, A. Kim, A. Munkholm, S. Watanabe, M. Camras, W. Götz, and F. Steranka, “Performance of high-power III-nitride light emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 205(5), 1086–1092 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kim, D.-H.

S.-I. Park, Y. Xiong, R.-H. Kim, P. Elvikis, M. Meitl, D.-H. Kim, J. Wu, J. Yoon, C.-J. Yu, Z. Liu, Y. Huang, K. C. Hwang, P. Ferreira, X. Li, K. Choquette, and J. A. Rogers, “Printed assemblies of inorganic light-emitting diodes for deformable and semitransparent displays,” Science 325(5943), 977–981 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, M.

Y. Tchoe, J. Jo, M. Kim, J. Heo, G. Yoo, C. Sone, and G.-C. Yi, “Variable-Color Light-Emitting Diodes Using GaN Microdonut Arrays,” Adv. Mater. 26(19), 3019–3023 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. J. Hong, C. H. Lee, A. Yoon, M. Kim, H.-K. Seong, H. J. Chung, C. Sone, Y. J. Park, and G.-C. Yi, “Visible-color-tunable light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 23(29), 3284–3288 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, R.-H.

S.-I. Park, Y. Xiong, R.-H. Kim, P. Elvikis, M. Meitl, D.-H. Kim, J. Wu, J. Yoon, C.-J. Yu, Z. Liu, Y. Huang, K. C. Hwang, P. Ferreira, X. Li, K. Choquette, and J. A. Rogers, “Printed assemblies of inorganic light-emitting diodes for deformable and semitransparent displays,” Science 325(5943), 977–981 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lai, P. T.

Lau, K. M.

Z. Liu, W. C. Chong, K. M. Wong, and K. M. Lau, “GaN-based LED micro-displays for wearable applications,” Microelectron. Eng. 148, 98–103 (2015).
[Crossref]

W. C. Chong, W. K. Cho, Z. J. Liu, C. H. Wang, and K. M. Lau, “1700 Pixels Per Inch (PPI) Passive-Matrix Micro-LED Display Powered by ASIC,” in 2014 IEEE Compound Semiconductor Integrated Circuit Symposium (CSICS, 2014), pp. 1–4.
[Crossref]

Lee, C. H.

Y. J. Hong, C. H. Lee, A. Yoon, M. Kim, H.-K. Seong, H. J. Chung, C. Sone, Y. J. Park, and G.-C. Yi, “Visible-color-tunable light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 23(29), 3284–3288 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, J. S.

M. Akhter, J. S. Lee, P. P. Maaskant, M. Rensing, N. Nudds, P. O. Brien, P. Degenaar, and B. Corbett, “A LED Micro-Display with 90×90 pixels on a 80 μm pitch,” in 2015 European Microelectronics Packaging Conference (EMPC, 2015), pp. 1–5.

Li, J.

J. Day, J. Li, D. Y. C. Lie, C. Bradford, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “III-Nitride full-scale high-resolution microdisplays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(3), 031116 (2011).
[Crossref]

Li, X.

S.-I. Park, Y. Xiong, R.-H. Kim, P. Elvikis, M. Meitl, D.-H. Kim, J. Wu, J. Yoon, C.-J. Yu, Z. Liu, Y. Huang, K. C. Hwang, P. Ferreira, X. Li, K. Choquette, and J. A. Rogers, “Printed assemblies of inorganic light-emitting diodes for deformable and semitransparent displays,” Science 325(5943), 977–981 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, Z. L.

Liang, J.

X. Bao, J. Liang, Z. Liang, W. Wang, C. Tian, Y. Qin, and J. Lü, “Design and fabrication of AlGaInP-based micro-light-emitting-diode array devices,” Opt. Laser Technol. 78, 34–41 (2016).
[Crossref]

Liang, Z.

X. Bao, J. Liang, Z. Liang, W. Wang, C. Tian, Y. Qin, and J. Lü, “Design and fabrication of AlGaInP-based micro-light-emitting-diode array devices,” Opt. Laser Technol. 78, 34–41 (2016).
[Crossref]

Lie, D. Y. C.

J. Day, J. Li, D. Y. C. Lie, C. Bradford, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “III-Nitride full-scale high-resolution microdisplays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(3), 031116 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lin, J. Y.

J. Day, J. Li, D. Y. C. Lie, C. Bradford, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “III-Nitride full-scale high-resolution microdisplays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(3), 031116 (2011).
[Crossref]

Liu, Z.

Z. Liu, W. C. Chong, K. M. Wong, and K. M. Lau, “GaN-based LED micro-displays for wearable applications,” Microelectron. Eng. 148, 98–103 (2015).
[Crossref]

S.-I. Park, Y. Xiong, R.-H. Kim, P. Elvikis, M. Meitl, D.-H. Kim, J. Wu, J. Yoon, C.-J. Yu, Z. Liu, Y. Huang, K. C. Hwang, P. Ferreira, X. Li, K. Choquette, and J. A. Rogers, “Printed assemblies of inorganic light-emitting diodes for deformable and semitransparent displays,” Science 325(5943), 977–981 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, Z. J.

W. C. Chong, W. K. Cho, Z. J. Liu, C. H. Wang, and K. M. Lau, “1700 Pixels Per Inch (PPI) Passive-Matrix Micro-LED Display Powered by ASIC,” in 2014 IEEE Compound Semiconductor Integrated Circuit Symposium (CSICS, 2014), pp. 1–4.
[Crossref]

Lü, J.

X. Bao, J. Liang, Z. Liang, W. Wang, C. Tian, Y. Qin, and J. Lü, “Design and fabrication of AlGaInP-based micro-light-emitting-diode array devices,” Opt. Laser Technol. 78, 34–41 (2016).
[Crossref]

Maaskant, P. P.

M. Akhter, J. S. Lee, P. P. Maaskant, M. Rensing, N. Nudds, P. O. Brien, P. Degenaar, and B. Corbett, “A LED Micro-Display with 90×90 pixels on a 80 μm pitch,” in 2015 European Microelectronics Packaging Conference (EMPC, 2015), pp. 1–5.

Massoubre, D.

McKendry, J. J. D.

P. Tian, J. J. D. McKendry, Z. Gong, S. Zhang, S. Watson, D. Zhu, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, A. E. Kelly, C. J. Humphreys, and M. D. Dawson, “Characteristics and applications of micro-pixelated GaN-based light emitting diodes on Si substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 115(3), 033112 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Zhang, S. Watson, J. J. D. McKendry, D. Massoubre, A. Cogman, E. Gu, R. K. Henderson, A. E. Kelly, and M. D. Dawson, “1.5 Gbit/s Multi-Channel Visible Light Communications Using CMOS-Controlled GaN-Based LEDs,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(8), 1211–1216 (2013).
[Crossref]

Meitl, M.

S.-I. Park, Y. Xiong, R.-H. Kim, P. Elvikis, M. Meitl, D.-H. Kim, J. Wu, J. Yoon, C.-J. Yu, Z. Liu, Y. Huang, K. C. Hwang, P. Ferreira, X. Li, K. Choquette, and J. A. Rogers, “Printed assemblies of inorganic light-emitting diodes for deformable and semitransparent displays,” Science 325(5943), 977–981 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mukai, T.

M. Funato, K. Hayashi, M. Ueda, Y. Kawakami, Y. Narukawa, and T. Mukai, “Emission color tunable light-emitting diodes composed of InGaN multifacet quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(2), 021126 (2008).
[Crossref]

Munkholm, A.

G. Chen, M. Craven, A. Kim, A. Munkholm, S. Watanabe, M. Camras, W. Götz, and F. Steranka, “Performance of high-power III-nitride light emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 205(5), 1086–1092 (2008).
[Crossref]

Nakamura, S.

S. Pimputkar, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Prospects for LED lighting,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 180–182 (2009).
[Crossref]

Narukawa, Y.

M. Funato, K. Hayashi, M. Ueda, Y. Kawakami, Y. Narukawa, and T. Mukai, “Emission color tunable light-emitting diodes composed of InGaN multifacet quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(2), 021126 (2008).
[Crossref]

Nudds, N.

M. Akhter, J. S. Lee, P. P. Maaskant, M. Rensing, N. Nudds, P. O. Brien, P. Degenaar, and B. Corbett, “A LED Micro-Display with 90×90 pixels on a 80 μm pitch,” in 2015 European Microelectronics Packaging Conference (EMPC, 2015), pp. 1–5.

Okada, H.

S.-B. Shin, K.-I. Iijima, H. Okada, S. Iwayama, and A. Wakahara, “Design and Fabrication of Large Scale Micro-LED Arrays and Silicon Driver for OEIC Devices,” IEICE Trans. Electron. E95, 898–903 (2012).

Park, S.-I.

S.-I. Park, Y. Xiong, R.-H. Kim, P. Elvikis, M. Meitl, D.-H. Kim, J. Wu, J. Yoon, C.-J. Yu, Z. Liu, Y. Huang, K. C. Hwang, P. Ferreira, X. Li, K. Choquette, and J. A. Rogers, “Printed assemblies of inorganic light-emitting diodes for deformable and semitransparent displays,” Science 325(5943), 977–981 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Park, Y. J.

Y. J. Hong, C. H. Lee, A. Yoon, M. Kim, H.-K. Seong, H. J. Chung, C. Sone, Y. J. Park, and G.-C. Yi, “Visible-color-tunable light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 23(29), 3284–3288 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pimputkar, S.

S. Pimputkar, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Prospects for LED lighting,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 180–182 (2009).
[Crossref]

Qin, Y.

X. Bao, J. Liang, Z. Liang, W. Wang, C. Tian, Y. Qin, and J. Lü, “Design and fabrication of AlGaInP-based micro-light-emitting-diode array devices,” Opt. Laser Technol. 78, 34–41 (2016).
[Crossref]

Rensing, M.

M. Akhter, J. S. Lee, P. P. Maaskant, M. Rensing, N. Nudds, P. O. Brien, P. Degenaar, and B. Corbett, “A LED Micro-Display with 90×90 pixels on a 80 μm pitch,” in 2015 European Microelectronics Packaging Conference (EMPC, 2015), pp. 1–5.

Rogers, J. A.

S.-I. Park, Y. Xiong, R.-H. Kim, P. Elvikis, M. Meitl, D.-H. Kim, J. Wu, J. Yoon, C.-J. Yu, Z. Liu, Y. Huang, K. C. Hwang, P. Ferreira, X. Li, K. Choquette, and J. A. Rogers, “Printed assemblies of inorganic light-emitting diodes for deformable and semitransparent displays,” Science 325(5943), 977–981 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Seong, H.-K.

Y. J. Hong, C. H. Lee, A. Yoon, M. Kim, H.-K. Seong, H. J. Chung, C. Sone, Y. J. Park, and G.-C. Yi, “Visible-color-tunable light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 23(29), 3284–3288 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shin, S.-B.

S.-B. Shin, K.-I. Iijima, H. Okada, S. Iwayama, and A. Wakahara, “Design and Fabrication of Large Scale Micro-LED Arrays and Silicon Driver for OEIC Devices,” IEICE Trans. Electron. E95, 898–903 (2012).

Small, J.

J. R. Bonar, G. J. Valentine, Z. Gong, J. Small, and S. Gorton, “High-brightness low-power consumption microLED arrays,” Proc. SPIE 9768, 97680Y1 (2016).
[Crossref]

Sone, C.

Y. Tchoe, J. Jo, M. Kim, J. Heo, G. Yoo, C. Sone, and G.-C. Yi, “Variable-Color Light-Emitting Diodes Using GaN Microdonut Arrays,” Adv. Mater. 26(19), 3019–3023 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. J. Hong, C. H. Lee, A. Yoon, M. Kim, H.-K. Seong, H. J. Chung, C. Sone, Y. J. Park, and G.-C. Yi, “Visible-color-tunable light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 23(29), 3284–3288 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Speck, J. S.

S. Pimputkar, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Prospects for LED lighting,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 180–182 (2009).
[Crossref]

Stark, C.

Steranka, F.

G. Chen, M. Craven, A. Kim, A. Munkholm, S. Watanabe, M. Camras, W. Götz, and F. Steranka, “Performance of high-power III-nitride light emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 205(5), 1086–1092 (2008).
[Crossref]

Tchoe, Y.

Y. Tchoe, J. Jo, M. Kim, J. Heo, G. Yoo, C. Sone, and G.-C. Yi, “Variable-Color Light-Emitting Diodes Using GaN Microdonut Arrays,” Adv. Mater. 26(19), 3019–3023 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tian, C.

X. Bao, J. Liang, Z. Liang, W. Wang, C. Tian, Y. Qin, and J. Lü, “Design and fabrication of AlGaInP-based micro-light-emitting-diode array devices,” Opt. Laser Technol. 78, 34–41 (2016).
[Crossref]

Tian, P.

P. Tian, J. J. D. McKendry, Z. Gong, S. Zhang, S. Watson, D. Zhu, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, A. E. Kelly, C. J. Humphreys, and M. D. Dawson, “Characteristics and applications of micro-pixelated GaN-based light emitting diodes on Si substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 115(3), 033112 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ueda, M.

M. Funato, K. Hayashi, M. Ueda, Y. Kawakami, Y. Narukawa, and T. Mukai, “Emission color tunable light-emitting diodes composed of InGaN multifacet quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(2), 021126 (2008).
[Crossref]

Valentine, G. J.

J. R. Bonar, G. J. Valentine, Z. Gong, J. Small, and S. Gorton, “High-brightness low-power consumption microLED arrays,” Proc. SPIE 9768, 97680Y1 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wakahara, A.

S.-B. Shin, K.-I. Iijima, H. Okada, S. Iwayama, and A. Wakahara, “Design and Fabrication of Large Scale Micro-LED Arrays and Silicon Driver for OEIC Devices,” IEICE Trans. Electron. E95, 898–903 (2012).

Wang, C. H.

W. C. Chong, W. K. Cho, Z. J. Liu, C. H. Wang, and K. M. Lau, “1700 Pixels Per Inch (PPI) Passive-Matrix Micro-LED Display Powered by ASIC,” in 2014 IEEE Compound Semiconductor Integrated Circuit Symposium (CSICS, 2014), pp. 1–4.
[Crossref]

Wang, W.

X. Bao, J. Liang, Z. Liang, W. Wang, C. Tian, Y. Qin, and J. Lü, “Design and fabrication of AlGaInP-based micro-light-emitting-diode array devices,” Opt. Laser Technol. 78, 34–41 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wang, X. H.

Watanabe, S.

G. Chen, M. Craven, A. Kim, A. Munkholm, S. Watanabe, M. Camras, W. Götz, and F. Steranka, “Performance of high-power III-nitride light emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 205(5), 1086–1092 (2008).
[Crossref]

Watson, I. M.

P. Tian, J. J. D. McKendry, Z. Gong, S. Zhang, S. Watson, D. Zhu, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, A. E. Kelly, C. J. Humphreys, and M. D. Dawson, “Characteristics and applications of micro-pixelated GaN-based light emitting diodes on Si substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 115(3), 033112 (2014).
[Crossref]

Watson, S.

P. Tian, J. J. D. McKendry, Z. Gong, S. Zhang, S. Watson, D. Zhu, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, A. E. Kelly, C. J. Humphreys, and M. D. Dawson, “Characteristics and applications of micro-pixelated GaN-based light emitting diodes on Si substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 115(3), 033112 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Zhang, S. Watson, J. J. D. McKendry, D. Massoubre, A. Cogman, E. Gu, R. K. Henderson, A. E. Kelly, and M. D. Dawson, “1.5 Gbit/s Multi-Channel Visible Light Communications Using CMOS-Controlled GaN-Based LEDs,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(8), 1211–1216 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wetzel, C.

Wong, K. M.

Z. Liu, W. C. Chong, K. M. Wong, and K. M. Lau, “GaN-based LED micro-displays for wearable applications,” Microelectron. Eng. 148, 98–103 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wu, J.

S.-I. Park, Y. Xiong, R.-H. Kim, P. Elvikis, M. Meitl, D.-H. Kim, J. Wu, J. Yoon, C.-J. Yu, Z. Liu, Y. Huang, K. C. Hwang, P. Ferreira, X. Li, K. Choquette, and J. A. Rogers, “Printed assemblies of inorganic light-emitting diodes for deformable and semitransparent displays,” Science 325(5943), 977–981 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xiong, Y.

S.-I. Park, Y. Xiong, R.-H. Kim, P. Elvikis, M. Meitl, D.-H. Kim, J. Wu, J. Yoon, C.-J. Yu, Z. Liu, Y. Huang, K. C. Hwang, P. Ferreira, X. Li, K. Choquette, and J. A. Rogers, “Printed assemblies of inorganic light-emitting diodes for deformable and semitransparent displays,” Science 325(5943), 977–981 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yi, G.-C.

Y. Tchoe, J. Jo, M. Kim, J. Heo, G. Yoo, C. Sone, and G.-C. Yi, “Variable-Color Light-Emitting Diodes Using GaN Microdonut Arrays,” Adv. Mater. 26(19), 3019–3023 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. J. Hong, C. H. Lee, A. Yoon, M. Kim, H.-K. Seong, H. J. Chung, C. Sone, Y. J. Park, and G.-C. Yi, “Visible-color-tunable light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 23(29), 3284–3288 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yoo, G.

Y. Tchoe, J. Jo, M. Kim, J. Heo, G. Yoo, C. Sone, and G.-C. Yi, “Variable-Color Light-Emitting Diodes Using GaN Microdonut Arrays,” Adv. Mater. 26(19), 3019–3023 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yoon, A.

Y. J. Hong, C. H. Lee, A. Yoon, M. Kim, H.-K. Seong, H. J. Chung, C. Sone, Y. J. Park, and G.-C. Yi, “Visible-color-tunable light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 23(29), 3284–3288 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yoon, J.

S.-I. Park, Y. Xiong, R.-H. Kim, P. Elvikis, M. Meitl, D.-H. Kim, J. Wu, J. Yoon, C.-J. Yu, Z. Liu, Y. Huang, K. C. Hwang, P. Ferreira, X. Li, K. Choquette, and J. A. Rogers, “Printed assemblies of inorganic light-emitting diodes for deformable and semitransparent displays,” Science 325(5943), 977–981 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

You, S.

Yu, C.-J.

S.-I. Park, Y. Xiong, R.-H. Kim, P. Elvikis, M. Meitl, D.-H. Kim, J. Wu, J. Yoon, C.-J. Yu, Z. Liu, Y. Huang, K. C. Hwang, P. Ferreira, X. Li, K. Choquette, and J. A. Rogers, “Printed assemblies of inorganic light-emitting diodes for deformable and semitransparent displays,” Science 325(5943), 977–981 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, S.

P. Tian, J. J. D. McKendry, Z. Gong, S. Zhang, S. Watson, D. Zhu, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, A. E. Kelly, C. J. Humphreys, and M. D. Dawson, “Characteristics and applications of micro-pixelated GaN-based light emitting diodes on Si substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 115(3), 033112 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Zhang, S. Watson, J. J. D. McKendry, D. Massoubre, A. Cogman, E. Gu, R. K. Henderson, A. E. Kelly, and M. D. Dawson, “1.5 Gbit/s Multi-Channel Visible Light Communications Using CMOS-Controlled GaN-Based LEDs,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(8), 1211–1216 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhao, L.

Zhu, D.

P. Tian, J. J. D. McKendry, Z. Gong, S. Zhang, S. Watson, D. Zhu, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, A. E. Kelly, C. J. Humphreys, and M. D. Dawson, “Characteristics and applications of micro-pixelated GaN-based light emitting diodes on Si substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 115(3), 033112 (2014).
[Crossref]

Adv. Mater. (2)

Y. J. Hong, C. H. Lee, A. Yoon, M. Kim, H.-K. Seong, H. J. Chung, C. Sone, Y. J. Park, and G.-C. Yi, “Visible-color-tunable light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 23(29), 3284–3288 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Tchoe, J. Jo, M. Kim, J. Heo, G. Yoo, C. Sone, and G.-C. Yi, “Variable-Color Light-Emitting Diodes Using GaN Microdonut Arrays,” Adv. Mater. 26(19), 3019–3023 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

M. Funato, K. Hayashi, M. Ueda, Y. Kawakami, Y. Narukawa, and T. Mukai, “Emission color tunable light-emitting diodes composed of InGaN multifacet quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(2), 021126 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Day, J. Li, D. Y. C. Lie, C. Bradford, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “III-Nitride full-scale high-resolution microdisplays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(3), 031116 (2011).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. (1)

Y. F. Cheung and H. W. Choi, “Color-Tunable and Phosphor-Free White-Light Multilayered Light-Emitting Diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 60(1), 333–338 (2013).
[Crossref]

IEICE Trans. Electron. (1)

S.-B. Shin, K.-I. Iijima, H. Okada, S. Iwayama, and A. Wakahara, “Design and Fabrication of Large Scale Micro-LED Arrays and Silicon Driver for OEIC Devices,” IEICE Trans. Electron. E95, 898–903 (2012).

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

P. Tian, J. J. D. McKendry, Z. Gong, S. Zhang, S. Watson, D. Zhu, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, A. E. Kelly, C. J. Humphreys, and M. D. Dawson, “Characteristics and applications of micro-pixelated GaN-based light emitting diodes on Si substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 115(3), 033112 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Microelectron. Eng. (1)

Z. Liu, W. C. Chong, K. M. Wong, and K. M. Lau, “GaN-based LED micro-displays for wearable applications,” Microelectron. Eng. 148, 98–103 (2015).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (1)

S. Pimputkar, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Prospects for LED lighting,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 180–182 (2009).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Laser Technol. (1)

X. Bao, J. Liang, Z. Liang, W. Wang, C. Tian, Y. Qin, and J. Lü, “Design and fabrication of AlGaInP-based micro-light-emitting-diode array devices,” Opt. Laser Technol. 78, 34–41 (2016).
[Crossref]

Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. (1)

G. Chen, M. Craven, A. Kim, A. Munkholm, S. Watanabe, M. Camras, W. Götz, and F. Steranka, “Performance of high-power III-nitride light emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 205(5), 1086–1092 (2008).
[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (1)

J. R. Bonar, G. J. Valentine, Z. Gong, J. Small, and S. Gorton, “High-brightness low-power consumption microLED arrays,” Proc. SPIE 9768, 97680Y1 (2016).
[Crossref]

Science (1)

S.-I. Park, Y. Xiong, R.-H. Kim, P. Elvikis, M. Meitl, D.-H. Kim, J. Wu, J. Yoon, C.-J. Yu, Z. Liu, Y. Huang, K. C. Hwang, P. Ferreira, X. Li, K. Choquette, and J. A. Rogers, “Printed assemblies of inorganic light-emitting diodes for deformable and semitransparent displays,” Science 325(5943), 977–981 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (2)

M. Akhter, J. S. Lee, P. P. Maaskant, M. Rensing, N. Nudds, P. O. Brien, P. Degenaar, and B. Corbett, “A LED Micro-Display with 90×90 pixels on a 80 μm pitch,” in 2015 European Microelectronics Packaging Conference (EMPC, 2015), pp. 1–5.

W. C. Chong, W. K. Cho, Z. J. Liu, C. H. Wang, and K. M. Lau, “1700 Pixels Per Inch (PPI) Passive-Matrix Micro-LED Display Powered by ASIC,” in 2014 IEEE Compound Semiconductor Integrated Circuit Symposium (CSICS, 2014), pp. 1–4.
[Crossref]

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) The fabrication steps of a vertically-stacked passive-matrix micro-LED array: i) ICP etching of GaN for the formation of the row and all pixels of the micro-LED array, ii) deposition of ITO on p-GaN, deposition of Ti/Au layers on n-GaN, iii) SU-8 pattern for isolation between metal electrodes, deposition of Cr/Au layers, iv) wafer bonding of the blue and the green LED chip. (b) Microscopy images before (top) and after (bottom) alignment of the blue LED chip stacked on green LED chip. (c) SEM image of the cross-sectional interface between the blue and the green LED chip.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Transmittance of the fabricated 8 × 8 micro-LED array structure. (b) Microscopy image of the 8 × 8 micro-LED array involving line metals.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 The EL spectrum and microscope image of (a) only blue emission, (b) only green emission, (c) blue and green emission at different pixel positions, (d) blue and green emission at the same pixel position.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 The EL spectra measured by changing the duty ratio of PWM for (a) green subpixel and (b) blue subpixel. (c) CIE 1931 x-y chromaticity diagram of the device by various PWM voltages. (d) Series of microscope images at M (1, 2) of the micro-LED array applied to various PWM voltages.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Specifications of metal electrodes in the 8 × 8 micro-LED array.

Equations (1)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Duty ratio= t on t on + t off

Metrics