Abstract

We present a method to display an integral three-dimensional (3D) image without gaps between multiple display active areas by using multiple liquid crystal display (LCD) panels and multi-image combining optical systems (MICOS). We designed a MICOS to improve the resolution characteristics and decrease the luminance unevenness corresponding to the viewpoint. Furthermore, we developed a method for correcting the distortion of the integral 3D image by using image processing. We prototyped an integral 3D display using four 8K dual-green (8KDG) LCD panels and the improved MICOSs. The prototype display achieved to magnify the display area about 5.66 times more than when a single LCD panel was used.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. M. G. Lippmann, “Épreuves, réversibles donnant la sensation du relief,” J. Phys. 7(1), 821–825 (1908).
  2. Y. Igarashi, H. Murata, and M. Ueda, “3-D display system using a computer generated integral photograph,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 17(9), 1683–1684 (1978).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. F. Okano, H. Hoshino, J. Arai, and I. Yuyama, “Real-time pickup method for a three-dimensional image based on integral photography,” Appl. Opt. 36(7), 1598–1603 (1997).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. H. Arimoto and B. Javidi, “Integral three-dimensional imaging with digital reconstruction,” Opt. Lett. 26(3), 157–159 (2001).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. K. Suehiro, M. Yoshimura, Y. Haino, M. Sato, J. Arai, M. Kawakita, and F. Okano, “Integral 3D TV using ultrahigh-definition D-ILA device,” Proc. SPIE 6803, 680318 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  9. H. Hoshino, F. Okano, and I. Yuyama, “Analysis of resolution limitation of integral photography,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15(8), 2059–2065 (1998).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  11. J. Arai, M. Kawakita, T. Yamashita, H. Sasaki, M. Miura, H. Hiura, M. Okui, and F. Okano, “Integral three-dimensional television with video system using pixel-offset method,” Opt. Express 21(3), 3474–3485 (2013).
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. M. Kawakita, S. Iwasawa, M. Sakai, Y. Haino, M. Sato, and N. Inoue, “3D image quality of 200-inch glasses-free 3D display system,” Proc. SPIE 8288, 82880B (2012).
    [Crossref]
  15. J.-Y. Jang, D. Shin, B.-G. Lee, and E.-S. Kim, “Multi-projection integral imaging by use of a convex mirror array,” Opt. Lett. 39(10), 2853–2856 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. N. Okaichi, M. Miura, J. Arai, and T. Mishina, “Integral 3D display using multiple LCDs,” Proc. SPIE 9391, 939114 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  17. M. Kawakita, H. Sasaki, J. Arai, M. Okui, F. Okano, Y. Haino, M. Yoshimura, and M. Sato, “Projection-type integral 3-D display with distortion compensation,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 18(9), 668–677 (2010).
    [Crossref]

2015 (1)

N. Okaichi, M. Miura, J. Arai, and T. Mishina, “Integral 3D display using multiple LCDs,” Proc. SPIE 9391, 939114 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

2013 (1)

2012 (1)

M. Kawakita, S. Iwasawa, M. Sakai, Y. Haino, M. Sato, and N. Inoue, “3D image quality of 200-inch glasses-free 3D display system,” Proc. SPIE 8288, 82880B (2012).
[Crossref]

2010 (3)

Y. Takaki and N. Nago, “Multi-projection of lenticular displays to construct a 256-view super multi-view display,” Opt. Express 18(9), 8824–8835 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Kawakita, H. Sasaki, J. Arai, M. Okui, F. Okano, Y. Haino, M. Yoshimura, and M. Sato, “Projection-type integral 3-D display with distortion compensation,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 18(9), 668–677 (2010).
[Crossref]

T. Yamashita, M. Kanazawa, K. Oyamada, K. Hamasaki, Y. Shishikui, K. Shogen, K. Arai, M. Sugawara, and K. Mitani, “Progress report on the development of Super-Hi Vision,” SMPTE Motion Imaging J. 119(6), 77–84 (2010).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

K. Suehiro, M. Yoshimura, Y. Haino, M. Sato, J. Arai, M. Kawakita, and F. Okano, “Integral 3D TV using ultrahigh-definition D-ILA device,” Proc. SPIE 6803, 680318 (2008).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

2004 (1)

2001 (1)

1998 (1)

1997 (1)

1988 (1)

1978 (1)

Y. Igarashi, H. Murata, and M. Ueda, “3-D display system using a computer generated integral photograph,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 17(9), 1683–1684 (1978).
[Crossref]

1908 (1)

M. G. Lippmann, “Épreuves, réversibles donnant la sensation du relief,” J. Phys. 7(1), 821–825 (1908).

Arai, J.

N. Okaichi, M. Miura, J. Arai, and T. Mishina, “Integral 3D display using multiple LCDs,” Proc. SPIE 9391, 939114 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Arai, M. Kawakita, T. Yamashita, H. Sasaki, M. Miura, H. Hiura, M. Okui, and F. Okano, “Integral three-dimensional television with video system using pixel-offset method,” Opt. Express 21(3), 3474–3485 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Kawakita, H. Sasaki, J. Arai, M. Okui, F. Okano, Y. Haino, M. Yoshimura, and M. Sato, “Projection-type integral 3-D display with distortion compensation,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 18(9), 668–677 (2010).
[Crossref]

K. Suehiro, M. Yoshimura, Y. Haino, M. Sato, J. Arai, M. Kawakita, and F. Okano, “Integral 3D TV using ultrahigh-definition D-ILA device,” Proc. SPIE 6803, 680318 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Arai, M. Okui, T. Yamashita, and F. Okano, “Integral three-dimensional television using a 2000-scanning-line video system,” Appl. Opt. 45(8), 1704–1712 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Okano, H. Hoshino, J. Arai, and I. Yuyama, “Real-time pickup method for a three-dimensional image based on integral photography,” Appl. Opt. 36(7), 1598–1603 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arai, K.

T. Yamashita, M. Kanazawa, K. Oyamada, K. Hamasaki, Y. Shishikui, K. Shogen, K. Arai, M. Sugawara, and K. Mitani, “Progress report on the development of Super-Hi Vision,” SMPTE Motion Imaging J. 119(6), 77–84 (2010).
[Crossref]

Arimoto, H.

Davies, N.

Dohi, T.

Haino, Y.

M. Kawakita, S. Iwasawa, M. Sakai, Y. Haino, M. Sato, and N. Inoue, “3D image quality of 200-inch glasses-free 3D display system,” Proc. SPIE 8288, 82880B (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Kawakita, H. Sasaki, J. Arai, M. Okui, F. Okano, Y. Haino, M. Yoshimura, and M. Sato, “Projection-type integral 3-D display with distortion compensation,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 18(9), 668–677 (2010).
[Crossref]

K. Suehiro, M. Yoshimura, Y. Haino, M. Sato, J. Arai, M. Kawakita, and F. Okano, “Integral 3D TV using ultrahigh-definition D-ILA device,” Proc. SPIE 6803, 680318 (2008).
[Crossref]

Hamasaki, K.

T. Yamashita, M. Kanazawa, K. Oyamada, K. Hamasaki, Y. Shishikui, K. Shogen, K. Arai, M. Sugawara, and K. Mitani, “Progress report on the development of Super-Hi Vision,” SMPTE Motion Imaging J. 119(6), 77–84 (2010).
[Crossref]

Hata, N.

Hiura, H.

Hoshino, H.

Igarashi, Y.

Y. Igarashi, H. Murata, and M. Ueda, “3-D display system using a computer generated integral photograph,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 17(9), 1683–1684 (1978).
[Crossref]

Inoue, N.

M. Kawakita, S. Iwasawa, M. Sakai, Y. Haino, M. Sato, and N. Inoue, “3D image quality of 200-inch glasses-free 3D display system,” Proc. SPIE 8288, 82880B (2012).
[Crossref]

Iwahara, M.

Iwasawa, S.

M. Kawakita, S. Iwasawa, M. Sakai, Y. Haino, M. Sato, and N. Inoue, “3D image quality of 200-inch glasses-free 3D display system,” Proc. SPIE 8288, 82880B (2012).
[Crossref]

Jang, J.-Y.

Javidi, B.

Kanazawa, M.

T. Yamashita, M. Kanazawa, K. Oyamada, K. Hamasaki, Y. Shishikui, K. Shogen, K. Arai, M. Sugawara, and K. Mitani, “Progress report on the development of Super-Hi Vision,” SMPTE Motion Imaging J. 119(6), 77–84 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kawakita, M.

J. Arai, M. Kawakita, T. Yamashita, H. Sasaki, M. Miura, H. Hiura, M. Okui, and F. Okano, “Integral three-dimensional television with video system using pixel-offset method,” Opt. Express 21(3), 3474–3485 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Kawakita, S. Iwasawa, M. Sakai, Y. Haino, M. Sato, and N. Inoue, “3D image quality of 200-inch glasses-free 3D display system,” Proc. SPIE 8288, 82880B (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Kawakita, H. Sasaki, J. Arai, M. Okui, F. Okano, Y. Haino, M. Yoshimura, and M. Sato, “Projection-type integral 3-D display with distortion compensation,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 18(9), 668–677 (2010).
[Crossref]

K. Suehiro, M. Yoshimura, Y. Haino, M. Sato, J. Arai, M. Kawakita, and F. Okano, “Integral 3D TV using ultrahigh-definition D-ILA device,” Proc. SPIE 6803, 680318 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kim, E.-S.

Lee, B.-G.

Liao, H.

Lippmann, M. G.

M. G. Lippmann, “Épreuves, réversibles donnant la sensation du relief,” J. Phys. 7(1), 821–825 (1908).

McCormick, M.

Mishina, T.

N. Okaichi, M. Miura, J. Arai, and T. Mishina, “Integral 3D display using multiple LCDs,” Proc. SPIE 9391, 939114 (2015).
[Crossref]

Mitani, K.

T. Yamashita, M. Kanazawa, K. Oyamada, K. Hamasaki, Y. Shishikui, K. Shogen, K. Arai, M. Sugawara, and K. Mitani, “Progress report on the development of Super-Hi Vision,” SMPTE Motion Imaging J. 119(6), 77–84 (2010).
[Crossref]

Miura, M.

Moon, I.

Murata, H.

Y. Igarashi, H. Murata, and M. Ueda, “3-D display system using a computer generated integral photograph,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 17(9), 1683–1684 (1978).
[Crossref]

Nago, N.

Okaichi, N.

N. Okaichi, M. Miura, J. Arai, and T. Mishina, “Integral 3D display using multiple LCDs,” Proc. SPIE 9391, 939114 (2015).
[Crossref]

Okano, F.

Okui, M.

Oyamada, K.

T. Yamashita, M. Kanazawa, K. Oyamada, K. Hamasaki, Y. Shishikui, K. Shogen, K. Arai, M. Sugawara, and K. Mitani, “Progress report on the development of Super-Hi Vision,” SMPTE Motion Imaging J. 119(6), 77–84 (2010).
[Crossref]

Sakai, M.

M. Kawakita, S. Iwasawa, M. Sakai, Y. Haino, M. Sato, and N. Inoue, “3D image quality of 200-inch glasses-free 3D display system,” Proc. SPIE 8288, 82880B (2012).
[Crossref]

Sasaki, H.

J. Arai, M. Kawakita, T. Yamashita, H. Sasaki, M. Miura, H. Hiura, M. Okui, and F. Okano, “Integral three-dimensional television with video system using pixel-offset method,” Opt. Express 21(3), 3474–3485 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Kawakita, H. Sasaki, J. Arai, M. Okui, F. Okano, Y. Haino, M. Yoshimura, and M. Sato, “Projection-type integral 3-D display with distortion compensation,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 18(9), 668–677 (2010).
[Crossref]

Sato, M.

M. Kawakita, S. Iwasawa, M. Sakai, Y. Haino, M. Sato, and N. Inoue, “3D image quality of 200-inch glasses-free 3D display system,” Proc. SPIE 8288, 82880B (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Kawakita, H. Sasaki, J. Arai, M. Okui, F. Okano, Y. Haino, M. Yoshimura, and M. Sato, “Projection-type integral 3-D display with distortion compensation,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 18(9), 668–677 (2010).
[Crossref]

K. Suehiro, M. Yoshimura, Y. Haino, M. Sato, J. Arai, M. Kawakita, and F. Okano, “Integral 3D TV using ultrahigh-definition D-ILA device,” Proc. SPIE 6803, 680318 (2008).
[Crossref]

Shin, D.

Shishikui, Y.

T. Yamashita, M. Kanazawa, K. Oyamada, K. Hamasaki, Y. Shishikui, K. Shogen, K. Arai, M. Sugawara, and K. Mitani, “Progress report on the development of Super-Hi Vision,” SMPTE Motion Imaging J. 119(6), 77–84 (2010).
[Crossref]

Shogen, K.

T. Yamashita, M. Kanazawa, K. Oyamada, K. Hamasaki, Y. Shishikui, K. Shogen, K. Arai, M. Sugawara, and K. Mitani, “Progress report on the development of Super-Hi Vision,” SMPTE Motion Imaging J. 119(6), 77–84 (2010).
[Crossref]

Suehiro, K.

K. Suehiro, M. Yoshimura, Y. Haino, M. Sato, J. Arai, M. Kawakita, and F. Okano, “Integral 3D TV using ultrahigh-definition D-ILA device,” Proc. SPIE 6803, 680318 (2008).
[Crossref]

Sugawara, M.

T. Yamashita, M. Kanazawa, K. Oyamada, K. Hamasaki, Y. Shishikui, K. Shogen, K. Arai, M. Sugawara, and K. Mitani, “Progress report on the development of Super-Hi Vision,” SMPTE Motion Imaging J. 119(6), 77–84 (2010).
[Crossref]

Takaki, Y.

Ueda, M.

Y. Igarashi, H. Murata, and M. Ueda, “3-D display system using a computer generated integral photograph,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 17(9), 1683–1684 (1978).
[Crossref]

Yamashita, T.

Yang, L.

Yeom, S.

Yoshimura, M.

M. Kawakita, H. Sasaki, J. Arai, M. Okui, F. Okano, Y. Haino, M. Yoshimura, and M. Sato, “Projection-type integral 3-D display with distortion compensation,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 18(9), 668–677 (2010).
[Crossref]

K. Suehiro, M. Yoshimura, Y. Haino, M. Sato, J. Arai, M. Kawakita, and F. Okano, “Integral 3D TV using ultrahigh-definition D-ILA device,” Proc. SPIE 6803, 680318 (2008).
[Crossref]

Yuyama, I.

Appl. Opt. (3)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Phys. (1)

M. G. Lippmann, “Épreuves, réversibles donnant la sensation du relief,” J. Phys. 7(1), 821–825 (1908).

J. Soc. Inf. Disp. (1)

M. Kawakita, H. Sasaki, J. Arai, M. Okui, F. Okano, Y. Haino, M. Yoshimura, and M. Sato, “Projection-type integral 3-D display with distortion compensation,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 18(9), 668–677 (2010).
[Crossref]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

Y. Igarashi, H. Murata, and M. Ueda, “3-D display system using a computer generated integral photograph,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 17(9), 1683–1684 (1978).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Proc. SPIE (3)

K. Suehiro, M. Yoshimura, Y. Haino, M. Sato, J. Arai, M. Kawakita, and F. Okano, “Integral 3D TV using ultrahigh-definition D-ILA device,” Proc. SPIE 6803, 680318 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. Kawakita, S. Iwasawa, M. Sakai, Y. Haino, M. Sato, and N. Inoue, “3D image quality of 200-inch glasses-free 3D display system,” Proc. SPIE 8288, 82880B (2012).
[Crossref]

N. Okaichi, M. Miura, J. Arai, and T. Mishina, “Integral 3D display using multiple LCDs,” Proc. SPIE 9391, 939114 (2015).
[Crossref]

SMPTE Motion Imaging J. (1)

T. Yamashita, M. Kanazawa, K. Oyamada, K. Hamasaki, Y. Shishikui, K. Shogen, K. Arai, M. Sugawara, and K. Mitani, “Progress report on the development of Super-Hi Vision,” SMPTE Motion Imaging J. 119(6), 77–84 (2010).
[Crossref]

Supplementary Material (1)

NameDescription
» Visualization 1: MP4 (1155 KB)      Changes in the appearance of image from different viewpoints.

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Basic principle of integral photography. (a) Capturing. (b) Displaying.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Integral 3D display using LCD panel. (a) Display using single LCD panel (conventional method). (b) Display using multiple LCD panels (proposed method).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Constitution of MICOS. (a) Erect unmagnified optical system. (b) MICOS. (c) Connecting multiple display images by using MICOS.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Simulations of MTF value of erect unmagnified optical system. (a) First prototype MICOS. (b) Improved prototype MICOS.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Comparison of resolution characteristics between first and improved prototype MICOSs. Value of 1000 corresponds to width of 153 μm per line. (a) Horizontal direction. (b) Vertical direction.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 State of luminance unevenness when viewed from oblique direction.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 State when viewing the connected image of two magnified images (white light) on diffuser plate using first and improved prototype MICOSs. Luminance graph on red line is shown below each image (horizontal axis: position of horizontal position, vertical axis: luminance value). (a) View from center. (b) View from the right.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Example of correction using projective and affine transformations and applying them to elemental images. Red solid lines, black dotted lines, and green points indicate magnified image, reference sheet, and control points, respectively. (a) Projective transformation. (b) Affine transformation. (c) Application to elemental images.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Changes in the appearance of image from different viewpoints (see Visualization 1). (a) View from upper position. (b) View from left position. (c) View from right position. (d) View from lower position.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 Appearance of improved prototype integral 3D display.
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 Comparison of reconstructed integral 3D image by using first and improved prototype integral 3D displays. Dotted part shows displayable area when using single LCD panel. (a) Image using first prototype. (b) Magnified image of Fig. 11(a). (c) Image using improved prototype. (d) Magnified image of Fig. 11(c).

Tables (2)

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Table 1 Specifications of MICOS of first and improved prototype MICOSs

Tables Icon

Table 2 Specifications prototype integral 3D displays.

Equations (11)

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1 na + 1 b = 1 n f + ,
f + = R n1 ,
f'= f + f f + + f d ,
1 b + 1 nc = 1 nf' .
m= f c f .
L= L max L min L max + L min ,
( x' y' 1 )= 1 H g x+ H h y+1 H( x y 1 ),
H=( H a H b H c H d H e H f H g H h 1 ),
( x' y' 1 )=A( x y 1 ),
A=( A a A b A c A d A e A f 0 0 1 ).
( x' y' 1 )= 1 H g x+ H h y+1 AH( x y 1 ).

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