Abstract

Since the successful implementation of organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites as light-absorbing materials, stunning progresses have been made towards the efficiency boost of perovskite solar cells. To build upon these successes, further impetus may derive from revisits to the intrinsic properties of perovskites, such as their optical properties. Herein, we introduce periodic Ag nanowire (AgNW) structures into perovskite films to optimize their solar absorption efficiency through plasmonic interactions. Numerical simulations show a remarkable integrated solar absorption enhancement of 25.9% attained by incorporating properly tailored AgNW arrays into perovskite films. The AgNW crosses are further introduced to achieve polarization-independent light harvesting capability. The omnidirectional light absorption enhancement ability of the AgNW embedded perovskite films is also demonstrated.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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2016 (2)

K. Meng, S. Gao, L. Wu, G. Wang, X. Liu, G. Chen, Z. Liu, and G. Chen, “Two-dimensional organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite photonic films,” Nano Lett. 16(7), 4166–4173 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Chen, J. Li, F. Yu, D. Zhao, F. Wang, Y. Chen, R.-W. Peng, and M. Wang, “Construction of 3D Metallic Nanostructures on an Arbitrarily Shaped Substrate,” Adv. Mater. 28(33), 7193–7199 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (13)

Z. Yuan, Z. Wu, S. Bai, Z. Xia, W. Xu, T. Song, H. Wu, L. Xu, J. Si, Y. Jin, and B. Sun, “Hot-Electron Injection in a Sandwiched TiOx-Au-TiOx Structure for High-Performance Planar Perovskite Solar Cells,” Adv. Energy Mater. 5(10), 1500038 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z. Lu, X. Pan, Y. Ma, Y. Li, L. Zheng, D. Zhang, Q. Xu, Z. Chen, S. Wang, B. Qu, F. Liu, Y. Huang, L. Xiao, and Q. Gong, “Plasmonic-enhanced perovskite solar cells using alloy popcorn nanoparticles,” RSC Advances 5(15), 11175–11179 (2015).
[Crossref]

H.-L. Hsu, T.-Y. Juang, C.-P. Chen, C.-M. Hsieh, C.-C. Yang, C.-L. Huang, and R.-J. Jeng, “Enhanced efficiency of organic and perovskite photovoltaics from shape-dependent broadband plasmonic effects of silver nanoplates,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 140, 224–231 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Löper, M. Stuckelberger, B. Niesen, J. Werner, M. Filipič, S.-J. Moon, J.-H. M. Yum, M. Topič, S. De Wolf, and C. Ballif, “Complex refractive index spectra of CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite thin films determined by spectroscopic ellipsometry and spectrophotometry,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 6(1), 66–71 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Zhang, M. Anaya, G. Lozano, M. E. Calvo, M. B. Johnston, H. Míguez, and H. J. Snaith, “Highly efficient perovskite solar cells with tunable structural color,” Nano Lett. 15(3), 1698–1702 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. M. Tavakoli, K.-H. Tsui, Q. Zhang, J. He, Y. Yao, D. Li, and Z. Fan, “Highly efficient flexible perovskite solar cells with antireflection and self-cleaning nanostructures,” ACS Nano 9(10), 10287–10295 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Carretero-Palacios, M. E. Calvo, and H. Míguez, “Absorption enhancement in organic-inorganic halide perovskite films with embedded plasmonic gold nanoparticles,” J Phys Chem C Nanomater Interfaces 119(32), 18635–18640 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Lin, A. Armin, P. L. Burn, and P. Meredith, “Filterless narrowband visible photodetectors,” Nat. Photonics 9(10), 687–694 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. M. Ball, S. D. Stranks, M. T. Hörantner, S. Hüttner, W. Zhang, E. J. Crossland, I. Ramirez, M. Riede, M. B. Johnston, R. H. Friend, and H. J. Snaith, “Optical properties and limiting photocurrent of thin-film perovskite solar cells,” Energy Environ. Sci. 8(2), 602–609 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Anaya, G. Lozano, M. E. Calvo, W. Zhang, M. B. Johnston, H. J. Snaith, and H. Míguez, “Optical description of mesostructured organic-inorganic halide perovskite solar cells,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 6(1), 48–53 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Shi, V. Adinolfi, R. Comin, M. Yuan, E. Alarousu, A. Buin, Y. Chen, S. Hoogland, A. Rothenberger, K. Katsiev, Y. Losovyj, X. Zhang, P. A. Dowben, O. F. Mohammed, E. H. Sargent, and O. M. Bakr, “Low trap-state density and long carrier diffusion in organolead trihalide perovskite single crystals,” Science 347(6221), 519–522 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. J. Jeon, J. H. Noh, W. S. Yang, Y. C. Kim, S. Ryu, J. Seo, and S. I. Seok, “Compositional engineering of perovskite materials for high-performance solar cells,” Nature 517(7535), 476–480 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. A. Green, K. Emery, Y. Hishikawa, W. Warta, and E. D. Dunlop, “Solar cell efficiency tables (Version 45),” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 23(1), 1–9 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (6)

M. Grätzel, “The light and shade of perovskite solar cells,” Nat. Mater. 13(9), 838–842 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Luo, J.-H. Im, M. T. Mayer, M. Schreier, M. K. Nazeeruddin, N.-G. Park, S. D. Tilley, H. J. Fan, and M. Grätzel, “Water photolysis at 12.3% efficiency via perovskite photovoltaics and Earth-abundant catalysts,” Science 345(6204), 1593–1596 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z.-K. Tan, R. S. Moghaddam, M. L. Lai, P. Docampo, R. Higler, F. Deschler, M. Price, A. Sadhanala, L. M. Pazos, D. Credgington, F. Hanusch, T. Bein, H. J. Snaith, and R. H. Friend, “Bright light-emitting diodes based on organometal halide perovskite,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(9), 687–692 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Lin, A. Armin, R. C. R. Nagiri, P. L. Burn, and P. Meredith, “Electro-optics of perovskite solar cells,” Nat. Photonics 9(2), 106–112 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Xiao, F. Huang, W. Huang, Y. Dkhissi, Y. Zhu, J. Etheridge, A. Gray-Weale, U. Bach, Y. B. Cheng, and L. Spiccia, “A fast deposition-crystallization procedure for highly efficient lead iodide perovskite thin-film solar cells,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 53(37), 9898–9903 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. C. Sum and N. Mathews, “Advancements in perovskite solar cells: photophysics behind the photovoltaics,” Energy Environ. Sci. 7(8), 2518–2534 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (5)

W. Zhang, M. Saliba, S. D. Stranks, Y. Sun, X. Shi, U. Wiesner, and H. J. Snaith, “Enhancement of perovskite-based solar cells employing core-shell metal nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 13(9), 4505–4510 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Burschka, N. Pellet, S.-J. Moon, R. Humphry-Baker, P. Gao, M. K. Nazeeruddin, and M. Grätzel, “Sequential deposition as a route to high-performance perovskite-sensitized solar cells,” Nature 499(7458), 316–319 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Liu, M. B. Johnston, and H. J. Snaith, “Efficient planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells by vapour deposition,” Nature 501(7467), 395–398 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Liu and T. L. Kelly, “Perovskite solar cells with a planar heterojunction structure prepared using room-temperature solution processing techniques,” Nat. Photonics 8(2), 133–138 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. D. Stranks, G. E. Eperon, G. Grancini, C. Menelaou, M. J. Alcocer, T. Leijtens, L. M. Herz, A. Petrozza, and H. J. Snaith, “Electron-hole diffusion lengths exceeding 1 micrometer in an organometal trihalide perovskite absorber,” Science 342(6156), 341–344 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (1)

J.-W. Liu, H.-W. Liang, and S.-H. Yu, “Macroscopic-Scale Assembled Nanowire Thin Films and Their Functionalities,” Chem. Rev. 112(8), 4770–4799 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

K. Aydin, V. E. Ferry, R. M. Briggs, and H. A. Atwater, “Broadband polarization-independent resonant light absorption using ultrathin plasmonic super absorbers,” Nat. Commun. 2, 517 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

M. G. Kang, T. Xu, H. J. Park, X. Luo, and L. J. Guo, “Efficiency enhancement of organic solar cells using transparent plasmonic Ag nanowire electrodes,” Adv. Mater. 22(39), 4378–4383 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. A. Atwater and A. Polman, “Plasmonics for improved photovoltaic devices,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 205–213 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

A. Kojima, K. Teshima, Y. Shirai, and T. Miyasaka, “Organometal Halide Perovskites as Visible-Light Sensitizers for Photovoltaic Cells,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131(17), 6050–6051 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

S. Pillai, K. Catchpole, T. Trupke, and M. Green, “Surface plasmon enhanced silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(9), 093105 (2007).
[Crossref]

Adinolfi, V.

D. Shi, V. Adinolfi, R. Comin, M. Yuan, E. Alarousu, A. Buin, Y. Chen, S. Hoogland, A. Rothenberger, K. Katsiev, Y. Losovyj, X. Zhang, P. A. Dowben, O. F. Mohammed, E. H. Sargent, and O. M. Bakr, “Low trap-state density and long carrier diffusion in organolead trihalide perovskite single crystals,” Science 347(6221), 519–522 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alarousu, E.

D. Shi, V. Adinolfi, R. Comin, M. Yuan, E. Alarousu, A. Buin, Y. Chen, S. Hoogland, A. Rothenberger, K. Katsiev, Y. Losovyj, X. Zhang, P. A. Dowben, O. F. Mohammed, E. H. Sargent, and O. M. Bakr, “Low trap-state density and long carrier diffusion in organolead trihalide perovskite single crystals,” Science 347(6221), 519–522 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alcocer, M. J.

S. D. Stranks, G. E. Eperon, G. Grancini, C. Menelaou, M. J. Alcocer, T. Leijtens, L. M. Herz, A. Petrozza, and H. J. Snaith, “Electron-hole diffusion lengths exceeding 1 micrometer in an organometal trihalide perovskite absorber,” Science 342(6156), 341–344 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Anaya, M.

M. Anaya, G. Lozano, M. E. Calvo, W. Zhang, M. B. Johnston, H. J. Snaith, and H. Míguez, “Optical description of mesostructured organic-inorganic halide perovskite solar cells,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 6(1), 48–53 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Zhang, M. Anaya, G. Lozano, M. E. Calvo, M. B. Johnston, H. Míguez, and H. J. Snaith, “Highly efficient perovskite solar cells with tunable structural color,” Nano Lett. 15(3), 1698–1702 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Armin, A.

Q. Lin, A. Armin, P. L. Burn, and P. Meredith, “Filterless narrowband visible photodetectors,” Nat. Photonics 9(10), 687–694 (2015).
[Crossref]

Q. Lin, A. Armin, R. C. R. Nagiri, P. L. Burn, and P. Meredith, “Electro-optics of perovskite solar cells,” Nat. Photonics 9(2), 106–112 (2014).
[Crossref]

Atwater, H. A.

K. Aydin, V. E. Ferry, R. M. Briggs, and H. A. Atwater, “Broadband polarization-independent resonant light absorption using ultrathin plasmonic super absorbers,” Nat. Commun. 2, 517 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. A. Atwater and A. Polman, “Plasmonics for improved photovoltaic devices,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 205–213 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aydin, K.

K. Aydin, V. E. Ferry, R. M. Briggs, and H. A. Atwater, “Broadband polarization-independent resonant light absorption using ultrathin plasmonic super absorbers,” Nat. Commun. 2, 517 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bach, U.

M. Xiao, F. Huang, W. Huang, Y. Dkhissi, Y. Zhu, J. Etheridge, A. Gray-Weale, U. Bach, Y. B. Cheng, and L. Spiccia, “A fast deposition-crystallization procedure for highly efficient lead iodide perovskite thin-film solar cells,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 53(37), 9898–9903 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bai, S.

Z. Yuan, Z. Wu, S. Bai, Z. Xia, W. Xu, T. Song, H. Wu, L. Xu, J. Si, Y. Jin, and B. Sun, “Hot-Electron Injection in a Sandwiched TiOx-Au-TiOx Structure for High-Performance Planar Perovskite Solar Cells,” Adv. Energy Mater. 5(10), 1500038 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bakr, O. M.

D. Shi, V. Adinolfi, R. Comin, M. Yuan, E. Alarousu, A. Buin, Y. Chen, S. Hoogland, A. Rothenberger, K. Katsiev, Y. Losovyj, X. Zhang, P. A. Dowben, O. F. Mohammed, E. H. Sargent, and O. M. Bakr, “Low trap-state density and long carrier diffusion in organolead trihalide perovskite single crystals,” Science 347(6221), 519–522 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ball, J. M.

J. M. Ball, S. D. Stranks, M. T. Hörantner, S. Hüttner, W. Zhang, E. J. Crossland, I. Ramirez, M. Riede, M. B. Johnston, R. H. Friend, and H. J. Snaith, “Optical properties and limiting photocurrent of thin-film perovskite solar cells,” Energy Environ. Sci. 8(2), 602–609 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ballif, C.

P. Löper, M. Stuckelberger, B. Niesen, J. Werner, M. Filipič, S.-J. Moon, J.-H. M. Yum, M. Topič, S. De Wolf, and C. Ballif, “Complex refractive index spectra of CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite thin films determined by spectroscopic ellipsometry and spectrophotometry,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 6(1), 66–71 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bein, T.

Z.-K. Tan, R. S. Moghaddam, M. L. Lai, P. Docampo, R. Higler, F. Deschler, M. Price, A. Sadhanala, L. M. Pazos, D. Credgington, F. Hanusch, T. Bein, H. J. Snaith, and R. H. Friend, “Bright light-emitting diodes based on organometal halide perovskite,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(9), 687–692 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Briggs, R. M.

K. Aydin, V. E. Ferry, R. M. Briggs, and H. A. Atwater, “Broadband polarization-independent resonant light absorption using ultrathin plasmonic super absorbers,” Nat. Commun. 2, 517 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Buin, A.

D. Shi, V. Adinolfi, R. Comin, M. Yuan, E. Alarousu, A. Buin, Y. Chen, S. Hoogland, A. Rothenberger, K. Katsiev, Y. Losovyj, X. Zhang, P. A. Dowben, O. F. Mohammed, E. H. Sargent, and O. M. Bakr, “Low trap-state density and long carrier diffusion in organolead trihalide perovskite single crystals,” Science 347(6221), 519–522 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Burn, P. L.

Q. Lin, A. Armin, P. L. Burn, and P. Meredith, “Filterless narrowband visible photodetectors,” Nat. Photonics 9(10), 687–694 (2015).
[Crossref]

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M. Liu, M. B. Johnston, and H. J. Snaith, “Efficient planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells by vapour deposition,” Nature 501(7467), 395–398 (2013).
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K. Meng, S. Gao, L. Wu, G. Wang, X. Liu, G. Chen, Z. Liu, and G. Chen, “Two-dimensional organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite photonic films,” Nano Lett. 16(7), 4166–4173 (2016).
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K. Meng, S. Gao, L. Wu, G. Wang, X. Liu, G. Chen, Z. Liu, and G. Chen, “Two-dimensional organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite photonic films,” Nano Lett. 16(7), 4166–4173 (2016).
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D. Shi, V. Adinolfi, R. Comin, M. Yuan, E. Alarousu, A. Buin, Y. Chen, S. Hoogland, A. Rothenberger, K. Katsiev, Y. Losovyj, X. Zhang, P. A. Dowben, O. F. Mohammed, E. H. Sargent, and O. M. Bakr, “Low trap-state density and long carrier diffusion in organolead trihalide perovskite single crystals,” Science 347(6221), 519–522 (2015).
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W. Zhang, M. Anaya, G. Lozano, M. E. Calvo, M. B. Johnston, H. Míguez, and H. J. Snaith, “Highly efficient perovskite solar cells with tunable structural color,” Nano Lett. 15(3), 1698–1702 (2015).
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Z. Lu, X. Pan, Y. Ma, Y. Li, L. Zheng, D. Zhang, Q. Xu, Z. Chen, S. Wang, B. Qu, F. Liu, Y. Huang, L. Xiao, and Q. Gong, “Plasmonic-enhanced perovskite solar cells using alloy popcorn nanoparticles,” RSC Advances 5(15), 11175–11179 (2015).
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J. Luo, J.-H. Im, M. T. Mayer, M. Schreier, M. K. Nazeeruddin, N.-G. Park, S. D. Tilley, H. J. Fan, and M. Grätzel, “Water photolysis at 12.3% efficiency via perovskite photovoltaics and Earth-abundant catalysts,” Science 345(6204), 1593–1596 (2014).
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M. G. Kang, T. Xu, H. J. Park, X. Luo, and L. J. Guo, “Efficiency enhancement of organic solar cells using transparent plasmonic Ag nanowire electrodes,” Adv. Mater. 22(39), 4378–4383 (2010).
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Z. Lu, X. Pan, Y. Ma, Y. Li, L. Zheng, D. Zhang, Q. Xu, Z. Chen, S. Wang, B. Qu, F. Liu, Y. Huang, L. Xiao, and Q. Gong, “Plasmonic-enhanced perovskite solar cells using alloy popcorn nanoparticles,” RSC Advances 5(15), 11175–11179 (2015).
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T. C. Sum and N. Mathews, “Advancements in perovskite solar cells: photophysics behind the photovoltaics,” Energy Environ. Sci. 7(8), 2518–2534 (2014).
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Mayer, M. T.

J. Luo, J.-H. Im, M. T. Mayer, M. Schreier, M. K. Nazeeruddin, N.-G. Park, S. D. Tilley, H. J. Fan, and M. Grätzel, “Water photolysis at 12.3% efficiency via perovskite photovoltaics and Earth-abundant catalysts,” Science 345(6204), 1593–1596 (2014).
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S. D. Stranks, G. E. Eperon, G. Grancini, C. Menelaou, M. J. Alcocer, T. Leijtens, L. M. Herz, A. Petrozza, and H. J. Snaith, “Electron-hole diffusion lengths exceeding 1 micrometer in an organometal trihalide perovskite absorber,” Science 342(6156), 341–344 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Meng, K.

K. Meng, S. Gao, L. Wu, G. Wang, X. Liu, G. Chen, Z. Liu, and G. Chen, “Two-dimensional organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite photonic films,” Nano Lett. 16(7), 4166–4173 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Q. Lin, A. Armin, P. L. Burn, and P. Meredith, “Filterless narrowband visible photodetectors,” Nat. Photonics 9(10), 687–694 (2015).
[Crossref]

Q. Lin, A. Armin, R. C. R. Nagiri, P. L. Burn, and P. Meredith, “Electro-optics of perovskite solar cells,” Nat. Photonics 9(2), 106–112 (2014).
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W. Zhang, M. Anaya, G. Lozano, M. E. Calvo, M. B. Johnston, H. Míguez, and H. J. Snaith, “Highly efficient perovskite solar cells with tunable structural color,” Nano Lett. 15(3), 1698–1702 (2015).
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M. Anaya, G. Lozano, M. E. Calvo, W. Zhang, M. B. Johnston, H. J. Snaith, and H. Míguez, “Optical description of mesostructured organic-inorganic halide perovskite solar cells,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 6(1), 48–53 (2015).
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S. Carretero-Palacios, M. E. Calvo, and H. Míguez, “Absorption enhancement in organic-inorganic halide perovskite films with embedded plasmonic gold nanoparticles,” J Phys Chem C Nanomater Interfaces 119(32), 18635–18640 (2015).
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A. Kojima, K. Teshima, Y. Shirai, and T. Miyasaka, “Organometal Halide Perovskites as Visible-Light Sensitizers for Photovoltaic Cells,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131(17), 6050–6051 (2009).
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Z.-K. Tan, R. S. Moghaddam, M. L. Lai, P. Docampo, R. Higler, F. Deschler, M. Price, A. Sadhanala, L. M. Pazos, D. Credgington, F. Hanusch, T. Bein, H. J. Snaith, and R. H. Friend, “Bright light-emitting diodes based on organometal halide perovskite,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(9), 687–692 (2014).
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D. Shi, V. Adinolfi, R. Comin, M. Yuan, E. Alarousu, A. Buin, Y. Chen, S. Hoogland, A. Rothenberger, K. Katsiev, Y. Losovyj, X. Zhang, P. A. Dowben, O. F. Mohammed, E. H. Sargent, and O. M. Bakr, “Low trap-state density and long carrier diffusion in organolead trihalide perovskite single crystals,” Science 347(6221), 519–522 (2015).
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P. Löper, M. Stuckelberger, B. Niesen, J. Werner, M. Filipič, S.-J. Moon, J.-H. M. Yum, M. Topič, S. De Wolf, and C. Ballif, “Complex refractive index spectra of CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite thin films determined by spectroscopic ellipsometry and spectrophotometry,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 6(1), 66–71 (2015).
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J. Burschka, N. Pellet, S.-J. Moon, R. Humphry-Baker, P. Gao, M. K. Nazeeruddin, and M. Grätzel, “Sequential deposition as a route to high-performance perovskite-sensitized solar cells,” Nature 499(7458), 316–319 (2013).
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Q. Lin, A. Armin, R. C. R. Nagiri, P. L. Burn, and P. Meredith, “Electro-optics of perovskite solar cells,” Nat. Photonics 9(2), 106–112 (2014).
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J. Luo, J.-H. Im, M. T. Mayer, M. Schreier, M. K. Nazeeruddin, N.-G. Park, S. D. Tilley, H. J. Fan, and M. Grätzel, “Water photolysis at 12.3% efficiency via perovskite photovoltaics and Earth-abundant catalysts,” Science 345(6204), 1593–1596 (2014).
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J. Burschka, N. Pellet, S.-J. Moon, R. Humphry-Baker, P. Gao, M. K. Nazeeruddin, and M. Grätzel, “Sequential deposition as a route to high-performance perovskite-sensitized solar cells,” Nature 499(7458), 316–319 (2013).
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P. Löper, M. Stuckelberger, B. Niesen, J. Werner, M. Filipič, S.-J. Moon, J.-H. M. Yum, M. Topič, S. De Wolf, and C. Ballif, “Complex refractive index spectra of CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite thin films determined by spectroscopic ellipsometry and spectrophotometry,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 6(1), 66–71 (2015).
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N. J. Jeon, J. H. Noh, W. S. Yang, Y. C. Kim, S. Ryu, J. Seo, and S. I. Seok, “Compositional engineering of perovskite materials for high-performance solar cells,” Nature 517(7535), 476–480 (2015).
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Z. Lu, X. Pan, Y. Ma, Y. Li, L. Zheng, D. Zhang, Q. Xu, Z. Chen, S. Wang, B. Qu, F. Liu, Y. Huang, L. Xiao, and Q. Gong, “Plasmonic-enhanced perovskite solar cells using alloy popcorn nanoparticles,” RSC Advances 5(15), 11175–11179 (2015).
[Crossref]

Park, H. J.

M. G. Kang, T. Xu, H. J. Park, X. Luo, and L. J. Guo, “Efficiency enhancement of organic solar cells using transparent plasmonic Ag nanowire electrodes,” Adv. Mater. 22(39), 4378–4383 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Park, N.-G.

J. Luo, J.-H. Im, M. T. Mayer, M. Schreier, M. K. Nazeeruddin, N.-G. Park, S. D. Tilley, H. J. Fan, and M. Grätzel, “Water photolysis at 12.3% efficiency via perovskite photovoltaics and Earth-abundant catalysts,” Science 345(6204), 1593–1596 (2014).
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Z.-K. Tan, R. S. Moghaddam, M. L. Lai, P. Docampo, R. Higler, F. Deschler, M. Price, A. Sadhanala, L. M. Pazos, D. Credgington, F. Hanusch, T. Bein, H. J. Snaith, and R. H. Friend, “Bright light-emitting diodes based on organometal halide perovskite,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(9), 687–692 (2014).
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J. Burschka, N. Pellet, S.-J. Moon, R. Humphry-Baker, P. Gao, M. K. Nazeeruddin, and M. Grätzel, “Sequential deposition as a route to high-performance perovskite-sensitized solar cells,” Nature 499(7458), 316–319 (2013).
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F. Chen, J. Li, F. Yu, D. Zhao, F. Wang, Y. Chen, R.-W. Peng, and M. Wang, “Construction of 3D Metallic Nanostructures on an Arbitrarily Shaped Substrate,” Adv. Mater. 28(33), 7193–7199 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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S. D. Stranks, G. E. Eperon, G. Grancini, C. Menelaou, M. J. Alcocer, T. Leijtens, L. M. Herz, A. Petrozza, and H. J. Snaith, “Electron-hole diffusion lengths exceeding 1 micrometer in an organometal trihalide perovskite absorber,” Science 342(6156), 341–344 (2013).
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[Crossref] [PubMed]

Qu, B.

Z. Lu, X. Pan, Y. Ma, Y. Li, L. Zheng, D. Zhang, Q. Xu, Z. Chen, S. Wang, B. Qu, F. Liu, Y. Huang, L. Xiao, and Q. Gong, “Plasmonic-enhanced perovskite solar cells using alloy popcorn nanoparticles,” RSC Advances 5(15), 11175–11179 (2015).
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J. M. Ball, S. D. Stranks, M. T. Hörantner, S. Hüttner, W. Zhang, E. J. Crossland, I. Ramirez, M. Riede, M. B. Johnston, R. H. Friend, and H. J. Snaith, “Optical properties and limiting photocurrent of thin-film perovskite solar cells,” Energy Environ. Sci. 8(2), 602–609 (2015).
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Riede, M.

J. M. Ball, S. D. Stranks, M. T. Hörantner, S. Hüttner, W. Zhang, E. J. Crossland, I. Ramirez, M. Riede, M. B. Johnston, R. H. Friend, and H. J. Snaith, “Optical properties and limiting photocurrent of thin-film perovskite solar cells,” Energy Environ. Sci. 8(2), 602–609 (2015).
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D. Shi, V. Adinolfi, R. Comin, M. Yuan, E. Alarousu, A. Buin, Y. Chen, S. Hoogland, A. Rothenberger, K. Katsiev, Y. Losovyj, X. Zhang, P. A. Dowben, O. F. Mohammed, E. H. Sargent, and O. M. Bakr, “Low trap-state density and long carrier diffusion in organolead trihalide perovskite single crystals,” Science 347(6221), 519–522 (2015).
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N. J. Jeon, J. H. Noh, W. S. Yang, Y. C. Kim, S. Ryu, J. Seo, and S. I. Seok, “Compositional engineering of perovskite materials for high-performance solar cells,” Nature 517(7535), 476–480 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Z.-K. Tan, R. S. Moghaddam, M. L. Lai, P. Docampo, R. Higler, F. Deschler, M. Price, A. Sadhanala, L. M. Pazos, D. Credgington, F. Hanusch, T. Bein, H. J. Snaith, and R. H. Friend, “Bright light-emitting diodes based on organometal halide perovskite,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(9), 687–692 (2014).
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W. Zhang, M. Saliba, S. D. Stranks, Y. Sun, X. Shi, U. Wiesner, and H. J. Snaith, “Enhancement of perovskite-based solar cells employing core-shell metal nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 13(9), 4505–4510 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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D. Shi, V. Adinolfi, R. Comin, M. Yuan, E. Alarousu, A. Buin, Y. Chen, S. Hoogland, A. Rothenberger, K. Katsiev, Y. Losovyj, X. Zhang, P. A. Dowben, O. F. Mohammed, E. H. Sargent, and O. M. Bakr, “Low trap-state density and long carrier diffusion in organolead trihalide perovskite single crystals,” Science 347(6221), 519–522 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schreier, M.

J. Luo, J.-H. Im, M. T. Mayer, M. Schreier, M. K. Nazeeruddin, N.-G. Park, S. D. Tilley, H. J. Fan, and M. Grätzel, “Water photolysis at 12.3% efficiency via perovskite photovoltaics and Earth-abundant catalysts,” Science 345(6204), 1593–1596 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Seo, J.

N. J. Jeon, J. H. Noh, W. S. Yang, Y. C. Kim, S. Ryu, J. Seo, and S. I. Seok, “Compositional engineering of perovskite materials for high-performance solar cells,” Nature 517(7535), 476–480 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Seok, S. I.

N. J. Jeon, J. H. Noh, W. S. Yang, Y. C. Kim, S. Ryu, J. Seo, and S. I. Seok, “Compositional engineering of perovskite materials for high-performance solar cells,” Nature 517(7535), 476–480 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shi, D.

D. Shi, V. Adinolfi, R. Comin, M. Yuan, E. Alarousu, A. Buin, Y. Chen, S. Hoogland, A. Rothenberger, K. Katsiev, Y. Losovyj, X. Zhang, P. A. Dowben, O. F. Mohammed, E. H. Sargent, and O. M. Bakr, “Low trap-state density and long carrier diffusion in organolead trihalide perovskite single crystals,” Science 347(6221), 519–522 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shi, X.

W. Zhang, M. Saliba, S. D. Stranks, Y. Sun, X. Shi, U. Wiesner, and H. J. Snaith, “Enhancement of perovskite-based solar cells employing core-shell metal nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 13(9), 4505–4510 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shirai, Y.

A. Kojima, K. Teshima, Y. Shirai, and T. Miyasaka, “Organometal Halide Perovskites as Visible-Light Sensitizers for Photovoltaic Cells,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131(17), 6050–6051 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Si, J.

Z. Yuan, Z. Wu, S. Bai, Z. Xia, W. Xu, T. Song, H. Wu, L. Xu, J. Si, Y. Jin, and B. Sun, “Hot-Electron Injection in a Sandwiched TiOx-Au-TiOx Structure for High-Performance Planar Perovskite Solar Cells,” Adv. Energy Mater. 5(10), 1500038 (2015).
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Snaith, H. J.

J. M. Ball, S. D. Stranks, M. T. Hörantner, S. Hüttner, W. Zhang, E. J. Crossland, I. Ramirez, M. Riede, M. B. Johnston, R. H. Friend, and H. J. Snaith, “Optical properties and limiting photocurrent of thin-film perovskite solar cells,” Energy Environ. Sci. 8(2), 602–609 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Anaya, G. Lozano, M. E. Calvo, W. Zhang, M. B. Johnston, H. J. Snaith, and H. Míguez, “Optical description of mesostructured organic-inorganic halide perovskite solar cells,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 6(1), 48–53 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Zhang, M. Anaya, G. Lozano, M. E. Calvo, M. B. Johnston, H. Míguez, and H. J. Snaith, “Highly efficient perovskite solar cells with tunable structural color,” Nano Lett. 15(3), 1698–1702 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z.-K. Tan, R. S. Moghaddam, M. L. Lai, P. Docampo, R. Higler, F. Deschler, M. Price, A. Sadhanala, L. M. Pazos, D. Credgington, F. Hanusch, T. Bein, H. J. Snaith, and R. H. Friend, “Bright light-emitting diodes based on organometal halide perovskite,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(9), 687–692 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Liu, M. B. Johnston, and H. J. Snaith, “Efficient planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells by vapour deposition,” Nature 501(7467), 395–398 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. D. Stranks, G. E. Eperon, G. Grancini, C. Menelaou, M. J. Alcocer, T. Leijtens, L. M. Herz, A. Petrozza, and H. J. Snaith, “Electron-hole diffusion lengths exceeding 1 micrometer in an organometal trihalide perovskite absorber,” Science 342(6156), 341–344 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Zhang, M. Saliba, S. D. Stranks, Y. Sun, X. Shi, U. Wiesner, and H. J. Snaith, “Enhancement of perovskite-based solar cells employing core-shell metal nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 13(9), 4505–4510 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Song, T.

Z. Yuan, Z. Wu, S. Bai, Z. Xia, W. Xu, T. Song, H. Wu, L. Xu, J. Si, Y. Jin, and B. Sun, “Hot-Electron Injection in a Sandwiched TiOx-Au-TiOx Structure for High-Performance Planar Perovskite Solar Cells,” Adv. Energy Mater. 5(10), 1500038 (2015).
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M. Xiao, F. Huang, W. Huang, Y. Dkhissi, Y. Zhu, J. Etheridge, A. Gray-Weale, U. Bach, Y. B. Cheng, and L. Spiccia, “A fast deposition-crystallization procedure for highly efficient lead iodide perovskite thin-film solar cells,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 53(37), 9898–9903 (2014).
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Stranks, S. D.

J. M. Ball, S. D. Stranks, M. T. Hörantner, S. Hüttner, W. Zhang, E. J. Crossland, I. Ramirez, M. Riede, M. B. Johnston, R. H. Friend, and H. J. Snaith, “Optical properties and limiting photocurrent of thin-film perovskite solar cells,” Energy Environ. Sci. 8(2), 602–609 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. D. Stranks, G. E. Eperon, G. Grancini, C. Menelaou, M. J. Alcocer, T. Leijtens, L. M. Herz, A. Petrozza, and H. J. Snaith, “Electron-hole diffusion lengths exceeding 1 micrometer in an organometal trihalide perovskite absorber,” Science 342(6156), 341–344 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Zhang, M. Saliba, S. D. Stranks, Y. Sun, X. Shi, U. Wiesner, and H. J. Snaith, “Enhancement of perovskite-based solar cells employing core-shell metal nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 13(9), 4505–4510 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stuckelberger, M.

P. Löper, M. Stuckelberger, B. Niesen, J. Werner, M. Filipič, S.-J. Moon, J.-H. M. Yum, M. Topič, S. De Wolf, and C. Ballif, “Complex refractive index spectra of CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite thin films determined by spectroscopic ellipsometry and spectrophotometry,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 6(1), 66–71 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sum, T. C.

T. C. Sum and N. Mathews, “Advancements in perovskite solar cells: photophysics behind the photovoltaics,” Energy Environ. Sci. 7(8), 2518–2534 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sun, B.

Z. Yuan, Z. Wu, S. Bai, Z. Xia, W. Xu, T. Song, H. Wu, L. Xu, J. Si, Y. Jin, and B. Sun, “Hot-Electron Injection in a Sandwiched TiOx-Au-TiOx Structure for High-Performance Planar Perovskite Solar Cells,” Adv. Energy Mater. 5(10), 1500038 (2015).
[Crossref]

Sun, Y.

W. Zhang, M. Saliba, S. D. Stranks, Y. Sun, X. Shi, U. Wiesner, and H. J. Snaith, “Enhancement of perovskite-based solar cells employing core-shell metal nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 13(9), 4505–4510 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tan, Z.-K.

Z.-K. Tan, R. S. Moghaddam, M. L. Lai, P. Docampo, R. Higler, F. Deschler, M. Price, A. Sadhanala, L. M. Pazos, D. Credgington, F. Hanusch, T. Bein, H. J. Snaith, and R. H. Friend, “Bright light-emitting diodes based on organometal halide perovskite,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(9), 687–692 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tavakoli, M. M.

M. M. Tavakoli, K.-H. Tsui, Q. Zhang, J. He, Y. Yao, D. Li, and Z. Fan, “Highly efficient flexible perovskite solar cells with antireflection and self-cleaning nanostructures,” ACS Nano 9(10), 10287–10295 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Teshima, K.

A. Kojima, K. Teshima, Y. Shirai, and T. Miyasaka, “Organometal Halide Perovskites as Visible-Light Sensitizers for Photovoltaic Cells,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131(17), 6050–6051 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tilley, S. D.

J. Luo, J.-H. Im, M. T. Mayer, M. Schreier, M. K. Nazeeruddin, N.-G. Park, S. D. Tilley, H. J. Fan, and M. Grätzel, “Water photolysis at 12.3% efficiency via perovskite photovoltaics and Earth-abundant catalysts,” Science 345(6204), 1593–1596 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Topic, M.

P. Löper, M. Stuckelberger, B. Niesen, J. Werner, M. Filipič, S.-J. Moon, J.-H. M. Yum, M. Topič, S. De Wolf, and C. Ballif, “Complex refractive index spectra of CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite thin films determined by spectroscopic ellipsometry and spectrophotometry,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 6(1), 66–71 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Trupke, T.

S. Pillai, K. Catchpole, T. Trupke, and M. Green, “Surface plasmon enhanced silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(9), 093105 (2007).
[Crossref]

Tsui, K.-H.

M. M. Tavakoli, K.-H. Tsui, Q. Zhang, J. He, Y. Yao, D. Li, and Z. Fan, “Highly efficient flexible perovskite solar cells with antireflection and self-cleaning nanostructures,” ACS Nano 9(10), 10287–10295 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, F.

F. Chen, J. Li, F. Yu, D. Zhao, F. Wang, Y. Chen, R.-W. Peng, and M. Wang, “Construction of 3D Metallic Nanostructures on an Arbitrarily Shaped Substrate,” Adv. Mater. 28(33), 7193–7199 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, G.

K. Meng, S. Gao, L. Wu, G. Wang, X. Liu, G. Chen, Z. Liu, and G. Chen, “Two-dimensional organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite photonic films,” Nano Lett. 16(7), 4166–4173 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, M.

F. Chen, J. Li, F. Yu, D. Zhao, F. Wang, Y. Chen, R.-W. Peng, and M. Wang, “Construction of 3D Metallic Nanostructures on an Arbitrarily Shaped Substrate,” Adv. Mater. 28(33), 7193–7199 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, S.

Z. Lu, X. Pan, Y. Ma, Y. Li, L. Zheng, D. Zhang, Q. Xu, Z. Chen, S. Wang, B. Qu, F. Liu, Y. Huang, L. Xiao, and Q. Gong, “Plasmonic-enhanced perovskite solar cells using alloy popcorn nanoparticles,” RSC Advances 5(15), 11175–11179 (2015).
[Crossref]

Warta, W.

M. A. Green, K. Emery, Y. Hishikawa, W. Warta, and E. D. Dunlop, “Solar cell efficiency tables (Version 45),” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 23(1), 1–9 (2015).
[Crossref]

Werner, J.

P. Löper, M. Stuckelberger, B. Niesen, J. Werner, M. Filipič, S.-J. Moon, J.-H. M. Yum, M. Topič, S. De Wolf, and C. Ballif, “Complex refractive index spectra of CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite thin films determined by spectroscopic ellipsometry and spectrophotometry,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 6(1), 66–71 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wiesner, U.

W. Zhang, M. Saliba, S. D. Stranks, Y. Sun, X. Shi, U. Wiesner, and H. J. Snaith, “Enhancement of perovskite-based solar cells employing core-shell metal nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 13(9), 4505–4510 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, H.

Z. Yuan, Z. Wu, S. Bai, Z. Xia, W. Xu, T. Song, H. Wu, L. Xu, J. Si, Y. Jin, and B. Sun, “Hot-Electron Injection in a Sandwiched TiOx-Au-TiOx Structure for High-Performance Planar Perovskite Solar Cells,” Adv. Energy Mater. 5(10), 1500038 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wu, L.

K. Meng, S. Gao, L. Wu, G. Wang, X. Liu, G. Chen, Z. Liu, and G. Chen, “Two-dimensional organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite photonic films,” Nano Lett. 16(7), 4166–4173 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, Z.

Z. Yuan, Z. Wu, S. Bai, Z. Xia, W. Xu, T. Song, H. Wu, L. Xu, J. Si, Y. Jin, and B. Sun, “Hot-Electron Injection in a Sandwiched TiOx-Au-TiOx Structure for High-Performance Planar Perovskite Solar Cells,” Adv. Energy Mater. 5(10), 1500038 (2015).
[Crossref]

Xia, Z.

Z. Yuan, Z. Wu, S. Bai, Z. Xia, W. Xu, T. Song, H. Wu, L. Xu, J. Si, Y. Jin, and B. Sun, “Hot-Electron Injection in a Sandwiched TiOx-Au-TiOx Structure for High-Performance Planar Perovskite Solar Cells,” Adv. Energy Mater. 5(10), 1500038 (2015).
[Crossref]

Xiao, L.

Z. Lu, X. Pan, Y. Ma, Y. Li, L. Zheng, D. Zhang, Q. Xu, Z. Chen, S. Wang, B. Qu, F. Liu, Y. Huang, L. Xiao, and Q. Gong, “Plasmonic-enhanced perovskite solar cells using alloy popcorn nanoparticles,” RSC Advances 5(15), 11175–11179 (2015).
[Crossref]

Xiao, M.

M. Xiao, F. Huang, W. Huang, Y. Dkhissi, Y. Zhu, J. Etheridge, A. Gray-Weale, U. Bach, Y. B. Cheng, and L. Spiccia, “A fast deposition-crystallization procedure for highly efficient lead iodide perovskite thin-film solar cells,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 53(37), 9898–9903 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, L.

Z. Yuan, Z. Wu, S. Bai, Z. Xia, W. Xu, T. Song, H. Wu, L. Xu, J. Si, Y. Jin, and B. Sun, “Hot-Electron Injection in a Sandwiched TiOx-Au-TiOx Structure for High-Performance Planar Perovskite Solar Cells,” Adv. Energy Mater. 5(10), 1500038 (2015).
[Crossref]

Xu, Q.

Z. Lu, X. Pan, Y. Ma, Y. Li, L. Zheng, D. Zhang, Q. Xu, Z. Chen, S. Wang, B. Qu, F. Liu, Y. Huang, L. Xiao, and Q. Gong, “Plasmonic-enhanced perovskite solar cells using alloy popcorn nanoparticles,” RSC Advances 5(15), 11175–11179 (2015).
[Crossref]

Xu, T.

M. G. Kang, T. Xu, H. J. Park, X. Luo, and L. J. Guo, “Efficiency enhancement of organic solar cells using transparent plasmonic Ag nanowire electrodes,” Adv. Mater. 22(39), 4378–4383 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, W.

Z. Yuan, Z. Wu, S. Bai, Z. Xia, W. Xu, T. Song, H. Wu, L. Xu, J. Si, Y. Jin, and B. Sun, “Hot-Electron Injection in a Sandwiched TiOx-Au-TiOx Structure for High-Performance Planar Perovskite Solar Cells,” Adv. Energy Mater. 5(10), 1500038 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yang, C.-C.

H.-L. Hsu, T.-Y. Juang, C.-P. Chen, C.-M. Hsieh, C.-C. Yang, C.-L. Huang, and R.-J. Jeng, “Enhanced efficiency of organic and perovskite photovoltaics from shape-dependent broadband plasmonic effects of silver nanoplates,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 140, 224–231 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yang, W. S.

N. J. Jeon, J. H. Noh, W. S. Yang, Y. C. Kim, S. Ryu, J. Seo, and S. I. Seok, “Compositional engineering of perovskite materials for high-performance solar cells,” Nature 517(7535), 476–480 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yao, Y.

M. M. Tavakoli, K.-H. Tsui, Q. Zhang, J. He, Y. Yao, D. Li, and Z. Fan, “Highly efficient flexible perovskite solar cells with antireflection and self-cleaning nanostructures,” ACS Nano 9(10), 10287–10295 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, F.

F. Chen, J. Li, F. Yu, D. Zhao, F. Wang, Y. Chen, R.-W. Peng, and M. Wang, “Construction of 3D Metallic Nanostructures on an Arbitrarily Shaped Substrate,” Adv. Mater. 28(33), 7193–7199 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, S.-H.

J.-W. Liu, H.-W. Liang, and S.-H. Yu, “Macroscopic-Scale Assembled Nanowire Thin Films and Their Functionalities,” Chem. Rev. 112(8), 4770–4799 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yuan, M.

D. Shi, V. Adinolfi, R. Comin, M. Yuan, E. Alarousu, A. Buin, Y. Chen, S. Hoogland, A. Rothenberger, K. Katsiev, Y. Losovyj, X. Zhang, P. A. Dowben, O. F. Mohammed, E. H. Sargent, and O. M. Bakr, “Low trap-state density and long carrier diffusion in organolead trihalide perovskite single crystals,” Science 347(6221), 519–522 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yuan, Z.

Z. Yuan, Z. Wu, S. Bai, Z. Xia, W. Xu, T. Song, H. Wu, L. Xu, J. Si, Y. Jin, and B. Sun, “Hot-Electron Injection in a Sandwiched TiOx-Au-TiOx Structure for High-Performance Planar Perovskite Solar Cells,” Adv. Energy Mater. 5(10), 1500038 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yum, J.-H. M.

P. Löper, M. Stuckelberger, B. Niesen, J. Werner, M. Filipič, S.-J. Moon, J.-H. M. Yum, M. Topič, S. De Wolf, and C. Ballif, “Complex refractive index spectra of CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite thin films determined by spectroscopic ellipsometry and spectrophotometry,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 6(1), 66–71 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, D.

Z. Lu, X. Pan, Y. Ma, Y. Li, L. Zheng, D. Zhang, Q. Xu, Z. Chen, S. Wang, B. Qu, F. Liu, Y. Huang, L. Xiao, and Q. Gong, “Plasmonic-enhanced perovskite solar cells using alloy popcorn nanoparticles,” RSC Advances 5(15), 11175–11179 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Q.

M. M. Tavakoli, K.-H. Tsui, Q. Zhang, J. He, Y. Yao, D. Li, and Z. Fan, “Highly efficient flexible perovskite solar cells with antireflection and self-cleaning nanostructures,” ACS Nano 9(10), 10287–10295 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, W.

W. Zhang, M. Anaya, G. Lozano, M. E. Calvo, M. B. Johnston, H. Míguez, and H. J. Snaith, “Highly efficient perovskite solar cells with tunable structural color,” Nano Lett. 15(3), 1698–1702 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Anaya, G. Lozano, M. E. Calvo, W. Zhang, M. B. Johnston, H. J. Snaith, and H. Míguez, “Optical description of mesostructured organic-inorganic halide perovskite solar cells,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 6(1), 48–53 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Ball, S. D. Stranks, M. T. Hörantner, S. Hüttner, W. Zhang, E. J. Crossland, I. Ramirez, M. Riede, M. B. Johnston, R. H. Friend, and H. J. Snaith, “Optical properties and limiting photocurrent of thin-film perovskite solar cells,” Energy Environ. Sci. 8(2), 602–609 (2015).
[Crossref]

W. Zhang, M. Saliba, S. D. Stranks, Y. Sun, X. Shi, U. Wiesner, and H. J. Snaith, “Enhancement of perovskite-based solar cells employing core-shell metal nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 13(9), 4505–4510 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

D. Shi, V. Adinolfi, R. Comin, M. Yuan, E. Alarousu, A. Buin, Y. Chen, S. Hoogland, A. Rothenberger, K. Katsiev, Y. Losovyj, X. Zhang, P. A. Dowben, O. F. Mohammed, E. H. Sargent, and O. M. Bakr, “Low trap-state density and long carrier diffusion in organolead trihalide perovskite single crystals,” Science 347(6221), 519–522 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, D.

F. Chen, J. Li, F. Yu, D. Zhao, F. Wang, Y. Chen, R.-W. Peng, and M. Wang, “Construction of 3D Metallic Nanostructures on an Arbitrarily Shaped Substrate,” Adv. Mater. 28(33), 7193–7199 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zheng, L.

Z. Lu, X. Pan, Y. Ma, Y. Li, L. Zheng, D. Zhang, Q. Xu, Z. Chen, S. Wang, B. Qu, F. Liu, Y. Huang, L. Xiao, and Q. Gong, “Plasmonic-enhanced perovskite solar cells using alloy popcorn nanoparticles,” RSC Advances 5(15), 11175–11179 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhu, Y.

M. Xiao, F. Huang, W. Huang, Y. Dkhissi, Y. Zhu, J. Etheridge, A. Gray-Weale, U. Bach, Y. B. Cheng, and L. Spiccia, “A fast deposition-crystallization procedure for highly efficient lead iodide perovskite thin-film solar cells,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 53(37), 9898–9903 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

ACS Nano (1)

M. M. Tavakoli, K.-H. Tsui, Q. Zhang, J. He, Y. Yao, D. Li, and Z. Fan, “Highly efficient flexible perovskite solar cells with antireflection and self-cleaning nanostructures,” ACS Nano 9(10), 10287–10295 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adv. Energy Mater. (1)

Z. Yuan, Z. Wu, S. Bai, Z. Xia, W. Xu, T. Song, H. Wu, L. Xu, J. Si, Y. Jin, and B. Sun, “Hot-Electron Injection in a Sandwiched TiOx-Au-TiOx Structure for High-Performance Planar Perovskite Solar Cells,” Adv. Energy Mater. 5(10), 1500038 (2015).
[Crossref]

Adv. Mater. (2)

M. G. Kang, T. Xu, H. J. Park, X. Luo, and L. J. Guo, “Efficiency enhancement of organic solar cells using transparent plasmonic Ag nanowire electrodes,” Adv. Mater. 22(39), 4378–4383 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Chen, J. Li, F. Yu, D. Zhao, F. Wang, Y. Chen, R.-W. Peng, and M. Wang, “Construction of 3D Metallic Nanostructures on an Arbitrarily Shaped Substrate,” Adv. Mater. 28(33), 7193–7199 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. (1)

M. Xiao, F. Huang, W. Huang, Y. Dkhissi, Y. Zhu, J. Etheridge, A. Gray-Weale, U. Bach, Y. B. Cheng, and L. Spiccia, “A fast deposition-crystallization procedure for highly efficient lead iodide perovskite thin-film solar cells,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 53(37), 9898–9903 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chem. Rev. (1)

J.-W. Liu, H.-W. Liang, and S.-H. Yu, “Macroscopic-Scale Assembled Nanowire Thin Films and Their Functionalities,” Chem. Rev. 112(8), 4770–4799 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Energy Environ. Sci. (2)

T. C. Sum and N. Mathews, “Advancements in perovskite solar cells: photophysics behind the photovoltaics,” Energy Environ. Sci. 7(8), 2518–2534 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. M. Ball, S. D. Stranks, M. T. Hörantner, S. Hüttner, W. Zhang, E. J. Crossland, I. Ramirez, M. Riede, M. B. Johnston, R. H. Friend, and H. J. Snaith, “Optical properties and limiting photocurrent of thin-film perovskite solar cells,” Energy Environ. Sci. 8(2), 602–609 (2015).
[Crossref]

J Phys Chem C Nanomater Interfaces (1)

S. Carretero-Palacios, M. E. Calvo, and H. Míguez, “Absorption enhancement in organic-inorganic halide perovskite films with embedded plasmonic gold nanoparticles,” J Phys Chem C Nanomater Interfaces 119(32), 18635–18640 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

A. Kojima, K. Teshima, Y. Shirai, and T. Miyasaka, “Organometal Halide Perovskites as Visible-Light Sensitizers for Photovoltaic Cells,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131(17), 6050–6051 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

S. Pillai, K. Catchpole, T. Trupke, and M. Green, “Surface plasmon enhanced silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(9), 093105 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. Chem. Lett. (2)

P. Löper, M. Stuckelberger, B. Niesen, J. Werner, M. Filipič, S.-J. Moon, J.-H. M. Yum, M. Topič, S. De Wolf, and C. Ballif, “Complex refractive index spectra of CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite thin films determined by spectroscopic ellipsometry and spectrophotometry,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 6(1), 66–71 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Anaya, G. Lozano, M. E. Calvo, W. Zhang, M. B. Johnston, H. J. Snaith, and H. Míguez, “Optical description of mesostructured organic-inorganic halide perovskite solar cells,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 6(1), 48–53 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nano Lett. (3)

K. Meng, S. Gao, L. Wu, G. Wang, X. Liu, G. Chen, Z. Liu, and G. Chen, “Two-dimensional organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite photonic films,” Nano Lett. 16(7), 4166–4173 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Zhang, M. Saliba, S. D. Stranks, Y. Sun, X. Shi, U. Wiesner, and H. J. Snaith, “Enhancement of perovskite-based solar cells employing core-shell metal nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 13(9), 4505–4510 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Zhang, M. Anaya, G. Lozano, M. E. Calvo, M. B. Johnston, H. Míguez, and H. J. Snaith, “Highly efficient perovskite solar cells with tunable structural color,” Nano Lett. 15(3), 1698–1702 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Commun. (1)

K. Aydin, V. E. Ferry, R. M. Briggs, and H. A. Atwater, “Broadband polarization-independent resonant light absorption using ultrathin plasmonic super absorbers,” Nat. Commun. 2, 517 (2011).
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Nat. Mater. (2)

H. A. Atwater and A. Polman, “Plasmonics for improved photovoltaic devices,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 205–213 (2010).
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M. Grätzel, “The light and shade of perovskite solar cells,” Nat. Mater. 13(9), 838–842 (2014).
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Nat. Nanotechnol. (1)

Z.-K. Tan, R. S. Moghaddam, M. L. Lai, P. Docampo, R. Higler, F. Deschler, M. Price, A. Sadhanala, L. M. Pazos, D. Credgington, F. Hanusch, T. Bein, H. J. Snaith, and R. H. Friend, “Bright light-emitting diodes based on organometal halide perovskite,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(9), 687–692 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (3)

D. Liu and T. L. Kelly, “Perovskite solar cells with a planar heterojunction structure prepared using room-temperature solution processing techniques,” Nat. Photonics 8(2), 133–138 (2013).
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Q. Lin, A. Armin, R. C. R. Nagiri, P. L. Burn, and P. Meredith, “Electro-optics of perovskite solar cells,” Nat. Photonics 9(2), 106–112 (2014).
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Q. Lin, A. Armin, P. L. Burn, and P. Meredith, “Filterless narrowband visible photodetectors,” Nat. Photonics 9(10), 687–694 (2015).
[Crossref]

Nature (3)

J. Burschka, N. Pellet, S.-J. Moon, R. Humphry-Baker, P. Gao, M. K. Nazeeruddin, and M. Grätzel, “Sequential deposition as a route to high-performance perovskite-sensitized solar cells,” Nature 499(7458), 316–319 (2013).
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M. Liu, M. B. Johnston, and H. J. Snaith, “Efficient planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells by vapour deposition,” Nature 501(7467), 395–398 (2013).
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N. J. Jeon, J. H. Noh, W. S. Yang, Y. C. Kim, S. Ryu, J. Seo, and S. I. Seok, “Compositional engineering of perovskite materials for high-performance solar cells,” Nature 517(7535), 476–480 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. (1)

M. A. Green, K. Emery, Y. Hishikawa, W. Warta, and E. D. Dunlop, “Solar cell efficiency tables (Version 45),” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 23(1), 1–9 (2015).
[Crossref]

RSC Advances (1)

Z. Lu, X. Pan, Y. Ma, Y. Li, L. Zheng, D. Zhang, Q. Xu, Z. Chen, S. Wang, B. Qu, F. Liu, Y. Huang, L. Xiao, and Q. Gong, “Plasmonic-enhanced perovskite solar cells using alloy popcorn nanoparticles,” RSC Advances 5(15), 11175–11179 (2015).
[Crossref]

Science (3)

J. Luo, J.-H. Im, M. T. Mayer, M. Schreier, M. K. Nazeeruddin, N.-G. Park, S. D. Tilley, H. J. Fan, and M. Grätzel, “Water photolysis at 12.3% efficiency via perovskite photovoltaics and Earth-abundant catalysts,” Science 345(6204), 1593–1596 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Shi, V. Adinolfi, R. Comin, M. Yuan, E. Alarousu, A. Buin, Y. Chen, S. Hoogland, A. Rothenberger, K. Katsiev, Y. Losovyj, X. Zhang, P. A. Dowben, O. F. Mohammed, E. H. Sargent, and O. M. Bakr, “Low trap-state density and long carrier diffusion in organolead trihalide perovskite single crystals,” Science 347(6221), 519–522 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. D. Stranks, G. E. Eperon, G. Grancini, C. Menelaou, M. J. Alcocer, T. Leijtens, L. M. Herz, A. Petrozza, and H. J. Snaith, “Electron-hole diffusion lengths exceeding 1 micrometer in an organometal trihalide perovskite absorber,” Science 342(6156), 341–344 (2013).
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Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells (1)

H.-L. Hsu, T.-Y. Juang, C.-P. Chen, C.-M. Hsieh, C.-C. Yang, C.-L. Huang, and R.-J. Jeng, “Enhanced efficiency of organic and perovskite photovoltaics from shape-dependent broadband plasmonic effects of silver nanoplates,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 140, 224–231 (2015).
[Crossref]

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic diagrams of the glass-perovskite-spiro-OMeTAD model systems containing the AgNW array (a) and nanocross (b).
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 The integrated solar absorption enhancement η of perovskite films plotted as functions of the AgNW radius, R, and the array period, L, for the film thickness, H = 200 nm, under Px (a) and Py (c), and H = 300 nm, under Px (b) and Py (d) polarized light.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 The absorptance spectra of the 200-nm perovskite film with AgNW arrays illuminated with Px and Py polarized light propagating along z axis. The AgNW radius and the array period are 70 and 400 nm, respectively. The insets 1-4 are the 3D absorption ( P abs ) profiles of a unit cell taken at the peak positions 1-4 with the corresponding wavelengths of 609, 675, 605 and 682 nm, respectively.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) The integrated solar absorption enhancement η plotted as a function of the AgNW array position (along the z-axis and at the center of the films, z = 0) for perovskite films of thicknesses H = 200 and 300 nm under Px and Py polarized light. The absorptance spectra of the 200-nm perovskite films simulated under Px (b) and Py (c) polarizations at various z positions. The insets of (b) and (c) are the 3D absorption ( P abs ) profiles of a unit cell taken at the peak positions 1-6.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) The η values of perovskite films with AgNW arrays and nanocrosses are plotted as a function of the polarization angle. The absorptance spectra of the 300-nm perovskite films with AgNW crosses (b) and arrays (c) embedded for different polarization directions.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) The integrated solar absorption enhancement η of the 200 and 300-nm perovskite films plotted as a function of the AgNW radius R for nanocrosses with L = 400 nm. (b-c) The absorptance spectra taken at the conditions of the maximum enhancement points “A” and “B”. The insets are the corresponding 3D absorption ( P abs ) profiles of a unit cell obtained at the peak positions “I” and “II”.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 The normalized integrated solar absorption as a function of the incident angle for perovskite films embedded with AgNW arrays and nanocrosses under Px and Py polarizations.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Cross-sectional views of the boundary conditions and the monitor positions used in the simulations for the perovskite films containing the AgNW array (a) and nanocross (b). For AgNW arrays, in order to reduce computation time, the 2D power absorption monitor was used. For nanocrosses, the 3D power absorption monitor was applied in the simulations [only the cross-sectional view is given in (b)]
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 2D absorption profile (in the x-z plane) for a unit cell of the 200-nm thick pure perovskite film (planar structure) taken at the wavelength of 609 nm. The light is Px polarization and propagates along the z axis.

Equations (2)

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P abs ( x,y,z,λ )= π ε 0 c λ ε( λ ) | E( x,y,z,λ ) | 2 P in ( λ ) ,
η= 330 800 α p ( λ )AM1.5dλ 330 800 α ref ( λ )AM1.5dλ .

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