Abstract

Attosecond pump-probe measurements are typically performed by combining attosecond pulses with more intense femtosecond, phase-locked infrared (IR) pulses because of the low average photon flux of attosecond light sources based on high-harmonic generation (HHG). Furthermore, the strong absorption of materials at the extreme ultraviolet (XUV) wavelengths of the attosecond pulses typically prevents the use of transmissive optics. As a result, pump and probe beams are typically recombined geometrically with a center-hole mirror that reflects the larger IR beam and transmits the smaller XUV, which leads to an annular beam profile of the IR. This modification of the IR beam can affect the pump-probe measurements because the propagation that follows the reflection on the center-hole mirror can strongly deviate from that of an ideal Gaussian beam. Here we present a detailed experimental study of the Gouy phase of an annular IR beam across the focus using a two-foci attosecond beamline and the RABBITT (reconstruction of attosecond beating by interference of two-photon transitions) technique. Our measurements show a Gouy phase shift of the truncated beam as large as 2π and a corresponding rate of 50 as/mm time delay change across the focus in a RABBITT measurement. These results are essential for attosecond pump-probe experiments that compare measurements of spatially separated targets.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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References

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2016 (4)

S. Heuser, Á. Jiménez Galán, C. Cirelli, C. Marante, M. Sabbar, R. Boge, M. Lucchini, L. Gallmann, I. Ivanov, A. S. Kheifets, J. M. Dahlström, E. Lindroth, L. Argenti, F. Martín, and U. Keller, “Angular dependence of photoemission time delay in helium,” Phys. Rev. A 94(6), 063409 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Lucchini, S. A. Sato, A. Ludwig, J. Herrmann, M. Volkov, L. Kasmi, Y. Shinohara, K. Yabana, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Attosecond dynamical Franz-Keldysh effect in polycrystalline diamond,” Science 353(6302), 916–919 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Tao, C. Chen, T. Szilvási, M. Keller, M. Mavrikakis, H. Kapteyn, and M. Murnane, “Direct time-domain observation of attosecond final-state lifetimes in photoemission from solids,” Science 353(6294), 62–67 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Cattaneo, J. Vos, M. Lucchini, L. Gallmann, C. Cirelli, and U. Keller, “Comparison of attosecond streaking and RABBITT,” Opt. Express 24(25), 29060–29076 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (4)

R. Locher, L. Castiglioni, M. Lucchini, M. Greif, L. Gallmann, J. Osterwalder, M. Hengsberger, and U. Keller, “Energy-dependent photoemission delays from noble metal surfaces by attosecond interferometry,” Optica 2(5), 405–410 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Cirelli, M. Sabbar, S. Heuser, R. Boge, M. Lucchini, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Energy-Dependent Photoemission Time Delays of Noble Gas Atoms Using Coincidence Attosecond Streaking,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(5), 1 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Sabbar, S. Heuser, R. Boge, M. Lucchini, T. Carette, E. Lindroth, L. Gallmann, C. Cirelli, and U. Keller, “Resonance Effects in Photoemission Time Delays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(13), 133001 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Lucchini, L. Castiglioni, L. Kasmi, P. Kliuiev, A. Ludwig, M. Greif, J. Osterwalder, M. Hengsberger, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Light-Matter Interaction at Surfaces in the Spatiotemporal Limit of Macroscopic Models,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(13), 137401 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (4)

C. Palatchi, J. M. Dahlström, A. S. Kheifets, I. A. Ivanov, D. M. Canaday, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “Atomic delay in helium, neon, argon and krypton,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 47(24), 245003 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Guénot, D. Kroon, E. Balogh, E. W. Larsen, M. Kotur, M. Miranda, T. Fordell, P. Johnsson, J. Mauritsson, M. Gisselbrecht, K. Varjù, C. L. Arnold, T. Carette, A. S. Kheifets, E. Lindroth, A. L’Huillier, and J. M. Dahlström, “Measurements of relative photoemission time delays in noble gas atoms,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 47(24), 245602 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. Locher, M. Lucchini, J. Herrmann, M. Sabbar, M. Weger, A. Ludwig, L. Castiglioni, M. Greif, M. Hengsberger, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Versatile attosecond beamline in a two-foci configuration for simultaneous time-resolved measurements,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85(1), 013113 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Schultze, K. Ramasesha, C. D. Pemmaraju, S. A. Sato, D. Whitmore, A. Gandman, J. S. Prell, L. J. Borja, D. Prendergast, K. Yabana, D. M. Neumark, and S. R. Leone, “Ultrafast dynamics. Attosecond band-gap dynamics in silicon,” Science 346(6215), 1348–1352 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (3)

J. M. Dahlström, A. L’Huillier, and A. Maquet, “Introduction to attosecond delays in photoionization,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 45(18), 183001 (2012).
[Crossref]

L. Gallmann, C. Cirelli, and U. Keller, “Attosecond Science: Recent Highlights and Future Trends,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 63(1), 447–469 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Schultze, E. M. Bothschafter, A. Sommer, S. Holzner, W. Schweinberger, M. Fiess, M. Hofstetter, R. Kienberger, V. Apalkov, V. S. Yakovlev, M. I. Stockman, and F. Krausz, “Controlling dielectrics with the electric field of light,” Nature 493(7430), 75–78 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

K. Klünder, J. M. Dahlström, M. Gisselbrecht, T. Fordell, M. Swoboda, D. Guénot, P. Johnsson, J. Caillat, J. Mauritsson, A. Maquet, R. Taïeb, and A. L’Huillier, “Probing single-photon ionization on the attosecond time scale,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(14), 143002 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

M. Schultze, M. Fiess, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, T. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science 328(5986), 1658–1662 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Shivaram, A. Roberts, L. Xu, and A. Sandhu, “In situ spatial mapping of Gouy phase slip for high-detail attosecond pump-probe measurements,” Opt. Lett. 35(20), 3312–3314 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

F. Krausz and M. Ivanov, “Attosecond physics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81(1), 163–234 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. Haessler, B. Fabre, J. Higuet, J. Caillat, T. Ruchon, P. Breger, B. Carré, E. Constant, A. Maquet, E. Mével, P. Salières, R. Taïeb, and Y. Mairesse, “Phase-resolved attosecond near-threshold photoionization of molecular nitrogen,” Phys. Rev. A 80(1), 011404 (2009).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, T. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuška, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature 449(7165), 1029–1032 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

F. Lindner, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, A. Baltuška, E. Goulielmakis, M. Lezius, and F. Krausz, “Gouy phase shift for few-cycle laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(11), 113001 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

H. G. Muller, “Reconstruction of attosecond harmonic beating by interference of two-photon transitions,” Appl. Phys. B Lasers Opt. 74(S1), 17–21 (2002).
[Crossref]

J. Itatani, F. Quéré, G. L. Yudin, M. Yu. Ivanov, F. Krausz, and P. B. Corkum, “Attosecond streak camera,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(17), 173903 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (3)

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414(6863), 509–513 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Augé, P. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a Train of Attosecond Pulses from High Harmonic Generation,” Science 292(5522), 1689–1692 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Feng and H. G. Winful, “Physical origin of the Gouy phase shift,” Opt. Lett. 26(8), 485–487 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1955 (1)

E. P. Wigner, “Lower Limit for the Energy Derivative of the Scattering Phase Shift,” Phys. Rev. 98(1), 145–147 (1955).
[Crossref]

1890 (1)

L. G. Gouy, “Sur une propriété nouvelle des ondes lumineuses,” C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris. 110, 1251–1253 (1890).

Agostini, P.

C. Palatchi, J. M. Dahlström, A. S. Kheifets, I. A. Ivanov, D. M. Canaday, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “Atomic delay in helium, neon, argon and krypton,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 47(24), 245003 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Augé, P. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a Train of Attosecond Pulses from High Harmonic Generation,” Science 292(5522), 1689–1692 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Apalkov, V.

M. Schultze, E. M. Bothschafter, A. Sommer, S. Holzner, W. Schweinberger, M. Fiess, M. Hofstetter, R. Kienberger, V. Apalkov, V. S. Yakovlev, M. I. Stockman, and F. Krausz, “Controlling dielectrics with the electric field of light,” Nature 493(7430), 75–78 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Argenti, L.

S. Heuser, Á. Jiménez Galán, C. Cirelli, C. Marante, M. Sabbar, R. Boge, M. Lucchini, L. Gallmann, I. Ivanov, A. S. Kheifets, J. M. Dahlström, E. Lindroth, L. Argenti, F. Martín, and U. Keller, “Angular dependence of photoemission time delay in helium,” Phys. Rev. A 94(6), 063409 (2016).
[Crossref]

Arnold, C. L.

D. Guénot, D. Kroon, E. Balogh, E. W. Larsen, M. Kotur, M. Miranda, T. Fordell, P. Johnsson, J. Mauritsson, M. Gisselbrecht, K. Varjù, C. L. Arnold, T. Carette, A. S. Kheifets, E. Lindroth, A. L’Huillier, and J. M. Dahlström, “Measurements of relative photoemission time delays in noble gas atoms,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 47(24), 245602 (2014).
[Crossref]

Augé, F.

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Augé, P. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a Train of Attosecond Pulses from High Harmonic Generation,” Science 292(5522), 1689–1692 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Azzeer, A. M.

M. Schultze, M. Fiess, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, T. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science 328(5986), 1658–1662 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Balcou, P.

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Augé, P. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a Train of Attosecond Pulses from High Harmonic Generation,” Science 292(5522), 1689–1692 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Balogh, E.

D. Guénot, D. Kroon, E. Balogh, E. W. Larsen, M. Kotur, M. Miranda, T. Fordell, P. Johnsson, J. Mauritsson, M. Gisselbrecht, K. Varjù, C. L. Arnold, T. Carette, A. S. Kheifets, E. Lindroth, A. L’Huillier, and J. M. Dahlström, “Measurements of relative photoemission time delays in noble gas atoms,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 47(24), 245602 (2014).
[Crossref]

Baltuška, A.

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, T. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuška, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature 449(7165), 1029–1032 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Lindner, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, A. Baltuška, E. Goulielmakis, M. Lezius, and F. Krausz, “Gouy phase shift for few-cycle laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(11), 113001 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Blümel, L.

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, T. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuška, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature 449(7165), 1029–1032 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boge, R.

S. Heuser, Á. Jiménez Galán, C. Cirelli, C. Marante, M. Sabbar, R. Boge, M. Lucchini, L. Gallmann, I. Ivanov, A. S. Kheifets, J. M. Dahlström, E. Lindroth, L. Argenti, F. Martín, and U. Keller, “Angular dependence of photoemission time delay in helium,” Phys. Rev. A 94(6), 063409 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Sabbar, S. Heuser, R. Boge, M. Lucchini, T. Carette, E. Lindroth, L. Gallmann, C. Cirelli, and U. Keller, “Resonance Effects in Photoemission Time Delays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(13), 133001 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Cirelli, M. Sabbar, S. Heuser, R. Boge, M. Lucchini, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Energy-Dependent Photoemission Time Delays of Noble Gas Atoms Using Coincidence Attosecond Streaking,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(5), 1 (2015).
[Crossref]

Borja, L. J.

M. Schultze, K. Ramasesha, C. D. Pemmaraju, S. A. Sato, D. Whitmore, A. Gandman, J. S. Prell, L. J. Borja, D. Prendergast, K. Yabana, D. M. Neumark, and S. R. Leone, “Ultrafast dynamics. Attosecond band-gap dynamics in silicon,” Science 346(6215), 1348–1352 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bothschafter, E. M.

M. Schultze, E. M. Bothschafter, A. Sommer, S. Holzner, W. Schweinberger, M. Fiess, M. Hofstetter, R. Kienberger, V. Apalkov, V. S. Yakovlev, M. I. Stockman, and F. Krausz, “Controlling dielectrics with the electric field of light,” Nature 493(7430), 75–78 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brabec, T.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414(6863), 509–513 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Breger, P.

S. Haessler, B. Fabre, J. Higuet, J. Caillat, T. Ruchon, P. Breger, B. Carré, E. Constant, A. Maquet, E. Mével, P. Salières, R. Taïeb, and Y. Mairesse, “Phase-resolved attosecond near-threshold photoionization of molecular nitrogen,” Phys. Rev. A 80(1), 011404 (2009).
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P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Augé, P. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a Train of Attosecond Pulses from High Harmonic Generation,” Science 292(5522), 1689–1692 (2001).
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Burgdörfer, J.

M. Schultze, M. Fiess, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, T. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science 328(5986), 1658–1662 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Ossiander, F. Siegrist, V. Shirvanyan, R. Pazourek, A. Sommer, T. Latka, A. Guggenmos, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, R. Kienberger, and M. Schultze, “Attosecond correlation dynamics,” Nat. Phys. (2016), doi:.
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Caillat, J.

K. Klünder, J. M. Dahlström, M. Gisselbrecht, T. Fordell, M. Swoboda, D. Guénot, P. Johnsson, J. Caillat, J. Mauritsson, A. Maquet, R. Taïeb, and A. L’Huillier, “Probing single-photon ionization on the attosecond time scale,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(14), 143002 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Haessler, B. Fabre, J. Higuet, J. Caillat, T. Ruchon, P. Breger, B. Carré, E. Constant, A. Maquet, E. Mével, P. Salières, R. Taïeb, and Y. Mairesse, “Phase-resolved attosecond near-threshold photoionization of molecular nitrogen,” Phys. Rev. A 80(1), 011404 (2009).
[Crossref]

Canaday, D. M.

C. Palatchi, J. M. Dahlström, A. S. Kheifets, I. A. Ivanov, D. M. Canaday, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “Atomic delay in helium, neon, argon and krypton,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 47(24), 245003 (2014).
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Carette, T.

M. Sabbar, S. Heuser, R. Boge, M. Lucchini, T. Carette, E. Lindroth, L. Gallmann, C. Cirelli, and U. Keller, “Resonance Effects in Photoemission Time Delays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(13), 133001 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Guénot, D. Kroon, E. Balogh, E. W. Larsen, M. Kotur, M. Miranda, T. Fordell, P. Johnsson, J. Mauritsson, M. Gisselbrecht, K. Varjù, C. L. Arnold, T. Carette, A. S. Kheifets, E. Lindroth, A. L’Huillier, and J. M. Dahlström, “Measurements of relative photoemission time delays in noble gas atoms,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 47(24), 245602 (2014).
[Crossref]

Carré, B.

S. Haessler, B. Fabre, J. Higuet, J. Caillat, T. Ruchon, P. Breger, B. Carré, E. Constant, A. Maquet, E. Mével, P. Salières, R. Taïeb, and Y. Mairesse, “Phase-resolved attosecond near-threshold photoionization of molecular nitrogen,” Phys. Rev. A 80(1), 011404 (2009).
[Crossref]

Castiglioni, L.

M. Lucchini, L. Castiglioni, L. Kasmi, P. Kliuiev, A. Ludwig, M. Greif, J. Osterwalder, M. Hengsberger, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Light-Matter Interaction at Surfaces in the Spatiotemporal Limit of Macroscopic Models,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(13), 137401 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Locher, L. Castiglioni, M. Lucchini, M. Greif, L. Gallmann, J. Osterwalder, M. Hengsberger, and U. Keller, “Energy-dependent photoemission delays from noble metal surfaces by attosecond interferometry,” Optica 2(5), 405–410 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Locher, M. Lucchini, J. Herrmann, M. Sabbar, M. Weger, A. Ludwig, L. Castiglioni, M. Greif, M. Hengsberger, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Versatile attosecond beamline in a two-foci configuration for simultaneous time-resolved measurements,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85(1), 013113 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cattaneo, L.

Cavalieri, A. L.

M. Schultze, M. Fiess, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, T. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science 328(5986), 1658–1662 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, T. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuška, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature 449(7165), 1029–1032 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, C.

Z. Tao, C. Chen, T. Szilvási, M. Keller, M. Mavrikakis, H. Kapteyn, and M. Murnane, “Direct time-domain observation of attosecond final-state lifetimes in photoemission from solids,” Science 353(6294), 62–67 (2016).
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Cirelli, C.

L. Cattaneo, J. Vos, M. Lucchini, L. Gallmann, C. Cirelli, and U. Keller, “Comparison of attosecond streaking and RABBITT,” Opt. Express 24(25), 29060–29076 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Heuser, Á. Jiménez Galán, C. Cirelli, C. Marante, M. Sabbar, R. Boge, M. Lucchini, L. Gallmann, I. Ivanov, A. S. Kheifets, J. M. Dahlström, E. Lindroth, L. Argenti, F. Martín, and U. Keller, “Angular dependence of photoemission time delay in helium,” Phys. Rev. A 94(6), 063409 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Sabbar, S. Heuser, R. Boge, M. Lucchini, T. Carette, E. Lindroth, L. Gallmann, C. Cirelli, and U. Keller, “Resonance Effects in Photoemission Time Delays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(13), 133001 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Cirelli, M. Sabbar, S. Heuser, R. Boge, M. Lucchini, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Energy-Dependent Photoemission Time Delays of Noble Gas Atoms Using Coincidence Attosecond Streaking,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(5), 1 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Gallmann, C. Cirelli, and U. Keller, “Attosecond Science: Recent Highlights and Future Trends,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 63(1), 447–469 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Constant, E.

S. Haessler, B. Fabre, J. Higuet, J. Caillat, T. Ruchon, P. Breger, B. Carré, E. Constant, A. Maquet, E. Mével, P. Salières, R. Taïeb, and Y. Mairesse, “Phase-resolved attosecond near-threshold photoionization of molecular nitrogen,” Phys. Rev. A 80(1), 011404 (2009).
[Crossref]

Corkum, P.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414(6863), 509–513 (2001).
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Corkum, P. B.

J. Itatani, F. Quéré, G. L. Yudin, M. Yu. Ivanov, F. Krausz, and P. B. Corkum, “Attosecond streak camera,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(17), 173903 (2002).
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Dahlström, J. M.

S. Heuser, Á. Jiménez Galán, C. Cirelli, C. Marante, M. Sabbar, R. Boge, M. Lucchini, L. Gallmann, I. Ivanov, A. S. Kheifets, J. M. Dahlström, E. Lindroth, L. Argenti, F. Martín, and U. Keller, “Angular dependence of photoemission time delay in helium,” Phys. Rev. A 94(6), 063409 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Guénot, D. Kroon, E. Balogh, E. W. Larsen, M. Kotur, M. Miranda, T. Fordell, P. Johnsson, J. Mauritsson, M. Gisselbrecht, K. Varjù, C. L. Arnold, T. Carette, A. S. Kheifets, E. Lindroth, A. L’Huillier, and J. M. Dahlström, “Measurements of relative photoemission time delays in noble gas atoms,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 47(24), 245602 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Palatchi, J. M. Dahlström, A. S. Kheifets, I. A. Ivanov, D. M. Canaday, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “Atomic delay in helium, neon, argon and krypton,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 47(24), 245003 (2014).
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J. M. Dahlström, A. L’Huillier, and A. Maquet, “Introduction to attosecond delays in photoionization,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 45(18), 183001 (2012).
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K. Klünder, J. M. Dahlström, M. Gisselbrecht, T. Fordell, M. Swoboda, D. Guénot, P. Johnsson, J. Caillat, J. Mauritsson, A. Maquet, R. Taïeb, and A. L’Huillier, “Probing single-photon ionization on the attosecond time scale,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(14), 143002 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

DiMauro, L. F.

C. Palatchi, J. M. Dahlström, A. S. Kheifets, I. A. Ivanov, D. M. Canaday, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “Atomic delay in helium, neon, argon and krypton,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 47(24), 245003 (2014).
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Drescher, M.

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, T. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuška, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature 449(7165), 1029–1032 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414(6863), 509–513 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Echenique, P. M.

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, T. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuška, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature 449(7165), 1029–1032 (2007).
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Ernstorfer, R.

M. Schultze, M. Fiess, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, T. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science 328(5986), 1658–1662 (2010).
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Fabre, B.

S. Haessler, B. Fabre, J. Higuet, J. Caillat, T. Ruchon, P. Breger, B. Carré, E. Constant, A. Maquet, E. Mével, P. Salières, R. Taïeb, and Y. Mairesse, “Phase-resolved attosecond near-threshold photoionization of molecular nitrogen,” Phys. Rev. A 80(1), 011404 (2009).
[Crossref]

Feist, J.

M. Schultze, M. Fiess, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, T. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science 328(5986), 1658–1662 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Ossiander, F. Siegrist, V. Shirvanyan, R. Pazourek, A. Sommer, T. Latka, A. Guggenmos, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, R. Kienberger, and M. Schultze, “Attosecond correlation dynamics,” Nat. Phys. (2016), doi:.
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Feng, S.

Fiess, M.

M. Schultze, E. M. Bothschafter, A. Sommer, S. Holzner, W. Schweinberger, M. Fiess, M. Hofstetter, R. Kienberger, V. Apalkov, V. S. Yakovlev, M. I. Stockman, and F. Krausz, “Controlling dielectrics with the electric field of light,” Nature 493(7430), 75–78 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Schultze, M. Fiess, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, T. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science 328(5986), 1658–1662 (2010).
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Fordell, T.

D. Guénot, D. Kroon, E. Balogh, E. W. Larsen, M. Kotur, M. Miranda, T. Fordell, P. Johnsson, J. Mauritsson, M. Gisselbrecht, K. Varjù, C. L. Arnold, T. Carette, A. S. Kheifets, E. Lindroth, A. L’Huillier, and J. M. Dahlström, “Measurements of relative photoemission time delays in noble gas atoms,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 47(24), 245602 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. Klünder, J. M. Dahlström, M. Gisselbrecht, T. Fordell, M. Swoboda, D. Guénot, P. Johnsson, J. Caillat, J. Mauritsson, A. Maquet, R. Taïeb, and A. L’Huillier, “Probing single-photon ionization on the attosecond time scale,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(14), 143002 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gagnon, J.

M. Schultze, M. Fiess, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, T. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science 328(5986), 1658–1662 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gallmann, L.

S. Heuser, Á. Jiménez Galán, C. Cirelli, C. Marante, M. Sabbar, R. Boge, M. Lucchini, L. Gallmann, I. Ivanov, A. S. Kheifets, J. M. Dahlström, E. Lindroth, L. Argenti, F. Martín, and U. Keller, “Angular dependence of photoemission time delay in helium,” Phys. Rev. A 94(6), 063409 (2016).
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M. Lucchini, S. A. Sato, A. Ludwig, J. Herrmann, M. Volkov, L. Kasmi, Y. Shinohara, K. Yabana, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Attosecond dynamical Franz-Keldysh effect in polycrystalline diamond,” Science 353(6302), 916–919 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Cattaneo, J. Vos, M. Lucchini, L. Gallmann, C. Cirelli, and U. Keller, “Comparison of attosecond streaking and RABBITT,” Opt. Express 24(25), 29060–29076 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Locher, L. Castiglioni, M. Lucchini, M. Greif, L. Gallmann, J. Osterwalder, M. Hengsberger, and U. Keller, “Energy-dependent photoemission delays from noble metal surfaces by attosecond interferometry,” Optica 2(5), 405–410 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Cirelli, M. Sabbar, S. Heuser, R. Boge, M. Lucchini, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Energy-Dependent Photoemission Time Delays of Noble Gas Atoms Using Coincidence Attosecond Streaking,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(5), 1 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Lucchini, L. Castiglioni, L. Kasmi, P. Kliuiev, A. Ludwig, M. Greif, J. Osterwalder, M. Hengsberger, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Light-Matter Interaction at Surfaces in the Spatiotemporal Limit of Macroscopic Models,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(13), 137401 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Sabbar, S. Heuser, R. Boge, M. Lucchini, T. Carette, E. Lindroth, L. Gallmann, C. Cirelli, and U. Keller, “Resonance Effects in Photoemission Time Delays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(13), 133001 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Locher, M. Lucchini, J. Herrmann, M. Sabbar, M. Weger, A. Ludwig, L. Castiglioni, M. Greif, M. Hengsberger, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Versatile attosecond beamline in a two-foci configuration for simultaneous time-resolved measurements,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85(1), 013113 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Gallmann, C. Cirelli, and U. Keller, “Attosecond Science: Recent Highlights and Future Trends,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 63(1), 447–469 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gandman, A.

M. Schultze, K. Ramasesha, C. D. Pemmaraju, S. A. Sato, D. Whitmore, A. Gandman, J. S. Prell, L. J. Borja, D. Prendergast, K. Yabana, D. M. Neumark, and S. R. Leone, “Ultrafast dynamics. Attosecond band-gap dynamics in silicon,” Science 346(6215), 1348–1352 (2014).
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Gisselbrecht, M.

D. Guénot, D. Kroon, E. Balogh, E. W. Larsen, M. Kotur, M. Miranda, T. Fordell, P. Johnsson, J. Mauritsson, M. Gisselbrecht, K. Varjù, C. L. Arnold, T. Carette, A. S. Kheifets, E. Lindroth, A. L’Huillier, and J. M. Dahlström, “Measurements of relative photoemission time delays in noble gas atoms,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 47(24), 245602 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. Klünder, J. M. Dahlström, M. Gisselbrecht, T. Fordell, M. Swoboda, D. Guénot, P. Johnsson, J. Caillat, J. Mauritsson, A. Maquet, R. Taïeb, and A. L’Huillier, “Probing single-photon ionization on the attosecond time scale,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(14), 143002 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Goulielmakis, E.

M. Schultze, M. Fiess, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, T. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science 328(5986), 1658–1662 (2010).
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F. Lindner, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, A. Baltuška, E. Goulielmakis, M. Lezius, and F. Krausz, “Gouy phase shift for few-cycle laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(11), 113001 (2004).
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Gouy, L. G.

L. G. Gouy, “Sur une propriété nouvelle des ondes lumineuses,” C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris. 110, 1251–1253 (1890).

Greif, M.

M. Lucchini, L. Castiglioni, L. Kasmi, P. Kliuiev, A. Ludwig, M. Greif, J. Osterwalder, M. Hengsberger, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Light-Matter Interaction at Surfaces in the Spatiotemporal Limit of Macroscopic Models,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(13), 137401 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Locher, L. Castiglioni, M. Lucchini, M. Greif, L. Gallmann, J. Osterwalder, M. Hengsberger, and U. Keller, “Energy-dependent photoemission delays from noble metal surfaces by attosecond interferometry,” Optica 2(5), 405–410 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Locher, M. Lucchini, J. Herrmann, M. Sabbar, M. Weger, A. Ludwig, L. Castiglioni, M. Greif, M. Hengsberger, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Versatile attosecond beamline in a two-foci configuration for simultaneous time-resolved measurements,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85(1), 013113 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guénot, D.

D. Guénot, D. Kroon, E. Balogh, E. W. Larsen, M. Kotur, M. Miranda, T. Fordell, P. Johnsson, J. Mauritsson, M. Gisselbrecht, K. Varjù, C. L. Arnold, T. Carette, A. S. Kheifets, E. Lindroth, A. L’Huillier, and J. M. Dahlström, “Measurements of relative photoemission time delays in noble gas atoms,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 47(24), 245602 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. Klünder, J. M. Dahlström, M. Gisselbrecht, T. Fordell, M. Swoboda, D. Guénot, P. Johnsson, J. Caillat, J. Mauritsson, A. Maquet, R. Taïeb, and A. L’Huillier, “Probing single-photon ionization on the attosecond time scale,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(14), 143002 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guggenmos, A.

M. Ossiander, F. Siegrist, V. Shirvanyan, R. Pazourek, A. Sommer, T. Latka, A. Guggenmos, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, R. Kienberger, and M. Schultze, “Attosecond correlation dynamics,” Nat. Phys. (2016), doi:.
[Crossref]

Haessler, S.

S. Haessler, B. Fabre, J. Higuet, J. Caillat, T. Ruchon, P. Breger, B. Carré, E. Constant, A. Maquet, E. Mével, P. Salières, R. Taïeb, and Y. Mairesse, “Phase-resolved attosecond near-threshold photoionization of molecular nitrogen,” Phys. Rev. A 80(1), 011404 (2009).
[Crossref]

Heinzmann, U.

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, T. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuška, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature 449(7165), 1029–1032 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414(6863), 509–513 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hendel, S.

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, T. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuška, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature 449(7165), 1029–1032 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hengsberger, M.

M. Lucchini, L. Castiglioni, L. Kasmi, P. Kliuiev, A. Ludwig, M. Greif, J. Osterwalder, M. Hengsberger, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Light-Matter Interaction at Surfaces in the Spatiotemporal Limit of Macroscopic Models,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(13), 137401 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Locher, L. Castiglioni, M. Lucchini, M. Greif, L. Gallmann, J. Osterwalder, M. Hengsberger, and U. Keller, “Energy-dependent photoemission delays from noble metal surfaces by attosecond interferometry,” Optica 2(5), 405–410 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Locher, M. Lucchini, J. Herrmann, M. Sabbar, M. Weger, A. Ludwig, L. Castiglioni, M. Greif, M. Hengsberger, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Versatile attosecond beamline in a two-foci configuration for simultaneous time-resolved measurements,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85(1), 013113 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hentschel, M.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414(6863), 509–513 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Herrmann, J.

M. Lucchini, S. A. Sato, A. Ludwig, J. Herrmann, M. Volkov, L. Kasmi, Y. Shinohara, K. Yabana, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Attosecond dynamical Franz-Keldysh effect in polycrystalline diamond,” Science 353(6302), 916–919 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Locher, M. Lucchini, J. Herrmann, M. Sabbar, M. Weger, A. Ludwig, L. Castiglioni, M. Greif, M. Hengsberger, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Versatile attosecond beamline in a two-foci configuration for simultaneous time-resolved measurements,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85(1), 013113 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Heuser, S.

S. Heuser, Á. Jiménez Galán, C. Cirelli, C. Marante, M. Sabbar, R. Boge, M. Lucchini, L. Gallmann, I. Ivanov, A. S. Kheifets, J. M. Dahlström, E. Lindroth, L. Argenti, F. Martín, and U. Keller, “Angular dependence of photoemission time delay in helium,” Phys. Rev. A 94(6), 063409 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Sabbar, S. Heuser, R. Boge, M. Lucchini, T. Carette, E. Lindroth, L. Gallmann, C. Cirelli, and U. Keller, “Resonance Effects in Photoemission Time Delays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(13), 133001 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Cirelli, M. Sabbar, S. Heuser, R. Boge, M. Lucchini, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Energy-Dependent Photoemission Time Delays of Noble Gas Atoms Using Coincidence Attosecond Streaking,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(5), 1 (2015).
[Crossref]

Higuet, J.

S. Haessler, B. Fabre, J. Higuet, J. Caillat, T. Ruchon, P. Breger, B. Carré, E. Constant, A. Maquet, E. Mével, P. Salières, R. Taïeb, and Y. Mairesse, “Phase-resolved attosecond near-threshold photoionization of molecular nitrogen,” Phys. Rev. A 80(1), 011404 (2009).
[Crossref]

Hofstetter, M.

M. Schultze, E. M. Bothschafter, A. Sommer, S. Holzner, W. Schweinberger, M. Fiess, M. Hofstetter, R. Kienberger, V. Apalkov, V. S. Yakovlev, M. I. Stockman, and F. Krausz, “Controlling dielectrics with the electric field of light,” Nature 493(7430), 75–78 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Schultze, M. Fiess, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, T. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science 328(5986), 1658–1662 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Holzner, S.

M. Schultze, E. M. Bothschafter, A. Sommer, S. Holzner, W. Schweinberger, M. Fiess, M. Hofstetter, R. Kienberger, V. Apalkov, V. S. Yakovlev, M. I. Stockman, and F. Krausz, “Controlling dielectrics with the electric field of light,” Nature 493(7430), 75–78 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Holzwarth, R.

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, T. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuška, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature 449(7165), 1029–1032 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Horvath, B.

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, T. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuška, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature 449(7165), 1029–1032 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Itatani, J.

J. Itatani, F. Quéré, G. L. Yudin, M. Yu. Ivanov, F. Krausz, and P. B. Corkum, “Attosecond streak camera,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(17), 173903 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ivanov, I.

S. Heuser, Á. Jiménez Galán, C. Cirelli, C. Marante, M. Sabbar, R. Boge, M. Lucchini, L. Gallmann, I. Ivanov, A. S. Kheifets, J. M. Dahlström, E. Lindroth, L. Argenti, F. Martín, and U. Keller, “Angular dependence of photoemission time delay in helium,” Phys. Rev. A 94(6), 063409 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ivanov, I. A.

C. Palatchi, J. M. Dahlström, A. S. Kheifets, I. A. Ivanov, D. M. Canaday, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “Atomic delay in helium, neon, argon and krypton,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 47(24), 245003 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ivanov, M.

F. Krausz and M. Ivanov, “Attosecond physics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81(1), 163–234 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ivanov, M. Yu.

J. Itatani, F. Quéré, G. L. Yudin, M. Yu. Ivanov, F. Krausz, and P. B. Corkum, “Attosecond streak camera,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(17), 173903 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jiménez Galán, Á.

S. Heuser, Á. Jiménez Galán, C. Cirelli, C. Marante, M. Sabbar, R. Boge, M. Lucchini, L. Gallmann, I. Ivanov, A. S. Kheifets, J. M. Dahlström, E. Lindroth, L. Argenti, F. Martín, and U. Keller, “Angular dependence of photoemission time delay in helium,” Phys. Rev. A 94(6), 063409 (2016).
[Crossref]

Johnsson, P.

D. Guénot, D. Kroon, E. Balogh, E. W. Larsen, M. Kotur, M. Miranda, T. Fordell, P. Johnsson, J. Mauritsson, M. Gisselbrecht, K. Varjù, C. L. Arnold, T. Carette, A. S. Kheifets, E. Lindroth, A. L’Huillier, and J. M. Dahlström, “Measurements of relative photoemission time delays in noble gas atoms,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 47(24), 245602 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. Klünder, J. M. Dahlström, M. Gisselbrecht, T. Fordell, M. Swoboda, D. Guénot, P. Johnsson, J. Caillat, J. Mauritsson, A. Maquet, R. Taïeb, and A. L’Huillier, “Probing single-photon ionization on the attosecond time scale,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(14), 143002 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kapteyn, H.

Z. Tao, C. Chen, T. Szilvási, M. Keller, M. Mavrikakis, H. Kapteyn, and M. Murnane, “Direct time-domain observation of attosecond final-state lifetimes in photoemission from solids,” Science 353(6294), 62–67 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Karpowicz, N.

M. Schultze, M. Fiess, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, T. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science 328(5986), 1658–1662 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kasmi, L.

M. Lucchini, S. A. Sato, A. Ludwig, J. Herrmann, M. Volkov, L. Kasmi, Y. Shinohara, K. Yabana, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Attosecond dynamical Franz-Keldysh effect in polycrystalline diamond,” Science 353(6302), 916–919 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Lucchini, L. Castiglioni, L. Kasmi, P. Kliuiev, A. Ludwig, M. Greif, J. Osterwalder, M. Hengsberger, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Light-Matter Interaction at Surfaces in the Spatiotemporal Limit of Macroscopic Models,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(13), 137401 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Keller, M.

Z. Tao, C. Chen, T. Szilvási, M. Keller, M. Mavrikakis, H. Kapteyn, and M. Murnane, “Direct time-domain observation of attosecond final-state lifetimes in photoemission from solids,” Science 353(6294), 62–67 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Keller, U.

L. Cattaneo, J. Vos, M. Lucchini, L. Gallmann, C. Cirelli, and U. Keller, “Comparison of attosecond streaking and RABBITT,” Opt. Express 24(25), 29060–29076 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Lucchini, S. A. Sato, A. Ludwig, J. Herrmann, M. Volkov, L. Kasmi, Y. Shinohara, K. Yabana, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Attosecond dynamical Franz-Keldysh effect in polycrystalline diamond,” Science 353(6302), 916–919 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Heuser, Á. Jiménez Galán, C. Cirelli, C. Marante, M. Sabbar, R. Boge, M. Lucchini, L. Gallmann, I. Ivanov, A. S. Kheifets, J. M. Dahlström, E. Lindroth, L. Argenti, F. Martín, and U. Keller, “Angular dependence of photoemission time delay in helium,” Phys. Rev. A 94(6), 063409 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Sabbar, S. Heuser, R. Boge, M. Lucchini, T. Carette, E. Lindroth, L. Gallmann, C. Cirelli, and U. Keller, “Resonance Effects in Photoemission Time Delays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(13), 133001 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Lucchini, L. Castiglioni, L. Kasmi, P. Kliuiev, A. Ludwig, M. Greif, J. Osterwalder, M. Hengsberger, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Light-Matter Interaction at Surfaces in the Spatiotemporal Limit of Macroscopic Models,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(13), 137401 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Cirelli, M. Sabbar, S. Heuser, R. Boge, M. Lucchini, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Energy-Dependent Photoemission Time Delays of Noble Gas Atoms Using Coincidence Attosecond Streaking,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(5), 1 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Locher, L. Castiglioni, M. Lucchini, M. Greif, L. Gallmann, J. Osterwalder, M. Hengsberger, and U. Keller, “Energy-dependent photoemission delays from noble metal surfaces by attosecond interferometry,” Optica 2(5), 405–410 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Locher, M. Lucchini, J. Herrmann, M. Sabbar, M. Weger, A. Ludwig, L. Castiglioni, M. Greif, M. Hengsberger, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Versatile attosecond beamline in a two-foci configuration for simultaneous time-resolved measurements,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85(1), 013113 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Gallmann, C. Cirelli, and U. Keller, “Attosecond Science: Recent Highlights and Future Trends,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 63(1), 447–469 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kheifets, A. S.

S. Heuser, Á. Jiménez Galán, C. Cirelli, C. Marante, M. Sabbar, R. Boge, M. Lucchini, L. Gallmann, I. Ivanov, A. S. Kheifets, J. M. Dahlström, E. Lindroth, L. Argenti, F. Martín, and U. Keller, “Angular dependence of photoemission time delay in helium,” Phys. Rev. A 94(6), 063409 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Guénot, D. Kroon, E. Balogh, E. W. Larsen, M. Kotur, M. Miranda, T. Fordell, P. Johnsson, J. Mauritsson, M. Gisselbrecht, K. Varjù, C. L. Arnold, T. Carette, A. S. Kheifets, E. Lindroth, A. L’Huillier, and J. M. Dahlström, “Measurements of relative photoemission time delays in noble gas atoms,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 47(24), 245602 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Palatchi, J. M. Dahlström, A. S. Kheifets, I. A. Ivanov, D. M. Canaday, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “Atomic delay in helium, neon, argon and krypton,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 47(24), 245003 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kienberger, R.

M. Schultze, E. M. Bothschafter, A. Sommer, S. Holzner, W. Schweinberger, M. Fiess, M. Hofstetter, R. Kienberger, V. Apalkov, V. S. Yakovlev, M. I. Stockman, and F. Krausz, “Controlling dielectrics with the electric field of light,” Nature 493(7430), 75–78 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Schultze, M. Fiess, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, T. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science 328(5986), 1658–1662 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, T. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuška, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature 449(7165), 1029–1032 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414(6863), 509–513 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Ossiander, F. Siegrist, V. Shirvanyan, R. Pazourek, A. Sommer, T. Latka, A. Guggenmos, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, R. Kienberger, and M. Schultze, “Attosecond correlation dynamics,” Nat. Phys. (2016), doi:.
[Crossref]

Kleineberg, U.

M. Schultze, M. Fiess, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, T. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science 328(5986), 1658–1662 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, T. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuška, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature 449(7165), 1029–1032 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kliuiev, P.

M. Lucchini, L. Castiglioni, L. Kasmi, P. Kliuiev, A. Ludwig, M. Greif, J. Osterwalder, M. Hengsberger, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Light-Matter Interaction at Surfaces in the Spatiotemporal Limit of Macroscopic Models,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(13), 137401 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Klünder, K.

K. Klünder, J. M. Dahlström, M. Gisselbrecht, T. Fordell, M. Swoboda, D. Guénot, P. Johnsson, J. Caillat, J. Mauritsson, A. Maquet, R. Taïeb, and A. L’Huillier, “Probing single-photon ionization on the attosecond time scale,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(14), 143002 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Komninos, Y.

M. Schultze, M. Fiess, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, T. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science 328(5986), 1658–1662 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Korbman, M.

M. Schultze, M. Fiess, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, T. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science 328(5986), 1658–1662 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kotur, M.

D. Guénot, D. Kroon, E. Balogh, E. W. Larsen, M. Kotur, M. Miranda, T. Fordell, P. Johnsson, J. Mauritsson, M. Gisselbrecht, K. Varjù, C. L. Arnold, T. Carette, A. S. Kheifets, E. Lindroth, A. L’Huillier, and J. M. Dahlström, “Measurements of relative photoemission time delays in noble gas atoms,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 47(24), 245602 (2014).
[Crossref]

Krausz, F.

M. Schultze, E. M. Bothschafter, A. Sommer, S. Holzner, W. Schweinberger, M. Fiess, M. Hofstetter, R. Kienberger, V. Apalkov, V. S. Yakovlev, M. I. Stockman, and F. Krausz, “Controlling dielectrics with the electric field of light,” Nature 493(7430), 75–78 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Schultze, M. Fiess, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, T. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science 328(5986), 1658–1662 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Krausz and M. Ivanov, “Attosecond physics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81(1), 163–234 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, T. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuška, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature 449(7165), 1029–1032 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Lindner, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, A. Baltuška, E. Goulielmakis, M. Lezius, and F. Krausz, “Gouy phase shift for few-cycle laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(11), 113001 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Itatani, F. Quéré, G. L. Yudin, M. Yu. Ivanov, F. Krausz, and P. B. Corkum, “Attosecond streak camera,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(17), 173903 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414(6863), 509–513 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kroon, D.

D. Guénot, D. Kroon, E. Balogh, E. W. Larsen, M. Kotur, M. Miranda, T. Fordell, P. Johnsson, J. Mauritsson, M. Gisselbrecht, K. Varjù, C. L. Arnold, T. Carette, A. S. Kheifets, E. Lindroth, A. L’Huillier, and J. M. Dahlström, “Measurements of relative photoemission time delays in noble gas atoms,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 47(24), 245602 (2014).
[Crossref]

L’Huillier, A.

D. Guénot, D. Kroon, E. Balogh, E. W. Larsen, M. Kotur, M. Miranda, T. Fordell, P. Johnsson, J. Mauritsson, M. Gisselbrecht, K. Varjù, C. L. Arnold, T. Carette, A. S. Kheifets, E. Lindroth, A. L’Huillier, and J. M. Dahlström, “Measurements of relative photoemission time delays in noble gas atoms,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 47(24), 245602 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. M. Dahlström, A. L’Huillier, and A. Maquet, “Introduction to attosecond delays in photoionization,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 45(18), 183001 (2012).
[Crossref]

K. Klünder, J. M. Dahlström, M. Gisselbrecht, T. Fordell, M. Swoboda, D. Guénot, P. Johnsson, J. Caillat, J. Mauritsson, A. Maquet, R. Taïeb, and A. L’Huillier, “Probing single-photon ionization on the attosecond time scale,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(14), 143002 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Larsen, E. W.

D. Guénot, D. Kroon, E. Balogh, E. W. Larsen, M. Kotur, M. Miranda, T. Fordell, P. Johnsson, J. Mauritsson, M. Gisselbrecht, K. Varjù, C. L. Arnold, T. Carette, A. S. Kheifets, E. Lindroth, A. L’Huillier, and J. M. Dahlström, “Measurements of relative photoemission time delays in noble gas atoms,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 47(24), 245602 (2014).
[Crossref]

Latka, T.

M. Ossiander, F. Siegrist, V. Shirvanyan, R. Pazourek, A. Sommer, T. Latka, A. Guggenmos, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, R. Kienberger, and M. Schultze, “Attosecond correlation dynamics,” Nat. Phys. (2016), doi:.
[Crossref]

Leone, S. R.

M. Schultze, K. Ramasesha, C. D. Pemmaraju, S. A. Sato, D. Whitmore, A. Gandman, J. S. Prell, L. J. Borja, D. Prendergast, K. Yabana, D. M. Neumark, and S. R. Leone, “Ultrafast dynamics. Attosecond band-gap dynamics in silicon,” Science 346(6215), 1348–1352 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lezius, M.

F. Lindner, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, A. Baltuška, E. Goulielmakis, M. Lezius, and F. Krausz, “Gouy phase shift for few-cycle laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(11), 113001 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lindner, F.

F. Lindner, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, A. Baltuška, E. Goulielmakis, M. Lezius, and F. Krausz, “Gouy phase shift for few-cycle laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(11), 113001 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lindroth, E.

S. Heuser, Á. Jiménez Galán, C. Cirelli, C. Marante, M. Sabbar, R. Boge, M. Lucchini, L. Gallmann, I. Ivanov, A. S. Kheifets, J. M. Dahlström, E. Lindroth, L. Argenti, F. Martín, and U. Keller, “Angular dependence of photoemission time delay in helium,” Phys. Rev. A 94(6), 063409 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Sabbar, S. Heuser, R. Boge, M. Lucchini, T. Carette, E. Lindroth, L. Gallmann, C. Cirelli, and U. Keller, “Resonance Effects in Photoemission Time Delays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(13), 133001 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Guénot, D. Kroon, E. Balogh, E. W. Larsen, M. Kotur, M. Miranda, T. Fordell, P. Johnsson, J. Mauritsson, M. Gisselbrecht, K. Varjù, C. L. Arnold, T. Carette, A. S. Kheifets, E. Lindroth, A. L’Huillier, and J. M. Dahlström, “Measurements of relative photoemission time delays in noble gas atoms,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 47(24), 245602 (2014).
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Locher, R.

R. Locher, L. Castiglioni, M. Lucchini, M. Greif, L. Gallmann, J. Osterwalder, M. Hengsberger, and U. Keller, “Energy-dependent photoemission delays from noble metal surfaces by attosecond interferometry,” Optica 2(5), 405–410 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Locher, M. Lucchini, J. Herrmann, M. Sabbar, M. Weger, A. Ludwig, L. Castiglioni, M. Greif, M. Hengsberger, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Versatile attosecond beamline in a two-foci configuration for simultaneous time-resolved measurements,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85(1), 013113 (2014).
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Lucchini, M.

M. Lucchini, S. A. Sato, A. Ludwig, J. Herrmann, M. Volkov, L. Kasmi, Y. Shinohara, K. Yabana, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Attosecond dynamical Franz-Keldysh effect in polycrystalline diamond,” Science 353(6302), 916–919 (2016).
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L. Cattaneo, J. Vos, M. Lucchini, L. Gallmann, C. Cirelli, and U. Keller, “Comparison of attosecond streaking and RABBITT,” Opt. Express 24(25), 29060–29076 (2016).
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S. Heuser, Á. Jiménez Galán, C. Cirelli, C. Marante, M. Sabbar, R. Boge, M. Lucchini, L. Gallmann, I. Ivanov, A. S. Kheifets, J. M. Dahlström, E. Lindroth, L. Argenti, F. Martín, and U. Keller, “Angular dependence of photoemission time delay in helium,” Phys. Rev. A 94(6), 063409 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Sabbar, S. Heuser, R. Boge, M. Lucchini, T. Carette, E. Lindroth, L. Gallmann, C. Cirelli, and U. Keller, “Resonance Effects in Photoemission Time Delays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(13), 133001 (2015).
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R. Locher, L. Castiglioni, M. Lucchini, M. Greif, L. Gallmann, J. Osterwalder, M. Hengsberger, and U. Keller, “Energy-dependent photoemission delays from noble metal surfaces by attosecond interferometry,” Optica 2(5), 405–410 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Cirelli, M. Sabbar, S. Heuser, R. Boge, M. Lucchini, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Energy-Dependent Photoemission Time Delays of Noble Gas Atoms Using Coincidence Attosecond Streaking,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(5), 1 (2015).
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M. Lucchini, L. Castiglioni, L. Kasmi, P. Kliuiev, A. Ludwig, M. Greif, J. Osterwalder, M. Hengsberger, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Light-Matter Interaction at Surfaces in the Spatiotemporal Limit of Macroscopic Models,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(13), 137401 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Locher, M. Lucchini, J. Herrmann, M. Sabbar, M. Weger, A. Ludwig, L. Castiglioni, M. Greif, M. Hengsberger, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Versatile attosecond beamline in a two-foci configuration for simultaneous time-resolved measurements,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85(1), 013113 (2014).
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Ludwig, A.

M. Lucchini, S. A. Sato, A. Ludwig, J. Herrmann, M. Volkov, L. Kasmi, Y. Shinohara, K. Yabana, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Attosecond dynamical Franz-Keldysh effect in polycrystalline diamond,” Science 353(6302), 916–919 (2016).
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M. Lucchini, L. Castiglioni, L. Kasmi, P. Kliuiev, A. Ludwig, M. Greif, J. Osterwalder, M. Hengsberger, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Light-Matter Interaction at Surfaces in the Spatiotemporal Limit of Macroscopic Models,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(13), 137401 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Locher, M. Lucchini, J. Herrmann, M. Sabbar, M. Weger, A. Ludwig, L. Castiglioni, M. Greif, M. Hengsberger, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Versatile attosecond beamline in a two-foci configuration for simultaneous time-resolved measurements,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85(1), 013113 (2014).
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Mairesse, Y.

S. Haessler, B. Fabre, J. Higuet, J. Caillat, T. Ruchon, P. Breger, B. Carré, E. Constant, A. Maquet, E. Mével, P. Salières, R. Taïeb, and Y. Mairesse, “Phase-resolved attosecond near-threshold photoionization of molecular nitrogen,” Phys. Rev. A 80(1), 011404 (2009).
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J. M. Dahlström, A. L’Huillier, and A. Maquet, “Introduction to attosecond delays in photoionization,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 45(18), 183001 (2012).
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K. Klünder, J. M. Dahlström, M. Gisselbrecht, T. Fordell, M. Swoboda, D. Guénot, P. Johnsson, J. Caillat, J. Mauritsson, A. Maquet, R. Taïeb, and A. L’Huillier, “Probing single-photon ionization on the attosecond time scale,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(14), 143002 (2011).
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S. Haessler, B. Fabre, J. Higuet, J. Caillat, T. Ruchon, P. Breger, B. Carré, E. Constant, A. Maquet, E. Mével, P. Salières, R. Taïeb, and Y. Mairesse, “Phase-resolved attosecond near-threshold photoionization of molecular nitrogen,” Phys. Rev. A 80(1), 011404 (2009).
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Marante, C.

S. Heuser, Á. Jiménez Galán, C. Cirelli, C. Marante, M. Sabbar, R. Boge, M. Lucchini, L. Gallmann, I. Ivanov, A. S. Kheifets, J. M. Dahlström, E. Lindroth, L. Argenti, F. Martín, and U. Keller, “Angular dependence of photoemission time delay in helium,” Phys. Rev. A 94(6), 063409 (2016).
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Martín, F.

S. Heuser, Á. Jiménez Galán, C. Cirelli, C. Marante, M. Sabbar, R. Boge, M. Lucchini, L. Gallmann, I. Ivanov, A. S. Kheifets, J. M. Dahlström, E. Lindroth, L. Argenti, F. Martín, and U. Keller, “Angular dependence of photoemission time delay in helium,” Phys. Rev. A 94(6), 063409 (2016).
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Mauritsson, J.

D. Guénot, D. Kroon, E. Balogh, E. W. Larsen, M. Kotur, M. Miranda, T. Fordell, P. Johnsson, J. Mauritsson, M. Gisselbrecht, K. Varjù, C. L. Arnold, T. Carette, A. S. Kheifets, E. Lindroth, A. L’Huillier, and J. M. Dahlström, “Measurements of relative photoemission time delays in noble gas atoms,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 47(24), 245602 (2014).
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K. Klünder, J. M. Dahlström, M. Gisselbrecht, T. Fordell, M. Swoboda, D. Guénot, P. Johnsson, J. Caillat, J. Mauritsson, A. Maquet, R. Taïeb, and A. L’Huillier, “Probing single-photon ionization on the attosecond time scale,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(14), 143002 (2011).
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Mavrikakis, M.

Z. Tao, C. Chen, T. Szilvási, M. Keller, M. Mavrikakis, H. Kapteyn, and M. Murnane, “Direct time-domain observation of attosecond final-state lifetimes in photoemission from solids,” Science 353(6294), 62–67 (2016).
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Mercouris, T.

M. Schultze, M. Fiess, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, T. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science 328(5986), 1658–1662 (2010).
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Mével, E.

S. Haessler, B. Fabre, J. Higuet, J. Caillat, T. Ruchon, P. Breger, B. Carré, E. Constant, A. Maquet, E. Mével, P. Salières, R. Taïeb, and Y. Mairesse, “Phase-resolved attosecond near-threshold photoionization of molecular nitrogen,” Phys. Rev. A 80(1), 011404 (2009).
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M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414(6863), 509–513 (2001).
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Miranda, M.

D. Guénot, D. Kroon, E. Balogh, E. W. Larsen, M. Kotur, M. Miranda, T. Fordell, P. Johnsson, J. Mauritsson, M. Gisselbrecht, K. Varjù, C. L. Arnold, T. Carette, A. S. Kheifets, E. Lindroth, A. L’Huillier, and J. M. Dahlström, “Measurements of relative photoemission time delays in noble gas atoms,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 47(24), 245602 (2014).
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H. G. Muller, “Reconstruction of attosecond harmonic beating by interference of two-photon transitions,” Appl. Phys. B Lasers Opt. 74(S1), 17–21 (2002).
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P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Augé, P. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a Train of Attosecond Pulses from High Harmonic Generation,” Science 292(5522), 1689–1692 (2001).
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Müller, N.

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, T. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuška, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature 449(7165), 1029–1032 (2007).
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Mullot, G.

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Augé, P. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a Train of Attosecond Pulses from High Harmonic Generation,” Science 292(5522), 1689–1692 (2001).
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Murnane, M.

Z. Tao, C. Chen, T. Szilvási, M. Keller, M. Mavrikakis, H. Kapteyn, and M. Murnane, “Direct time-domain observation of attosecond final-state lifetimes in photoemission from solids,” Science 353(6294), 62–67 (2016).
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Nagele, S.

M. Schultze, M. Fiess, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, T. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science 328(5986), 1658–1662 (2010).
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M. Ossiander, F. Siegrist, V. Shirvanyan, R. Pazourek, A. Sommer, T. Latka, A. Guggenmos, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, R. Kienberger, and M. Schultze, “Attosecond correlation dynamics,” Nat. Phys. (2016), doi:.
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M. Schultze, M. Fiess, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, T. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science 328(5986), 1658–1662 (2010).
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Neumark, D. M.

M. Schultze, K. Ramasesha, C. D. Pemmaraju, S. A. Sato, D. Whitmore, A. Gandman, J. S. Prell, L. J. Borja, D. Prendergast, K. Yabana, D. M. Neumark, and S. R. Leone, “Ultrafast dynamics. Attosecond band-gap dynamics in silicon,” Science 346(6215), 1348–1352 (2014).
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M. Schultze, M. Fiess, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, T. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science 328(5986), 1658–1662 (2010).
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M. Ossiander, F. Siegrist, V. Shirvanyan, R. Pazourek, A. Sommer, T. Latka, A. Guggenmos, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, R. Kienberger, and M. Schultze, “Attosecond correlation dynamics,” Nat. Phys. (2016), doi:.
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Osterwalder, J.

M. Lucchini, L. Castiglioni, L. Kasmi, P. Kliuiev, A. Ludwig, M. Greif, J. Osterwalder, M. Hengsberger, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Light-Matter Interaction at Surfaces in the Spatiotemporal Limit of Macroscopic Models,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(13), 137401 (2015).
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R. Locher, L. Castiglioni, M. Lucchini, M. Greif, L. Gallmann, J. Osterwalder, M. Hengsberger, and U. Keller, “Energy-dependent photoemission delays from noble metal surfaces by attosecond interferometry,” Optica 2(5), 405–410 (2015).
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C. Palatchi, J. M. Dahlström, A. S. Kheifets, I. A. Ivanov, D. M. Canaday, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “Atomic delay in helium, neon, argon and krypton,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 47(24), 245003 (2014).
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P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Augé, P. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a Train of Attosecond Pulses from High Harmonic Generation,” Science 292(5522), 1689–1692 (2001).
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F. Lindner, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, A. Baltuška, E. Goulielmakis, M. Lezius, and F. Krausz, “Gouy phase shift for few-cycle laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(11), 113001 (2004).
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M. Schultze, M. Fiess, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, T. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science 328(5986), 1658–1662 (2010).
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M. Ossiander, F. Siegrist, V. Shirvanyan, R. Pazourek, A. Sommer, T. Latka, A. Guggenmos, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, R. Kienberger, and M. Schultze, “Attosecond correlation dynamics,” Nat. Phys. (2016), doi:.
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M. Schultze, K. Ramasesha, C. D. Pemmaraju, S. A. Sato, D. Whitmore, A. Gandman, J. S. Prell, L. J. Borja, D. Prendergast, K. Yabana, D. M. Neumark, and S. R. Leone, “Ultrafast dynamics. Attosecond band-gap dynamics in silicon,” Science 346(6215), 1348–1352 (2014).
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M. Schultze, K. Ramasesha, C. D. Pemmaraju, S. A. Sato, D. Whitmore, A. Gandman, J. S. Prell, L. J. Borja, D. Prendergast, K. Yabana, D. M. Neumark, and S. R. Leone, “Ultrafast dynamics. Attosecond band-gap dynamics in silicon,” Science 346(6215), 1348–1352 (2014).
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Prendergast, D.

M. Schultze, K. Ramasesha, C. D. Pemmaraju, S. A. Sato, D. Whitmore, A. Gandman, J. S. Prell, L. J. Borja, D. Prendergast, K. Yabana, D. M. Neumark, and S. R. Leone, “Ultrafast dynamics. Attosecond band-gap dynamics in silicon,” Science 346(6215), 1348–1352 (2014).
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J. Itatani, F. Quéré, G. L. Yudin, M. Yu. Ivanov, F. Krausz, and P. B. Corkum, “Attosecond streak camera,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(17), 173903 (2002).
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M. Schultze, K. Ramasesha, C. D. Pemmaraju, S. A. Sato, D. Whitmore, A. Gandman, J. S. Prell, L. J. Borja, D. Prendergast, K. Yabana, D. M. Neumark, and S. R. Leone, “Ultrafast dynamics. Attosecond band-gap dynamics in silicon,” Science 346(6215), 1348–1352 (2014).
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Reider, G. A.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414(6863), 509–513 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Roberts, A.

Ruchon, T.

S. Haessler, B. Fabre, J. Higuet, J. Caillat, T. Ruchon, P. Breger, B. Carré, E. Constant, A. Maquet, E. Mével, P. Salières, R. Taïeb, and Y. Mairesse, “Phase-resolved attosecond near-threshold photoionization of molecular nitrogen,” Phys. Rev. A 80(1), 011404 (2009).
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Sabbar, M.

S. Heuser, Á. Jiménez Galán, C. Cirelli, C. Marante, M. Sabbar, R. Boge, M. Lucchini, L. Gallmann, I. Ivanov, A. S. Kheifets, J. M. Dahlström, E. Lindroth, L. Argenti, F. Martín, and U. Keller, “Angular dependence of photoemission time delay in helium,” Phys. Rev. A 94(6), 063409 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Sabbar, S. Heuser, R. Boge, M. Lucchini, T. Carette, E. Lindroth, L. Gallmann, C. Cirelli, and U. Keller, “Resonance Effects in Photoemission Time Delays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(13), 133001 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Cirelli, M. Sabbar, S. Heuser, R. Boge, M. Lucchini, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Energy-Dependent Photoemission Time Delays of Noble Gas Atoms Using Coincidence Attosecond Streaking,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(5), 1 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Locher, M. Lucchini, J. Herrmann, M. Sabbar, M. Weger, A. Ludwig, L. Castiglioni, M. Greif, M. Hengsberger, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Versatile attosecond beamline in a two-foci configuration for simultaneous time-resolved measurements,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85(1), 013113 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Salières, P.

S. Haessler, B. Fabre, J. Higuet, J. Caillat, T. Ruchon, P. Breger, B. Carré, E. Constant, A. Maquet, E. Mével, P. Salières, R. Taïeb, and Y. Mairesse, “Phase-resolved attosecond near-threshold photoionization of molecular nitrogen,” Phys. Rev. A 80(1), 011404 (2009).
[Crossref]

Sandhu, A.

Sato, S. A.

M. Lucchini, S. A. Sato, A. Ludwig, J. Herrmann, M. Volkov, L. Kasmi, Y. Shinohara, K. Yabana, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Attosecond dynamical Franz-Keldysh effect in polycrystalline diamond,” Science 353(6302), 916–919 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Schultze, K. Ramasesha, C. D. Pemmaraju, S. A. Sato, D. Whitmore, A. Gandman, J. S. Prell, L. J. Borja, D. Prendergast, K. Yabana, D. M. Neumark, and S. R. Leone, “Ultrafast dynamics. Attosecond band-gap dynamics in silicon,” Science 346(6215), 1348–1352 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schmidt, B.

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, T. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuška, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature 449(7165), 1029–1032 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schultze, M.

M. Schultze, K. Ramasesha, C. D. Pemmaraju, S. A. Sato, D. Whitmore, A. Gandman, J. S. Prell, L. J. Borja, D. Prendergast, K. Yabana, D. M. Neumark, and S. R. Leone, “Ultrafast dynamics. Attosecond band-gap dynamics in silicon,” Science 346(6215), 1348–1352 (2014).
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M. Schultze, E. M. Bothschafter, A. Sommer, S. Holzner, W. Schweinberger, M. Fiess, M. Hofstetter, R. Kienberger, V. Apalkov, V. S. Yakovlev, M. I. Stockman, and F. Krausz, “Controlling dielectrics with the electric field of light,” Nature 493(7430), 75–78 (2012).
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M. Schultze, M. Fiess, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, T. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science 328(5986), 1658–1662 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Ossiander, F. Siegrist, V. Shirvanyan, R. Pazourek, A. Sommer, T. Latka, A. Guggenmos, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, R. Kienberger, and M. Schultze, “Attosecond correlation dynamics,” Nat. Phys. (2016), doi:.
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Schweinberger, W.

M. Schultze, E. M. Bothschafter, A. Sommer, S. Holzner, W. Schweinberger, M. Fiess, M. Hofstetter, R. Kienberger, V. Apalkov, V. S. Yakovlev, M. I. Stockman, and F. Krausz, “Controlling dielectrics with the electric field of light,” Nature 493(7430), 75–78 (2012).
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Shinohara, Y.

M. Lucchini, S. A. Sato, A. Ludwig, J. Herrmann, M. Volkov, L. Kasmi, Y. Shinohara, K. Yabana, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Attosecond dynamical Franz-Keldysh effect in polycrystalline diamond,” Science 353(6302), 916–919 (2016).
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Shirvanyan, V.

M. Ossiander, F. Siegrist, V. Shirvanyan, R. Pazourek, A. Sommer, T. Latka, A. Guggenmos, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, R. Kienberger, and M. Schultze, “Attosecond correlation dynamics,” Nat. Phys. (2016), doi:.
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Shivaram, N.

Siegrist, F.

M. Ossiander, F. Siegrist, V. Shirvanyan, R. Pazourek, A. Sommer, T. Latka, A. Guggenmos, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, R. Kienberger, and M. Schultze, “Attosecond correlation dynamics,” Nat. Phys. (2016), doi:.
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Sommer, A.

M. Schultze, E. M. Bothschafter, A. Sommer, S. Holzner, W. Schweinberger, M. Fiess, M. Hofstetter, R. Kienberger, V. Apalkov, V. S. Yakovlev, M. I. Stockman, and F. Krausz, “Controlling dielectrics with the electric field of light,” Nature 493(7430), 75–78 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Ossiander, F. Siegrist, V. Shirvanyan, R. Pazourek, A. Sommer, T. Latka, A. Guggenmos, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, R. Kienberger, and M. Schultze, “Attosecond correlation dynamics,” Nat. Phys. (2016), doi:.
[Crossref]

Spielmann, C.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414(6863), 509–513 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stockman, M. I.

M. Schultze, E. M. Bothschafter, A. Sommer, S. Holzner, W. Schweinberger, M. Fiess, M. Hofstetter, R. Kienberger, V. Apalkov, V. S. Yakovlev, M. I. Stockman, and F. Krausz, “Controlling dielectrics with the electric field of light,” Nature 493(7430), 75–78 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Swoboda, M.

K. Klünder, J. M. Dahlström, M. Gisselbrecht, T. Fordell, M. Swoboda, D. Guénot, P. Johnsson, J. Caillat, J. Mauritsson, A. Maquet, R. Taïeb, and A. L’Huillier, “Probing single-photon ionization on the attosecond time scale,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(14), 143002 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Szilvási, T.

Z. Tao, C. Chen, T. Szilvási, M. Keller, M. Mavrikakis, H. Kapteyn, and M. Murnane, “Direct time-domain observation of attosecond final-state lifetimes in photoemission from solids,” Science 353(6294), 62–67 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Taïeb, R.

K. Klünder, J. M. Dahlström, M. Gisselbrecht, T. Fordell, M. Swoboda, D. Guénot, P. Johnsson, J. Caillat, J. Mauritsson, A. Maquet, R. Taïeb, and A. L’Huillier, “Probing single-photon ionization on the attosecond time scale,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(14), 143002 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Haessler, B. Fabre, J. Higuet, J. Caillat, T. Ruchon, P. Breger, B. Carré, E. Constant, A. Maquet, E. Mével, P. Salières, R. Taïeb, and Y. Mairesse, “Phase-resolved attosecond near-threshold photoionization of molecular nitrogen,” Phys. Rev. A 80(1), 011404 (2009).
[Crossref]

Tao, Z.

Z. Tao, C. Chen, T. Szilvási, M. Keller, M. Mavrikakis, H. Kapteyn, and M. Murnane, “Direct time-domain observation of attosecond final-state lifetimes in photoemission from solids,” Science 353(6294), 62–67 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Toma, E. S.

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Augé, P. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a Train of Attosecond Pulses from High Harmonic Generation,” Science 292(5522), 1689–1692 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Uphues, T.

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, T. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuška, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature 449(7165), 1029–1032 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Varjù, K.

D. Guénot, D. Kroon, E. Balogh, E. W. Larsen, M. Kotur, M. Miranda, T. Fordell, P. Johnsson, J. Mauritsson, M. Gisselbrecht, K. Varjù, C. L. Arnold, T. Carette, A. S. Kheifets, E. Lindroth, A. L’Huillier, and J. M. Dahlström, “Measurements of relative photoemission time delays in noble gas atoms,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 47(24), 245602 (2014).
[Crossref]

Volkov, M.

M. Lucchini, S. A. Sato, A. Ludwig, J. Herrmann, M. Volkov, L. Kasmi, Y. Shinohara, K. Yabana, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Attosecond dynamical Franz-Keldysh effect in polycrystalline diamond,” Science 353(6302), 916–919 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vos, J.

Walther, H.

F. Lindner, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, A. Baltuška, E. Goulielmakis, M. Lezius, and F. Krausz, “Gouy phase shift for few-cycle laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(11), 113001 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Weger, M.

R. Locher, M. Lucchini, J. Herrmann, M. Sabbar, M. Weger, A. Ludwig, L. Castiglioni, M. Greif, M. Hengsberger, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Versatile attosecond beamline in a two-foci configuration for simultaneous time-resolved measurements,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85(1), 013113 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Whitmore, D.

M. Schultze, K. Ramasesha, C. D. Pemmaraju, S. A. Sato, D. Whitmore, A. Gandman, J. S. Prell, L. J. Borja, D. Prendergast, K. Yabana, D. M. Neumark, and S. R. Leone, “Ultrafast dynamics. Attosecond band-gap dynamics in silicon,” Science 346(6215), 1348–1352 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wigner, E. P.

E. P. Wigner, “Lower Limit for the Energy Derivative of the Scattering Phase Shift,” Phys. Rev. 98(1), 145–147 (1955).
[Crossref]

Winful, H. G.

Xu, L.

Yabana, K.

M. Lucchini, S. A. Sato, A. Ludwig, J. Herrmann, M. Volkov, L. Kasmi, Y. Shinohara, K. Yabana, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Attosecond dynamical Franz-Keldysh effect in polycrystalline diamond,” Science 353(6302), 916–919 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Schultze, K. Ramasesha, C. D. Pemmaraju, S. A. Sato, D. Whitmore, A. Gandman, J. S. Prell, L. J. Borja, D. Prendergast, K. Yabana, D. M. Neumark, and S. R. Leone, “Ultrafast dynamics. Attosecond band-gap dynamics in silicon,” Science 346(6215), 1348–1352 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yakovlev, V. S.

M. Schultze, E. M. Bothschafter, A. Sommer, S. Holzner, W. Schweinberger, M. Fiess, M. Hofstetter, R. Kienberger, V. Apalkov, V. S. Yakovlev, M. I. Stockman, and F. Krausz, “Controlling dielectrics with the electric field of light,” Nature 493(7430), 75–78 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Schultze, M. Fiess, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, T. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science 328(5986), 1658–1662 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, T. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuška, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature 449(7165), 1029–1032 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yudin, G. L.

J. Itatani, F. Quéré, G. L. Yudin, M. Yu. Ivanov, F. Krausz, and P. B. Corkum, “Attosecond streak camera,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(17), 173903 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. (1)

L. Gallmann, C. Cirelli, and U. Keller, “Attosecond Science: Recent Highlights and Future Trends,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 63(1), 447–469 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. B Lasers Opt. (1)

H. G. Muller, “Reconstruction of attosecond harmonic beating by interference of two-photon transitions,” Appl. Phys. B Lasers Opt. 74(S1), 17–21 (2002).
[Crossref]

C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris. (1)

L. G. Gouy, “Sur une propriété nouvelle des ondes lumineuses,” C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris. 110, 1251–1253 (1890).

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

C. Cirelli, M. Sabbar, S. Heuser, R. Boge, M. Lucchini, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Energy-Dependent Photoemission Time Delays of Noble Gas Atoms Using Coincidence Attosecond Streaking,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(5), 1 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. (3)

J. M. Dahlström, A. L’Huillier, and A. Maquet, “Introduction to attosecond delays in photoionization,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 45(18), 183001 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. Palatchi, J. M. Dahlström, A. S. Kheifets, I. A. Ivanov, D. M. Canaday, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “Atomic delay in helium, neon, argon and krypton,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 47(24), 245003 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Guénot, D. Kroon, E. Balogh, E. W. Larsen, M. Kotur, M. Miranda, T. Fordell, P. Johnsson, J. Mauritsson, M. Gisselbrecht, K. Varjù, C. L. Arnold, T. Carette, A. S. Kheifets, E. Lindroth, A. L’Huillier, and J. M. Dahlström, “Measurements of relative photoemission time delays in noble gas atoms,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 47(24), 245602 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nature (3)

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, T. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuška, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature 449(7165), 1029–1032 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414(6863), 509–513 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Schultze, E. M. Bothschafter, A. Sommer, S. Holzner, W. Schweinberger, M. Fiess, M. Hofstetter, R. Kienberger, V. Apalkov, V. S. Yakovlev, M. I. Stockman, and F. Krausz, “Controlling dielectrics with the electric field of light,” Nature 493(7430), 75–78 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Optica (1)

Phys. Rev. (1)

E. P. Wigner, “Lower Limit for the Energy Derivative of the Scattering Phase Shift,” Phys. Rev. 98(1), 145–147 (1955).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. A (2)

S. Heuser, Á. Jiménez Galán, C. Cirelli, C. Marante, M. Sabbar, R. Boge, M. Lucchini, L. Gallmann, I. Ivanov, A. S. Kheifets, J. M. Dahlström, E. Lindroth, L. Argenti, F. Martín, and U. Keller, “Angular dependence of photoemission time delay in helium,” Phys. Rev. A 94(6), 063409 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Haessler, B. Fabre, J. Higuet, J. Caillat, T. Ruchon, P. Breger, B. Carré, E. Constant, A. Maquet, E. Mével, P. Salières, R. Taïeb, and Y. Mairesse, “Phase-resolved attosecond near-threshold photoionization of molecular nitrogen,” Phys. Rev. A 80(1), 011404 (2009).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (5)

M. Sabbar, S. Heuser, R. Boge, M. Lucchini, T. Carette, E. Lindroth, L. Gallmann, C. Cirelli, and U. Keller, “Resonance Effects in Photoemission Time Delays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(13), 133001 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Klünder, J. M. Dahlström, M. Gisselbrecht, T. Fordell, M. Swoboda, D. Guénot, P. Johnsson, J. Caillat, J. Mauritsson, A. Maquet, R. Taïeb, and A. L’Huillier, “Probing single-photon ionization on the attosecond time scale,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(14), 143002 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Itatani, F. Quéré, G. L. Yudin, M. Yu. Ivanov, F. Krausz, and P. B. Corkum, “Attosecond streak camera,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(17), 173903 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Lucchini, L. Castiglioni, L. Kasmi, P. Kliuiev, A. Ludwig, M. Greif, J. Osterwalder, M. Hengsberger, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Light-Matter Interaction at Surfaces in the Spatiotemporal Limit of Macroscopic Models,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(13), 137401 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Lindner, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, A. Baltuška, E. Goulielmakis, M. Lezius, and F. Krausz, “Gouy phase shift for few-cycle laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(11), 113001 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

F. Krausz and M. Ivanov, “Attosecond physics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81(1), 163–234 (2009).
[Crossref]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

R. Locher, M. Lucchini, J. Herrmann, M. Sabbar, M. Weger, A. Ludwig, L. Castiglioni, M. Greif, M. Hengsberger, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Versatile attosecond beamline in a two-foci configuration for simultaneous time-resolved measurements,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85(1), 013113 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Science (5)

Z. Tao, C. Chen, T. Szilvási, M. Keller, M. Mavrikakis, H. Kapteyn, and M. Murnane, “Direct time-domain observation of attosecond final-state lifetimes in photoemission from solids,” Science 353(6294), 62–67 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Schultze, K. Ramasesha, C. D. Pemmaraju, S. A. Sato, D. Whitmore, A. Gandman, J. S. Prell, L. J. Borja, D. Prendergast, K. Yabana, D. M. Neumark, and S. R. Leone, “Ultrafast dynamics. Attosecond band-gap dynamics in silicon,” Science 346(6215), 1348–1352 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Lucchini, S. A. Sato, A. Ludwig, J. Herrmann, M. Volkov, L. Kasmi, Y. Shinohara, K. Yabana, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Attosecond dynamical Franz-Keldysh effect in polycrystalline diamond,” Science 353(6302), 916–919 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Schultze, M. Fiess, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, T. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science 328(5986), 1658–1662 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Augé, P. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a Train of Attosecond Pulses from High Harmonic Generation,” Science 292(5522), 1689–1692 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (2)

M. Ossiander, F. Siegrist, V. Shirvanyan, R. Pazourek, A. Sommer, T. Latka, A. Guggenmos, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, R. Kienberger, and M. Schultze, “Attosecond correlation dynamics,” Nat. Phys. (2016), doi:.
[Crossref]

Z. Chang, Fundamentals of Attosecond Optics (Taylor and Francis Group, LLC, 2011).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic of the two-target attosecond beamline with high-order harmonic generation (HHG), the attosecond/femtosecond interferometer and the two-foci geometry [22]. A defocusing mirror in the delay path matches the wavefronts of the IR and XUV on the center-hole mirror. The second gas target and time-of-flight (ToF) spectrometer can be moved together along the beam propagation direction. The insets (a) and (b) show the measured IR beam profile in the first (a) and second (b) focus. Inset (c) shows a cut of the second focus illustrated red in (b). The red curve is the beam profile and the blue dashed line a Gaussian fit.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Total measured electron counts of ATI spectra from ethylene as a function of the second chamber position (blue open dots) and the Gaussian fit (black dashed curve) used to extract the focal position. The inset shows two spectra for two positions of the second time-of-flight (ToF) spectrometer nozzle assembly, z = 0.25 mm (red arrow) and z = 5.25 mm (blue arrow).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a), (b) Simultaneously measured RABBITT traces in the first and second Ne-target regions. Oscillating SBs with order 20 (9.82 eV) to 30 (25.52 eV) are clearly visible in both traces. (c), (d) Normalized electron yield of SB 24 obtained by integrating over the energy region highlighted in red in (a) and (b).
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Energy dependence of the oscillation phase measured in the first and second target region (red = 1st, blue = 2nd). The phase has been extracted from eight SBs. Here, the position of the second target is z = –2.7 mm. The phase increases clearly in both foci with increasing SB energy as a result of the XUV attochirp. (b) Energy dependence of the relative phase difference, Δ Φ 2q = Φ 2q (1) Φ 2q (2) (z) , for seven positions of the second target.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Phase difference between simultaneously measured RABBITT traces obtained for eight different sidebands while varying the position of the second interaction chamber. (b) Phase difference averaged over the SB orders for two independent measurement sets. The error bars represent the corresponding standard deviation. The black line is the result of a fit with the function φ=A tan 1 (z/ z R ) , giving A = 2.45 ± 0.37 and zR = 32.7 ± 6.8 mm. The green dashed line illustrates the Gouy phase of a Gaussian beam with the same Rayleigh length zR.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) Relative delay Δ τ 2q (1)(2) (z)= τ 2q (1) τ 2q (2) (z) between simultaneously measured RABBITT traces as a function of the target position in the second target chamber. A constant delay offset τ ˜ 0 has been subtracted to obtain a zero delay at the focus. The blue circles are measurement points. The red curve is the result of a fit with the function τ=B tan 1 (z/ z R ) . (b) Absolute value of the first derivative of the delays in (a) with respect to propagation distance across the focus showing a maximum of 50 as/mm at the focus.

Equations (6)

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S B 2q (τ)cos(2 ω IR τ Φ 2q )=cos(2 ω IR τΔ θ 2q Δ φ 2q At +2 φ IR + φ 0 ),
Δ Φ 2q (z)= Φ 2q (1) Φ 2q (2) (z)=2 φ Gouy IR (z)+ φ ˜ 0 ,
C 2q (ω,z)=S B ˜ 2q (1) (ω)S B ˜ 2q (2)* (ω,z).
τ 2q = Φ 2q ω Φ 2q 2 ω IR = τ 2q,chirp + τ 2q,atom τ IR τ 0 .
Δ τ 2q,atom (1)(2) = τ 2q (1) τ 2q (2) = τ 2q,atom (1) τ 2q,atom (2) .
Δ τ 2q (1)(2) (z)= τ 2q (1) τ 2q (2) (z)= 2 φ Gouy IR (z)+ φ ˜ 0 2 ω IR = 2 φ Gouy IR (z) 2 ω IR + τ ˜ 0 ,

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