Abstract

Highly stable and flexible transparent electrodes are fabricated based on silver nanowires (AgNWs) on both polyethylene-terephthalate (PET) and polyimide (PI) substrates. Terahertz time domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) was utilized to probe AgNW films while bended with a radius 5 mm to discover conductivity of bended films which was further analyzed through Drude-Smith model. AgNW films experience little degradation in conductivity (<3%) before, after, and during 1000 bending cycles. Highly stable AgNW flexible electrodes have broad applications in flexible optoelectronic and electronic devices. THz-TDS is an effective technique to investigate the electrical properties of the bended and flattened conducting films in a nondestructive manner.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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  4. H. G. Im, S. H. Jung, J. Jin, D. Lee, J. Lee, D. Lee, J. Y. Lee, I. D. Kim, and B. S. Bae, “Flexible transparent conducting hybrid film using a surface-embedded copper nanowire network: a highly oxidation-resistant copper nanowire electrode for flexible optoelectronics,” ACS Nano 8(10), 10973–10979 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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  25. B. Deng, P. C. Hsu, G. Chen, B. N. Chandrashekar, L. Liao, Z. Ayitimuda, J. Wu, Y. Guo, L. Lin, Y. Zhou, M. Aisijiang, Q. Xie, Y. Cui, Z. Liu, and H. Peng, “Roll-to-roll encapsulation of metal nanowires between graphene and plastic substrate for high-performance flexible transparent electrodes,” Nano Lett. 15(6), 4206–4213 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  26. D. J. Kim, H. J. Kim, K. W. Seo, K. H. Kim, T. W. Kim, and H. K. Kim, “Indium-free, highly transparent, flexible Cu2O/Cu/Cu2O mesh electrodes for flexible touch screen panels,” Sci. Rep. 5(16838), 16838 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  27. A. Kim, Y. Won, K. Woo, C. H. Kim, and J. Moon, “Highly transparent low resistance ZnO/Ag nanowire/ZnO composite electrode for thin film solar cells,” ACS Nano 7(2), 1081–1091 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  28. C. F. Guo, Q. Liu, G. Wang, Y. Wang, Z. Shi, Z. Suo, C. W. Chu, and Z. Ren, “Fatigue-free, superstretchable, transparent, and biocompatible metal electrodes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(40), 12332–12337 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  29. T. Kinkeldei, K. Cherenack, C. Zysset, N. C. Woo, and G. Tröster, “Crack prevention of highly bent metal thin films in woven electronic textiles,” Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 55(2), 23901 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  30. B. J. Wen, T. A. Liu, H. C. Yu, S. F. Chen, and Y. C. Cheng, “Non-contact resistance measurement of transparent electrodes deposited on flexible display substrates under repetitive bending test by terahertz time domain spectroscopy,” Displays 45, 58–62 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  31. J. S. Kim, I. H. Maeng, J. W. Jung, H. J. Song, J. H. Son, K. S. Kim, J. I. Lee, C. H. Kim, G. S. Chae, M. C. Jun, Y. K. Hwang, S. J. Lee, J. M. Myoung, and H. Y. Choi, “Terahertz time-domain measurement of non-Drude conductivity in silver nanowire thin films for transparent electrode applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(1), 011109 (2013).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  33. A. Thoman, A. Kern, H. Helm, and M. Walther, “Nanostructured gold films as broadband terahertz antireflection coatings,” Phys. Rev. B 77(19), 195405 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  34. M. Walther, D. G. Cooke, C. Sherstan, M. Hajar, M. R. Freeman, and F. A. Hegmann, “Terahertz conductivity of thin gold films at the metal-insulator percolation transition,” Phys. Rev. B 76(12), 125408 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  35. N. Laman and D. Grischkowsky, “Terahertz conductivity of thin metal films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(5), 051105 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  36. S. Balci, W. Baughman, D. S. Wilbert, G. Shen, P. Kung, and S. M. Kim, “Characteristics of THz carrier dynamics in GaN thin film and ZnO nanowires by temperature dependent terahertz time domain spectroscopy measurement,” Solid-State Electron. 78, 68–74 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  37. S. Ye, A. R. Rathmell, Z. Chen, I. E. Stewart, and B. J. Wiley, “Metal nanowire networks: the next generation of transparent conductors,” Adv. Mater. 26(39), 6670–6687 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  38. T. L. Li and S. L. C. Hsu, “Preparation and properties of a high temperature, flexible and colorless ITO coated polyimide substrate,” Eur. Polym. J. 43(8), 3368–3373 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  39. M. Tinkham, “Energy gap interpretation of experiments on infrared transmission through superconducting films,” Phys. Rev. B 104(3), 845–846 (1956).
    [Crossref]
  40. H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, C. M. Bingham, W. J. Padilla, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “Terahertz metamaterials on free-standing highly-flexible polyimide substrates,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(23), 232004 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  41. N. V. Smith, “Classical generalization of the Drude formula for the optical conductivity,” Phys. Rev. B 64(15), 155106 (2001).
    [Crossref]

2016 (3)

J. H. M. Maurer, L. González-García, B. Reiser, I. Kanelidis, and T. Kraus, “Templated self-assembly of ultrathin Gold nanowires by nanoimprinting for transparent flexible electronics,” Nano Lett. 16(5), 2921–2925 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Huang, S. Liao, J. Ren, B. Khalid, H. Peng, and H. Wu, “A transparent, conducting tape for flexible electronics,” Nano Res. 9(4), 917–924 (2016).
[Crossref]

B. J. Wen, T. A. Liu, H. C. Yu, S. F. Chen, and Y. C. Cheng, “Non-contact resistance measurement of transparent electrodes deposited on flexible display substrates under repetitive bending test by terahertz time domain spectroscopy,” Displays 45, 58–62 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (7)

C. F. Guo, Q. Liu, G. Wang, Y. Wang, Z. Shi, Z. Suo, C. W. Chu, and Z. Ren, “Fatigue-free, superstretchable, transparent, and biocompatible metal electrodes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(40), 12332–12337 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Deng, P. C. Hsu, G. Chen, B. N. Chandrashekar, L. Liao, Z. Ayitimuda, J. Wu, Y. Guo, L. Lin, Y. Zhou, M. Aisijiang, Q. Xie, Y. Cui, Z. Liu, and H. Peng, “Roll-to-roll encapsulation of metal nanowires between graphene and plastic substrate for high-performance flexible transparent electrodes,” Nano Lett. 15(6), 4206–4213 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. J. Kim, H. J. Kim, K. W. Seo, K. H. Kim, T. W. Kim, and H. K. Kim, “Indium-free, highly transparent, flexible Cu2O/Cu/Cu2O mesh electrodes for flexible touch screen panels,” Sci. Rep. 5(16838), 16838 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Y. Wang, T.-H. Yoo, J. W. Lim, B. I. Sang, D. S. Lim, W. K. Choi, D. K. Hwang, and Y. J. Oh, “Enhanced light scattering and trapping effect of Ag nanowire mesh electrode for high efficient flexible organic solar cell,” Small 11(16), 1905–1911 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Zhou, L. Li, D. W. Wang, X. Y. Shan, S. Pei, F. Li, and H. M. Cheng, “A flexible sulfur-graphene-polypropylene separator integrated electrode for advanced Li-S batteries,” Adv. Mater. 27(4), 641–647 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Han, S. Yuan, L. Liu, X. Qiu, H. Gong, X. Yang, C. Li, Y. Hao, and B. Cao, “Fully indium-free flexible Ag nanowires/ZnO:F composite transparent conductive electrodes with high haze,” J. Mater. Chem. A Mater. Energy Sustain. 3(10), 5375–5384 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Jiang, J. Xi, Z. Wu, H. Dong, Z. Zhao, B. Jiao, and X. Hou, “Highly transparent, conductive, flexible resin films embedded with silver nanowires,” Langmuir 31(17), 4950–4957 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (6)

S. Chen, L. Song, Z. Tao, X. Shao, Y. Huang, Q. Cui, and X. Guo, “Neutral-pH PEDOT:PSS as over-coating layer for stable silver nanowire flexible transparent conductive films,” Org. Electron. 15(12), 3654–3659 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Song, J. H. Park, C. S. Kim, D. H. Kim, Y. C. Kang, S. H. Jin, W. Y. Jin, and J. W. Kang, “Highly flexible and transparent conducting silver nanowire/ZnO composite film for organic solar cells,” Nano Res. 7(9), 1370–1379 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. G. Im, S. H. Jung, J. Jin, D. Lee, J. Lee, D. Lee, J. Y. Lee, I. D. Kim, and B. S. Bae, “Flexible transparent conducting hybrid film using a surface-embedded copper nanowire network: a highly oxidation-resistant copper nanowire electrode for flexible optoelectronics,” ACS Nano 8(10), 10973–10979 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. C. Hsu, D. Kong, S. Wang, H. Wang, A. J. Welch, H. Wu, and Y. Cui, “Electrolessly deposited electrospun metal nanowire transparent electrodes,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 136(30), 10593–10596 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Z. Chen, H. Ahn, S. C. Yen, and Y. J. Tsai, “Thermally induced percolational transition and thermal stability of silver nanowire networks studied by THz spectroscopy,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(23), 20994–20999 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Ye, A. R. Rathmell, Z. Chen, I. E. Stewart, and B. J. Wiley, “Metal nanowire networks: the next generation of transparent conductors,” Adv. Mater. 26(39), 6670–6687 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (8)

J. S. Kim, I. H. Maeng, J. W. Jung, H. J. Song, J. H. Son, K. S. Kim, J. I. Lee, C. H. Kim, G. S. Chae, M. C. Jun, Y. K. Hwang, S. J. Lee, J. M. Myoung, and H. Y. Choi, “Terahertz time-domain measurement of non-Drude conductivity in silver nanowire thin films for transparent electrode applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(1), 011109 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Wu, D. Kong, Z. Ruan, P. C. Hsu, S. Wang, Z. Yu, T. J. Carney, L. Hu, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “A transparent electrode based on a metal nanotrough network,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 8(6), 421–425 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Kim, Y. Won, K. Woo, C. H. Kim, and J. Moon, “Highly transparent low resistance ZnO/Ag nanowire/ZnO composite electrode for thin film solar cells,” ACS Nano 7(2), 1081–1091 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Liu, Q. Chang, and L. Huang, “Transparent, flexible conducting graphene hybrid films with a subpercolating network of silver nanowires,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 1(17), 2970–2974 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. Y. Choi, H. W. Kang, H. J. Sung, and S. S. Kim, “Annealing-free, flexible silver nanowire-polymer composite electrodes via a continuous two-step spray-coating method,” Nanoscale 5(3), 977–983 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Zhu, Y. Gao, B. Hu, J. Li, J. Su, Z. Fan, and J. Zhou, “Transferable self-welding silver nanowire network as high performance transparent flexible electrode,” Nanotechnology 24(33), 335202 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Lin, L. Li, J. Ren, Z. Cai, L. Qiu, Z. Yang, and H. Peng, “Conducting polymer composite film incorporated with aligned carbon nanotubes for transparent, flexible and efficient supercapacitor,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1353 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. C. Hauger, S. M. I. Al-Rafia, and J. M. Buriak, “Rolling silver nanowire electrodes: simultaneously addressing adhesion, roughness, and conductivity,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 5(23), 12663–12671 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (2)

C. H. Chung, T. B. Song, B. Bob, R. Zhu, and Y. Yang, “Solution-processed flexible transparent conductors composed of silver nanowire networks embedded in Indium Tin Oxide nanoparticle matrices,” Nano Res. 5(11), 805–814 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Balci, W. Baughman, D. S. Wilbert, G. Shen, P. Kung, and S. M. Kim, “Characteristics of THz carrier dynamics in GaN thin film and ZnO nanowires by temperature dependent terahertz time domain spectroscopy measurement,” Solid-State Electron. 78, 68–74 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

T. Kinkeldei, K. Cherenack, C. Zysset, N. C. Woo, and G. Tröster, “Crack prevention of highly bent metal thin films in woven electronic textiles,” Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 55(2), 23901 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. R. Rathmell and B. J. Wiley, “The synthesis and coating of long, thin copper nanowires to make flexible, transparent conducting films on plastic substrates,” Adv. Mater. 23(41), 4798–4803 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (5)

L. Hu, H. S. Kim, J. Y. Lee, P. Peumans, and Y. Cui, “Scalable coating and properties of transparent, flexible, silver nanowire electrodes,” ACS Nano 4(5), 2955–2963 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. K. Hong, D. W. Lee, H. J. Choi, H. S. Shin, and B. S. Kim, “Transparent, flexible conducting hybrid multilayer thin films of multiwalled carbon nanotubes with graphene nanosheets,” ACS Nano 4(7), 3861–3868 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Chang, G. Wang, A. Yang, X. Tao, X. Liu, Y. Shen, and Z. Zheng, “A transparent, flexible, low-temperature, and solution-processible graphene composite electrode,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20(17), 2893–2902 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. De, P. J. King, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, E. M. Doherty, Y. Hernandez, G. S. Duesberg, and J. N. Coleman, “Flexible, transparent, conducting films of randomly stacked graphene from surfactant-stabilized, oxide-free graphene dispersions,” Small 6(3), 458–464 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. R. Rathmell, S. M. Bergin, Y. L. Hua, Z. Y. Li, and B. J. Wiley, “The growth mechanism of copper nanowires and their properties in flexible, transparent conducting films,” Adv. Mater. 22(32), 3558–3563 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (4)

J. Y. Lee, S. T. Connor, Y. Cui, and P. Peumans, “Solution-processed metal nanowire mesh transparent electrodes,” Nano Lett. 8(2), 689–692 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Thoman, A. Kern, H. Helm, and M. Walther, “Nanostructured gold films as broadband terahertz antireflection coatings,” Phys. Rev. B 77(19), 195405 (2008).
[Crossref]

N. Laman and D. Grischkowsky, “Terahertz conductivity of thin metal films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(5), 051105 (2008).
[Crossref]

H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, C. M. Bingham, W. J. Padilla, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “Terahertz metamaterials on free-standing highly-flexible polyimide substrates,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(23), 232004 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

T. L. Li and S. L. C. Hsu, “Preparation and properties of a high temperature, flexible and colorless ITO coated polyimide substrate,” Eur. Polym. J. 43(8), 3368–3373 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. Walther, D. G. Cooke, C. Sherstan, M. Hajar, M. R. Freeman, and F. A. Hegmann, “Terahertz conductivity of thin gold films at the metal-insulator percolation transition,” Phys. Rev. B 76(12), 125408 (2007).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

N. V. Smith, “Classical generalization of the Drude formula for the optical conductivity,” Phys. Rev. B 64(15), 155106 (2001).
[Crossref]

1956 (1)

M. Tinkham, “Energy gap interpretation of experiments on infrared transmission through superconducting films,” Phys. Rev. B 104(3), 845–846 (1956).
[Crossref]

Ahn, H.

J. Z. Chen, H. Ahn, S. C. Yen, and Y. J. Tsai, “Thermally induced percolational transition and thermal stability of silver nanowire networks studied by THz spectroscopy,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(23), 20994–20999 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aisijiang, M.

B. Deng, P. C. Hsu, G. Chen, B. N. Chandrashekar, L. Liao, Z. Ayitimuda, J. Wu, Y. Guo, L. Lin, Y. Zhou, M. Aisijiang, Q. Xie, Y. Cui, Z. Liu, and H. Peng, “Roll-to-roll encapsulation of metal nanowires between graphene and plastic substrate for high-performance flexible transparent electrodes,” Nano Lett. 15(6), 4206–4213 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Al-Rafia, S. M. I.

T. C. Hauger, S. M. I. Al-Rafia, and J. M. Buriak, “Rolling silver nanowire electrodes: simultaneously addressing adhesion, roughness, and conductivity,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 5(23), 12663–12671 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Averitt, R. D.

H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, C. M. Bingham, W. J. Padilla, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “Terahertz metamaterials on free-standing highly-flexible polyimide substrates,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(23), 232004 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ayitimuda, Z.

B. Deng, P. C. Hsu, G. Chen, B. N. Chandrashekar, L. Liao, Z. Ayitimuda, J. Wu, Y. Guo, L. Lin, Y. Zhou, M. Aisijiang, Q. Xie, Y. Cui, Z. Liu, and H. Peng, “Roll-to-roll encapsulation of metal nanowires between graphene and plastic substrate for high-performance flexible transparent electrodes,” Nano Lett. 15(6), 4206–4213 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bae, B. S.

H. G. Im, S. H. Jung, J. Jin, D. Lee, J. Lee, D. Lee, J. Y. Lee, I. D. Kim, and B. S. Bae, “Flexible transparent conducting hybrid film using a surface-embedded copper nanowire network: a highly oxidation-resistant copper nanowire electrode for flexible optoelectronics,” ACS Nano 8(10), 10973–10979 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Balci, S.

S. Balci, W. Baughman, D. S. Wilbert, G. Shen, P. Kung, and S. M. Kim, “Characteristics of THz carrier dynamics in GaN thin film and ZnO nanowires by temperature dependent terahertz time domain spectroscopy measurement,” Solid-State Electron. 78, 68–74 (2012).
[Crossref]

Baughman, W.

S. Balci, W. Baughman, D. S. Wilbert, G. Shen, P. Kung, and S. M. Kim, “Characteristics of THz carrier dynamics in GaN thin film and ZnO nanowires by temperature dependent terahertz time domain spectroscopy measurement,” Solid-State Electron. 78, 68–74 (2012).
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T. C. Hauger, S. M. I. Al-Rafia, and J. M. Buriak, “Rolling silver nanowire electrodes: simultaneously addressing adhesion, roughness, and conductivity,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 5(23), 12663–12671 (2013).
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J. Han, S. Yuan, L. Liu, X. Qiu, H. Gong, X. Yang, C. Li, Y. Hao, and B. Cao, “Fully indium-free flexible Ag nanowires/ZnO:F composite transparent conductive electrodes with high haze,” J. Mater. Chem. A Mater. Energy Sustain. 3(10), 5375–5384 (2015).
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H. Wu, D. Kong, Z. Ruan, P. C. Hsu, S. Wang, Z. Yu, T. J. Carney, L. Hu, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “A transparent electrode based on a metal nanotrough network,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 8(6), 421–425 (2013).
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J. S. Kim, I. H. Maeng, J. W. Jung, H. J. Song, J. H. Son, K. S. Kim, J. I. Lee, C. H. Kim, G. S. Chae, M. C. Jun, Y. K. Hwang, S. J. Lee, J. M. Myoung, and H. Y. Choi, “Terahertz time-domain measurement of non-Drude conductivity in silver nanowire thin films for transparent electrode applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(1), 011109 (2013).
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B. J. Wen, T. A. Liu, H. C. Yu, S. F. Chen, and Y. C. Cheng, “Non-contact resistance measurement of transparent electrodes deposited on flexible display substrates under repetitive bending test by terahertz time domain spectroscopy,” Displays 45, 58–62 (2016).
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T. Kinkeldei, K. Cherenack, C. Zysset, N. C. Woo, and G. Tröster, “Crack prevention of highly bent metal thin films in woven electronic textiles,” Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 55(2), 23901 (2011).
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D. Y. Choi, H. W. Kang, H. J. Sung, and S. S. Kim, “Annealing-free, flexible silver nanowire-polymer composite electrodes via a continuous two-step spray-coating method,” Nanoscale 5(3), 977–983 (2013).
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T. K. Hong, D. W. Lee, H. J. Choi, H. S. Shin, and B. S. Kim, “Transparent, flexible conducting hybrid multilayer thin films of multiwalled carbon nanotubes with graphene nanosheets,” ACS Nano 4(7), 3861–3868 (2010).
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J. S. Kim, I. H. Maeng, J. W. Jung, H. J. Song, J. H. Son, K. S. Kim, J. I. Lee, C. H. Kim, G. S. Chae, M. C. Jun, Y. K. Hwang, S. J. Lee, J. M. Myoung, and H. Y. Choi, “Terahertz time-domain measurement of non-Drude conductivity in silver nanowire thin films for transparent electrode applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(1), 011109 (2013).
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B. Y. Wang, T.-H. Yoo, J. W. Lim, B. I. Sang, D. S. Lim, W. K. Choi, D. K. Hwang, and Y. J. Oh, “Enhanced light scattering and trapping effect of Ag nanowire mesh electrode for high efficient flexible organic solar cell,” Small 11(16), 1905–1911 (2015).
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C. F. Guo, Q. Liu, G. Wang, Y. Wang, Z. Shi, Z. Suo, C. W. Chu, and Z. Ren, “Fatigue-free, superstretchable, transparent, and biocompatible metal electrodes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(40), 12332–12337 (2015).
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C. H. Chung, T. B. Song, B. Bob, R. Zhu, and Y. Yang, “Solution-processed flexible transparent conductors composed of silver nanowire networks embedded in Indium Tin Oxide nanoparticle matrices,” Nano Res. 5(11), 805–814 (2012).
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S. De, P. J. King, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, E. M. Doherty, Y. Hernandez, G. S. Duesberg, and J. N. Coleman, “Flexible, transparent, conducting films of randomly stacked graphene from surfactant-stabilized, oxide-free graphene dispersions,” Small 6(3), 458–464 (2010).
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J. Y. Lee, S. T. Connor, Y. Cui, and P. Peumans, “Solution-processed metal nanowire mesh transparent electrodes,” Nano Lett. 8(2), 689–692 (2008).
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M. Walther, D. G. Cooke, C. Sherstan, M. Hajar, M. R. Freeman, and F. A. Hegmann, “Terahertz conductivity of thin gold films at the metal-insulator percolation transition,” Phys. Rev. B 76(12), 125408 (2007).
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S. Chen, L. Song, Z. Tao, X. Shao, Y. Huang, Q. Cui, and X. Guo, “Neutral-pH PEDOT:PSS as over-coating layer for stable silver nanowire flexible transparent conductive films,” Org. Electron. 15(12), 3654–3659 (2014).
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Cui, Y.

B. Deng, P. C. Hsu, G. Chen, B. N. Chandrashekar, L. Liao, Z. Ayitimuda, J. Wu, Y. Guo, L. Lin, Y. Zhou, M. Aisijiang, Q. Xie, Y. Cui, Z. Liu, and H. Peng, “Roll-to-roll encapsulation of metal nanowires between graphene and plastic substrate for high-performance flexible transparent electrodes,” Nano Lett. 15(6), 4206–4213 (2015).
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P. C. Hsu, D. Kong, S. Wang, H. Wang, A. J. Welch, H. Wu, and Y. Cui, “Electrolessly deposited electrospun metal nanowire transparent electrodes,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 136(30), 10593–10596 (2014).
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H. Wu, D. Kong, Z. Ruan, P. C. Hsu, S. Wang, Z. Yu, T. J. Carney, L. Hu, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “A transparent electrode based on a metal nanotrough network,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 8(6), 421–425 (2013).
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L. Hu, H. S. Kim, J. Y. Lee, P. Peumans, and Y. Cui, “Scalable coating and properties of transparent, flexible, silver nanowire electrodes,” ACS Nano 4(5), 2955–2963 (2010).
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J. Y. Lee, S. T. Connor, Y. Cui, and P. Peumans, “Solution-processed metal nanowire mesh transparent electrodes,” Nano Lett. 8(2), 689–692 (2008).
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S. De, P. J. King, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, E. M. Doherty, Y. Hernandez, G. S. Duesberg, and J. N. Coleman, “Flexible, transparent, conducting films of randomly stacked graphene from surfactant-stabilized, oxide-free graphene dispersions,” Small 6(3), 458–464 (2010).
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Deng, B.

B. Deng, P. C. Hsu, G. Chen, B. N. Chandrashekar, L. Liao, Z. Ayitimuda, J. Wu, Y. Guo, L. Lin, Y. Zhou, M. Aisijiang, Q. Xie, Y. Cui, Z. Liu, and H. Peng, “Roll-to-roll encapsulation of metal nanowires between graphene and plastic substrate for high-performance flexible transparent electrodes,” Nano Lett. 15(6), 4206–4213 (2015).
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S. De, P. J. King, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, E. M. Doherty, Y. Hernandez, G. S. Duesberg, and J. N. Coleman, “Flexible, transparent, conducting films of randomly stacked graphene from surfactant-stabilized, oxide-free graphene dispersions,” Small 6(3), 458–464 (2010).
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Dong, H.

Y. Jiang, J. Xi, Z. Wu, H. Dong, Z. Zhao, B. Jiao, and X. Hou, “Highly transparent, conductive, flexible resin films embedded with silver nanowires,” Langmuir 31(17), 4950–4957 (2015).
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Duesberg, G. S.

S. De, P. J. King, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, E. M. Doherty, Y. Hernandez, G. S. Duesberg, and J. N. Coleman, “Flexible, transparent, conducting films of randomly stacked graphene from surfactant-stabilized, oxide-free graphene dispersions,” Small 6(3), 458–464 (2010).
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Fan, K.

H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, C. M. Bingham, W. J. Padilla, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “Terahertz metamaterials on free-standing highly-flexible polyimide substrates,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(23), 232004 (2008).
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Fan, S.

H. Wu, D. Kong, Z. Ruan, P. C. Hsu, S. Wang, Z. Yu, T. J. Carney, L. Hu, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “A transparent electrode based on a metal nanotrough network,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 8(6), 421–425 (2013).
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Fan, Z.

S. Zhu, Y. Gao, B. Hu, J. Li, J. Su, Z. Fan, and J. Zhou, “Transferable self-welding silver nanowire network as high performance transparent flexible electrode,” Nanotechnology 24(33), 335202 (2013).
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M. Walther, D. G. Cooke, C. Sherstan, M. Hajar, M. R. Freeman, and F. A. Hegmann, “Terahertz conductivity of thin gold films at the metal-insulator percolation transition,” Phys. Rev. B 76(12), 125408 (2007).
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Gao, Y.

S. Zhu, Y. Gao, B. Hu, J. Li, J. Su, Z. Fan, and J. Zhou, “Transferable self-welding silver nanowire network as high performance transparent flexible electrode,” Nanotechnology 24(33), 335202 (2013).
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Gong, H.

J. Han, S. Yuan, L. Liu, X. Qiu, H. Gong, X. Yang, C. Li, Y. Hao, and B. Cao, “Fully indium-free flexible Ag nanowires/ZnO:F composite transparent conductive electrodes with high haze,” J. Mater. Chem. A Mater. Energy Sustain. 3(10), 5375–5384 (2015).
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J. H. M. Maurer, L. González-García, B. Reiser, I. Kanelidis, and T. Kraus, “Templated self-assembly of ultrathin Gold nanowires by nanoimprinting for transparent flexible electronics,” Nano Lett. 16(5), 2921–2925 (2016).
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N. Laman and D. Grischkowsky, “Terahertz conductivity of thin metal films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(5), 051105 (2008).
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C. F. Guo, Q. Liu, G. Wang, Y. Wang, Z. Shi, Z. Suo, C. W. Chu, and Z. Ren, “Fatigue-free, superstretchable, transparent, and biocompatible metal electrodes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(40), 12332–12337 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guo, X.

S. Chen, L. Song, Z. Tao, X. Shao, Y. Huang, Q. Cui, and X. Guo, “Neutral-pH PEDOT:PSS as over-coating layer for stable silver nanowire flexible transparent conductive films,” Org. Electron. 15(12), 3654–3659 (2014).
[Crossref]

Guo, Y.

B. Deng, P. C. Hsu, G. Chen, B. N. Chandrashekar, L. Liao, Z. Ayitimuda, J. Wu, Y. Guo, L. Lin, Y. Zhou, M. Aisijiang, Q. Xie, Y. Cui, Z. Liu, and H. Peng, “Roll-to-roll encapsulation of metal nanowires between graphene and plastic substrate for high-performance flexible transparent electrodes,” Nano Lett. 15(6), 4206–4213 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hajar, M.

M. Walther, D. G. Cooke, C. Sherstan, M. Hajar, M. R. Freeman, and F. A. Hegmann, “Terahertz conductivity of thin gold films at the metal-insulator percolation transition,” Phys. Rev. B 76(12), 125408 (2007).
[Crossref]

Han, J.

J. Han, S. Yuan, L. Liu, X. Qiu, H. Gong, X. Yang, C. Li, Y. Hao, and B. Cao, “Fully indium-free flexible Ag nanowires/ZnO:F composite transparent conductive electrodes with high haze,” J. Mater. Chem. A Mater. Energy Sustain. 3(10), 5375–5384 (2015).
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Hao, Y.

J. Han, S. Yuan, L. Liu, X. Qiu, H. Gong, X. Yang, C. Li, Y. Hao, and B. Cao, “Fully indium-free flexible Ag nanowires/ZnO:F composite transparent conductive electrodes with high haze,” J. Mater. Chem. A Mater. Energy Sustain. 3(10), 5375–5384 (2015).
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Hauger, T. C.

T. C. Hauger, S. M. I. Al-Rafia, and J. M. Buriak, “Rolling silver nanowire electrodes: simultaneously addressing adhesion, roughness, and conductivity,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 5(23), 12663–12671 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hegmann, F. A.

M. Walther, D. G. Cooke, C. Sherstan, M. Hajar, M. R. Freeman, and F. A. Hegmann, “Terahertz conductivity of thin gold films at the metal-insulator percolation transition,” Phys. Rev. B 76(12), 125408 (2007).
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A. Thoman, A. Kern, H. Helm, and M. Walther, “Nanostructured gold films as broadband terahertz antireflection coatings,” Phys. Rev. B 77(19), 195405 (2008).
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S. De, P. J. King, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, E. M. Doherty, Y. Hernandez, G. S. Duesberg, and J. N. Coleman, “Flexible, transparent, conducting films of randomly stacked graphene from surfactant-stabilized, oxide-free graphene dispersions,” Small 6(3), 458–464 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hong, T. K.

T. K. Hong, D. W. Lee, H. J. Choi, H. S. Shin, and B. S. Kim, “Transparent, flexible conducting hybrid multilayer thin films of multiwalled carbon nanotubes with graphene nanosheets,” ACS Nano 4(7), 3861–3868 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hou, X.

Y. Jiang, J. Xi, Z. Wu, H. Dong, Z. Zhao, B. Jiao, and X. Hou, “Highly transparent, conductive, flexible resin films embedded with silver nanowires,” Langmuir 31(17), 4950–4957 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hsu, P. C.

B. Deng, P. C. Hsu, G. Chen, B. N. Chandrashekar, L. Liao, Z. Ayitimuda, J. Wu, Y. Guo, L. Lin, Y. Zhou, M. Aisijiang, Q. Xie, Y. Cui, Z. Liu, and H. Peng, “Roll-to-roll encapsulation of metal nanowires between graphene and plastic substrate for high-performance flexible transparent electrodes,” Nano Lett. 15(6), 4206–4213 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. C. Hsu, D. Kong, S. Wang, H. Wang, A. J. Welch, H. Wu, and Y. Cui, “Electrolessly deposited electrospun metal nanowire transparent electrodes,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 136(30), 10593–10596 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Wu, D. Kong, Z. Ruan, P. C. Hsu, S. Wang, Z. Yu, T. J. Carney, L. Hu, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “A transparent electrode based on a metal nanotrough network,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 8(6), 421–425 (2013).
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Hsu, S. L. C.

T. L. Li and S. L. C. Hsu, “Preparation and properties of a high temperature, flexible and colorless ITO coated polyimide substrate,” Eur. Polym. J. 43(8), 3368–3373 (2007).
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Hu, B.

S. Zhu, Y. Gao, B. Hu, J. Li, J. Su, Z. Fan, and J. Zhou, “Transferable self-welding silver nanowire network as high performance transparent flexible electrode,” Nanotechnology 24(33), 335202 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hu, L.

H. Wu, D. Kong, Z. Ruan, P. C. Hsu, S. Wang, Z. Yu, T. J. Carney, L. Hu, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “A transparent electrode based on a metal nanotrough network,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 8(6), 421–425 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Hu, H. S. Kim, J. Y. Lee, P. Peumans, and Y. Cui, “Scalable coating and properties of transparent, flexible, silver nanowire electrodes,” ACS Nano 4(5), 2955–2963 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hua, Y. L.

A. R. Rathmell, S. M. Bergin, Y. L. Hua, Z. Y. Li, and B. J. Wiley, “The growth mechanism of copper nanowires and their properties in flexible, transparent conducting films,” Adv. Mater. 22(32), 3558–3563 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, L.

Y. Liu, Q. Chang, and L. Huang, “Transparent, flexible conducting graphene hybrid films with a subpercolating network of silver nanowires,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 1(17), 2970–2974 (2013).
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Huang, Y.

Y. Huang, S. Liao, J. Ren, B. Khalid, H. Peng, and H. Wu, “A transparent, conducting tape for flexible electronics,” Nano Res. 9(4), 917–924 (2016).
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S. Chen, L. Song, Z. Tao, X. Shao, Y. Huang, Q. Cui, and X. Guo, “Neutral-pH PEDOT:PSS as over-coating layer for stable silver nanowire flexible transparent conductive films,” Org. Electron. 15(12), 3654–3659 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hwang, D. K.

B. Y. Wang, T.-H. Yoo, J. W. Lim, B. I. Sang, D. S. Lim, W. K. Choi, D. K. Hwang, and Y. J. Oh, “Enhanced light scattering and trapping effect of Ag nanowire mesh electrode for high efficient flexible organic solar cell,” Small 11(16), 1905–1911 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hwang, Y. K.

J. S. Kim, I. H. Maeng, J. W. Jung, H. J. Song, J. H. Son, K. S. Kim, J. I. Lee, C. H. Kim, G. S. Chae, M. C. Jun, Y. K. Hwang, S. J. Lee, J. M. Myoung, and H. Y. Choi, “Terahertz time-domain measurement of non-Drude conductivity in silver nanowire thin films for transparent electrode applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(1), 011109 (2013).
[Crossref]

Im, H. G.

H. G. Im, S. H. Jung, J. Jin, D. Lee, J. Lee, D. Lee, J. Y. Lee, I. D. Kim, and B. S. Bae, “Flexible transparent conducting hybrid film using a surface-embedded copper nanowire network: a highly oxidation-resistant copper nanowire electrode for flexible optoelectronics,” ACS Nano 8(10), 10973–10979 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jiang, Y.

Y. Jiang, J. Xi, Z. Wu, H. Dong, Z. Zhao, B. Jiao, and X. Hou, “Highly transparent, conductive, flexible resin films embedded with silver nanowires,” Langmuir 31(17), 4950–4957 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jiao, B.

Y. Jiang, J. Xi, Z. Wu, H. Dong, Z. Zhao, B. Jiao, and X. Hou, “Highly transparent, conductive, flexible resin films embedded with silver nanowires,” Langmuir 31(17), 4950–4957 (2015).
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Jin, J.

H. G. Im, S. H. Jung, J. Jin, D. Lee, J. Lee, D. Lee, J. Y. Lee, I. D. Kim, and B. S. Bae, “Flexible transparent conducting hybrid film using a surface-embedded copper nanowire network: a highly oxidation-resistant copper nanowire electrode for flexible optoelectronics,” ACS Nano 8(10), 10973–10979 (2014).
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Jin, S. H.

M. Song, J. H. Park, C. S. Kim, D. H. Kim, Y. C. Kang, S. H. Jin, W. Y. Jin, and J. W. Kang, “Highly flexible and transparent conducting silver nanowire/ZnO composite film for organic solar cells,” Nano Res. 7(9), 1370–1379 (2014).
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Jin, W. Y.

M. Song, J. H. Park, C. S. Kim, D. H. Kim, Y. C. Kang, S. H. Jin, W. Y. Jin, and J. W. Kang, “Highly flexible and transparent conducting silver nanowire/ZnO composite film for organic solar cells,” Nano Res. 7(9), 1370–1379 (2014).
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Jun, M. C.

J. S. Kim, I. H. Maeng, J. W. Jung, H. J. Song, J. H. Son, K. S. Kim, J. I. Lee, C. H. Kim, G. S. Chae, M. C. Jun, Y. K. Hwang, S. J. Lee, J. M. Myoung, and H. Y. Choi, “Terahertz time-domain measurement of non-Drude conductivity in silver nanowire thin films for transparent electrode applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(1), 011109 (2013).
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Jung, J. W.

J. S. Kim, I. H. Maeng, J. W. Jung, H. J. Song, J. H. Son, K. S. Kim, J. I. Lee, C. H. Kim, G. S. Chae, M. C. Jun, Y. K. Hwang, S. J. Lee, J. M. Myoung, and H. Y. Choi, “Terahertz time-domain measurement of non-Drude conductivity in silver nanowire thin films for transparent electrode applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(1), 011109 (2013).
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Jung, S. H.

H. G. Im, S. H. Jung, J. Jin, D. Lee, J. Lee, D. Lee, J. Y. Lee, I. D. Kim, and B. S. Bae, “Flexible transparent conducting hybrid film using a surface-embedded copper nanowire network: a highly oxidation-resistant copper nanowire electrode for flexible optoelectronics,” ACS Nano 8(10), 10973–10979 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kanelidis, I.

J. H. M. Maurer, L. González-García, B. Reiser, I. Kanelidis, and T. Kraus, “Templated self-assembly of ultrathin Gold nanowires by nanoimprinting for transparent flexible electronics,” Nano Lett. 16(5), 2921–2925 (2016).
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Y. Huang, S. Liao, J. Ren, B. Khalid, H. Peng, and H. Wu, “A transparent, conducting tape for flexible electronics,” Nano Res. 9(4), 917–924 (2016).
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A. Kim, Y. Won, K. Woo, C. H. Kim, and J. Moon, “Highly transparent low resistance ZnO/Ag nanowire/ZnO composite electrode for thin film solar cells,” ACS Nano 7(2), 1081–1091 (2013).
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Kim, B. S.

T. K. Hong, D. W. Lee, H. J. Choi, H. S. Shin, and B. S. Kim, “Transparent, flexible conducting hybrid multilayer thin films of multiwalled carbon nanotubes with graphene nanosheets,” ACS Nano 4(7), 3861–3868 (2010).
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Kim, C. H.

A. Kim, Y. Won, K. Woo, C. H. Kim, and J. Moon, “Highly transparent low resistance ZnO/Ag nanowire/ZnO composite electrode for thin film solar cells,” ACS Nano 7(2), 1081–1091 (2013).
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J. S. Kim, I. H. Maeng, J. W. Jung, H. J. Song, J. H. Son, K. S. Kim, J. I. Lee, C. H. Kim, G. S. Chae, M. C. Jun, Y. K. Hwang, S. J. Lee, J. M. Myoung, and H. Y. Choi, “Terahertz time-domain measurement of non-Drude conductivity in silver nanowire thin films for transparent electrode applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(1), 011109 (2013).
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M. Song, J. H. Park, C. S. Kim, D. H. Kim, Y. C. Kang, S. H. Jin, W. Y. Jin, and J. W. Kang, “Highly flexible and transparent conducting silver nanowire/ZnO composite film for organic solar cells,” Nano Res. 7(9), 1370–1379 (2014).
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M. Song, J. H. Park, C. S. Kim, D. H. Kim, Y. C. Kang, S. H. Jin, W. Y. Jin, and J. W. Kang, “Highly flexible and transparent conducting silver nanowire/ZnO composite film for organic solar cells,” Nano Res. 7(9), 1370–1379 (2014).
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D. J. Kim, H. J. Kim, K. W. Seo, K. H. Kim, T. W. Kim, and H. K. Kim, “Indium-free, highly transparent, flexible Cu2O/Cu/Cu2O mesh electrodes for flexible touch screen panels,” Sci. Rep. 5(16838), 16838 (2015).
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D. J. Kim, H. J. Kim, K. W. Seo, K. H. Kim, T. W. Kim, and H. K. Kim, “Indium-free, highly transparent, flexible Cu2O/Cu/Cu2O mesh electrodes for flexible touch screen panels,” Sci. Rep. 5(16838), 16838 (2015).
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L. Hu, H. S. Kim, J. Y. Lee, P. Peumans, and Y. Cui, “Scalable coating and properties of transparent, flexible, silver nanowire electrodes,” ACS Nano 4(5), 2955–2963 (2010).
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H. G. Im, S. H. Jung, J. Jin, D. Lee, J. Lee, D. Lee, J. Y. Lee, I. D. Kim, and B. S. Bae, “Flexible transparent conducting hybrid film using a surface-embedded copper nanowire network: a highly oxidation-resistant copper nanowire electrode for flexible optoelectronics,” ACS Nano 8(10), 10973–10979 (2014).
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J. S. Kim, I. H. Maeng, J. W. Jung, H. J. Song, J. H. Son, K. S. Kim, J. I. Lee, C. H. Kim, G. S. Chae, M. C. Jun, Y. K. Hwang, S. J. Lee, J. M. Myoung, and H. Y. Choi, “Terahertz time-domain measurement of non-Drude conductivity in silver nanowire thin films for transparent electrode applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(1), 011109 (2013).
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D. J. Kim, H. J. Kim, K. W. Seo, K. H. Kim, T. W. Kim, and H. K. Kim, “Indium-free, highly transparent, flexible Cu2O/Cu/Cu2O mesh electrodes for flexible touch screen panels,” Sci. Rep. 5(16838), 16838 (2015).
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J. S. Kim, I. H. Maeng, J. W. Jung, H. J. Song, J. H. Son, K. S. Kim, J. I. Lee, C. H. Kim, G. S. Chae, M. C. Jun, Y. K. Hwang, S. J. Lee, J. M. Myoung, and H. Y. Choi, “Terahertz time-domain measurement of non-Drude conductivity in silver nanowire thin films for transparent electrode applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(1), 011109 (2013).
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S. Balci, W. Baughman, D. S. Wilbert, G. Shen, P. Kung, and S. M. Kim, “Characteristics of THz carrier dynamics in GaN thin film and ZnO nanowires by temperature dependent terahertz time domain spectroscopy measurement,” Solid-State Electron. 78, 68–74 (2012).
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D. Y. Choi, H. W. Kang, H. J. Sung, and S. S. Kim, “Annealing-free, flexible silver nanowire-polymer composite electrodes via a continuous two-step spray-coating method,” Nanoscale 5(3), 977–983 (2013).
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Kim, T. W.

D. J. Kim, H. J. Kim, K. W. Seo, K. H. Kim, T. W. Kim, and H. K. Kim, “Indium-free, highly transparent, flexible Cu2O/Cu/Cu2O mesh electrodes for flexible touch screen panels,” Sci. Rep. 5(16838), 16838 (2015).
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S. De, P. J. King, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, E. M. Doherty, Y. Hernandez, G. S. Duesberg, and J. N. Coleman, “Flexible, transparent, conducting films of randomly stacked graphene from surfactant-stabilized, oxide-free graphene dispersions,” Small 6(3), 458–464 (2010).
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P. C. Hsu, D. Kong, S. Wang, H. Wang, A. J. Welch, H. Wu, and Y. Cui, “Electrolessly deposited electrospun metal nanowire transparent electrodes,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 136(30), 10593–10596 (2014).
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H. Wu, D. Kong, Z. Ruan, P. C. Hsu, S. Wang, Z. Yu, T. J. Carney, L. Hu, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “A transparent electrode based on a metal nanotrough network,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 8(6), 421–425 (2013).
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J. H. M. Maurer, L. González-García, B. Reiser, I. Kanelidis, and T. Kraus, “Templated self-assembly of ultrathin Gold nanowires by nanoimprinting for transparent flexible electronics,” Nano Lett. 16(5), 2921–2925 (2016).
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S. Balci, W. Baughman, D. S. Wilbert, G. Shen, P. Kung, and S. M. Kim, “Characteristics of THz carrier dynamics in GaN thin film and ZnO nanowires by temperature dependent terahertz time domain spectroscopy measurement,” Solid-State Electron. 78, 68–74 (2012).
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H. G. Im, S. H. Jung, J. Jin, D. Lee, J. Lee, D. Lee, J. Y. Lee, I. D. Kim, and B. S. Bae, “Flexible transparent conducting hybrid film using a surface-embedded copper nanowire network: a highly oxidation-resistant copper nanowire electrode for flexible optoelectronics,” ACS Nano 8(10), 10973–10979 (2014).
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H. G. Im, S. H. Jung, J. Jin, D. Lee, J. Lee, D. Lee, J. Y. Lee, I. D. Kim, and B. S. Bae, “Flexible transparent conducting hybrid film using a surface-embedded copper nanowire network: a highly oxidation-resistant copper nanowire electrode for flexible optoelectronics,” ACS Nano 8(10), 10973–10979 (2014).
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T. K. Hong, D. W. Lee, H. J. Choi, H. S. Shin, and B. S. Kim, “Transparent, flexible conducting hybrid multilayer thin films of multiwalled carbon nanotubes with graphene nanosheets,” ACS Nano 4(7), 3861–3868 (2010).
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Lee, J.

H. G. Im, S. H. Jung, J. Jin, D. Lee, J. Lee, D. Lee, J. Y. Lee, I. D. Kim, and B. S. Bae, “Flexible transparent conducting hybrid film using a surface-embedded copper nanowire network: a highly oxidation-resistant copper nanowire electrode for flexible optoelectronics,” ACS Nano 8(10), 10973–10979 (2014).
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J. S. Kim, I. H. Maeng, J. W. Jung, H. J. Song, J. H. Son, K. S. Kim, J. I. Lee, C. H. Kim, G. S. Chae, M. C. Jun, Y. K. Hwang, S. J. Lee, J. M. Myoung, and H. Y. Choi, “Terahertz time-domain measurement of non-Drude conductivity in silver nanowire thin films for transparent electrode applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(1), 011109 (2013).
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H. G. Im, S. H. Jung, J. Jin, D. Lee, J. Lee, D. Lee, J. Y. Lee, I. D. Kim, and B. S. Bae, “Flexible transparent conducting hybrid film using a surface-embedded copper nanowire network: a highly oxidation-resistant copper nanowire electrode for flexible optoelectronics,” ACS Nano 8(10), 10973–10979 (2014).
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L. Hu, H. S. Kim, J. Y. Lee, P. Peumans, and Y. Cui, “Scalable coating and properties of transparent, flexible, silver nanowire electrodes,” ACS Nano 4(5), 2955–2963 (2010).
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J. Y. Lee, S. T. Connor, Y. Cui, and P. Peumans, “Solution-processed metal nanowire mesh transparent electrodes,” Nano Lett. 8(2), 689–692 (2008).
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J. S. Kim, I. H. Maeng, J. W. Jung, H. J. Song, J. H. Son, K. S. Kim, J. I. Lee, C. H. Kim, G. S. Chae, M. C. Jun, Y. K. Hwang, S. J. Lee, J. M. Myoung, and H. Y. Choi, “Terahertz time-domain measurement of non-Drude conductivity in silver nanowire thin films for transparent electrode applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(1), 011109 (2013).
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J. Han, S. Yuan, L. Liu, X. Qiu, H. Gong, X. Yang, C. Li, Y. Hao, and B. Cao, “Fully indium-free flexible Ag nanowires/ZnO:F composite transparent conductive electrodes with high haze,” J. Mater. Chem. A Mater. Energy Sustain. 3(10), 5375–5384 (2015).
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G. Zhou, L. Li, D. W. Wang, X. Y. Shan, S. Pei, F. Li, and H. M. Cheng, “A flexible sulfur-graphene-polypropylene separator integrated electrode for advanced Li-S batteries,” Adv. Mater. 27(4), 641–647 (2015).
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S. Zhu, Y. Gao, B. Hu, J. Li, J. Su, Z. Fan, and J. Zhou, “Transferable self-welding silver nanowire network as high performance transparent flexible electrode,” Nanotechnology 24(33), 335202 (2013).
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G. Zhou, L. Li, D. W. Wang, X. Y. Shan, S. Pei, F. Li, and H. M. Cheng, “A flexible sulfur-graphene-polypropylene separator integrated electrode for advanced Li-S batteries,” Adv. Mater. 27(4), 641–647 (2015).
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H. Lin, L. Li, J. Ren, Z. Cai, L. Qiu, Z. Yang, and H. Peng, “Conducting polymer composite film incorporated with aligned carbon nanotubes for transparent, flexible and efficient supercapacitor,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1353 (2013).
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B. Deng, P. C. Hsu, G. Chen, B. N. Chandrashekar, L. Liao, Z. Ayitimuda, J. Wu, Y. Guo, L. Lin, Y. Zhou, M. Aisijiang, Q. Xie, Y. Cui, Z. Liu, and H. Peng, “Roll-to-roll encapsulation of metal nanowires between graphene and plastic substrate for high-performance flexible transparent electrodes,” Nano Lett. 15(6), 4206–4213 (2015).
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Y. Huang, S. Liao, J. Ren, B. Khalid, H. Peng, and H. Wu, “A transparent, conducting tape for flexible electronics,” Nano Res. 9(4), 917–924 (2016).
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H. Lin, L. Li, J. Ren, Z. Cai, L. Qiu, Z. Yang, and H. Peng, “Conducting polymer composite film incorporated with aligned carbon nanotubes for transparent, flexible and efficient supercapacitor,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1353 (2013).
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J. Han, S. Yuan, L. Liu, X. Qiu, H. Gong, X. Yang, C. Li, Y. Hao, and B. Cao, “Fully indium-free flexible Ag nanowires/ZnO:F composite transparent conductive electrodes with high haze,” J. Mater. Chem. A Mater. Energy Sustain. 3(10), 5375–5384 (2015).
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C. F. Guo, Q. Liu, G. Wang, Y. Wang, Z. Shi, Z. Suo, C. W. Chu, and Z. Ren, “Fatigue-free, superstretchable, transparent, and biocompatible metal electrodes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(40), 12332–12337 (2015).
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B. J. Wen, T. A. Liu, H. C. Yu, S. F. Chen, and Y. C. Cheng, “Non-contact resistance measurement of transparent electrodes deposited on flexible display substrates under repetitive bending test by terahertz time domain spectroscopy,” Displays 45, 58–62 (2016).
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H. Chang, G. Wang, A. Yang, X. Tao, X. Liu, Y. Shen, and Z. Zheng, “A transparent, flexible, low-temperature, and solution-processible graphene composite electrode,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20(17), 2893–2902 (2010).
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B. Deng, P. C. Hsu, G. Chen, B. N. Chandrashekar, L. Liao, Z. Ayitimuda, J. Wu, Y. Guo, L. Lin, Y. Zhou, M. Aisijiang, Q. Xie, Y. Cui, Z. Liu, and H. Peng, “Roll-to-roll encapsulation of metal nanowires between graphene and plastic substrate for high-performance flexible transparent electrodes,” Nano Lett. 15(6), 4206–4213 (2015).
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S. De, P. J. King, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, E. M. Doherty, Y. Hernandez, G. S. Duesberg, and J. N. Coleman, “Flexible, transparent, conducting films of randomly stacked graphene from surfactant-stabilized, oxide-free graphene dispersions,” Small 6(3), 458–464 (2010).
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J. S. Kim, I. H. Maeng, J. W. Jung, H. J. Song, J. H. Son, K. S. Kim, J. I. Lee, C. H. Kim, G. S. Chae, M. C. Jun, Y. K. Hwang, S. J. Lee, J. M. Myoung, and H. Y. Choi, “Terahertz time-domain measurement of non-Drude conductivity in silver nanowire thin films for transparent electrode applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(1), 011109 (2013).
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Maurer, J. H. M.

J. H. M. Maurer, L. González-García, B. Reiser, I. Kanelidis, and T. Kraus, “Templated self-assembly of ultrathin Gold nanowires by nanoimprinting for transparent flexible electronics,” Nano Lett. 16(5), 2921–2925 (2016).
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Moon, J.

A. Kim, Y. Won, K. Woo, C. H. Kim, and J. Moon, “Highly transparent low resistance ZnO/Ag nanowire/ZnO composite electrode for thin film solar cells,” ACS Nano 7(2), 1081–1091 (2013).
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Myoung, J. M.

J. S. Kim, I. H. Maeng, J. W. Jung, H. J. Song, J. H. Son, K. S. Kim, J. I. Lee, C. H. Kim, G. S. Chae, M. C. Jun, Y. K. Hwang, S. J. Lee, J. M. Myoung, and H. Y. Choi, “Terahertz time-domain measurement of non-Drude conductivity in silver nanowire thin films for transparent electrode applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(1), 011109 (2013).
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S. De, P. J. King, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, E. M. Doherty, Y. Hernandez, G. S. Duesberg, and J. N. Coleman, “Flexible, transparent, conducting films of randomly stacked graphene from surfactant-stabilized, oxide-free graphene dispersions,” Small 6(3), 458–464 (2010).
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B. Y. Wang, T.-H. Yoo, J. W. Lim, B. I. Sang, D. S. Lim, W. K. Choi, D. K. Hwang, and Y. J. Oh, “Enhanced light scattering and trapping effect of Ag nanowire mesh electrode for high efficient flexible organic solar cell,” Small 11(16), 1905–1911 (2015).
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Pei, S.

G. Zhou, L. Li, D. W. Wang, X. Y. Shan, S. Pei, F. Li, and H. M. Cheng, “A flexible sulfur-graphene-polypropylene separator integrated electrode for advanced Li-S batteries,” Adv. Mater. 27(4), 641–647 (2015).
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Y. Huang, S. Liao, J. Ren, B. Khalid, H. Peng, and H. Wu, “A transparent, conducting tape for flexible electronics,” Nano Res. 9(4), 917–924 (2016).
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B. Deng, P. C. Hsu, G. Chen, B. N. Chandrashekar, L. Liao, Z. Ayitimuda, J. Wu, Y. Guo, L. Lin, Y. Zhou, M. Aisijiang, Q. Xie, Y. Cui, Z. Liu, and H. Peng, “Roll-to-roll encapsulation of metal nanowires between graphene and plastic substrate for high-performance flexible transparent electrodes,” Nano Lett. 15(6), 4206–4213 (2015).
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H. Lin, L. Li, J. Ren, Z. Cai, L. Qiu, Z. Yang, and H. Peng, “Conducting polymer composite film incorporated with aligned carbon nanotubes for transparent, flexible and efficient supercapacitor,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1353 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Peumans, P.

L. Hu, H. S. Kim, J. Y. Lee, P. Peumans, and Y. Cui, “Scalable coating and properties of transparent, flexible, silver nanowire electrodes,” ACS Nano 4(5), 2955–2963 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Y. Lee, S. T. Connor, Y. Cui, and P. Peumans, “Solution-processed metal nanowire mesh transparent electrodes,” Nano Lett. 8(2), 689–692 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Qiu, L.

H. Lin, L. Li, J. Ren, Z. Cai, L. Qiu, Z. Yang, and H. Peng, “Conducting polymer composite film incorporated with aligned carbon nanotubes for transparent, flexible and efficient supercapacitor,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1353 (2013).
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Qiu, X.

J. Han, S. Yuan, L. Liu, X. Qiu, H. Gong, X. Yang, C. Li, Y. Hao, and B. Cao, “Fully indium-free flexible Ag nanowires/ZnO:F composite transparent conductive electrodes with high haze,” J. Mater. Chem. A Mater. Energy Sustain. 3(10), 5375–5384 (2015).
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S. Ye, A. R. Rathmell, Z. Chen, I. E. Stewart, and B. J. Wiley, “Metal nanowire networks: the next generation of transparent conductors,” Adv. Mater. 26(39), 6670–6687 (2014).
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A. R. Rathmell and B. J. Wiley, “The synthesis and coating of long, thin copper nanowires to make flexible, transparent conducting films on plastic substrates,” Adv. Mater. 23(41), 4798–4803 (2011).
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A. R. Rathmell, S. M. Bergin, Y. L. Hua, Z. Y. Li, and B. J. Wiley, “The growth mechanism of copper nanowires and their properties in flexible, transparent conducting films,” Adv. Mater. 22(32), 3558–3563 (2010).
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Reiser, B.

J. H. M. Maurer, L. González-García, B. Reiser, I. Kanelidis, and T. Kraus, “Templated self-assembly of ultrathin Gold nanowires by nanoimprinting for transparent flexible electronics,” Nano Lett. 16(5), 2921–2925 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ren, J.

Y. Huang, S. Liao, J. Ren, B. Khalid, H. Peng, and H. Wu, “A transparent, conducting tape for flexible electronics,” Nano Res. 9(4), 917–924 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Lin, L. Li, J. Ren, Z. Cai, L. Qiu, Z. Yang, and H. Peng, “Conducting polymer composite film incorporated with aligned carbon nanotubes for transparent, flexible and efficient supercapacitor,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1353 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ren, Z.

C. F. Guo, Q. Liu, G. Wang, Y. Wang, Z. Shi, Z. Suo, C. W. Chu, and Z. Ren, “Fatigue-free, superstretchable, transparent, and biocompatible metal electrodes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(40), 12332–12337 (2015).
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H. Wu, D. Kong, Z. Ruan, P. C. Hsu, S. Wang, Z. Yu, T. J. Carney, L. Hu, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “A transparent electrode based on a metal nanotrough network,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 8(6), 421–425 (2013).
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Sang, B. I.

B. Y. Wang, T.-H. Yoo, J. W. Lim, B. I. Sang, D. S. Lim, W. K. Choi, D. K. Hwang, and Y. J. Oh, “Enhanced light scattering and trapping effect of Ag nanowire mesh electrode for high efficient flexible organic solar cell,” Small 11(16), 1905–1911 (2015).
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G. Zhou, L. Li, D. W. Wang, X. Y. Shan, S. Pei, F. Li, and H. M. Cheng, “A flexible sulfur-graphene-polypropylene separator integrated electrode for advanced Li-S batteries,” Adv. Mater. 27(4), 641–647 (2015).
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S. Chen, L. Song, Z. Tao, X. Shao, Y. Huang, Q. Cui, and X. Guo, “Neutral-pH PEDOT:PSS as over-coating layer for stable silver nanowire flexible transparent conductive films,” Org. Electron. 15(12), 3654–3659 (2014).
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S. Balci, W. Baughman, D. S. Wilbert, G. Shen, P. Kung, and S. M. Kim, “Characteristics of THz carrier dynamics in GaN thin film and ZnO nanowires by temperature dependent terahertz time domain spectroscopy measurement,” Solid-State Electron. 78, 68–74 (2012).
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H. Chang, G. Wang, A. Yang, X. Tao, X. Liu, Y. Shen, and Z. Zheng, “A transparent, flexible, low-temperature, and solution-processible graphene composite electrode,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20(17), 2893–2902 (2010).
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M. Walther, D. G. Cooke, C. Sherstan, M. Hajar, M. R. Freeman, and F. A. Hegmann, “Terahertz conductivity of thin gold films at the metal-insulator percolation transition,” Phys. Rev. B 76(12), 125408 (2007).
[Crossref]

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C. F. Guo, Q. Liu, G. Wang, Y. Wang, Z. Shi, Z. Suo, C. W. Chu, and Z. Ren, “Fatigue-free, superstretchable, transparent, and biocompatible metal electrodes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(40), 12332–12337 (2015).
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T. K. Hong, D. W. Lee, H. J. Choi, H. S. Shin, and B. S. Kim, “Transparent, flexible conducting hybrid multilayer thin films of multiwalled carbon nanotubes with graphene nanosheets,” ACS Nano 4(7), 3861–3868 (2010).
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S. Chen, L. Song, Z. Tao, X. Shao, Y. Huang, Q. Cui, and X. Guo, “Neutral-pH PEDOT:PSS as over-coating layer for stable silver nanowire flexible transparent conductive films,” Org. Electron. 15(12), 3654–3659 (2014).
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M. Song, J. H. Park, C. S. Kim, D. H. Kim, Y. C. Kang, S. H. Jin, W. Y. Jin, and J. W. Kang, “Highly flexible and transparent conducting silver nanowire/ZnO composite film for organic solar cells,” Nano Res. 7(9), 1370–1379 (2014).
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C. H. Chung, T. B. Song, B. Bob, R. Zhu, and Y. Yang, “Solution-processed flexible transparent conductors composed of silver nanowire networks embedded in Indium Tin Oxide nanoparticle matrices,” Nano Res. 5(11), 805–814 (2012).
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S. Ye, A. R. Rathmell, Z. Chen, I. E. Stewart, and B. J. Wiley, “Metal nanowire networks: the next generation of transparent conductors,” Adv. Mater. 26(39), 6670–6687 (2014).
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H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, C. M. Bingham, W. J. Padilla, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “Terahertz metamaterials on free-standing highly-flexible polyimide substrates,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(23), 232004 (2008).
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S. Zhu, Y. Gao, B. Hu, J. Li, J. Su, Z. Fan, and J. Zhou, “Transferable self-welding silver nanowire network as high performance transparent flexible electrode,” Nanotechnology 24(33), 335202 (2013).
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D. Y. Choi, H. W. Kang, H. J. Sung, and S. S. Kim, “Annealing-free, flexible silver nanowire-polymer composite electrodes via a continuous two-step spray-coating method,” Nanoscale 5(3), 977–983 (2013).
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C. F. Guo, Q. Liu, G. Wang, Y. Wang, Z. Shi, Z. Suo, C. W. Chu, and Z. Ren, “Fatigue-free, superstretchable, transparent, and biocompatible metal electrodes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(40), 12332–12337 (2015).
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H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, C. M. Bingham, W. J. Padilla, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “Terahertz metamaterials on free-standing highly-flexible polyimide substrates,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(23), 232004 (2008).
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Tao, X.

H. Chang, G. Wang, A. Yang, X. Tao, X. Liu, Y. Shen, and Z. Zheng, “A transparent, flexible, low-temperature, and solution-processible graphene composite electrode,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20(17), 2893–2902 (2010).
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Tao, Z.

S. Chen, L. Song, Z. Tao, X. Shao, Y. Huang, Q. Cui, and X. Guo, “Neutral-pH PEDOT:PSS as over-coating layer for stable silver nanowire flexible transparent conductive films,” Org. Electron. 15(12), 3654–3659 (2014).
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T. Kinkeldei, K. Cherenack, C. Zysset, N. C. Woo, and G. Tröster, “Crack prevention of highly bent metal thin films in woven electronic textiles,” Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 55(2), 23901 (2011).
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Tsai, Y. J.

J. Z. Chen, H. Ahn, S. C. Yen, and Y. J. Tsai, “Thermally induced percolational transition and thermal stability of silver nanowire networks studied by THz spectroscopy,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(23), 20994–20999 (2014).
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Walther, M.

A. Thoman, A. Kern, H. Helm, and M. Walther, “Nanostructured gold films as broadband terahertz antireflection coatings,” Phys. Rev. B 77(19), 195405 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. Walther, D. G. Cooke, C. Sherstan, M. Hajar, M. R. Freeman, and F. A. Hegmann, “Terahertz conductivity of thin gold films at the metal-insulator percolation transition,” Phys. Rev. B 76(12), 125408 (2007).
[Crossref]

Wang, B. Y.

B. Y. Wang, T.-H. Yoo, J. W. Lim, B. I. Sang, D. S. Lim, W. K. Choi, D. K. Hwang, and Y. J. Oh, “Enhanced light scattering and trapping effect of Ag nanowire mesh electrode for high efficient flexible organic solar cell,” Small 11(16), 1905–1911 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, D. W.

G. Zhou, L. Li, D. W. Wang, X. Y. Shan, S. Pei, F. Li, and H. M. Cheng, “A flexible sulfur-graphene-polypropylene separator integrated electrode for advanced Li-S batteries,” Adv. Mater. 27(4), 641–647 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, G.

C. F. Guo, Q. Liu, G. Wang, Y. Wang, Z. Shi, Z. Suo, C. W. Chu, and Z. Ren, “Fatigue-free, superstretchable, transparent, and biocompatible metal electrodes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(40), 12332–12337 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Chang, G. Wang, A. Yang, X. Tao, X. Liu, Y. Shen, and Z. Zheng, “A transparent, flexible, low-temperature, and solution-processible graphene composite electrode,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20(17), 2893–2902 (2010).
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Wang, H.

P. C. Hsu, D. Kong, S. Wang, H. Wang, A. J. Welch, H. Wu, and Y. Cui, “Electrolessly deposited electrospun metal nanowire transparent electrodes,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 136(30), 10593–10596 (2014).
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Wang, S.

P. C. Hsu, D. Kong, S. Wang, H. Wang, A. J. Welch, H. Wu, and Y. Cui, “Electrolessly deposited electrospun metal nanowire transparent electrodes,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 136(30), 10593–10596 (2014).
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H. Wu, D. Kong, Z. Ruan, P. C. Hsu, S. Wang, Z. Yu, T. J. Carney, L. Hu, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “A transparent electrode based on a metal nanotrough network,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 8(6), 421–425 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, Y.

C. F. Guo, Q. Liu, G. Wang, Y. Wang, Z. Shi, Z. Suo, C. W. Chu, and Z. Ren, “Fatigue-free, superstretchable, transparent, and biocompatible metal electrodes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(40), 12332–12337 (2015).
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Welch, A. J.

P. C. Hsu, D. Kong, S. Wang, H. Wang, A. J. Welch, H. Wu, and Y. Cui, “Electrolessly deposited electrospun metal nanowire transparent electrodes,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 136(30), 10593–10596 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wen, B. J.

B. J. Wen, T. A. Liu, H. C. Yu, S. F. Chen, and Y. C. Cheng, “Non-contact resistance measurement of transparent electrodes deposited on flexible display substrates under repetitive bending test by terahertz time domain spectroscopy,” Displays 45, 58–62 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wilbert, D. S.

S. Balci, W. Baughman, D. S. Wilbert, G. Shen, P. Kung, and S. M. Kim, “Characteristics of THz carrier dynamics in GaN thin film and ZnO nanowires by temperature dependent terahertz time domain spectroscopy measurement,” Solid-State Electron. 78, 68–74 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wiley, B. J.

S. Ye, A. R. Rathmell, Z. Chen, I. E. Stewart, and B. J. Wiley, “Metal nanowire networks: the next generation of transparent conductors,” Adv. Mater. 26(39), 6670–6687 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. R. Rathmell and B. J. Wiley, “The synthesis and coating of long, thin copper nanowires to make flexible, transparent conducting films on plastic substrates,” Adv. Mater. 23(41), 4798–4803 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. R. Rathmell, S. M. Bergin, Y. L. Hua, Z. Y. Li, and B. J. Wiley, “The growth mechanism of copper nanowires and their properties in flexible, transparent conducting films,” Adv. Mater. 22(32), 3558–3563 (2010).
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Won, Y.

A. Kim, Y. Won, K. Woo, C. H. Kim, and J. Moon, “Highly transparent low resistance ZnO/Ag nanowire/ZnO composite electrode for thin film solar cells,” ACS Nano 7(2), 1081–1091 (2013).
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Woo, K.

A. Kim, Y. Won, K. Woo, C. H. Kim, and J. Moon, “Highly transparent low resistance ZnO/Ag nanowire/ZnO composite electrode for thin film solar cells,” ACS Nano 7(2), 1081–1091 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Woo, N. C.

T. Kinkeldei, K. Cherenack, C. Zysset, N. C. Woo, and G. Tröster, “Crack prevention of highly bent metal thin films in woven electronic textiles,” Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 55(2), 23901 (2011).
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Wu, H.

Y. Huang, S. Liao, J. Ren, B. Khalid, H. Peng, and H. Wu, “A transparent, conducting tape for flexible electronics,” Nano Res. 9(4), 917–924 (2016).
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P. C. Hsu, D. Kong, S. Wang, H. Wang, A. J. Welch, H. Wu, and Y. Cui, “Electrolessly deposited electrospun metal nanowire transparent electrodes,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 136(30), 10593–10596 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Wu, D. Kong, Z. Ruan, P. C. Hsu, S. Wang, Z. Yu, T. J. Carney, L. Hu, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “A transparent electrode based on a metal nanotrough network,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 8(6), 421–425 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, J.

B. Deng, P. C. Hsu, G. Chen, B. N. Chandrashekar, L. Liao, Z. Ayitimuda, J. Wu, Y. Guo, L. Lin, Y. Zhou, M. Aisijiang, Q. Xie, Y. Cui, Z. Liu, and H. Peng, “Roll-to-roll encapsulation of metal nanowires between graphene and plastic substrate for high-performance flexible transparent electrodes,” Nano Lett. 15(6), 4206–4213 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, Z.

Y. Jiang, J. Xi, Z. Wu, H. Dong, Z. Zhao, B. Jiao, and X. Hou, “Highly transparent, conductive, flexible resin films embedded with silver nanowires,” Langmuir 31(17), 4950–4957 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xi, J.

Y. Jiang, J. Xi, Z. Wu, H. Dong, Z. Zhao, B. Jiao, and X. Hou, “Highly transparent, conductive, flexible resin films embedded with silver nanowires,” Langmuir 31(17), 4950–4957 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xie, Q.

B. Deng, P. C. Hsu, G. Chen, B. N. Chandrashekar, L. Liao, Z. Ayitimuda, J. Wu, Y. Guo, L. Lin, Y. Zhou, M. Aisijiang, Q. Xie, Y. Cui, Z. Liu, and H. Peng, “Roll-to-roll encapsulation of metal nanowires between graphene and plastic substrate for high-performance flexible transparent electrodes,” Nano Lett. 15(6), 4206–4213 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, A.

H. Chang, G. Wang, A. Yang, X. Tao, X. Liu, Y. Shen, and Z. Zheng, “A transparent, flexible, low-temperature, and solution-processible graphene composite electrode,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20(17), 2893–2902 (2010).
[Crossref]

Yang, X.

J. Han, S. Yuan, L. Liu, X. Qiu, H. Gong, X. Yang, C. Li, Y. Hao, and B. Cao, “Fully indium-free flexible Ag nanowires/ZnO:F composite transparent conductive electrodes with high haze,” J. Mater. Chem. A Mater. Energy Sustain. 3(10), 5375–5384 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yang, Y.

C. H. Chung, T. B. Song, B. Bob, R. Zhu, and Y. Yang, “Solution-processed flexible transparent conductors composed of silver nanowire networks embedded in Indium Tin Oxide nanoparticle matrices,” Nano Res. 5(11), 805–814 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yang, Z.

H. Lin, L. Li, J. Ren, Z. Cai, L. Qiu, Z. Yang, and H. Peng, “Conducting polymer composite film incorporated with aligned carbon nanotubes for transparent, flexible and efficient supercapacitor,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1353 (2013).
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Ye, S.

S. Ye, A. R. Rathmell, Z. Chen, I. E. Stewart, and B. J. Wiley, “Metal nanowire networks: the next generation of transparent conductors,” Adv. Mater. 26(39), 6670–6687 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yen, S. C.

J. Z. Chen, H. Ahn, S. C. Yen, and Y. J. Tsai, “Thermally induced percolational transition and thermal stability of silver nanowire networks studied by THz spectroscopy,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(23), 20994–20999 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yoo, T.-H.

B. Y. Wang, T.-H. Yoo, J. W. Lim, B. I. Sang, D. S. Lim, W. K. Choi, D. K. Hwang, and Y. J. Oh, “Enhanced light scattering and trapping effect of Ag nanowire mesh electrode for high efficient flexible organic solar cell,” Small 11(16), 1905–1911 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, H. C.

B. J. Wen, T. A. Liu, H. C. Yu, S. F. Chen, and Y. C. Cheng, “Non-contact resistance measurement of transparent electrodes deposited on flexible display substrates under repetitive bending test by terahertz time domain spectroscopy,” Displays 45, 58–62 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yu, Z.

H. Wu, D. Kong, Z. Ruan, P. C. Hsu, S. Wang, Z. Yu, T. J. Carney, L. Hu, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “A transparent electrode based on a metal nanotrough network,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 8(6), 421–425 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yuan, S.

J. Han, S. Yuan, L. Liu, X. Qiu, H. Gong, X. Yang, C. Li, Y. Hao, and B. Cao, “Fully indium-free flexible Ag nanowires/ZnO:F composite transparent conductive electrodes with high haze,” J. Mater. Chem. A Mater. Energy Sustain. 3(10), 5375–5384 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X.

H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, C. M. Bingham, W. J. Padilla, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “Terahertz metamaterials on free-standing highly-flexible polyimide substrates,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(23), 232004 (2008).
[Crossref]

Zhao, Z.

Y. Jiang, J. Xi, Z. Wu, H. Dong, Z. Zhao, B. Jiao, and X. Hou, “Highly transparent, conductive, flexible resin films embedded with silver nanowires,” Langmuir 31(17), 4950–4957 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zheng, Z.

H. Chang, G. Wang, A. Yang, X. Tao, X. Liu, Y. Shen, and Z. Zheng, “A transparent, flexible, low-temperature, and solution-processible graphene composite electrode,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20(17), 2893–2902 (2010).
[Crossref]

Zhou, G.

G. Zhou, L. Li, D. W. Wang, X. Y. Shan, S. Pei, F. Li, and H. M. Cheng, “A flexible sulfur-graphene-polypropylene separator integrated electrode for advanced Li-S batteries,” Adv. Mater. 27(4), 641–647 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhou, J.

S. Zhu, Y. Gao, B. Hu, J. Li, J. Su, Z. Fan, and J. Zhou, “Transferable self-welding silver nanowire network as high performance transparent flexible electrode,” Nanotechnology 24(33), 335202 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhou, Y.

B. Deng, P. C. Hsu, G. Chen, B. N. Chandrashekar, L. Liao, Z. Ayitimuda, J. Wu, Y. Guo, L. Lin, Y. Zhou, M. Aisijiang, Q. Xie, Y. Cui, Z. Liu, and H. Peng, “Roll-to-roll encapsulation of metal nanowires between graphene and plastic substrate for high-performance flexible transparent electrodes,” Nano Lett. 15(6), 4206–4213 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhu, R.

C. H. Chung, T. B. Song, B. Bob, R. Zhu, and Y. Yang, “Solution-processed flexible transparent conductors composed of silver nanowire networks embedded in Indium Tin Oxide nanoparticle matrices,” Nano Res. 5(11), 805–814 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhu, S.

S. Zhu, Y. Gao, B. Hu, J. Li, J. Su, Z. Fan, and J. Zhou, “Transferable self-welding silver nanowire network as high performance transparent flexible electrode,” Nanotechnology 24(33), 335202 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zysset, C.

T. Kinkeldei, K. Cherenack, C. Zysset, N. C. Woo, and G. Tröster, “Crack prevention of highly bent metal thin films in woven electronic textiles,” Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 55(2), 23901 (2011).
[Crossref]

ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces (2)

T. C. Hauger, S. M. I. Al-Rafia, and J. M. Buriak, “Rolling silver nanowire electrodes: simultaneously addressing adhesion, roughness, and conductivity,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 5(23), 12663–12671 (2013).
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J. Z. Chen, H. Ahn, S. C. Yen, and Y. J. Tsai, “Thermally induced percolational transition and thermal stability of silver nanowire networks studied by THz spectroscopy,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(23), 20994–20999 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

ACS Nano (4)

L. Hu, H. S. Kim, J. Y. Lee, P. Peumans, and Y. Cui, “Scalable coating and properties of transparent, flexible, silver nanowire electrodes,” ACS Nano 4(5), 2955–2963 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Kim, Y. Won, K. Woo, C. H. Kim, and J. Moon, “Highly transparent low resistance ZnO/Ag nanowire/ZnO composite electrode for thin film solar cells,” ACS Nano 7(2), 1081–1091 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. G. Im, S. H. Jung, J. Jin, D. Lee, J. Lee, D. Lee, J. Y. Lee, I. D. Kim, and B. S. Bae, “Flexible transparent conducting hybrid film using a surface-embedded copper nanowire network: a highly oxidation-resistant copper nanowire electrode for flexible optoelectronics,” ACS Nano 8(10), 10973–10979 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. K. Hong, D. W. Lee, H. J. Choi, H. S. Shin, and B. S. Kim, “Transparent, flexible conducting hybrid multilayer thin films of multiwalled carbon nanotubes with graphene nanosheets,” ACS Nano 4(7), 3861–3868 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

H. Chang, G. Wang, A. Yang, X. Tao, X. Liu, Y. Shen, and Z. Zheng, “A transparent, flexible, low-temperature, and solution-processible graphene composite electrode,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20(17), 2893–2902 (2010).
[Crossref]

Adv. Mater. (4)

A. R. Rathmell, S. M. Bergin, Y. L. Hua, Z. Y. Li, and B. J. Wiley, “The growth mechanism of copper nanowires and their properties in flexible, transparent conducting films,” Adv. Mater. 22(32), 3558–3563 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. R. Rathmell and B. J. Wiley, “The synthesis and coating of long, thin copper nanowires to make flexible, transparent conducting films on plastic substrates,” Adv. Mater. 23(41), 4798–4803 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Zhou, L. Li, D. W. Wang, X. Y. Shan, S. Pei, F. Li, and H. M. Cheng, “A flexible sulfur-graphene-polypropylene separator integrated electrode for advanced Li-S batteries,” Adv. Mater. 27(4), 641–647 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Ye, A. R. Rathmell, Z. Chen, I. E. Stewart, and B. J. Wiley, “Metal nanowire networks: the next generation of transparent conductors,” Adv. Mater. 26(39), 6670–6687 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

N. Laman and D. Grischkowsky, “Terahertz conductivity of thin metal films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(5), 051105 (2008).
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J. S. Kim, I. H. Maeng, J. W. Jung, H. J. Song, J. H. Son, K. S. Kim, J. I. Lee, C. H. Kim, G. S. Chae, M. C. Jun, Y. K. Hwang, S. J. Lee, J. M. Myoung, and H. Y. Choi, “Terahertz time-domain measurement of non-Drude conductivity in silver nanowire thin films for transparent electrode applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(1), 011109 (2013).
[Crossref]

Displays (1)

B. J. Wen, T. A. Liu, H. C. Yu, S. F. Chen, and Y. C. Cheng, “Non-contact resistance measurement of transparent electrodes deposited on flexible display substrates under repetitive bending test by terahertz time domain spectroscopy,” Displays 45, 58–62 (2016).
[Crossref]

Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

T. Kinkeldei, K. Cherenack, C. Zysset, N. C. Woo, and G. Tröster, “Crack prevention of highly bent metal thin films in woven electronic textiles,” Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 55(2), 23901 (2011).
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Eur. Polym. J. (1)

T. L. Li and S. L. C. Hsu, “Preparation and properties of a high temperature, flexible and colorless ITO coated polyimide substrate,” Eur. Polym. J. 43(8), 3368–3373 (2007).
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J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

P. C. Hsu, D. Kong, S. Wang, H. Wang, A. J. Welch, H. Wu, and Y. Cui, “Electrolessly deposited electrospun metal nanowire transparent electrodes,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 136(30), 10593–10596 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Mater. Chem. A Mater. Energy Sustain. (1)

J. Han, S. Yuan, L. Liu, X. Qiu, H. Gong, X. Yang, C. Li, Y. Hao, and B. Cao, “Fully indium-free flexible Ag nanowires/ZnO:F composite transparent conductive electrodes with high haze,” J. Mater. Chem. A Mater. Energy Sustain. 3(10), 5375–5384 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices (1)

Y. Liu, Q. Chang, and L. Huang, “Transparent, flexible conducting graphene hybrid films with a subpercolating network of silver nanowires,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 1(17), 2970–2974 (2013).
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Y. Jiang, J. Xi, Z. Wu, H. Dong, Z. Zhao, B. Jiao, and X. Hou, “Highly transparent, conductive, flexible resin films embedded with silver nanowires,” Langmuir 31(17), 4950–4957 (2015).
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Nanoscale (1)

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Nanotechnology (1)

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D. J. Kim, H. J. Kim, K. W. Seo, K. H. Kim, T. W. Kim, and H. K. Kim, “Indium-free, highly transparent, flexible Cu2O/Cu/Cu2O mesh electrodes for flexible touch screen panels,” Sci. Rep. 5(16838), 16838 (2015).
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[Crossref]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) SEM image of a AgNW/PET film made using the Mayer rod method. (b) Picture of the holding device used for the bending test with a 5 mm radius; the inset shows a side view and the dimensions of the holding device.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Transmission at visible of PET_HIGH and PI_HIGH films
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) THz time domain signals of the AgNW/PET samples and a bare PET substrate and (b) AgNW/PI samples and a bare PI substrate, (c) THz frequency domain signal of of the AgNW/PET samples and a bare PET substrate and (d) AgNW/PI samples and a bare PI substrate.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Real conductivity and the fitted Drude-Smith curve (solid line) of the (a) AgNW/PET films and (b) AgNW/PI films.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) SEM image of a AgNW/PET film after 1000 bending cycles. (b) THz time domain signals of AgNW/PET and AgNW/PI films during 1000 bending cycles. (c) and (d) are the calculated conductivities of AgNW/PET and AgNW/PI during 1000 bending cycles, respectively.

Tables (3)

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Table 1 DC conductivity from 4-point probe and THz-TDS

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Table 2 Summary of DC conductivity of AgNW/PET films during the bending test

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Table 3 Summary of DC conductivity of AgNW/PI films during the bending test

Equations (2)

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T(ω)= E AgNW/Substrate (ω) E Substrate (ω) = 1+ n Substrate 1+ n Substrate + Z 0 σ(ω)d .
σ(ω)= ε 0 ω p 2 τ 1iωτ [ 1+ c 1iωτ ].

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