Abstract

Electro-holography can display images without inducing fatigue and three-dimensional (3D) sickness, i.e., visual discomfort due to viewing a stereoscopic display. Thus, this technology is expected to be applied to 3D media. However, there are no studies that have shown the agreement between the dynamic responses of accommodation and vergence to the reconstructed images of electro-holography and those to the real targets. This paper describes the measurement results of these responses using a developed system that can simultaneously measure the dynamic responses of accommodation and vergence. Moreover, statistical analysis for associating the accommodation and the vergence responses was achieved, and our study confirmed that these responses were in agreement.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. Geng, “Three-dimensional display technologies,” Adv. Opt. Photon. 5, 456–532 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  2. D. Marr, Vision: A Computational Investigation into the Human Representation and Processing of Visual Information (Henry Holt and Company, 1982).
  3. D. M. Hoffman, A. R. Girshick, K. Akeley, and M. S. Banks, “Vergence-accommodation conflicts hinder visual performance and cause visual fatigue,” J. Vision 8(3), 1–30 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. K. Ukai and P. A. Howarth, “Visual fatigue caused by viewing stereoscopic motion images: Background, theories, and observation,” Displays 29, 106–116 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  5. T. Shibata, J. Kim, D. M. Hoffman, and M. S. Banks, “The zone of comfort: Predicting visual discomfort with stereo displays,” J. Vision 11(8), 1–29 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. M. Lambooij, W. IJsselsteijn, M. Fortuin, and I. Heynderickx, “Visual Discomfort and Visual Fatigue of Stereoscopic Displays: A Review,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 53(3), 030201 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  7. K. Fujikake, M. Omori, S. Hasegawa, H. Takada, H. Tahara, and M. Miyao, “Stereoscopic Displays and Accommodative Focus,” Forma 29, S53–S63 (2014).
  8. D. Smalley, Q. Smithwick, J. Barabas, V. M. Bove, S. Jolly, and C. DellaSilva, “Holovideo for everyone: a low-cost holovideo monitor,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 415(1), 012055 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  9. S. Reichelt, R. Häussler, G. Fütterer, N. Leister, H. Kato, N. Usukura, and Y. Kanbayashi, “Full-range, complex spatial light modulator for real-time holography,” Opt. Lett. 37(11), 1955–1957 (2012).
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. H. Mizushina, I. Negishi, H. Ando, and N. Masaki, “Measurement of accommodation and vergence responses to reconstructed 3D images of electronic holography,” IEICE Tech. Rep. 36(12), 9–12 (2012) in Japanese.
  12. R. Ohara, M. Kurita, T. Yonerama, F. Okuyama, and Y. Sakamoto, “Response of accommodation and vergence to electro-holographic images,” Appl. Opt. 54(4), 615–621 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. A. Kato and Y. Sakamoto, “An electro holography using reflective LCD for enlarging visual field and viewing zone with the Fourier transform optical system in CGH,” Proc. SPIE 7619, 761910 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  14. C. Yang, T. Yoneyama, Y. Sakamoto, and F. Okuyama, “Calculation method of CGH for binocular eyepiece-type electro holography,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 415(1), 012043 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  15. T. Ito, “Color electroholography by three colored reference lights simultaneously incident upon one hologram panel,” Opt. Express 12(18), 4320–4325 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. J. Water, “Holographic image synthesis utilizing theoretical methods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 9, 405–407 (1966).
    [Crossref]
  17. F. Gekeler, F. Sheaeffel, H. Howland, and J. Wattam-Bell, “Measurement of astigmatism by automated infrared photoretinoscopy,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 74(7), 472–482 (1997).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. T. Takeda, K. Hashimoto, N. Hiruma, and Y. Fukui, “Characteristics of accommodation toward apparent depth,” Vision Res. 39(12), 2087–2097 (1999).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. R. Manny, D. Chandler, M. Scheiman, and J. Gwiazda, “Accommodative Lag by Autorefraction and Two Dynamic Retinoscopy Methods,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 86(3), 233–243 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (1)

2014 (1)

K. Fujikake, M. Omori, S. Hasegawa, H. Takada, H. Tahara, and M. Miyao, “Stereoscopic Displays and Accommodative Focus,” Forma 29, S53–S63 (2014).

2013 (3)

D. Smalley, Q. Smithwick, J. Barabas, V. M. Bove, S. Jolly, and C. DellaSilva, “Holovideo for everyone: a low-cost holovideo monitor,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 415(1), 012055 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Geng, “Three-dimensional display technologies,” Adv. Opt. Photon. 5, 456–532 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Yang, T. Yoneyama, Y. Sakamoto, and F. Okuyama, “Calculation method of CGH for binocular eyepiece-type electro holography,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 415(1), 012043 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

2011 (1)

T. Shibata, J. Kim, D. M. Hoffman, and M. S. Banks, “The zone of comfort: Predicting visual discomfort with stereo displays,” J. Vision 11(8), 1–29 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

A. Kato and Y. Sakamoto, “An electro holography using reflective LCD for enlarging visual field and viewing zone with the Fourier transform optical system in CGH,” Proc. SPIE 7619, 761910 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

R. Manny, D. Chandler, M. Scheiman, and J. Gwiazda, “Accommodative Lag by Autorefraction and Two Dynamic Retinoscopy Methods,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 86(3), 233–243 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Lambooij, W. IJsselsteijn, M. Fortuin, and I. Heynderickx, “Visual Discomfort and Visual Fatigue of Stereoscopic Displays: A Review,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 53(3), 030201 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

D. M. Hoffman, A. R. Girshick, K. Akeley, and M. S. Banks, “Vergence-accommodation conflicts hinder visual performance and cause visual fatigue,” J. Vision 8(3), 1–30 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Ukai and P. A. Howarth, “Visual fatigue caused by viewing stereoscopic motion images: Background, theories, and observation,” Displays 29, 106–116 (2008).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

1999 (1)

T. Takeda, K. Hashimoto, N. Hiruma, and Y. Fukui, “Characteristics of accommodation toward apparent depth,” Vision Res. 39(12), 2087–2097 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

F. Gekeler, F. Sheaeffel, H. Howland, and J. Wattam-Bell, “Measurement of astigmatism by automated infrared photoretinoscopy,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 74(7), 472–482 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1966 (1)

J. Water, “Holographic image synthesis utilizing theoretical methods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 9, 405–407 (1966).
[Crossref]

Akeley, K.

D. M. Hoffman, A. R. Girshick, K. Akeley, and M. S. Banks, “Vergence-accommodation conflicts hinder visual performance and cause visual fatigue,” J. Vision 8(3), 1–30 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ando, H.

H. Mizushina, I. Negishi, H. Ando, and N. Masaki, “Measurement of accommodation and vergence responses to reconstructed 3D images of electronic holography,” IEICE Tech. Rep. 36(12), 9–12 (2012) in Japanese.

Banks, M. S.

T. Shibata, J. Kim, D. M. Hoffman, and M. S. Banks, “The zone of comfort: Predicting visual discomfort with stereo displays,” J. Vision 11(8), 1–29 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. M. Hoffman, A. R. Girshick, K. Akeley, and M. S. Banks, “Vergence-accommodation conflicts hinder visual performance and cause visual fatigue,” J. Vision 8(3), 1–30 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barabas, J.

D. Smalley, Q. Smithwick, J. Barabas, V. M. Bove, S. Jolly, and C. DellaSilva, “Holovideo for everyone: a low-cost holovideo monitor,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 415(1), 012055 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bove, V. M.

D. Smalley, Q. Smithwick, J. Barabas, V. M. Bove, S. Jolly, and C. DellaSilva, “Holovideo for everyone: a low-cost holovideo monitor,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 415(1), 012055 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chandler, D.

R. Manny, D. Chandler, M. Scheiman, and J. Gwiazda, “Accommodative Lag by Autorefraction and Two Dynamic Retinoscopy Methods,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 86(3), 233–243 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

DellaSilva, C.

D. Smalley, Q. Smithwick, J. Barabas, V. M. Bove, S. Jolly, and C. DellaSilva, “Holovideo for everyone: a low-cost holovideo monitor,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 415(1), 012055 (2013).
[Crossref]

Fortuin, M.

M. Lambooij, W. IJsselsteijn, M. Fortuin, and I. Heynderickx, “Visual Discomfort and Visual Fatigue of Stereoscopic Displays: A Review,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 53(3), 030201 (2009).
[Crossref]

Fujikake, K.

K. Fujikake, M. Omori, S. Hasegawa, H. Takada, H. Tahara, and M. Miyao, “Stereoscopic Displays and Accommodative Focus,” Forma 29, S53–S63 (2014).

Fukui, Y.

T. Takeda, K. Hashimoto, N. Hiruma, and Y. Fukui, “Characteristics of accommodation toward apparent depth,” Vision Res. 39(12), 2087–2097 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fütterer, G.

Gekeler, F.

F. Gekeler, F. Sheaeffel, H. Howland, and J. Wattam-Bell, “Measurement of astigmatism by automated infrared photoretinoscopy,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 74(7), 472–482 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Geng, J.

Girshick, A. R.

D. M. Hoffman, A. R. Girshick, K. Akeley, and M. S. Banks, “Vergence-accommodation conflicts hinder visual performance and cause visual fatigue,” J. Vision 8(3), 1–30 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gwiazda, J.

R. Manny, D. Chandler, M. Scheiman, and J. Gwiazda, “Accommodative Lag by Autorefraction and Two Dynamic Retinoscopy Methods,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 86(3), 233–243 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hasegawa, S.

K. Fujikake, M. Omori, S. Hasegawa, H. Takada, H. Tahara, and M. Miyao, “Stereoscopic Displays and Accommodative Focus,” Forma 29, S53–S63 (2014).

Hashimoto, K.

T. Takeda, K. Hashimoto, N. Hiruma, and Y. Fukui, “Characteristics of accommodation toward apparent depth,” Vision Res. 39(12), 2087–2097 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Häussler, R.

Heynderickx, I.

M. Lambooij, W. IJsselsteijn, M. Fortuin, and I. Heynderickx, “Visual Discomfort and Visual Fatigue of Stereoscopic Displays: A Review,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 53(3), 030201 (2009).
[Crossref]

Hiruma, N.

T. Takeda, K. Hashimoto, N. Hiruma, and Y. Fukui, “Characteristics of accommodation toward apparent depth,” Vision Res. 39(12), 2087–2097 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hoffman, D. M.

T. Shibata, J. Kim, D. M. Hoffman, and M. S. Banks, “The zone of comfort: Predicting visual discomfort with stereo displays,” J. Vision 11(8), 1–29 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. M. Hoffman, A. R. Girshick, K. Akeley, and M. S. Banks, “Vergence-accommodation conflicts hinder visual performance and cause visual fatigue,” J. Vision 8(3), 1–30 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Howarth, P. A.

K. Ukai and P. A. Howarth, “Visual fatigue caused by viewing stereoscopic motion images: Background, theories, and observation,” Displays 29, 106–116 (2008).
[Crossref]

Howland, H.

F. Gekeler, F. Sheaeffel, H. Howland, and J. Wattam-Bell, “Measurement of astigmatism by automated infrared photoretinoscopy,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 74(7), 472–482 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

IJsselsteijn, W.

M. Lambooij, W. IJsselsteijn, M. Fortuin, and I. Heynderickx, “Visual Discomfort and Visual Fatigue of Stereoscopic Displays: A Review,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 53(3), 030201 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ito, T.

Jolly, S.

D. Smalley, Q. Smithwick, J. Barabas, V. M. Bove, S. Jolly, and C. DellaSilva, “Holovideo for everyone: a low-cost holovideo monitor,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 415(1), 012055 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kanbayashi, Y.

Kato, A.

A. Kato and Y. Sakamoto, “An electro holography using reflective LCD for enlarging visual field and viewing zone with the Fourier transform optical system in CGH,” Proc. SPIE 7619, 761910 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kato, H.

Kim, J.

T. Shibata, J. Kim, D. M. Hoffman, and M. S. Banks, “The zone of comfort: Predicting visual discomfort with stereo displays,” J. Vision 11(8), 1–29 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kurita, M.

Lambooij, M.

M. Lambooij, W. IJsselsteijn, M. Fortuin, and I. Heynderickx, “Visual Discomfort and Visual Fatigue of Stereoscopic Displays: A Review,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 53(3), 030201 (2009).
[Crossref]

Leister, N.

Manny, R.

R. Manny, D. Chandler, M. Scheiman, and J. Gwiazda, “Accommodative Lag by Autorefraction and Two Dynamic Retinoscopy Methods,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 86(3), 233–243 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Marr, D.

D. Marr, Vision: A Computational Investigation into the Human Representation and Processing of Visual Information (Henry Holt and Company, 1982).

Masaki, N.

H. Mizushina, I. Negishi, H. Ando, and N. Masaki, “Measurement of accommodation and vergence responses to reconstructed 3D images of electronic holography,” IEICE Tech. Rep. 36(12), 9–12 (2012) in Japanese.

Miyao, M.

K. Fujikake, M. Omori, S. Hasegawa, H. Takada, H. Tahara, and M. Miyao, “Stereoscopic Displays and Accommodative Focus,” Forma 29, S53–S63 (2014).

Mizushina, H.

H. Mizushina, I. Negishi, H. Ando, and N. Masaki, “Measurement of accommodation and vergence responses to reconstructed 3D images of electronic holography,” IEICE Tech. Rep. 36(12), 9–12 (2012) in Japanese.

Negishi, I.

H. Mizushina, I. Negishi, H. Ando, and N. Masaki, “Measurement of accommodation and vergence responses to reconstructed 3D images of electronic holography,” IEICE Tech. Rep. 36(12), 9–12 (2012) in Japanese.

Ohara, R.

Okuyama, F.

R. Ohara, M. Kurita, T. Yonerama, F. Okuyama, and Y. Sakamoto, “Response of accommodation and vergence to electro-holographic images,” Appl. Opt. 54(4), 615–621 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Yang, T. Yoneyama, Y. Sakamoto, and F. Okuyama, “Calculation method of CGH for binocular eyepiece-type electro holography,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 415(1), 012043 (2013).
[Crossref]

Omori, M.

K. Fujikake, M. Omori, S. Hasegawa, H. Takada, H. Tahara, and M. Miyao, “Stereoscopic Displays and Accommodative Focus,” Forma 29, S53–S63 (2014).

Reichelt, S.

Sakamoto, Y.

R. Ohara, M. Kurita, T. Yonerama, F. Okuyama, and Y. Sakamoto, “Response of accommodation and vergence to electro-holographic images,” Appl. Opt. 54(4), 615–621 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Yang, T. Yoneyama, Y. Sakamoto, and F. Okuyama, “Calculation method of CGH for binocular eyepiece-type electro holography,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 415(1), 012043 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Kato and Y. Sakamoto, “An electro holography using reflective LCD for enlarging visual field and viewing zone with the Fourier transform optical system in CGH,” Proc. SPIE 7619, 761910 (2010).
[Crossref]

Scheiman, M.

R. Manny, D. Chandler, M. Scheiman, and J. Gwiazda, “Accommodative Lag by Autorefraction and Two Dynamic Retinoscopy Methods,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 86(3), 233–243 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sheaeffel, F.

F. Gekeler, F. Sheaeffel, H. Howland, and J. Wattam-Bell, “Measurement of astigmatism by automated infrared photoretinoscopy,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 74(7), 472–482 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shibata, T.

T. Shibata, J. Kim, D. M. Hoffman, and M. S. Banks, “The zone of comfort: Predicting visual discomfort with stereo displays,” J. Vision 11(8), 1–29 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Smalley, D.

D. Smalley, Q. Smithwick, J. Barabas, V. M. Bove, S. Jolly, and C. DellaSilva, “Holovideo for everyone: a low-cost holovideo monitor,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 415(1), 012055 (2013).
[Crossref]

Smithwick, Q.

D. Smalley, Q. Smithwick, J. Barabas, V. M. Bove, S. Jolly, and C. DellaSilva, “Holovideo for everyone: a low-cost holovideo monitor,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 415(1), 012055 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tahara, H.

K. Fujikake, M. Omori, S. Hasegawa, H. Takada, H. Tahara, and M. Miyao, “Stereoscopic Displays and Accommodative Focus,” Forma 29, S53–S63 (2014).

Takada, H.

K. Fujikake, M. Omori, S. Hasegawa, H. Takada, H. Tahara, and M. Miyao, “Stereoscopic Displays and Accommodative Focus,” Forma 29, S53–S63 (2014).

Takaki, Y.

Takeda, T.

T. Takeda, K. Hashimoto, N. Hiruma, and Y. Fukui, “Characteristics of accommodation toward apparent depth,” Vision Res. 39(12), 2087–2097 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ukai, K.

K. Ukai and P. A. Howarth, “Visual fatigue caused by viewing stereoscopic motion images: Background, theories, and observation,” Displays 29, 106–116 (2008).
[Crossref]

Usukura, N.

Water, J.

J. Water, “Holographic image synthesis utilizing theoretical methods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 9, 405–407 (1966).
[Crossref]

Wattam-Bell, J.

F. Gekeler, F. Sheaeffel, H. Howland, and J. Wattam-Bell, “Measurement of astigmatism by automated infrared photoretinoscopy,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 74(7), 472–482 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, C.

C. Yang, T. Yoneyama, Y. Sakamoto, and F. Okuyama, “Calculation method of CGH for binocular eyepiece-type electro holography,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 415(1), 012043 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yokouchi, M.

Yonerama, T.

Yoneyama, T.

C. Yang, T. Yoneyama, Y. Sakamoto, and F. Okuyama, “Calculation method of CGH for binocular eyepiece-type electro holography,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 415(1), 012043 (2013).
[Crossref]

Adv. Opt. Photon. (1)

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

J. Water, “Holographic image synthesis utilizing theoretical methods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 9, 405–407 (1966).
[Crossref]

Displays (1)

K. Ukai and P. A. Howarth, “Visual fatigue caused by viewing stereoscopic motion images: Background, theories, and observation,” Displays 29, 106–116 (2008).
[Crossref]

Forma (1)

K. Fujikake, M. Omori, S. Hasegawa, H. Takada, H. Tahara, and M. Miyao, “Stereoscopic Displays and Accommodative Focus,” Forma 29, S53–S63 (2014).

IEICE Tech. Rep. (1)

H. Mizushina, I. Negishi, H. Ando, and N. Masaki, “Measurement of accommodation and vergence responses to reconstructed 3D images of electronic holography,” IEICE Tech. Rep. 36(12), 9–12 (2012) in Japanese.

J. Imaging Sci. Technol. (1)

M. Lambooij, W. IJsselsteijn, M. Fortuin, and I. Heynderickx, “Visual Discomfort and Visual Fatigue of Stereoscopic Displays: A Review,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 53(3), 030201 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. Conf. Ser. (2)

D. Smalley, Q. Smithwick, J. Barabas, V. M. Bove, S. Jolly, and C. DellaSilva, “Holovideo for everyone: a low-cost holovideo monitor,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 415(1), 012055 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Yang, T. Yoneyama, Y. Sakamoto, and F. Okuyama, “Calculation method of CGH for binocular eyepiece-type electro holography,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 415(1), 012043 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Vision (2)

T. Shibata, J. Kim, D. M. Hoffman, and M. S. Banks, “The zone of comfort: Predicting visual discomfort with stereo displays,” J. Vision 11(8), 1–29 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. M. Hoffman, A. R. Girshick, K. Akeley, and M. S. Banks, “Vergence-accommodation conflicts hinder visual performance and cause visual fatigue,” J. Vision 8(3), 1–30 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Optom. Vis. Sci. (2)

F. Gekeler, F. Sheaeffel, H. Howland, and J. Wattam-Bell, “Measurement of astigmatism by automated infrared photoretinoscopy,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 74(7), 472–482 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Manny, D. Chandler, M. Scheiman, and J. Gwiazda, “Accommodative Lag by Autorefraction and Two Dynamic Retinoscopy Methods,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 86(3), 233–243 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (1)

A. Kato and Y. Sakamoto, “An electro holography using reflective LCD for enlarging visual field and viewing zone with the Fourier transform optical system in CGH,” Proc. SPIE 7619, 761910 (2010).
[Crossref]

Vision Res. (1)

T. Takeda, K. Hashimoto, N. Hiruma, and Y. Fukui, “Characteristics of accommodation toward apparent depth,” Vision Res. 39(12), 2087–2097 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (1)

D. Marr, Vision: A Computational Investigation into the Human Representation and Processing of Visual Information (Henry Holt and Company, 1982).

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Figures (13)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic of electro-holographic reconstructing device.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Photo of rail type electro-actuators.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Photo of PowerRef3.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Schematic of experimental optical system.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Photo of experimental optical system.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Schematic of target motion.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Photos of targets. (a) reconstructed image at 0.67 D position. (b) reconstructed image at 2 D position. (c) real target at 0.67 D position. (d) real target at 2 D position.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Accommodation responses (subject: AM).
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Vergence responses (subject: AM).
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 Accommodation responses (subject: SR).
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 Vergence responses (subject: SR).
Fig. 12
Fig. 12 Scatter plot of difference quantities and directions.
Fig. 13
Fig. 13 Scatter plot of MSE values of ideal values vs. measuring values of reconstructed images or real targets and 95% confidence ellipses of each MSE value.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Parameters of reconstructing device.

Tables Icon

Table 2 Specifications of PowerRef3.

Equations (2)

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MSE = 1 n i = 1 n { I i ( M i + x ¯ ) } 2
x ¯ = i ¯ m ¯

Metrics