Abstract

We present, for the first time, a quantitative retrieval error-propagation study for a bistatic high spectral resolution lidar (HSRL) system intended for detailed quasi-global monitoring of aerosol properties from space. Our results demonstrate that supplementing a conventional monostatic HSRL with an additional receiver flown in formation at a scattering angle close to 165° dramatically increases the information content of the measurements and allows for a sufficiently accurate characterization of tropospheric aerosols. We conclude that a bistatic HSRL system would far exceed the capabilities of currently flown or planned orbital instruments in monitoring global aerosol effects on the environment and on the Earth’s climate. We also demonstrate how the commonly used a priori “regularization” methodology can artificially reduce the propagated uncertainties and can thereby be misleading as to the real retrieval capabilities of a measurement system.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref]
  33. M. I. Mishchenko, B. Cairns, J. E. Hansen, L. D. Travis, R. Burg, Y. J. Kaufman, J. V. Martins, and E. P. Shettle, “Monitoring of aerosol forcing of climate from space: analysis of measurement requirements,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 88, 149–161 (2004).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  35. D. M. Winker, M. A. Vaughan, A. Omar, Y. Hu, K. A. Powell, Z. Liu, W. H. Hunt, and S. A. Young, “Overview of the CALIPSO mission and CALIOP data processing algorithms,” J. Atmos. Oceanic. Technol. 26, 2310–2323 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  36. G. L. Stephens, D. G. Vane, S. Tanelli, E. Im, S. Durden, M. Rokey, D. Reinke, P. Partain, G. G. Mace, R. Austin, T. L’Ecuyer, J. Haynes, M. Lebsock, K. Suzuki, D. Waliser, D. Wu, J. Kay, A. Gettleman, Z. Wang, and R. Marchand, “CloudSat mission: performance and early science after the first year of operation,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D00A18 (2008).
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    [Crossref]

2016 (3)

E. Chemyakin, S. Burton, A. Kolgotin, D. Muller, C. Hostetler, and R. Ferrare, “Retrieval of aerosol parameters from multiwavelength lidar: investigation of the underlying inverse mathematical problem,” Appl. Opt. 55, 2188–2202 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. P. Burton, E. Chemyakin, X. Liu, K. Knobelspiesse, S. Stamnes, P. Sawamura, R. H. Moore, C. A. Hostetler, and R. A. Ferrare, “Information content and sensitivity of the 3β + 2α lidar measurement system for aerosol microphysical retrievals,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 9, 5555–5574 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. I. Mishchenko, M. D. Alexandrov, B. Cairns, and L. D. Travis, “Multistatic aerosol-cloud lidar in space: a theoretical perspective,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 184, 180–192 (2016).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

D. Müller, C. A. Hostetler, R. A. Ferrare, S. P. Burton, E. Chemyakin, A. Kolgotin, J. W. Hair, A. L. Cook, D. B. Harper, R. R. Rogers, R. W. Hare, C. S. Cleckner, M. D. Obland, J. Tomlinson, L. K. Berg, and B. Schmid, “Airborne Multiwavelength High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL-2) observations during TCAP 2012: vertical profiles of optical and microphysical properties of a smoke/urban haze plume over the northeastern coast of the US,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 7, 3487–3496 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

G. Myhre, B. H. Samset, M. Schulz, Y. Balkanski, S. Bauer, T. K. Berntsen, H. Bian, N. Bellouin, M. Chin, T. Diehl, R. C. Easter, J. Feichter, S. J. Ghan, D. Hauglustaine, T. Iversen, S. Kinne, A. Kirkevåg, J.-F. Lamarque, G. Lin, X. Liu, M. T. Lund, G. Luo, X. Ma, T. van Noije, J. E. Penner, P. J. Rasch, A. Ruiz, Ø. Seland, R. B. Skeie, P. Stier, T. Takemura, K. Tsigaridis, P. Wang, Z. Wang, L. Xu, H. Yu, F. Yu, J.-H. Yoon, K. Zhang, H. Zhang, and C. Zhou, “Radiative forcing of the direct aerosol effect from AeroCom Phase II simulations,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 13, 1853–1877 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

I. Veselovskii, O. Dubovik, A. Kolgotin, M. Korenskiy, D. N. Whiteman, K. Allakhverdiev, and F. Huseyinoglu, “Linear estimation of particle bulk parameters from multi-wavelength lidar measurements,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 5, 1135–1145 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

J. Hansen, M. Sato, P. Kharecha, and K. von Schuckmann, “Earth’s energy imbalance and implications,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 11, 13421–13449 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. E. Penner, L. Xu, and M. Wang, “Satellite methods underestimate indirect climate forcing by aerosols,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108, 13404–13408 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Knobelspiesse, B. Cairns, M. Ottaviani, R. Ferrare, J. Hair, C. Hostetler, M. Obland, R. Rogers, J. Redemann, Y. Shinozuka, A. Clarke, S. Freitag, S. Howell, V. Kapustin, and C. McNaughton, “Combined retrievals of boreal forest fire aerosol properties with a polarimeter and lidar,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 11, 7045–7067 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

N. G. Loeb and W. Su, “Direct aerosol radiative forcing uncertainty based on a radiative perturbation analysis,” J. Clim. 23, 5288–5293 (2010).
[Crossref]

U. Lohmann and S. Ferrachat, “Impact of parametric uncertainties on the present-day climate and on the anthropogenic aerosol effect,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 10, 11373–11383 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

Z. Li, X. Zhao, R. Kahn, M. Mishchenko, L. Remer, K.-H. Lee, M. Wang, I. Laszlo, T. Nakajima, and H. Maring, “Uncertainties in satellite remote sensing of aerosols and impact on monitoring its long-term trend: a review and perspective,” Ann. Geophys. 27, 2755–2770 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. M. Winker, M. A. Vaughan, A. Omar, Y. Hu, K. A. Powell, Z. Liu, W. H. Hunt, and S. A. Young, “Overview of the CALIPSO mission and CALIOP data processing algorithms,” J. Atmos. Oceanic. Technol. 26, 2310–2323 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (5)

G. L. Stephens, D. G. Vane, S. Tanelli, E. Im, S. Durden, M. Rokey, D. Reinke, P. Partain, G. G. Mace, R. Austin, T. L’Ecuyer, J. Haynes, M. Lebsock, K. Suzuki, D. Waliser, D. Wu, J. Kay, A. Gettleman, Z. Wang, and R. Marchand, “CloudSat mission: performance and early science after the first year of operation,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D00A18 (2008).
[Crossref]

D. T. L. Alexander, P. A. Crozier, and J. R. Anderson, “Brown carbon spheres in east asian outflow and their optical properties,” Science 321, 833–835 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. W. Hair, C. A. Hostetler, A. L. Cook, D. B. Harper, R. A. Ferrare, T. L. Mack, W. Welch, L. R. Izquierdo, and F. E. Hovis, “Airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar for profiling aerosol optical properties,” Appl. Opt. 47, 6734–6752 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Su, G. L. Schuster, N. G. Loeb, R. R. Rogers, R. A. Ferrare, C. A. Hostetler, J. W. Hair, and M. D. Obland, “Aerosol and cloud interaction observed from high spectral resolution lidar data,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D24202 (2008).
[Crossref]

N. Unger, D. T. Shindell, D. M. Koch, and D. G. Streets, “Air pollution radiative forcing from specific emissions sectors at 2030,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D02306 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (3)

D. Koch, T. C. Bond, D. Streets, N. Unger, and G. R. van der Werf, “Global impacts of aerosols from particular source regions and sectors,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D02205 (2007).
[Crossref]

S. E. Schwartz, R. J. Charlson, and H. Rodhe, “Quantifying climate change – too rosy a picture?” Nat. Rep. Clim. Change 1, 23–24 (2007).
[Crossref]

G. Krieger, A. Moreira, H. Fiedler, I. Hajnsek, M. Werner, M. Younis, and M. Zink, “TanDEM-X: a satellite formation for high-resolution SAR interferometry,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote. Sens. 45, 3317–3341 (2007).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

M. I. Mishchenko, B. Cairns, J. E. Hansen, L. D. Travis, R. Burg, Y. J. Kaufman, J. V. Martins, and E. P. Shettle, “Monitoring of aerosol forcing of climate from space: analysis of measurement requirements,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 88, 149–161 (2004).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

1983 (1)

S. T. Shipley, D. H. Tracy, E. W. Eloranta, J. T. Trauger, J. T. Sroga, F. L. Roesler, and J. A. Weinman, “A High Spectral Resolution Lidar to measure optical scattering properties of atmospheric aersols. Part I: Intrumentation and theory,” Appl. Opt. 23, 3716–3724 (1983).
[Crossref]

1982 (2)

J. A. Reagan, D. M. Byrne, and B. M. Herman, “Bistatic LIDAR: a tool for characterizing atmospheric particulates: Part I – The remote sensing problem,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 20, 229–235 (1982).
[Crossref]

J. A. Reagan, D. M. Byrne, and B. M. Herman, “Bistatic LIDAR: a tool for characterizing atmospheric particulates: Part II – The inverse problem,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 20, 236–243 (1982).
[Crossref]

1974 (1)

J. E. Hansen and L. D. Travis, “Light scattering in planetary atmospheres,” Space. Sci. Rev. 16, 527–610 (1974).
[Crossref]

1971 (1)

P. J. Rogers and P. Eccles, “The bistatic radar equation for randomly distributed targets,” Proc. IEEE 59, 1019–1021 (1971).
[Crossref]

Alexander, D. T. L.

D. T. L. Alexander, P. A. Crozier, and J. R. Anderson, “Brown carbon spheres in east asian outflow and their optical properties,” Science 321, 833–835 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alexandrov, M. D.

M. I. Mishchenko, M. D. Alexandrov, B. Cairns, and L. D. Travis, “Multistatic aerosol-cloud lidar in space: a theoretical perspective,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 184, 180–192 (2016).
[Crossref]

Allakhverdiev, K.

I. Veselovskii, O. Dubovik, A. Kolgotin, M. Korenskiy, D. N. Whiteman, K. Allakhverdiev, and F. Huseyinoglu, “Linear estimation of particle bulk parameters from multi-wavelength lidar measurements,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 5, 1135–1145 (2012).
[Crossref]

Anderson, J. R.

D. T. L. Alexander, P. A. Crozier, and J. R. Anderson, “Brown carbon spheres in east asian outflow and their optical properties,” Science 321, 833–835 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Austin, R.

G. L. Stephens, D. G. Vane, S. Tanelli, E. Im, S. Durden, M. Rokey, D. Reinke, P. Partain, G. G. Mace, R. Austin, T. L’Ecuyer, J. Haynes, M. Lebsock, K. Suzuki, D. Waliser, D. Wu, J. Kay, A. Gettleman, Z. Wang, and R. Marchand, “CloudSat mission: performance and early science after the first year of operation,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D00A18 (2008).
[Crossref]

Balkanski, Y.

G. Myhre, B. H. Samset, M. Schulz, Y. Balkanski, S. Bauer, T. K. Berntsen, H. Bian, N. Bellouin, M. Chin, T. Diehl, R. C. Easter, J. Feichter, S. J. Ghan, D. Hauglustaine, T. Iversen, S. Kinne, A. Kirkevåg, J.-F. Lamarque, G. Lin, X. Liu, M. T. Lund, G. Luo, X. Ma, T. van Noije, J. E. Penner, P. J. Rasch, A. Ruiz, Ø. Seland, R. B. Skeie, P. Stier, T. Takemura, K. Tsigaridis, P. Wang, Z. Wang, L. Xu, H. Yu, F. Yu, J.-H. Yoon, K. Zhang, H. Zhang, and C. Zhou, “Radiative forcing of the direct aerosol effect from AeroCom Phase II simulations,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 13, 1853–1877 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bauer, S.

G. Myhre, B. H. Samset, M. Schulz, Y. Balkanski, S. Bauer, T. K. Berntsen, H. Bian, N. Bellouin, M. Chin, T. Diehl, R. C. Easter, J. Feichter, S. J. Ghan, D. Hauglustaine, T. Iversen, S. Kinne, A. Kirkevåg, J.-F. Lamarque, G. Lin, X. Liu, M. T. Lund, G. Luo, X. Ma, T. van Noije, J. E. Penner, P. J. Rasch, A. Ruiz, Ø. Seland, R. B. Skeie, P. Stier, T. Takemura, K. Tsigaridis, P. Wang, Z. Wang, L. Xu, H. Yu, F. Yu, J.-H. Yoon, K. Zhang, H. Zhang, and C. Zhou, “Radiative forcing of the direct aerosol effect from AeroCom Phase II simulations,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 13, 1853–1877 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bellouin, N.

G. Myhre, B. H. Samset, M. Schulz, Y. Balkanski, S. Bauer, T. K. Berntsen, H. Bian, N. Bellouin, M. Chin, T. Diehl, R. C. Easter, J. Feichter, S. J. Ghan, D. Hauglustaine, T. Iversen, S. Kinne, A. Kirkevåg, J.-F. Lamarque, G. Lin, X. Liu, M. T. Lund, G. Luo, X. Ma, T. van Noije, J. E. Penner, P. J. Rasch, A. Ruiz, Ø. Seland, R. B. Skeie, P. Stier, T. Takemura, K. Tsigaridis, P. Wang, Z. Wang, L. Xu, H. Yu, F. Yu, J.-H. Yoon, K. Zhang, H. Zhang, and C. Zhou, “Radiative forcing of the direct aerosol effect from AeroCom Phase II simulations,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 13, 1853–1877 (2013).
[Crossref]

Berg, L. K.

D. Müller, C. A. Hostetler, R. A. Ferrare, S. P. Burton, E. Chemyakin, A. Kolgotin, J. W. Hair, A. L. Cook, D. B. Harper, R. R. Rogers, R. W. Hare, C. S. Cleckner, M. D. Obland, J. Tomlinson, L. K. Berg, and B. Schmid, “Airborne Multiwavelength High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL-2) observations during TCAP 2012: vertical profiles of optical and microphysical properties of a smoke/urban haze plume over the northeastern coast of the US,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 7, 3487–3496 (2014).
[Crossref]

Berntsen, T. K.

G. Myhre, B. H. Samset, M. Schulz, Y. Balkanski, S. Bauer, T. K. Berntsen, H. Bian, N. Bellouin, M. Chin, T. Diehl, R. C. Easter, J. Feichter, S. J. Ghan, D. Hauglustaine, T. Iversen, S. Kinne, A. Kirkevåg, J.-F. Lamarque, G. Lin, X. Liu, M. T. Lund, G. Luo, X. Ma, T. van Noije, J. E. Penner, P. J. Rasch, A. Ruiz, Ø. Seland, R. B. Skeie, P. Stier, T. Takemura, K. Tsigaridis, P. Wang, Z. Wang, L. Xu, H. Yu, F. Yu, J.-H. Yoon, K. Zhang, H. Zhang, and C. Zhou, “Radiative forcing of the direct aerosol effect from AeroCom Phase II simulations,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 13, 1853–1877 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bian, H.

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S. P. Burton, E. Chemyakin, X. Liu, K. Knobelspiesse, S. Stamnes, P. Sawamura, R. H. Moore, C. A. Hostetler, and R. A. Ferrare, “Information content and sensitivity of the 3β + 2α lidar measurement system for aerosol microphysical retrievals,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 9, 5555–5574 (2016).
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D. Müller, C. A. Hostetler, R. A. Ferrare, S. P. Burton, E. Chemyakin, A. Kolgotin, J. W. Hair, A. L. Cook, D. B. Harper, R. R. Rogers, R. W. Hare, C. S. Cleckner, M. D. Obland, J. Tomlinson, L. K. Berg, and B. Schmid, “Airborne Multiwavelength High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL-2) observations during TCAP 2012: vertical profiles of optical and microphysical properties of a smoke/urban haze plume over the northeastern coast of the US,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 7, 3487–3496 (2014).
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Hair, J.

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W. Su, G. L. Schuster, N. G. Loeb, R. R. Rogers, R. A. Ferrare, C. A. Hostetler, J. W. Hair, and M. D. Obland, “Aerosol and cloud interaction observed from high spectral resolution lidar data,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D24202 (2008).
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J. W. Hair, C. A. Hostetler, A. L. Cook, D. B. Harper, R. A. Ferrare, T. L. Mack, W. Welch, L. R. Izquierdo, and F. E. Hovis, “Airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar for profiling aerosol optical properties,” Appl. Opt. 47, 6734–6752 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hajnsek, I.

G. Krieger, A. Moreira, H. Fiedler, I. Hajnsek, M. Werner, M. Younis, and M. Zink, “TanDEM-X: a satellite formation for high-resolution SAR interferometry,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote. Sens. 45, 3317–3341 (2007).
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D. Müller, C. A. Hostetler, R. A. Ferrare, S. P. Burton, E. Chemyakin, A. Kolgotin, J. W. Hair, A. L. Cook, D. B. Harper, R. R. Rogers, R. W. Hare, C. S. Cleckner, M. D. Obland, J. Tomlinson, L. K. Berg, and B. Schmid, “Airborne Multiwavelength High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL-2) observations during TCAP 2012: vertical profiles of optical and microphysical properties of a smoke/urban haze plume over the northeastern coast of the US,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 7, 3487–3496 (2014).
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Harper, D. B.

D. Müller, C. A. Hostetler, R. A. Ferrare, S. P. Burton, E. Chemyakin, A. Kolgotin, J. W. Hair, A. L. Cook, D. B. Harper, R. R. Rogers, R. W. Hare, C. S. Cleckner, M. D. Obland, J. Tomlinson, L. K. Berg, and B. Schmid, “Airborne Multiwavelength High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL-2) observations during TCAP 2012: vertical profiles of optical and microphysical properties of a smoke/urban haze plume over the northeastern coast of the US,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 7, 3487–3496 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. W. Hair, C. A. Hostetler, A. L. Cook, D. B. Harper, R. A. Ferrare, T. L. Mack, W. Welch, L. R. Izquierdo, and F. E. Hovis, “Airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar for profiling aerosol optical properties,” Appl. Opt. 47, 6734–6752 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hauglustaine, D.

G. Myhre, B. H. Samset, M. Schulz, Y. Balkanski, S. Bauer, T. K. Berntsen, H. Bian, N. Bellouin, M. Chin, T. Diehl, R. C. Easter, J. Feichter, S. J. Ghan, D. Hauglustaine, T. Iversen, S. Kinne, A. Kirkevåg, J.-F. Lamarque, G. Lin, X. Liu, M. T. Lund, G. Luo, X. Ma, T. van Noije, J. E. Penner, P. J. Rasch, A. Ruiz, Ø. Seland, R. B. Skeie, P. Stier, T. Takemura, K. Tsigaridis, P. Wang, Z. Wang, L. Xu, H. Yu, F. Yu, J.-H. Yoon, K. Zhang, H. Zhang, and C. Zhou, “Radiative forcing of the direct aerosol effect from AeroCom Phase II simulations,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 13, 1853–1877 (2013).
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G. L. Stephens, D. G. Vane, S. Tanelli, E. Im, S. Durden, M. Rokey, D. Reinke, P. Partain, G. G. Mace, R. Austin, T. L’Ecuyer, J. Haynes, M. Lebsock, K. Suzuki, D. Waliser, D. Wu, J. Kay, A. Gettleman, Z. Wang, and R. Marchand, “CloudSat mission: performance and early science after the first year of operation,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D00A18 (2008).
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Herman, B. M.

J. A. Reagan, D. M. Byrne, and B. M. Herman, “Bistatic LIDAR: a tool for characterizing atmospheric particulates: Part I – The remote sensing problem,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 20, 229–235 (1982).
[Crossref]

J. A. Reagan, D. M. Byrne, and B. M. Herman, “Bistatic LIDAR: a tool for characterizing atmospheric particulates: Part II – The inverse problem,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 20, 236–243 (1982).
[Crossref]

Hostetler, C.

E. Chemyakin, S. Burton, A. Kolgotin, D. Muller, C. Hostetler, and R. Ferrare, “Retrieval of aerosol parameters from multiwavelength lidar: investigation of the underlying inverse mathematical problem,” Appl. Opt. 55, 2188–2202 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Knobelspiesse, B. Cairns, M. Ottaviani, R. Ferrare, J. Hair, C. Hostetler, M. Obland, R. Rogers, J. Redemann, Y. Shinozuka, A. Clarke, S. Freitag, S. Howell, V. Kapustin, and C. McNaughton, “Combined retrievals of boreal forest fire aerosol properties with a polarimeter and lidar,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 11, 7045–7067 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hostetler, C. A.

S. P. Burton, E. Chemyakin, X. Liu, K. Knobelspiesse, S. Stamnes, P. Sawamura, R. H. Moore, C. A. Hostetler, and R. A. Ferrare, “Information content and sensitivity of the 3β + 2α lidar measurement system for aerosol microphysical retrievals,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 9, 5555–5574 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Müller, C. A. Hostetler, R. A. Ferrare, S. P. Burton, E. Chemyakin, A. Kolgotin, J. W. Hair, A. L. Cook, D. B. Harper, R. R. Rogers, R. W. Hare, C. S. Cleckner, M. D. Obland, J. Tomlinson, L. K. Berg, and B. Schmid, “Airborne Multiwavelength High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL-2) observations during TCAP 2012: vertical profiles of optical and microphysical properties of a smoke/urban haze plume over the northeastern coast of the US,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 7, 3487–3496 (2014).
[Crossref]

W. Su, G. L. Schuster, N. G. Loeb, R. R. Rogers, R. A. Ferrare, C. A. Hostetler, J. W. Hair, and M. D. Obland, “Aerosol and cloud interaction observed from high spectral resolution lidar data,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D24202 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. W. Hair, C. A. Hostetler, A. L. Cook, D. B. Harper, R. A. Ferrare, T. L. Mack, W. Welch, L. R. Izquierdo, and F. E. Hovis, “Airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar for profiling aerosol optical properties,” Appl. Opt. 47, 6734–6752 (2008).
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Hovenier, J. W.

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K. Knobelspiesse, B. Cairns, M. Ottaviani, R. Ferrare, J. Hair, C. Hostetler, M. Obland, R. Rogers, J. Redemann, Y. Shinozuka, A. Clarke, S. Freitag, S. Howell, V. Kapustin, and C. McNaughton, “Combined retrievals of boreal forest fire aerosol properties with a polarimeter and lidar,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 11, 7045–7067 (2011).
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Hu, Y.

D. M. Winker, M. A. Vaughan, A. Omar, Y. Hu, K. A. Powell, Z. Liu, W. H. Hunt, and S. A. Young, “Overview of the CALIPSO mission and CALIOP data processing algorithms,” J. Atmos. Oceanic. Technol. 26, 2310–2323 (2009).
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Hunt, W. H.

D. M. Winker, M. A. Vaughan, A. Omar, Y. Hu, K. A. Powell, Z. Liu, W. H. Hunt, and S. A. Young, “Overview of the CALIPSO mission and CALIOP data processing algorithms,” J. Atmos. Oceanic. Technol. 26, 2310–2323 (2009).
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G. L. Stephens, D. G. Vane, S. Tanelli, E. Im, S. Durden, M. Rokey, D. Reinke, P. Partain, G. G. Mace, R. Austin, T. L’Ecuyer, J. Haynes, M. Lebsock, K. Suzuki, D. Waliser, D. Wu, J. Kay, A. Gettleman, Z. Wang, and R. Marchand, “CloudSat mission: performance and early science after the first year of operation,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D00A18 (2008).
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G. Myhre, B. H. Samset, M. Schulz, Y. Balkanski, S. Bauer, T. K. Berntsen, H. Bian, N. Bellouin, M. Chin, T. Diehl, R. C. Easter, J. Feichter, S. J. Ghan, D. Hauglustaine, T. Iversen, S. Kinne, A. Kirkevåg, J.-F. Lamarque, G. Lin, X. Liu, M. T. Lund, G. Luo, X. Ma, T. van Noije, J. E. Penner, P. J. Rasch, A. Ruiz, Ø. Seland, R. B. Skeie, P. Stier, T. Takemura, K. Tsigaridis, P. Wang, Z. Wang, L. Xu, H. Yu, F. Yu, J.-H. Yoon, K. Zhang, H. Zhang, and C. Zhou, “Radiative forcing of the direct aerosol effect from AeroCom Phase II simulations,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 13, 1853–1877 (2013).
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M. I. Mishchenko, B. Cairns, J. E. Hansen, L. D. Travis, R. Burg, Y. J. Kaufman, J. V. Martins, and E. P. Shettle, “Monitoring of aerosol forcing of climate from space: analysis of measurement requirements,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 88, 149–161 (2004).
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G. L. Stephens, D. G. Vane, S. Tanelli, E. Im, S. Durden, M. Rokey, D. Reinke, P. Partain, G. G. Mace, R. Austin, T. L’Ecuyer, J. Haynes, M. Lebsock, K. Suzuki, D. Waliser, D. Wu, J. Kay, A. Gettleman, Z. Wang, and R. Marchand, “CloudSat mission: performance and early science after the first year of operation,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D00A18 (2008).
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J. Hansen, M. Sato, P. Kharecha, and K. von Schuckmann, “Earth’s energy imbalance and implications,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 11, 13421–13449 (2011).
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G. Myhre, B. H. Samset, M. Schulz, Y. Balkanski, S. Bauer, T. K. Berntsen, H. Bian, N. Bellouin, M. Chin, T. Diehl, R. C. Easter, J. Feichter, S. J. Ghan, D. Hauglustaine, T. Iversen, S. Kinne, A. Kirkevåg, J.-F. Lamarque, G. Lin, X. Liu, M. T. Lund, G. Luo, X. Ma, T. van Noije, J. E. Penner, P. J. Rasch, A. Ruiz, Ø. Seland, R. B. Skeie, P. Stier, T. Takemura, K. Tsigaridis, P. Wang, Z. Wang, L. Xu, H. Yu, F. Yu, J.-H. Yoon, K. Zhang, H. Zhang, and C. Zhou, “Radiative forcing of the direct aerosol effect from AeroCom Phase II simulations,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 13, 1853–1877 (2013).
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G. Myhre, B. H. Samset, M. Schulz, Y. Balkanski, S. Bauer, T. K. Berntsen, H. Bian, N. Bellouin, M. Chin, T. Diehl, R. C. Easter, J. Feichter, S. J. Ghan, D. Hauglustaine, T. Iversen, S. Kinne, A. Kirkevåg, J.-F. Lamarque, G. Lin, X. Liu, M. T. Lund, G. Luo, X. Ma, T. van Noije, J. E. Penner, P. J. Rasch, A. Ruiz, Ø. Seland, R. B. Skeie, P. Stier, T. Takemura, K. Tsigaridis, P. Wang, Z. Wang, L. Xu, H. Yu, F. Yu, J.-H. Yoon, K. Zhang, H. Zhang, and C. Zhou, “Radiative forcing of the direct aerosol effect from AeroCom Phase II simulations,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 13, 1853–1877 (2013).
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S. P. Burton, E. Chemyakin, X. Liu, K. Knobelspiesse, S. Stamnes, P. Sawamura, R. H. Moore, C. A. Hostetler, and R. A. Ferrare, “Information content and sensitivity of the 3β + 2α lidar measurement system for aerosol microphysical retrievals,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 9, 5555–5574 (2016).
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K. Knobelspiesse, B. Cairns, M. Ottaviani, R. Ferrare, J. Hair, C. Hostetler, M. Obland, R. Rogers, J. Redemann, Y. Shinozuka, A. Clarke, S. Freitag, S. Howell, V. Kapustin, and C. McNaughton, “Combined retrievals of boreal forest fire aerosol properties with a polarimeter and lidar,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 11, 7045–7067 (2011).
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Kolgotin, A.

E. Chemyakin, S. Burton, A. Kolgotin, D. Muller, C. Hostetler, and R. Ferrare, “Retrieval of aerosol parameters from multiwavelength lidar: investigation of the underlying inverse mathematical problem,” Appl. Opt. 55, 2188–2202 (2016).
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D. Müller, C. A. Hostetler, R. A. Ferrare, S. P. Burton, E. Chemyakin, A. Kolgotin, J. W. Hair, A. L. Cook, D. B. Harper, R. R. Rogers, R. W. Hare, C. S. Cleckner, M. D. Obland, J. Tomlinson, L. K. Berg, and B. Schmid, “Airborne Multiwavelength High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL-2) observations during TCAP 2012: vertical profiles of optical and microphysical properties of a smoke/urban haze plume over the northeastern coast of the US,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 7, 3487–3496 (2014).
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I. Veselovskii, O. Dubovik, A. Kolgotin, M. Korenskiy, D. N. Whiteman, K. Allakhverdiev, and F. Huseyinoglu, “Linear estimation of particle bulk parameters from multi-wavelength lidar measurements,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 5, 1135–1145 (2012).
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I. Veselovskii, A. Kolgotin, V. Griaznov, D. Müller, U. Wandinger, and D. N. Whiteman, “Inversion with regularization for the retrieval of tropospheric aerosol parameters from multi-wavelength lidar sounding,” Appl. Opt. 41, 3685–3699 (2002).
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Korenskiy, M.

I. Veselovskii, O. Dubovik, A. Kolgotin, M. Korenskiy, D. N. Whiteman, K. Allakhverdiev, and F. Huseyinoglu, “Linear estimation of particle bulk parameters from multi-wavelength lidar measurements,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 5, 1135–1145 (2012).
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G. Krieger, A. Moreira, H. Fiedler, I. Hajnsek, M. Werner, M. Younis, and M. Zink, “TanDEM-X: a satellite formation for high-resolution SAR interferometry,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote. Sens. 45, 3317–3341 (2007).
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L’Ecuyer, T.

G. L. Stephens, D. G. Vane, S. Tanelli, E. Im, S. Durden, M. Rokey, D. Reinke, P. Partain, G. G. Mace, R. Austin, T. L’Ecuyer, J. Haynes, M. Lebsock, K. Suzuki, D. Waliser, D. Wu, J. Kay, A. Gettleman, Z. Wang, and R. Marchand, “CloudSat mission: performance and early science after the first year of operation,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D00A18 (2008).
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M. I. Mishchenko, L. D. Travis, and A. A. Lacis, Scattering, Absorption, and Emission of Light by Small Particles (Cambridge University, 2002).

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G. Myhre, B. H. Samset, M. Schulz, Y. Balkanski, S. Bauer, T. K. Berntsen, H. Bian, N. Bellouin, M. Chin, T. Diehl, R. C. Easter, J. Feichter, S. J. Ghan, D. Hauglustaine, T. Iversen, S. Kinne, A. Kirkevåg, J.-F. Lamarque, G. Lin, X. Liu, M. T. Lund, G. Luo, X. Ma, T. van Noije, J. E. Penner, P. J. Rasch, A. Ruiz, Ø. Seland, R. B. Skeie, P. Stier, T. Takemura, K. Tsigaridis, P. Wang, Z. Wang, L. Xu, H. Yu, F. Yu, J.-H. Yoon, K. Zhang, H. Zhang, and C. Zhou, “Radiative forcing of the direct aerosol effect from AeroCom Phase II simulations,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 13, 1853–1877 (2013).
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Z. Li, X. Zhao, R. Kahn, M. Mishchenko, L. Remer, K.-H. Lee, M. Wang, I. Laszlo, T. Nakajima, and H. Maring, “Uncertainties in satellite remote sensing of aerosols and impact on monitoring its long-term trend: a review and perspective,” Ann. Geophys. 27, 2755–2770 (2009).
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G. L. Stephens, D. G. Vane, S. Tanelli, E. Im, S. Durden, M. Rokey, D. Reinke, P. Partain, G. G. Mace, R. Austin, T. L’Ecuyer, J. Haynes, M. Lebsock, K. Suzuki, D. Waliser, D. Wu, J. Kay, A. Gettleman, Z. Wang, and R. Marchand, “CloudSat mission: performance and early science after the first year of operation,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D00A18 (2008).
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Lee, K.-H.

Z. Li, X. Zhao, R. Kahn, M. Mishchenko, L. Remer, K.-H. Lee, M. Wang, I. Laszlo, T. Nakajima, and H. Maring, “Uncertainties in satellite remote sensing of aerosols and impact on monitoring its long-term trend: a review and perspective,” Ann. Geophys. 27, 2755–2770 (2009).
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Li, Z.

Z. Li, X. Zhao, R. Kahn, M. Mishchenko, L. Remer, K.-H. Lee, M. Wang, I. Laszlo, T. Nakajima, and H. Maring, “Uncertainties in satellite remote sensing of aerosols and impact on monitoring its long-term trend: a review and perspective,” Ann. Geophys. 27, 2755–2770 (2009).
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Lin, G.

G. Myhre, B. H. Samset, M. Schulz, Y. Balkanski, S. Bauer, T. K. Berntsen, H. Bian, N. Bellouin, M. Chin, T. Diehl, R. C. Easter, J. Feichter, S. J. Ghan, D. Hauglustaine, T. Iversen, S. Kinne, A. Kirkevåg, J.-F. Lamarque, G. Lin, X. Liu, M. T. Lund, G. Luo, X. Ma, T. van Noije, J. E. Penner, P. J. Rasch, A. Ruiz, Ø. Seland, R. B. Skeie, P. Stier, T. Takemura, K. Tsigaridis, P. Wang, Z. Wang, L. Xu, H. Yu, F. Yu, J.-H. Yoon, K. Zhang, H. Zhang, and C. Zhou, “Radiative forcing of the direct aerosol effect from AeroCom Phase II simulations,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 13, 1853–1877 (2013).
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Liu, X.

S. P. Burton, E. Chemyakin, X. Liu, K. Knobelspiesse, S. Stamnes, P. Sawamura, R. H. Moore, C. A. Hostetler, and R. A. Ferrare, “Information content and sensitivity of the 3β + 2α lidar measurement system for aerosol microphysical retrievals,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 9, 5555–5574 (2016).
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G. Myhre, B. H. Samset, M. Schulz, Y. Balkanski, S. Bauer, T. K. Berntsen, H. Bian, N. Bellouin, M. Chin, T. Diehl, R. C. Easter, J. Feichter, S. J. Ghan, D. Hauglustaine, T. Iversen, S. Kinne, A. Kirkevåg, J.-F. Lamarque, G. Lin, X. Liu, M. T. Lund, G. Luo, X. Ma, T. van Noije, J. E. Penner, P. J. Rasch, A. Ruiz, Ø. Seland, R. B. Skeie, P. Stier, T. Takemura, K. Tsigaridis, P. Wang, Z. Wang, L. Xu, H. Yu, F. Yu, J.-H. Yoon, K. Zhang, H. Zhang, and C. Zhou, “Radiative forcing of the direct aerosol effect from AeroCom Phase II simulations,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 13, 1853–1877 (2013).
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Liu, Z.

D. M. Winker, M. A. Vaughan, A. Omar, Y. Hu, K. A. Powell, Z. Liu, W. H. Hunt, and S. A. Young, “Overview of the CALIPSO mission and CALIOP data processing algorithms,” J. Atmos. Oceanic. Technol. 26, 2310–2323 (2009).
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N. G. Loeb and W. Su, “Direct aerosol radiative forcing uncertainty based on a radiative perturbation analysis,” J. Clim. 23, 5288–5293 (2010).
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W. Su, G. L. Schuster, N. G. Loeb, R. R. Rogers, R. A. Ferrare, C. A. Hostetler, J. W. Hair, and M. D. Obland, “Aerosol and cloud interaction observed from high spectral resolution lidar data,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D24202 (2008).
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U. Lohmann and S. Ferrachat, “Impact of parametric uncertainties on the present-day climate and on the anthropogenic aerosol effect,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 10, 11373–11383 (2010).
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G. Myhre, B. H. Samset, M. Schulz, Y. Balkanski, S. Bauer, T. K. Berntsen, H. Bian, N. Bellouin, M. Chin, T. Diehl, R. C. Easter, J. Feichter, S. J. Ghan, D. Hauglustaine, T. Iversen, S. Kinne, A. Kirkevåg, J.-F. Lamarque, G. Lin, X. Liu, M. T. Lund, G. Luo, X. Ma, T. van Noije, J. E. Penner, P. J. Rasch, A. Ruiz, Ø. Seland, R. B. Skeie, P. Stier, T. Takemura, K. Tsigaridis, P. Wang, Z. Wang, L. Xu, H. Yu, F. Yu, J.-H. Yoon, K. Zhang, H. Zhang, and C. Zhou, “Radiative forcing of the direct aerosol effect from AeroCom Phase II simulations,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 13, 1853–1877 (2013).
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Luo, G.

G. Myhre, B. H. Samset, M. Schulz, Y. Balkanski, S. Bauer, T. K. Berntsen, H. Bian, N. Bellouin, M. Chin, T. Diehl, R. C. Easter, J. Feichter, S. J. Ghan, D. Hauglustaine, T. Iversen, S. Kinne, A. Kirkevåg, J.-F. Lamarque, G. Lin, X. Liu, M. T. Lund, G. Luo, X. Ma, T. van Noije, J. E. Penner, P. J. Rasch, A. Ruiz, Ø. Seland, R. B. Skeie, P. Stier, T. Takemura, K. Tsigaridis, P. Wang, Z. Wang, L. Xu, H. Yu, F. Yu, J.-H. Yoon, K. Zhang, H. Zhang, and C. Zhou, “Radiative forcing of the direct aerosol effect from AeroCom Phase II simulations,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 13, 1853–1877 (2013).
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Ma, X.

G. Myhre, B. H. Samset, M. Schulz, Y. Balkanski, S. Bauer, T. K. Berntsen, H. Bian, N. Bellouin, M. Chin, T. Diehl, R. C. Easter, J. Feichter, S. J. Ghan, D. Hauglustaine, T. Iversen, S. Kinne, A. Kirkevåg, J.-F. Lamarque, G. Lin, X. Liu, M. T. Lund, G. Luo, X. Ma, T. van Noije, J. E. Penner, P. J. Rasch, A. Ruiz, Ø. Seland, R. B. Skeie, P. Stier, T. Takemura, K. Tsigaridis, P. Wang, Z. Wang, L. Xu, H. Yu, F. Yu, J.-H. Yoon, K. Zhang, H. Zhang, and C. Zhou, “Radiative forcing of the direct aerosol effect from AeroCom Phase II simulations,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 13, 1853–1877 (2013).
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Mace, G. G.

G. L. Stephens, D. G. Vane, S. Tanelli, E. Im, S. Durden, M. Rokey, D. Reinke, P. Partain, G. G. Mace, R. Austin, T. L’Ecuyer, J. Haynes, M. Lebsock, K. Suzuki, D. Waliser, D. Wu, J. Kay, A. Gettleman, Z. Wang, and R. Marchand, “CloudSat mission: performance and early science after the first year of operation,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D00A18 (2008).
[Crossref]

Mack, T. L.

Marchand, R.

G. L. Stephens, D. G. Vane, S. Tanelli, E. Im, S. Durden, M. Rokey, D. Reinke, P. Partain, G. G. Mace, R. Austin, T. L’Ecuyer, J. Haynes, M. Lebsock, K. Suzuki, D. Waliser, D. Wu, J. Kay, A. Gettleman, Z. Wang, and R. Marchand, “CloudSat mission: performance and early science after the first year of operation,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D00A18 (2008).
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Maring, H.

Z. Li, X. Zhao, R. Kahn, M. Mishchenko, L. Remer, K.-H. Lee, M. Wang, I. Laszlo, T. Nakajima, and H. Maring, “Uncertainties in satellite remote sensing of aerosols and impact on monitoring its long-term trend: a review and perspective,” Ann. Geophys. 27, 2755–2770 (2009).
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M. I. Mishchenko, B. Cairns, J. E. Hansen, L. D. Travis, R. Burg, Y. J. Kaufman, J. V. Martins, and E. P. Shettle, “Monitoring of aerosol forcing of climate from space: analysis of measurement requirements,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 88, 149–161 (2004).
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McNaughton, C.

K. Knobelspiesse, B. Cairns, M. Ottaviani, R. Ferrare, J. Hair, C. Hostetler, M. Obland, R. Rogers, J. Redemann, Y. Shinozuka, A. Clarke, S. Freitag, S. Howell, V. Kapustin, and C. McNaughton, “Combined retrievals of boreal forest fire aerosol properties with a polarimeter and lidar,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 11, 7045–7067 (2011).
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Mishchenko, M.

Z. Li, X. Zhao, R. Kahn, M. Mishchenko, L. Remer, K.-H. Lee, M. Wang, I. Laszlo, T. Nakajima, and H. Maring, “Uncertainties in satellite remote sensing of aerosols and impact on monitoring its long-term trend: a review and perspective,” Ann. Geophys. 27, 2755–2770 (2009).
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Mishchenko, M. I.

M. I. Mishchenko, M. D. Alexandrov, B. Cairns, and L. D. Travis, “Multistatic aerosol-cloud lidar in space: a theoretical perspective,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 184, 180–192 (2016).
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M. I. Mishchenko, B. Cairns, J. E. Hansen, L. D. Travis, R. Burg, Y. J. Kaufman, J. V. Martins, and E. P. Shettle, “Monitoring of aerosol forcing of climate from space: analysis of measurement requirements,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 88, 149–161 (2004).
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M. I. Mishchenko, Electromagnetic Scattering by Particles and Particle Groups: an Introduction (Cambridge University, 2014).
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M. I. Mishchenko, L. D. Travis, and A. A. Lacis, Scattering, Absorption, and Emission of Light by Small Particles (Cambridge University, 2002).

Moore, R. H.

S. P. Burton, E. Chemyakin, X. Liu, K. Knobelspiesse, S. Stamnes, P. Sawamura, R. H. Moore, C. A. Hostetler, and R. A. Ferrare, “Information content and sensitivity of the 3β + 2α lidar measurement system for aerosol microphysical retrievals,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 9, 5555–5574 (2016).
[Crossref]

Moreira, A.

G. Krieger, A. Moreira, H. Fiedler, I. Hajnsek, M. Werner, M. Younis, and M. Zink, “TanDEM-X: a satellite formation for high-resolution SAR interferometry,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote. Sens. 45, 3317–3341 (2007).
[Crossref]

Muller, D.

Müller, D.

D. Müller, C. A. Hostetler, R. A. Ferrare, S. P. Burton, E. Chemyakin, A. Kolgotin, J. W. Hair, A. L. Cook, D. B. Harper, R. R. Rogers, R. W. Hare, C. S. Cleckner, M. D. Obland, J. Tomlinson, L. K. Berg, and B. Schmid, “Airborne Multiwavelength High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL-2) observations during TCAP 2012: vertical profiles of optical and microphysical properties of a smoke/urban haze plume over the northeastern coast of the US,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 7, 3487–3496 (2014).
[Crossref]

I. Veselovskii, A. Kolgotin, V. Griaznov, D. Müller, U. Wandinger, and D. N. Whiteman, “Inversion with regularization for the retrieval of tropospheric aerosol parameters from multi-wavelength lidar sounding,” Appl. Opt. 41, 3685–3699 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Myhre, G.

G. Myhre, B. H. Samset, M. Schulz, Y. Balkanski, S. Bauer, T. K. Berntsen, H. Bian, N. Bellouin, M. Chin, T. Diehl, R. C. Easter, J. Feichter, S. J. Ghan, D. Hauglustaine, T. Iversen, S. Kinne, A. Kirkevåg, J.-F. Lamarque, G. Lin, X. Liu, M. T. Lund, G. Luo, X. Ma, T. van Noije, J. E. Penner, P. J. Rasch, A. Ruiz, Ø. Seland, R. B. Skeie, P. Stier, T. Takemura, K. Tsigaridis, P. Wang, Z. Wang, L. Xu, H. Yu, F. Yu, J.-H. Yoon, K. Zhang, H. Zhang, and C. Zhou, “Radiative forcing of the direct aerosol effect from AeroCom Phase II simulations,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 13, 1853–1877 (2013).
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Nakajima, T.

Z. Li, X. Zhao, R. Kahn, M. Mishchenko, L. Remer, K.-H. Lee, M. Wang, I. Laszlo, T. Nakajima, and H. Maring, “Uncertainties in satellite remote sensing of aerosols and impact on monitoring its long-term trend: a review and perspective,” Ann. Geophys. 27, 2755–2770 (2009).
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Obland, M.

K. Knobelspiesse, B. Cairns, M. Ottaviani, R. Ferrare, J. Hair, C. Hostetler, M. Obland, R. Rogers, J. Redemann, Y. Shinozuka, A. Clarke, S. Freitag, S. Howell, V. Kapustin, and C. McNaughton, “Combined retrievals of boreal forest fire aerosol properties with a polarimeter and lidar,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 11, 7045–7067 (2011).
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G. Myhre, B. H. Samset, M. Schulz, Y. Balkanski, S. Bauer, T. K. Berntsen, H. Bian, N. Bellouin, M. Chin, T. Diehl, R. C. Easter, J. Feichter, S. J. Ghan, D. Hauglustaine, T. Iversen, S. Kinne, A. Kirkevåg, J.-F. Lamarque, G. Lin, X. Liu, M. T. Lund, G. Luo, X. Ma, T. van Noije, J. E. Penner, P. J. Rasch, A. Ruiz, Ø. Seland, R. B. Skeie, P. Stier, T. Takemura, K. Tsigaridis, P. Wang, Z. Wang, L. Xu, H. Yu, F. Yu, J.-H. Yoon, K. Zhang, H. Zhang, and C. Zhou, “Radiative forcing of the direct aerosol effect from AeroCom Phase II simulations,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 13, 1853–1877 (2013).
[Crossref]

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G. L. Stephens, D. G. Vane, S. Tanelli, E. Im, S. Durden, M. Rokey, D. Reinke, P. Partain, G. G. Mace, R. Austin, T. L’Ecuyer, J. Haynes, M. Lebsock, K. Suzuki, D. Waliser, D. Wu, J. Kay, A. Gettleman, Z. Wang, and R. Marchand, “CloudSat mission: performance and early science after the first year of operation,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D00A18 (2008).
[Crossref]

Vaughan, M. A.

D. M. Winker, M. A. Vaughan, A. Omar, Y. Hu, K. A. Powell, Z. Liu, W. H. Hunt, and S. A. Young, “Overview of the CALIPSO mission and CALIOP data processing algorithms,” J. Atmos. Oceanic. Technol. 26, 2310–2323 (2009).
[Crossref]

Veselovskii, I.

I. Veselovskii, O. Dubovik, A. Kolgotin, M. Korenskiy, D. N. Whiteman, K. Allakhverdiev, and F. Huseyinoglu, “Linear estimation of particle bulk parameters from multi-wavelength lidar measurements,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 5, 1135–1145 (2012).
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I. Veselovskii, A. Kolgotin, V. Griaznov, D. Müller, U. Wandinger, and D. N. Whiteman, “Inversion with regularization for the retrieval of tropospheric aerosol parameters from multi-wavelength lidar sounding,” Appl. Opt. 41, 3685–3699 (2002).
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S. T. Shipley, D. H. Tracy, E. W. Eloranta, J. T. Trauger, J. T. Sroga, F. L. Roesler, and J. A. Weinman, “A High Spectral Resolution Lidar to measure optical scattering properties of atmospheric aersols. Part I: Intrumentation and theory,” Appl. Opt. 23, 3716–3724 (1983).
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G. L. Stephens, D. G. Vane, S. Tanelli, E. Im, S. Durden, M. Rokey, D. Reinke, P. Partain, G. G. Mace, R. Austin, T. L’Ecuyer, J. Haynes, M. Lebsock, K. Suzuki, D. Waliser, D. Wu, J. Kay, A. Gettleman, Z. Wang, and R. Marchand, “CloudSat mission: performance and early science after the first year of operation,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D00A18 (2008).
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Wandinger, U.

Wang, M.

J. E. Penner, L. Xu, and M. Wang, “Satellite methods underestimate indirect climate forcing by aerosols,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108, 13404–13408 (2011).
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Z. Li, X. Zhao, R. Kahn, M. Mishchenko, L. Remer, K.-H. Lee, M. Wang, I. Laszlo, T. Nakajima, and H. Maring, “Uncertainties in satellite remote sensing of aerosols and impact on monitoring its long-term trend: a review and perspective,” Ann. Geophys. 27, 2755–2770 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wang, P.

G. Myhre, B. H. Samset, M. Schulz, Y. Balkanski, S. Bauer, T. K. Berntsen, H. Bian, N. Bellouin, M. Chin, T. Diehl, R. C. Easter, J. Feichter, S. J. Ghan, D. Hauglustaine, T. Iversen, S. Kinne, A. Kirkevåg, J.-F. Lamarque, G. Lin, X. Liu, M. T. Lund, G. Luo, X. Ma, T. van Noije, J. E. Penner, P. J. Rasch, A. Ruiz, Ø. Seland, R. B. Skeie, P. Stier, T. Takemura, K. Tsigaridis, P. Wang, Z. Wang, L. Xu, H. Yu, F. Yu, J.-H. Yoon, K. Zhang, H. Zhang, and C. Zhou, “Radiative forcing of the direct aerosol effect from AeroCom Phase II simulations,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 13, 1853–1877 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wang, Z.

G. Myhre, B. H. Samset, M. Schulz, Y. Balkanski, S. Bauer, T. K. Berntsen, H. Bian, N. Bellouin, M. Chin, T. Diehl, R. C. Easter, J. Feichter, S. J. Ghan, D. Hauglustaine, T. Iversen, S. Kinne, A. Kirkevåg, J.-F. Lamarque, G. Lin, X. Liu, M. T. Lund, G. Luo, X. Ma, T. van Noije, J. E. Penner, P. J. Rasch, A. Ruiz, Ø. Seland, R. B. Skeie, P. Stier, T. Takemura, K. Tsigaridis, P. Wang, Z. Wang, L. Xu, H. Yu, F. Yu, J.-H. Yoon, K. Zhang, H. Zhang, and C. Zhou, “Radiative forcing of the direct aerosol effect from AeroCom Phase II simulations,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 13, 1853–1877 (2013).
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Werner, M.

G. Krieger, A. Moreira, H. Fiedler, I. Hajnsek, M. Werner, M. Younis, and M. Zink, “TanDEM-X: a satellite formation for high-resolution SAR interferometry,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote. Sens. 45, 3317–3341 (2007).
[Crossref]

Whiteman, D. N.

I. Veselovskii, O. Dubovik, A. Kolgotin, M. Korenskiy, D. N. Whiteman, K. Allakhverdiev, and F. Huseyinoglu, “Linear estimation of particle bulk parameters from multi-wavelength lidar measurements,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 5, 1135–1145 (2012).
[Crossref]

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D. M. Winker, M. A. Vaughan, A. Omar, Y. Hu, K. A. Powell, Z. Liu, W. H. Hunt, and S. A. Young, “Overview of the CALIPSO mission and CALIOP data processing algorithms,” J. Atmos. Oceanic. Technol. 26, 2310–2323 (2009).
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G. L. Stephens, D. G. Vane, S. Tanelli, E. Im, S. Durden, M. Rokey, D. Reinke, P. Partain, G. G. Mace, R. Austin, T. L’Ecuyer, J. Haynes, M. Lebsock, K. Suzuki, D. Waliser, D. Wu, J. Kay, A. Gettleman, Z. Wang, and R. Marchand, “CloudSat mission: performance and early science after the first year of operation,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D00A18 (2008).
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G. Myhre, B. H. Samset, M. Schulz, Y. Balkanski, S. Bauer, T. K. Berntsen, H. Bian, N. Bellouin, M. Chin, T. Diehl, R. C. Easter, J. Feichter, S. J. Ghan, D. Hauglustaine, T. Iversen, S. Kinne, A. Kirkevåg, J.-F. Lamarque, G. Lin, X. Liu, M. T. Lund, G. Luo, X. Ma, T. van Noije, J. E. Penner, P. J. Rasch, A. Ruiz, Ø. Seland, R. B. Skeie, P. Stier, T. Takemura, K. Tsigaridis, P. Wang, Z. Wang, L. Xu, H. Yu, F. Yu, J.-H. Yoon, K. Zhang, H. Zhang, and C. Zhou, “Radiative forcing of the direct aerosol effect from AeroCom Phase II simulations,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 13, 1853–1877 (2013).
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G. Krieger, A. Moreira, H. Fiedler, I. Hajnsek, M. Werner, M. Younis, and M. Zink, “TanDEM-X: a satellite formation for high-resolution SAR interferometry,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote. Sens. 45, 3317–3341 (2007).
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G. Myhre, B. H. Samset, M. Schulz, Y. Balkanski, S. Bauer, T. K. Berntsen, H. Bian, N. Bellouin, M. Chin, T. Diehl, R. C. Easter, J. Feichter, S. J. Ghan, D. Hauglustaine, T. Iversen, S. Kinne, A. Kirkevåg, J.-F. Lamarque, G. Lin, X. Liu, M. T. Lund, G. Luo, X. Ma, T. van Noije, J. E. Penner, P. J. Rasch, A. Ruiz, Ø. Seland, R. B. Skeie, P. Stier, T. Takemura, K. Tsigaridis, P. Wang, Z. Wang, L. Xu, H. Yu, F. Yu, J.-H. Yoon, K. Zhang, H. Zhang, and C. Zhou, “Radiative forcing of the direct aerosol effect from AeroCom Phase II simulations,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 13, 1853–1877 (2013).
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G. Myhre, B. H. Samset, M. Schulz, Y. Balkanski, S. Bauer, T. K. Berntsen, H. Bian, N. Bellouin, M. Chin, T. Diehl, R. C. Easter, J. Feichter, S. J. Ghan, D. Hauglustaine, T. Iversen, S. Kinne, A. Kirkevåg, J.-F. Lamarque, G. Lin, X. Liu, M. T. Lund, G. Luo, X. Ma, T. van Noije, J. E. Penner, P. J. Rasch, A. Ruiz, Ø. Seland, R. B. Skeie, P. Stier, T. Takemura, K. Tsigaridis, P. Wang, Z. Wang, L. Xu, H. Yu, F. Yu, J.-H. Yoon, K. Zhang, H. Zhang, and C. Zhou, “Radiative forcing of the direct aerosol effect from AeroCom Phase II simulations,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 13, 1853–1877 (2013).
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G. Myhre, B. H. Samset, M. Schulz, Y. Balkanski, S. Bauer, T. K. Berntsen, H. Bian, N. Bellouin, M. Chin, T. Diehl, R. C. Easter, J. Feichter, S. J. Ghan, D. Hauglustaine, T. Iversen, S. Kinne, A. Kirkevåg, J.-F. Lamarque, G. Lin, X. Liu, M. T. Lund, G. Luo, X. Ma, T. van Noije, J. E. Penner, P. J. Rasch, A. Ruiz, Ø. Seland, R. B. Skeie, P. Stier, T. Takemura, K. Tsigaridis, P. Wang, Z. Wang, L. Xu, H. Yu, F. Yu, J.-H. Yoon, K. Zhang, H. Zhang, and C. Zhou, “Radiative forcing of the direct aerosol effect from AeroCom Phase II simulations,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 13, 1853–1877 (2013).
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G. Myhre, B. H. Samset, M. Schulz, Y. Balkanski, S. Bauer, T. K. Berntsen, H. Bian, N. Bellouin, M. Chin, T. Diehl, R. C. Easter, J. Feichter, S. J. Ghan, D. Hauglustaine, T. Iversen, S. Kinne, A. Kirkevåg, J.-F. Lamarque, G. Lin, X. Liu, M. T. Lund, G. Luo, X. Ma, T. van Noije, J. E. Penner, P. J. Rasch, A. Ruiz, Ø. Seland, R. B. Skeie, P. Stier, T. Takemura, K. Tsigaridis, P. Wang, Z. Wang, L. Xu, H. Yu, F. Yu, J.-H. Yoon, K. Zhang, H. Zhang, and C. Zhou, “Radiative forcing of the direct aerosol effect from AeroCom Phase II simulations,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 13, 1853–1877 (2013).
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G. Myhre, B. H. Samset, M. Schulz, Y. Balkanski, S. Bauer, T. K. Berntsen, H. Bian, N. Bellouin, M. Chin, T. Diehl, R. C. Easter, J. Feichter, S. J. Ghan, D. Hauglustaine, T. Iversen, S. Kinne, A. Kirkevåg, J.-F. Lamarque, G. Lin, X. Liu, M. T. Lund, G. Luo, X. Ma, T. van Noije, J. E. Penner, P. J. Rasch, A. Ruiz, Ø. Seland, R. B. Skeie, P. Stier, T. Takemura, K. Tsigaridis, P. Wang, Z. Wang, L. Xu, H. Yu, F. Yu, J.-H. Yoon, K. Zhang, H. Zhang, and C. Zhou, “Radiative forcing of the direct aerosol effect from AeroCom Phase II simulations,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 13, 1853–1877 (2013).
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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Ratios of the propagated standard deviations to the actual values of the corresponding state vector elements as functions of the scattering angle Θ for Case 1 (urban fine-mode aerosols). The curves depict the propagated uncertainties of the “12γ + 3β + 2α” method, while those of the “3β + 2α” approach are shown by the arrows on the right-hand vertical axes. Top: the actual values computed according to Eq. (25); bottom: the values “regularized” according to Eq. (26) (not to be used, shown for comparison only).
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 As in Fig. 1, but for Case 2 (larger aerosols).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 As in Fig. 1, but for Case 3 (coarse-mode aerosols).
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 As in Fig. 1, but for Case 4 (highly absorbing brown-carbon particles).
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Degrees of freedom computed for the “12γ + 3β + 2α” approach as functions of the second receiver’s scattering angle. The DOFs for the “3β + 2α” method are indicated by arrows. Blue lines and arrows represent the DOFs determined as the number of eigenvalues of the matrix T that are greater than unity ( is defined by Eq. (27)), while the red curves and arrows represent the DOFs computed according to Eq. (28). The study cases are the same as in Figs. 14.

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Expected variability ranges of the state vector elements

Tables Icon

Table 2 Measurement accuracy requirements for quantification of aerosol effects on climate [14,33]

Tables Icon

Table 3 State parameters and propagated uncertainties for four sensitivity study cases

Tables Icon

Table 4 Number of degrees of freedom for the four sensitivity study cases

Equations (28)

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I a sca ( Θ ) = ( I a sca ( Θ ) Q a sca ( Θ ) U a sca ( Θ ) V a sca ( Θ ) ) , I b sca ( Θ ) = ( I b sca Q b sca U b sca V b sca ) , and I inc = ( I inc Q inc U inc V inc ) ,
I a sca ( Θ ) = T 1 T 2 ( Θ ) F V ( Θ ) I inc ,
I b sca = T 1 2 F V ( 180 ° ) I inc .
F V ( Θ ) = k sca p 4 π F p ( Θ ) + k sca R 4 π F R ( Θ ) ,
I a sca ( Θ ) = I a sca , p ( Θ ) + I a sca , R ( Θ ) , I b sca = I b sca , p + I b sca , R ,
I a sca , a ( Θ ) = T 1 T 2 ( Θ ) k sca p 4 π F p ( Θ ) I inc , I a sca , p = T 1 2 k sca p 4 π F p ( 180 ° ) I inc ,
I a sca , R ( Θ ) = T 1 T 2 ( Θ ) k sca R 4 π F R ( Θ ) I inc , I a sca , R = T 1 2 k sca R 4 π F R ( 180 ° ) I inc .
F p ( Θ ) = ( F 11 p ( Θ ) F 12 p ( Θ ) 0 0 F 12 p ( Θ ) F 11 p ( Θ ) 0 0 0 0 F 33 p ( Θ ) F 34 p ( Θ ) 0 0 F 34 p ( Θ ) F 33 p ( Θ ) ) .
F 12 p ( 180 ° ) = F 34 p ( 180 ° ) = 0 and F 33 p ( 180 ° ) = F 11 p ( 180 ° ) ,
F p ( 180 ° ) = ( 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 ) F 11 p ( 180 ° ) .
I inc = ( 1 0 1 0 ) I inc .
k sca p F p ( Θ ) I inc = I inc k sca p ( F 11 p ( Θ ) F 12 p ( Θ ) F 33 p ( Θ ) F 34 p ( Θ ) )
k sca p F p ( 180 ° ) I inc = I inc k sca p F 11 p ( 180 ° ) ( 1 0 1 0 ) .
α = k ext p ,
β = k sca p F 11 p ( 180 ° ) ,
γ 11 = k sca p F 11 p ( Θ ) ,
γ 12 = k sca p F 12 p ( Θ ) ,
γ 33 = k sca p F 33 p ( Θ ) ,
γ 34 = k sca p F 34 p ( Θ ) ,
X = ( r eff v eff m r m i N c )
k ext p = C ext p N c and k ext p = C ext p N c .
Y = F ( X ) + ε ,
Y = F ( X 0 ) + J ( X X 0 ) + ε ,
J i j = F i ( X ) X j | X 0 .
S 1 = J T S ε 1 J ,
S 1 = J T S ε 1 J + S a 1 .
J ˜ = S ε 1 2 J S a 1 2
d s = tr [ ( J T S ε 1 J + S a 1 ) 1 J T S ε 1 J ] ,

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