Abstract

We present detailed numerical and experimental investigation of thin-film organic solar cells with a micro-textured light management foil applied on top of the front glass substrate. We first demonstrate that measurements of small-area laboratory solar cells are susceptible to a significant amount of optical losses that could lead to false interpretation of the measurement results. Using the combined optical model CROWM calibrated with realistic optical properties of organic films and other layers, we identify the origins of these losses and quantify the extent of their influence. Further on, we identify the most important light management mechanisms of the micro-textured foil, among which the prevention of light escaping at the front side of the cell is revealed as the dominant one. Detailed three-dimensional simulations show that the light-management foil applied on top of a large-area organic solar cell can reduce the total reflection losses by nearly 60% and improve the short-circuit current density by almost 20%. Finally, by assuming realistic open-circuit voltage and especially the realistic fill factor that deteriorates as the absorber layer thickness is increased, we determine the optimal absorber layer thickness that would result in the highest power conversion efficiency of the investigated organic solar cells.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  4. J.-S. Lin, W.-P. Chu, F.-S. Juang, N.-P. Chen, Y.-S. Tsai, C.-C. Chen, C.-M. Chen, and L.-C. Liu, “Manufacture of light-trapping (LT) films by ultraviolet (UV) irradiation and their applications for polymer solar cells (PSCs),” Mater. Lett. 67(1), 42–45 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  5. J. Krč, M. Sever, M. Kovačič, E. Moulin, A. Čampa, B. Lipovšek, M. Steltenpool, A. J. M. van Erven, F.-J. Haug, C. Ballif, and M. Topič, “Design of periodic nano- and macro-scale textures for high-performance thin-film multi-junction solar cells,” J. Opt. 18(6), 064005 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  6. S. Jung, K.-Y. Kim, Y.-I. Lee, J.-H. Youn, H.-T. Moon, J. Jang, and J. Kim, “Optical modeling and analysis of organic solar cells with coherent multilayers and incoherent glass substrate using generalized transfer matrix method,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50(12R), 122301 (2011).
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  20. L. A. A. Pettersson, L. S. Roman, and O. Inganäs, “Modeling photocurrent action spectra of photovoltaic devices based on organic thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 86(1), 487–496 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  21. Z. C. Holman, M. Filipič, B. Lipovšek, S. De Wolf, F. Smole, M. Topič, and C. Ballif, “Parasitic absorption in the rear reflector of a silicon solar cell: Simulation and measurement of the sub-bandgap reflectance for common dielectric/metal reflectors,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 120, 426–430 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  22. M. Filipič, P. Löper, B. Niesen, S. De Wolf, J. Krč, C. Ballif, and M. Topič, “CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite / silicon tandem solar cells: characterization based optical simulations,” Opt. Express 23(7), A263–A278 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  23. B. Lipovšek, A. Solodovnyk, K. Forberich, E. Stern, J. Krč, C. J. Brabec, and M. Topič, “Optical model for simulation and optimization of luminescent down-shifting layers filled with phosphor particles for photovoltaics,” Opt. Express 23(15), A882–A895 (2015).
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    [Crossref]
  27. A. Armin, M. Velusamy, P. Wolfer, Y. Zhang, P. L. Burn, P. Meredith, and A. Pivrikas, “Quantum efficiency of organic solar cells: electro-optical cavity considerations,” ACS Photonics 1(3), 173–181 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  28. T. Ameri, G. Dennler, C. Waldauf, P. Denk, K. Forberich, M. C. Scharber, C. J. Brabec, and K. Hingerl, “Realization, characterization, and optical modeling of inverted bulk-heterojunction organic solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(8), 084506 (2008).
    [Crossref]

2016 (2)

B. Azzopardi, “Future development promise for plastic-based solar electricity,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 24(2), 261–268 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Krč, M. Sever, M. Kovačič, E. Moulin, A. Čampa, B. Lipovšek, M. Steltenpool, A. J. M. van Erven, F.-J. Haug, C. Ballif, and M. Topič, “Design of periodic nano- and macro-scale textures for high-performance thin-film multi-junction solar cells,” J. Opt. 18(6), 064005 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (3)

2014 (4)

A. Armin, M. Velusamy, P. Wolfer, Y. Zhang, P. L. Burn, P. Meredith, and A. Pivrikas, “Quantum efficiency of organic solar cells: electro-optical cavity considerations,” ACS Photonics 1(3), 173–181 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z. C. Holman, M. Filipič, B. Lipovšek, S. De Wolf, F. Smole, M. Topič, and C. Ballif, “Parasitic absorption in the rear reflector of a silicon solar cell: Simulation and measurement of the sub-bandgap reflectance for common dielectric/metal reflectors,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 120, 426–430 (2014).
[Crossref]

B. Lipovšek, J. Krč, and M. Topič, “Optimization of microtextured light-management films for enhanced light trapping in organic solar cells under perpendicular and oblique illumination conditions,” IEEE J. Photovolt. 4(2), 639–646 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. Guo, P. Kubis, T. Stubhan, N. Li, D. Baran, T. Przybilla, E. Spiecker, K. Forberich, and C. J. Brabec, “Fully solution-processing route toward highly transparent polymer solar cells,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(20), 18251–18257 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (2)

G. Namkoong, J. Kong, M. Samson, I.-W. Hwang, and K. Lee, “Active layer thickness effect on the recombination process of PCDTBT:PC71BM organic solar cells,” Org. Electron. 14(1), 74–79 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. J. Kim, G. Y. Margulis, S.-B. Rim, M. L. Brongersma, M. D. McGehee, and P. Peumans, “Geometric light trapping with a V-trap for efficient organic solar cells,” Opt. Express 21(S3Suppl 3), A305–A312 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (2)

J.-S. Lin, W.-P. Chu, F.-S. Juang, N.-P. Chen, Y.-S. Tsai, C.-C. Chen, C.-M. Chen, and L.-C. Liu, “Manufacture of light-trapping (LT) films by ultraviolet (UV) irradiation and their applications for polymer solar cells (PSCs),” Mater. Lett. 67(1), 42–45 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. Li, L. Liu, F. Wei, S. Xia, and X. Qian, “Recent progress in modeling, simulation, and optimization of polymer solar cells,” IEEE J. Photovolt. 2(3), 320–340 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

S. Jung, K.-Y. Kim, Y.-I. Lee, J.-H. Youn, H.-T. Moon, J. Jang, and J. Kim, “Optical modeling and analysis of organic solar cells with coherent multilayers and incoherent glass substrate using generalized transfer matrix method,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50(12R), 122301 (2011).
[Crossref]

P. Kumar and S. Chand, “Recent progress and future aspects of organic solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 20(4), 377–415 (2011).
[Crossref]

B. Lipovšek, J. Krč, and M. Topič, “Optical model for thin-film photovoltaic devices with large surface textures at the front side,” Inf. MIDEM – J. Microelectron. Electron. Compon. Mater. 41(4), 264–271 (2011).

2010 (1)

F. C. Krebs, T. Tromholt, and M. Jørgensen, “Upscaling of polymer solar cell fabrication using full roll-to-roll processing,” Nanoscale 2(6), 873–886 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

M. Niggemann, M. Riede, A. Gombert, and K. Leo, “Light trapping in organic solar cells,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 205(12), 2862–2874 (2008).
[Crossref]

T. Ameri, G. Dennler, C. Waldauf, P. Denk, K. Forberich, M. C. Scharber, C. J. Brabec, and K. Hingerl, “Realization, characterization, and optical modeling of inverted bulk-heterojunction organic solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(8), 084506 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

D. Bergström, J. Powell, and A. F. H. Kaplan, “A ray-tracing analysis of the absorption of light by smooth and rough metal surfaces,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(11), 113504 (2007).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

J. Springer, A. Poruba, and M. Vaneček, “Improved three-dimensional optical model for thin-film silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(9), 5329–5337 (2004).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

R. J. Martin-Palma, J. M. Martinez-Duart, and A. Macleod, “Determination of the optical constants of a semiconductor thin film employing the matrix method,” IEEE Trans. Educ. 43(1), 63–68 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

L. A. A. Pettersson, L. S. Roman, and O. Inganäs, “Modeling photocurrent action spectra of photovoltaic devices based on organic thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 86(1), 487–496 (1999).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

K. Tang, R. A. Dimenna, and R. O. Buckius, “Regions of validity of the geometric optics approximation for angular scattering from very rough surfaces,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transf. 40(1), 49–59 (1996).
[Crossref]

Ameri, T.

T. Ameri, G. Dennler, C. Waldauf, P. Denk, K. Forberich, M. C. Scharber, C. J. Brabec, and K. Hingerl, “Realization, characterization, and optical modeling of inverted bulk-heterojunction organic solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(8), 084506 (2008).
[Crossref]

Armin, A.

A. Armin, M. Velusamy, P. Wolfer, Y. Zhang, P. L. Burn, P. Meredith, and A. Pivrikas, “Quantum efficiency of organic solar cells: electro-optical cavity considerations,” ACS Photonics 1(3), 173–181 (2014).
[Crossref]

Azzopardi, B.

B. Azzopardi, “Future development promise for plastic-based solar electricity,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 24(2), 261–268 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ballif, C.

J. Krč, M. Sever, M. Kovačič, E. Moulin, A. Čampa, B. Lipovšek, M. Steltenpool, A. J. M. van Erven, F.-J. Haug, C. Ballif, and M. Topič, “Design of periodic nano- and macro-scale textures for high-performance thin-film multi-junction solar cells,” J. Opt. 18(6), 064005 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Filipič, P. Löper, B. Niesen, S. De Wolf, J. Krč, C. Ballif, and M. Topič, “CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite / silicon tandem solar cells: characterization based optical simulations,” Opt. Express 23(7), A263–A278 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. C. Holman, M. Filipič, B. Lipovšek, S. De Wolf, F. Smole, M. Topič, and C. Ballif, “Parasitic absorption in the rear reflector of a silicon solar cell: Simulation and measurement of the sub-bandgap reflectance for common dielectric/metal reflectors,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 120, 426–430 (2014).
[Crossref]

Baran, D.

F. Guo, P. Kubis, T. Stubhan, N. Li, D. Baran, T. Przybilla, E. Spiecker, K. Forberich, and C. J. Brabec, “Fully solution-processing route toward highly transparent polymer solar cells,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(20), 18251–18257 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bergström, D.

D. Bergström, J. Powell, and A. F. H. Kaplan, “A ray-tracing analysis of the absorption of light by smooth and rough metal surfaces,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(11), 113504 (2007).
[Crossref]

Brabec, C. J.

B. Lipovšek, A. Solodovnyk, K. Forberich, E. Stern, J. Krč, C. J. Brabec, and M. Topič, “Optical model for simulation and optimization of luminescent down-shifting layers filled with phosphor particles for photovoltaics,” Opt. Express 23(15), A882–A895 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Guo, P. Kubis, T. Stubhan, N. Li, D. Baran, T. Przybilla, E. Spiecker, K. Forberich, and C. J. Brabec, “Fully solution-processing route toward highly transparent polymer solar cells,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(20), 18251–18257 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Ameri, G. Dennler, C. Waldauf, P. Denk, K. Forberich, M. C. Scharber, C. J. Brabec, and K. Hingerl, “Realization, characterization, and optical modeling of inverted bulk-heterojunction organic solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(8), 084506 (2008).
[Crossref]

Brongersma, M. L.

Buckius, R. O.

K. Tang, R. A. Dimenna, and R. O. Buckius, “Regions of validity of the geometric optics approximation for angular scattering from very rough surfaces,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transf. 40(1), 49–59 (1996).
[Crossref]

Burn, P. L.

A. Armin, M. Velusamy, P. Wolfer, Y. Zhang, P. L. Burn, P. Meredith, and A. Pivrikas, “Quantum efficiency of organic solar cells: electro-optical cavity considerations,” ACS Photonics 1(3), 173–181 (2014).
[Crossref]

Campa, A.

J. Krč, M. Sever, M. Kovačič, E. Moulin, A. Čampa, B. Lipovšek, M. Steltenpool, A. J. M. van Erven, F.-J. Haug, C. Ballif, and M. Topič, “Design of periodic nano- and macro-scale textures for high-performance thin-film multi-junction solar cells,” J. Opt. 18(6), 064005 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Topič, M. Sever, B. Lipovšek, A. Čampa, and J. Krč, “Approaches and challenges in optical modelling and simulation of thin-film solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 135, 57–66 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chand, S.

P. Kumar and S. Chand, “Recent progress and future aspects of organic solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 20(4), 377–415 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chen, C.-C.

J.-S. Lin, W.-P. Chu, F.-S. Juang, N.-P. Chen, Y.-S. Tsai, C.-C. Chen, C.-M. Chen, and L.-C. Liu, “Manufacture of light-trapping (LT) films by ultraviolet (UV) irradiation and their applications for polymer solar cells (PSCs),” Mater. Lett. 67(1), 42–45 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chen, C.-M.

J.-S. Lin, W.-P. Chu, F.-S. Juang, N.-P. Chen, Y.-S. Tsai, C.-C. Chen, C.-M. Chen, and L.-C. Liu, “Manufacture of light-trapping (LT) films by ultraviolet (UV) irradiation and their applications for polymer solar cells (PSCs),” Mater. Lett. 67(1), 42–45 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chen, N.-P.

J.-S. Lin, W.-P. Chu, F.-S. Juang, N.-P. Chen, Y.-S. Tsai, C.-C. Chen, C.-M. Chen, and L.-C. Liu, “Manufacture of light-trapping (LT) films by ultraviolet (UV) irradiation and their applications for polymer solar cells (PSCs),” Mater. Lett. 67(1), 42–45 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chu, W.-P.

J.-S. Lin, W.-P. Chu, F.-S. Juang, N.-P. Chen, Y.-S. Tsai, C.-C. Chen, C.-M. Chen, and L.-C. Liu, “Manufacture of light-trapping (LT) films by ultraviolet (UV) irradiation and their applications for polymer solar cells (PSCs),” Mater. Lett. 67(1), 42–45 (2012).
[Crossref]

De Wolf, S.

M. Filipič, P. Löper, B. Niesen, S. De Wolf, J. Krč, C. Ballif, and M. Topič, “CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite / silicon tandem solar cells: characterization based optical simulations,” Opt. Express 23(7), A263–A278 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. C. Holman, M. Filipič, B. Lipovšek, S. De Wolf, F. Smole, M. Topič, and C. Ballif, “Parasitic absorption in the rear reflector of a silicon solar cell: Simulation and measurement of the sub-bandgap reflectance for common dielectric/metal reflectors,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 120, 426–430 (2014).
[Crossref]

Denk, P.

T. Ameri, G. Dennler, C. Waldauf, P. Denk, K. Forberich, M. C. Scharber, C. J. Brabec, and K. Hingerl, “Realization, characterization, and optical modeling of inverted bulk-heterojunction organic solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(8), 084506 (2008).
[Crossref]

Dennler, G.

T. Ameri, G. Dennler, C. Waldauf, P. Denk, K. Forberich, M. C. Scharber, C. J. Brabec, and K. Hingerl, “Realization, characterization, and optical modeling of inverted bulk-heterojunction organic solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(8), 084506 (2008).
[Crossref]

Dimenna, R. A.

K. Tang, R. A. Dimenna, and R. O. Buckius, “Regions of validity of the geometric optics approximation for angular scattering from very rough surfaces,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transf. 40(1), 49–59 (1996).
[Crossref]

Filipic, M.

M. Filipič, P. Löper, B. Niesen, S. De Wolf, J. Krč, C. Ballif, and M. Topič, “CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite / silicon tandem solar cells: characterization based optical simulations,” Opt. Express 23(7), A263–A278 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. C. Holman, M. Filipič, B. Lipovšek, S. De Wolf, F. Smole, M. Topič, and C. Ballif, “Parasitic absorption in the rear reflector of a silicon solar cell: Simulation and measurement of the sub-bandgap reflectance for common dielectric/metal reflectors,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 120, 426–430 (2014).
[Crossref]

Forberich, K.

B. Lipovšek, A. Solodovnyk, K. Forberich, E. Stern, J. Krč, C. J. Brabec, and M. Topič, “Optical model for simulation and optimization of luminescent down-shifting layers filled with phosphor particles for photovoltaics,” Opt. Express 23(15), A882–A895 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Guo, P. Kubis, T. Stubhan, N. Li, D. Baran, T. Przybilla, E. Spiecker, K. Forberich, and C. J. Brabec, “Fully solution-processing route toward highly transparent polymer solar cells,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(20), 18251–18257 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Ameri, G. Dennler, C. Waldauf, P. Denk, K. Forberich, M. C. Scharber, C. J. Brabec, and K. Hingerl, “Realization, characterization, and optical modeling of inverted bulk-heterojunction organic solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(8), 084506 (2008).
[Crossref]

Gombert, A.

M. Niggemann, M. Riede, A. Gombert, and K. Leo, “Light trapping in organic solar cells,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 205(12), 2862–2874 (2008).
[Crossref]

Guo, F.

F. Guo, P. Kubis, T. Stubhan, N. Li, D. Baran, T. Przybilla, E. Spiecker, K. Forberich, and C. J. Brabec, “Fully solution-processing route toward highly transparent polymer solar cells,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(20), 18251–18257 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Haug, F.-J.

J. Krč, M. Sever, M. Kovačič, E. Moulin, A. Čampa, B. Lipovšek, M. Steltenpool, A. J. M. van Erven, F.-J. Haug, C. Ballif, and M. Topič, “Design of periodic nano- and macro-scale textures for high-performance thin-film multi-junction solar cells,” J. Opt. 18(6), 064005 (2016).
[Crossref]

Hingerl, K.

T. Ameri, G. Dennler, C. Waldauf, P. Denk, K. Forberich, M. C. Scharber, C. J. Brabec, and K. Hingerl, “Realization, characterization, and optical modeling of inverted bulk-heterojunction organic solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(8), 084506 (2008).
[Crossref]

Holman, Z. C.

Z. C. Holman, M. Filipič, B. Lipovšek, S. De Wolf, F. Smole, M. Topič, and C. Ballif, “Parasitic absorption in the rear reflector of a silicon solar cell: Simulation and measurement of the sub-bandgap reflectance for common dielectric/metal reflectors,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 120, 426–430 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hwang, I.-W.

G. Namkoong, J. Kong, M. Samson, I.-W. Hwang, and K. Lee, “Active layer thickness effect on the recombination process of PCDTBT:PC71BM organic solar cells,” Org. Electron. 14(1), 74–79 (2013).
[Crossref]

Inganäs, O.

L. A. A. Pettersson, L. S. Roman, and O. Inganäs, “Modeling photocurrent action spectra of photovoltaic devices based on organic thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 86(1), 487–496 (1999).
[Crossref]

Jang, J.

S. Jung, K.-Y. Kim, Y.-I. Lee, J.-H. Youn, H.-T. Moon, J. Jang, and J. Kim, “Optical modeling and analysis of organic solar cells with coherent multilayers and incoherent glass substrate using generalized transfer matrix method,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50(12R), 122301 (2011).
[Crossref]

Jørgensen, M.

F. C. Krebs, T. Tromholt, and M. Jørgensen, “Upscaling of polymer solar cell fabrication using full roll-to-roll processing,” Nanoscale 2(6), 873–886 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Juang, F.-S.

J.-S. Lin, W.-P. Chu, F.-S. Juang, N.-P. Chen, Y.-S. Tsai, C.-C. Chen, C.-M. Chen, and L.-C. Liu, “Manufacture of light-trapping (LT) films by ultraviolet (UV) irradiation and their applications for polymer solar cells (PSCs),” Mater. Lett. 67(1), 42–45 (2012).
[Crossref]

Jung, S.

S. Jung, K.-Y. Kim, Y.-I. Lee, J.-H. Youn, H.-T. Moon, J. Jang, and J. Kim, “Optical modeling and analysis of organic solar cells with coherent multilayers and incoherent glass substrate using generalized transfer matrix method,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50(12R), 122301 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kaplan, A. F. H.

D. Bergström, J. Powell, and A. F. H. Kaplan, “A ray-tracing analysis of the absorption of light by smooth and rough metal surfaces,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(11), 113504 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kim, J.

S. Jung, K.-Y. Kim, Y.-I. Lee, J.-H. Youn, H.-T. Moon, J. Jang, and J. Kim, “Optical modeling and analysis of organic solar cells with coherent multilayers and incoherent glass substrate using generalized transfer matrix method,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50(12R), 122301 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kim, K.-Y.

S. Jung, K.-Y. Kim, Y.-I. Lee, J.-H. Youn, H.-T. Moon, J. Jang, and J. Kim, “Optical modeling and analysis of organic solar cells with coherent multilayers and incoherent glass substrate using generalized transfer matrix method,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50(12R), 122301 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kim, S. J.

Kong, J.

G. Namkoong, J. Kong, M. Samson, I.-W. Hwang, and K. Lee, “Active layer thickness effect on the recombination process of PCDTBT:PC71BM organic solar cells,” Org. Electron. 14(1), 74–79 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kovacic, M.

J. Krč, M. Sever, M. Kovačič, E. Moulin, A. Čampa, B. Lipovšek, M. Steltenpool, A. J. M. van Erven, F.-J. Haug, C. Ballif, and M. Topič, “Design of periodic nano- and macro-scale textures for high-performance thin-film multi-junction solar cells,” J. Opt. 18(6), 064005 (2016).
[Crossref]

Krc, J.

J. Krč, M. Sever, M. Kovačič, E. Moulin, A. Čampa, B. Lipovšek, M. Steltenpool, A. J. M. van Erven, F.-J. Haug, C. Ballif, and M. Topič, “Design of periodic nano- and macro-scale textures for high-performance thin-film multi-junction solar cells,” J. Opt. 18(6), 064005 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Topič, M. Sever, B. Lipovšek, A. Čampa, and J. Krč, “Approaches and challenges in optical modelling and simulation of thin-film solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 135, 57–66 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Filipič, P. Löper, B. Niesen, S. De Wolf, J. Krč, C. Ballif, and M. Topič, “CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite / silicon tandem solar cells: characterization based optical simulations,” Opt. Express 23(7), A263–A278 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Lipovšek, A. Solodovnyk, K. Forberich, E. Stern, J. Krč, C. J. Brabec, and M. Topič, “Optical model for simulation and optimization of luminescent down-shifting layers filled with phosphor particles for photovoltaics,” Opt. Express 23(15), A882–A895 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Lipovšek, J. Krč, and M. Topič, “Optimization of microtextured light-management films for enhanced light trapping in organic solar cells under perpendicular and oblique illumination conditions,” IEEE J. Photovolt. 4(2), 639–646 (2014).
[Crossref]

B. Lipovšek, J. Krč, and M. Topič, “Optical model for thin-film photovoltaic devices with large surface textures at the front side,” Inf. MIDEM – J. Microelectron. Electron. Compon. Mater. 41(4), 264–271 (2011).

Krebs, F. C.

F. C. Krebs, T. Tromholt, and M. Jørgensen, “Upscaling of polymer solar cell fabrication using full roll-to-roll processing,” Nanoscale 2(6), 873–886 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kubis, P.

F. Guo, P. Kubis, T. Stubhan, N. Li, D. Baran, T. Przybilla, E. Spiecker, K. Forberich, and C. J. Brabec, “Fully solution-processing route toward highly transparent polymer solar cells,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(20), 18251–18257 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kumar, P.

P. Kumar and S. Chand, “Recent progress and future aspects of organic solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 20(4), 377–415 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lee, K.

G. Namkoong, J. Kong, M. Samson, I.-W. Hwang, and K. Lee, “Active layer thickness effect on the recombination process of PCDTBT:PC71BM organic solar cells,” Org. Electron. 14(1), 74–79 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lee, Y.-I.

S. Jung, K.-Y. Kim, Y.-I. Lee, J.-H. Youn, H.-T. Moon, J. Jang, and J. Kim, “Optical modeling and analysis of organic solar cells with coherent multilayers and incoherent glass substrate using generalized transfer matrix method,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50(12R), 122301 (2011).
[Crossref]

Leo, K.

M. Niggemann, M. Riede, A. Gombert, and K. Leo, “Light trapping in organic solar cells,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 205(12), 2862–2874 (2008).
[Crossref]

Li, G.

G. Li, L. Liu, F. Wei, S. Xia, and X. Qian, “Recent progress in modeling, simulation, and optimization of polymer solar cells,” IEEE J. Photovolt. 2(3), 320–340 (2012).
[Crossref]

Li, N.

F. Guo, P. Kubis, T. Stubhan, N. Li, D. Baran, T. Przybilla, E. Spiecker, K. Forberich, and C. J. Brabec, “Fully solution-processing route toward highly transparent polymer solar cells,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(20), 18251–18257 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lin, J.-S.

J.-S. Lin, W.-P. Chu, F.-S. Juang, N.-P. Chen, Y.-S. Tsai, C.-C. Chen, C.-M. Chen, and L.-C. Liu, “Manufacture of light-trapping (LT) films by ultraviolet (UV) irradiation and their applications for polymer solar cells (PSCs),” Mater. Lett. 67(1), 42–45 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lipovšek, B.

J. Krč, M. Sever, M. Kovačič, E. Moulin, A. Čampa, B. Lipovšek, M. Steltenpool, A. J. M. van Erven, F.-J. Haug, C. Ballif, and M. Topič, “Design of periodic nano- and macro-scale textures for high-performance thin-film multi-junction solar cells,” J. Opt. 18(6), 064005 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Topič, M. Sever, B. Lipovšek, A. Čampa, and J. Krč, “Approaches and challenges in optical modelling and simulation of thin-film solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 135, 57–66 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. Lipovšek, A. Solodovnyk, K. Forberich, E. Stern, J. Krč, C. J. Brabec, and M. Topič, “Optical model for simulation and optimization of luminescent down-shifting layers filled with phosphor particles for photovoltaics,” Opt. Express 23(15), A882–A895 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. C. Holman, M. Filipič, B. Lipovšek, S. De Wolf, F. Smole, M. Topič, and C. Ballif, “Parasitic absorption in the rear reflector of a silicon solar cell: Simulation and measurement of the sub-bandgap reflectance for common dielectric/metal reflectors,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 120, 426–430 (2014).
[Crossref]

B. Lipovšek, J. Krč, and M. Topič, “Optimization of microtextured light-management films for enhanced light trapping in organic solar cells under perpendicular and oblique illumination conditions,” IEEE J. Photovolt. 4(2), 639–646 (2014).
[Crossref]

B. Lipovšek, J. Krč, and M. Topič, “Optical model for thin-film photovoltaic devices with large surface textures at the front side,” Inf. MIDEM – J. Microelectron. Electron. Compon. Mater. 41(4), 264–271 (2011).

Liu, L.

G. Li, L. Liu, F. Wei, S. Xia, and X. Qian, “Recent progress in modeling, simulation, and optimization of polymer solar cells,” IEEE J. Photovolt. 2(3), 320–340 (2012).
[Crossref]

Liu, L.-C.

J.-S. Lin, W.-P. Chu, F.-S. Juang, N.-P. Chen, Y.-S. Tsai, C.-C. Chen, C.-M. Chen, and L.-C. Liu, “Manufacture of light-trapping (LT) films by ultraviolet (UV) irradiation and their applications for polymer solar cells (PSCs),” Mater. Lett. 67(1), 42–45 (2012).
[Crossref]

Löper, P.

Macleod, A.

R. J. Martin-Palma, J. M. Martinez-Duart, and A. Macleod, “Determination of the optical constants of a semiconductor thin film employing the matrix method,” IEEE Trans. Educ. 43(1), 63–68 (2000).
[Crossref]

Margulis, G. Y.

Martinez-Duart, J. M.

R. J. Martin-Palma, J. M. Martinez-Duart, and A. Macleod, “Determination of the optical constants of a semiconductor thin film employing the matrix method,” IEEE Trans. Educ. 43(1), 63–68 (2000).
[Crossref]

Martin-Palma, R. J.

R. J. Martin-Palma, J. M. Martinez-Duart, and A. Macleod, “Determination of the optical constants of a semiconductor thin film employing the matrix method,” IEEE Trans. Educ. 43(1), 63–68 (2000).
[Crossref]

McGehee, M. D.

Meredith, P.

A. Armin, M. Velusamy, P. Wolfer, Y. Zhang, P. L. Burn, P. Meredith, and A. Pivrikas, “Quantum efficiency of organic solar cells: electro-optical cavity considerations,” ACS Photonics 1(3), 173–181 (2014).
[Crossref]

Moon, H.-T.

S. Jung, K.-Y. Kim, Y.-I. Lee, J.-H. Youn, H.-T. Moon, J. Jang, and J. Kim, “Optical modeling and analysis of organic solar cells with coherent multilayers and incoherent glass substrate using generalized transfer matrix method,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50(12R), 122301 (2011).
[Crossref]

Moulin, E.

J. Krč, M. Sever, M. Kovačič, E. Moulin, A. Čampa, B. Lipovšek, M. Steltenpool, A. J. M. van Erven, F.-J. Haug, C. Ballif, and M. Topič, “Design of periodic nano- and macro-scale textures for high-performance thin-film multi-junction solar cells,” J. Opt. 18(6), 064005 (2016).
[Crossref]

Namkoong, G.

G. Namkoong, J. Kong, M. Samson, I.-W. Hwang, and K. Lee, “Active layer thickness effect on the recombination process of PCDTBT:PC71BM organic solar cells,” Org. Electron. 14(1), 74–79 (2013).
[Crossref]

Niesen, B.

Niggemann, M.

M. Niggemann, M. Riede, A. Gombert, and K. Leo, “Light trapping in organic solar cells,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 205(12), 2862–2874 (2008).
[Crossref]

Pettersson, L. A. A.

L. A. A. Pettersson, L. S. Roman, and O. Inganäs, “Modeling photocurrent action spectra of photovoltaic devices based on organic thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 86(1), 487–496 (1999).
[Crossref]

Peumans, P.

Pivrikas, A.

A. Armin, M. Velusamy, P. Wolfer, Y. Zhang, P. L. Burn, P. Meredith, and A. Pivrikas, “Quantum efficiency of organic solar cells: electro-optical cavity considerations,” ACS Photonics 1(3), 173–181 (2014).
[Crossref]

Poruba, A.

J. Springer, A. Poruba, and M. Vaneček, “Improved three-dimensional optical model for thin-film silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(9), 5329–5337 (2004).
[Crossref]

Powell, J.

D. Bergström, J. Powell, and A. F. H. Kaplan, “A ray-tracing analysis of the absorption of light by smooth and rough metal surfaces,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(11), 113504 (2007).
[Crossref]

Przybilla, T.

F. Guo, P. Kubis, T. Stubhan, N. Li, D. Baran, T. Przybilla, E. Spiecker, K. Forberich, and C. J. Brabec, “Fully solution-processing route toward highly transparent polymer solar cells,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(20), 18251–18257 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Qian, X.

G. Li, L. Liu, F. Wei, S. Xia, and X. Qian, “Recent progress in modeling, simulation, and optimization of polymer solar cells,” IEEE J. Photovolt. 2(3), 320–340 (2012).
[Crossref]

Riede, M.

M. Niggemann, M. Riede, A. Gombert, and K. Leo, “Light trapping in organic solar cells,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 205(12), 2862–2874 (2008).
[Crossref]

Rim, S.-B.

Roman, L. S.

L. A. A. Pettersson, L. S. Roman, and O. Inganäs, “Modeling photocurrent action spectra of photovoltaic devices based on organic thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 86(1), 487–496 (1999).
[Crossref]

Samson, M.

G. Namkoong, J. Kong, M. Samson, I.-W. Hwang, and K. Lee, “Active layer thickness effect on the recombination process of PCDTBT:PC71BM organic solar cells,” Org. Electron. 14(1), 74–79 (2013).
[Crossref]

Scharber, M. C.

T. Ameri, G. Dennler, C. Waldauf, P. Denk, K. Forberich, M. C. Scharber, C. J. Brabec, and K. Hingerl, “Realization, characterization, and optical modeling of inverted bulk-heterojunction organic solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(8), 084506 (2008).
[Crossref]

Sever, M.

J. Krč, M. Sever, M. Kovačič, E. Moulin, A. Čampa, B. Lipovšek, M. Steltenpool, A. J. M. van Erven, F.-J. Haug, C. Ballif, and M. Topič, “Design of periodic nano- and macro-scale textures for high-performance thin-film multi-junction solar cells,” J. Opt. 18(6), 064005 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Topič, M. Sever, B. Lipovšek, A. Čampa, and J. Krč, “Approaches and challenges in optical modelling and simulation of thin-film solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 135, 57–66 (2015).
[Crossref]

Smole, F.

Z. C. Holman, M. Filipič, B. Lipovšek, S. De Wolf, F. Smole, M. Topič, and C. Ballif, “Parasitic absorption in the rear reflector of a silicon solar cell: Simulation and measurement of the sub-bandgap reflectance for common dielectric/metal reflectors,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 120, 426–430 (2014).
[Crossref]

Solodovnyk, A.

Spiecker, E.

F. Guo, P. Kubis, T. Stubhan, N. Li, D. Baran, T. Przybilla, E. Spiecker, K. Forberich, and C. J. Brabec, “Fully solution-processing route toward highly transparent polymer solar cells,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(20), 18251–18257 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Springer, J.

J. Springer, A. Poruba, and M. Vaneček, “Improved three-dimensional optical model for thin-film silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(9), 5329–5337 (2004).
[Crossref]

Steltenpool, M.

J. Krč, M. Sever, M. Kovačič, E. Moulin, A. Čampa, B. Lipovšek, M. Steltenpool, A. J. M. van Erven, F.-J. Haug, C. Ballif, and M. Topič, “Design of periodic nano- and macro-scale textures for high-performance thin-film multi-junction solar cells,” J. Opt. 18(6), 064005 (2016).
[Crossref]

Stern, E.

Stubhan, T.

F. Guo, P. Kubis, T. Stubhan, N. Li, D. Baran, T. Przybilla, E. Spiecker, K. Forberich, and C. J. Brabec, “Fully solution-processing route toward highly transparent polymer solar cells,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(20), 18251–18257 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tang, K.

K. Tang, R. A. Dimenna, and R. O. Buckius, “Regions of validity of the geometric optics approximation for angular scattering from very rough surfaces,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transf. 40(1), 49–59 (1996).
[Crossref]

Topic, M.

J. Krč, M. Sever, M. Kovačič, E. Moulin, A. Čampa, B. Lipovšek, M. Steltenpool, A. J. M. van Erven, F.-J. Haug, C. Ballif, and M. Topič, “Design of periodic nano- and macro-scale textures for high-performance thin-film multi-junction solar cells,” J. Opt. 18(6), 064005 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Topič, M. Sever, B. Lipovšek, A. Čampa, and J. Krč, “Approaches and challenges in optical modelling and simulation of thin-film solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 135, 57–66 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Filipič, P. Löper, B. Niesen, S. De Wolf, J. Krč, C. Ballif, and M. Topič, “CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite / silicon tandem solar cells: characterization based optical simulations,” Opt. Express 23(7), A263–A278 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Lipovšek, A. Solodovnyk, K. Forberich, E. Stern, J. Krč, C. J. Brabec, and M. Topič, “Optical model for simulation and optimization of luminescent down-shifting layers filled with phosphor particles for photovoltaics,” Opt. Express 23(15), A882–A895 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. C. Holman, M. Filipič, B. Lipovšek, S. De Wolf, F. Smole, M. Topič, and C. Ballif, “Parasitic absorption in the rear reflector of a silicon solar cell: Simulation and measurement of the sub-bandgap reflectance for common dielectric/metal reflectors,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 120, 426–430 (2014).
[Crossref]

B. Lipovšek, J. Krč, and M. Topič, “Optimization of microtextured light-management films for enhanced light trapping in organic solar cells under perpendicular and oblique illumination conditions,” IEEE J. Photovolt. 4(2), 639–646 (2014).
[Crossref]

B. Lipovšek, J. Krč, and M. Topič, “Optical model for thin-film photovoltaic devices with large surface textures at the front side,” Inf. MIDEM – J. Microelectron. Electron. Compon. Mater. 41(4), 264–271 (2011).

Tromholt, T.

F. C. Krebs, T. Tromholt, and M. Jørgensen, “Upscaling of polymer solar cell fabrication using full roll-to-roll processing,” Nanoscale 2(6), 873–886 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tsai, Y.-S.

J.-S. Lin, W.-P. Chu, F.-S. Juang, N.-P. Chen, Y.-S. Tsai, C.-C. Chen, C.-M. Chen, and L.-C. Liu, “Manufacture of light-trapping (LT) films by ultraviolet (UV) irradiation and their applications for polymer solar cells (PSCs),” Mater. Lett. 67(1), 42–45 (2012).
[Crossref]

van Erven, A. J. M.

J. Krč, M. Sever, M. Kovačič, E. Moulin, A. Čampa, B. Lipovšek, M. Steltenpool, A. J. M. van Erven, F.-J. Haug, C. Ballif, and M. Topič, “Design of periodic nano- and macro-scale textures for high-performance thin-film multi-junction solar cells,” J. Opt. 18(6), 064005 (2016).
[Crossref]

Vanecek, M.

J. Springer, A. Poruba, and M. Vaneček, “Improved three-dimensional optical model for thin-film silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(9), 5329–5337 (2004).
[Crossref]

Velusamy, M.

A. Armin, M. Velusamy, P. Wolfer, Y. Zhang, P. L. Burn, P. Meredith, and A. Pivrikas, “Quantum efficiency of organic solar cells: electro-optical cavity considerations,” ACS Photonics 1(3), 173–181 (2014).
[Crossref]

Waldauf, C.

T. Ameri, G. Dennler, C. Waldauf, P. Denk, K. Forberich, M. C. Scharber, C. J. Brabec, and K. Hingerl, “Realization, characterization, and optical modeling of inverted bulk-heterojunction organic solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(8), 084506 (2008).
[Crossref]

Wei, F.

G. Li, L. Liu, F. Wei, S. Xia, and X. Qian, “Recent progress in modeling, simulation, and optimization of polymer solar cells,” IEEE J. Photovolt. 2(3), 320–340 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wolfer, P.

A. Armin, M. Velusamy, P. Wolfer, Y. Zhang, P. L. Burn, P. Meredith, and A. Pivrikas, “Quantum efficiency of organic solar cells: electro-optical cavity considerations,” ACS Photonics 1(3), 173–181 (2014).
[Crossref]

Xia, S.

G. Li, L. Liu, F. Wei, S. Xia, and X. Qian, “Recent progress in modeling, simulation, and optimization of polymer solar cells,” IEEE J. Photovolt. 2(3), 320–340 (2012).
[Crossref]

Youn, J.-H.

S. Jung, K.-Y. Kim, Y.-I. Lee, J.-H. Youn, H.-T. Moon, J. Jang, and J. Kim, “Optical modeling and analysis of organic solar cells with coherent multilayers and incoherent glass substrate using generalized transfer matrix method,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50(12R), 122301 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Y.

A. Armin, M. Velusamy, P. Wolfer, Y. Zhang, P. L. Burn, P. Meredith, and A. Pivrikas, “Quantum efficiency of organic solar cells: electro-optical cavity considerations,” ACS Photonics 1(3), 173–181 (2014).
[Crossref]

ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces (1)

F. Guo, P. Kubis, T. Stubhan, N. Li, D. Baran, T. Przybilla, E. Spiecker, K. Forberich, and C. J. Brabec, “Fully solution-processing route toward highly transparent polymer solar cells,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(20), 18251–18257 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

ACS Photonics (1)

A. Armin, M. Velusamy, P. Wolfer, Y. Zhang, P. L. Burn, P. Meredith, and A. Pivrikas, “Quantum efficiency of organic solar cells: electro-optical cavity considerations,” ACS Photonics 1(3), 173–181 (2014).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Photovolt. (2)

B. Lipovšek, J. Krč, and M. Topič, “Optimization of microtextured light-management films for enhanced light trapping in organic solar cells under perpendicular and oblique illumination conditions,” IEEE J. Photovolt. 4(2), 639–646 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. Li, L. Liu, F. Wei, S. Xia, and X. Qian, “Recent progress in modeling, simulation, and optimization of polymer solar cells,” IEEE J. Photovolt. 2(3), 320–340 (2012).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Educ. (1)

R. J. Martin-Palma, J. M. Martinez-Duart, and A. Macleod, “Determination of the optical constants of a semiconductor thin film employing the matrix method,” IEEE Trans. Educ. 43(1), 63–68 (2000).
[Crossref]

Inf. MIDEM – J. Microelectron. Electron. Compon. Mater. (1)

B. Lipovšek, J. Krč, and M. Topič, “Optical model for thin-film photovoltaic devices with large surface textures at the front side,” Inf. MIDEM – J. Microelectron. Electron. Compon. Mater. 41(4), 264–271 (2011).

Int. J. Heat Mass Transf. (1)

K. Tang, R. A. Dimenna, and R. O. Buckius, “Regions of validity of the geometric optics approximation for angular scattering from very rough surfaces,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transf. 40(1), 49–59 (1996).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (4)

D. Bergström, J. Powell, and A. F. H. Kaplan, “A ray-tracing analysis of the absorption of light by smooth and rough metal surfaces,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(11), 113504 (2007).
[Crossref]

L. A. A. Pettersson, L. S. Roman, and O. Inganäs, “Modeling photocurrent action spectra of photovoltaic devices based on organic thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 86(1), 487–496 (1999).
[Crossref]

T. Ameri, G. Dennler, C. Waldauf, P. Denk, K. Forberich, M. C. Scharber, C. J. Brabec, and K. Hingerl, “Realization, characterization, and optical modeling of inverted bulk-heterojunction organic solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(8), 084506 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Springer, A. Poruba, and M. Vaneček, “Improved three-dimensional optical model for thin-film silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(9), 5329–5337 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. (1)

J. Krč, M. Sever, M. Kovačič, E. Moulin, A. Čampa, B. Lipovšek, M. Steltenpool, A. J. M. van Erven, F.-J. Haug, C. Ballif, and M. Topič, “Design of periodic nano- and macro-scale textures for high-performance thin-film multi-junction solar cells,” J. Opt. 18(6), 064005 (2016).
[Crossref]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

S. Jung, K.-Y. Kim, Y.-I. Lee, J.-H. Youn, H.-T. Moon, J. Jang, and J. Kim, “Optical modeling and analysis of organic solar cells with coherent multilayers and incoherent glass substrate using generalized transfer matrix method,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50(12R), 122301 (2011).
[Crossref]

Mater. Lett. (1)

J.-S. Lin, W.-P. Chu, F.-S. Juang, N.-P. Chen, Y.-S. Tsai, C.-C. Chen, C.-M. Chen, and L.-C. Liu, “Manufacture of light-trapping (LT) films by ultraviolet (UV) irradiation and their applications for polymer solar cells (PSCs),” Mater. Lett. 67(1), 42–45 (2012).
[Crossref]

Nanoscale (1)

F. C. Krebs, T. Tromholt, and M. Jørgensen, “Upscaling of polymer solar cell fabrication using full roll-to-roll processing,” Nanoscale 2(6), 873–886 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (3)

Org. Electron. (1)

G. Namkoong, J. Kong, M. Samson, I.-W. Hwang, and K. Lee, “Active layer thickness effect on the recombination process of PCDTBT:PC71BM organic solar cells,” Org. Electron. 14(1), 74–79 (2013).
[Crossref]

Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. (1)

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Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. (2)

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic structure of the fabricated organic solar cell based on the pDPP5T-2:PC60BM photoactive absorber material. In the case of textured cell, the micro-lens array (MLA) was laminated on top of the front glass substrate (textured surface at front). Also indicated are the partial structures A and B that were used in the simulations.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Top-down (a) and side-view (b) SEM images of the parabolic MicroLens Array HT-MLA-09 (images courtesy of Holotools GmbH, Germany). Also shown is the computer-generated texture (c) that was used in the simulations (the period P = 9 μm and height h = 5.5 μm were extracted from the SEM images as indicated).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Schematic principle of the combined modelling approach implemented in CROWM (shown in 2D and with only one thick layer for simplicity). Ray tracing (RT) applied to thick layers (incoherent light propagation) is iteratively coupled to transfer matrix formalism (TMF) applied to thin layers (coherent light propagation).
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Determination of the real (a) and imaginary (b) parts of the complex refractive index of PEDOT:PSS by using the RT method. The final (physically realistic) solution can be extracted from the multiple solutions that are obtained from the R and T measurements for each of the two samples (white circles for the 72 nm and grey diamonds for the 107 nm thick layer).
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Calculated dispersion curves of the real (a) and imaginary (b) parts of the complex refractive indices of the materials employed in the fabricated organic solar cell.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Measured (symbols) and simulated (lines) total transmittance of the MLA sample (measurements from both sides). Simulations assuming infinite geometry are plotted as dashed blue lines, whereas full red lines show simulations that take the realistic sample, beam and measurement system geometry into account.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Schematic representation of (a) transmittance measurement in the integrating sphere, and (b) external quantum efficiency measurement. A substantial amount of light can be lost due to the limited dimensions of the sample, incident light beam, aperture of the integrating sphere, and the cell back contact, which all contribute to lower measured values.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Normalized angular intensity distribution of the transmitted light at λ = 700 nm for: i) single air/MLA interface (black), ii) standalone MLA sample (blue), and iii) top part of the solar cell with the MLA (red). The plots are shown for the “normal” orientation (left; texture on the top surface), and the “inverted” orientation (right; texture on the bottom surface).
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 (a) Measured external quantum efficiency and simulated absorptance in the pDPP5T-2:PC60BM absorber layer of bare organic solar cell (black) and solar cell with the MLA on top (red). The dashed blue line shows simulation results when infinite geometry is assumed. (b) Simulated JSC discrepancy relative to the infinite-size device as a function of the active area scaling factor (proportional area scaling in both dimensions assumed).
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 Distribution of the short-circuit current density potential among R, A, and T in different simulated structures with and without the MLA.
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 The simulated power conversion efficiency of the bare organic solar cell (black) and the solar cell with the MLA on top (red) as a function of the absorber layer thickness, calculated for two cases: i) if assuming a constant fill factor of 69% (thin lines), and ii) if assuming realistic fill factor (thick lines). The realistic fill factor profile, which represents actual measured values of realistic solar cells, is plotted by the dashed blue line (right axis). The optimum power conversion efficiency points are also indicated.

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