Abstract

The effectiveness of ion beam planarization (IBP) to reduce surface roughness of diamond turned NiP surfaces was investigated. The surfaces with various spatial wavelengths and depths of turning marks were spray-coated and planarized with broad ion beam. The ion beam planarization was performed at a special angle where the etching rate of photoresist is closely similar to NiP. It is found that the combined process of spray-coating and ion-beam-planarization can effectively reduce the surface roughness of diamond turned NiP. The spatial wavelength and depth of turning marks have limited influence on surface roughness reduction rate. The final surface roughness after ion beam planarization is 30%~40% of the original roughness, irrespective of spatial wavelength and depth of turning marks. Extending planarization time does not alter surface quality after photoresist is etched away. These results show that the IBP is applicable to roughness minimization of diamond turned surfaces.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. Sudagar, J. Lian, and W. Sha, “Electroless nickel, alloy, composite and nano coatings – A critical review,” J. Alloys Compd. 571, 183–204 (2013).
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  2. R. Soufli, E. Spiller, M. A. Schmidt, J. C. Robinson, S. L. Baker, S. Ratti, M. A. Johnson, and E. M. Gullikson, “Smoothing of diamond-turned substrates for extreme ultraviolet illuminators,” Opt. Eng. 43(12), 3089–3095 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  3. R. Soufli, E. Spiller, M. A. Schmidt, J. C. Robinson, S. L. Baker, S. Ratti, M. A. Johnson, and E. M. Gullikson, “Smoothing of diamond-turned substrates for extreme ultraviolet lithography illuminators,” Proc. SPIE 5193, 98–104 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  4. S. Takeda, J. Guo, S. Morita, H. Ono, T. Oda, J. Kato, H. Sato, M. Hino, Y. Yamagata, and M. Furusaka, “Development of highly - mechanically polished metal - substrate for neutron supermirrors,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 528, 012011 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  5. A. Beaucamp and Y. Namba, “Super-smooth finishing of diamond turned hard X-ray molding dies by combined fluid jet and bonnet polishing,” CIRP Ann. - Manuf. Technol. 62(1), 315–318 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  6. Y. Namba, T. Shimomura, A. Fushiki, A. Beaucamp, I. Inasaki, H. Kunieda, Y. Ogasaka, and K. Yamashita, “Ultra-precision polishing of electroless nickel molding dies for shorter wavelength applications,” CIRP Ann. - Manuf. Technol. 57(1), 337–340 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  7. F. Frost, H. Takino, R. Fechner, A. Schindler, N. Ohi, and K. Nomura, “Sub-nanometer smoothing of diamond-turned metal surfaces using ion beams,” in Towards Synthesis of Micro-/Nano-systems (Springer London), The 11th International Conference on Precision Engineering (ICPE),August 16–18,2006, Tokyo, Japan, pp. 239–242.
  8. F. Frost, H. Takino, R. Fechner, A. Schindler, N. Ohi, and K. Nomura, “Smoothing of diamond-turned copper surfaces using ion beams with aid of planarizing film,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(9A), 6071–6073 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  9. F. Frost, R. Fechner, B. Ziberi, J. Völlner, D. Flamm, and A. Schindler, “Large area smoothing of surfaces by ion bombardment: fundamentals and applications,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 21(22), 224026 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. A. Beaucamp, R. Freeman, R. Morton, K. Ponudurai, and D. D. Walker, “Removal of diamond-turning signatures on x-ray mandrels and metal optics by fluid-jet polishing,” Proc. SPIE 7018, 701835 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  11. O. C. Yonts, C. E. Normand, and D. E. Harrison., “High-energy sputtering,” J. Appl. Phys. 31(3), 447–450 (1960).
    [Crossref]
  12. D. Rosenberg and G. K. Wehner, “Sputtering yields for low energy He+-, Kr+-, and Xe+-ion bombardment,” J. Appl. Phys. 33(5), 1842–1845 (1962).
    [Crossref]
  13. N. Laegreid and G. K. Wehner, “Sputtering yields of metals for Ar+ and Ne+ ions with energies from 50 to 600eV,” J. Appl. Phys. 32(3), 365–369 (1961).
    [Crossref]
  14. A. B. Meinel, S. Bashkin, and D. A. Loomis, “Controlled figuring of optical surfaces by energetic ionic beams,” Appl. Opt. 4(12), 1674 (1965).
    [Crossref]
  15. D. M. Allen, P. Shore, R. W. Evans, C. Fanara, W. O’Brien, S. Marson, and W. O’Neill, “Ion beam, focused ion beam, and plasma discharge machining,” CIRP Ann. - Manuf. Technol. 58(2), 647–662 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  16. T. Arnold, G. Bohm, R. Fechner, J. Meister, A. Nickel, F. Frost, T. Hansel, and A. Schindler, “Ultra-precision surface finishing by ion beam and plasma jet techniques — status and outlook,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 616(2-3), 147–156 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  17. R. Fechner, D. Flamm, W. Frank, A. Schindler, F. Frost, and B. Ziberi, “Ion beam assisted smoothing of optical surfaces,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 78(5), 651–654 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  18. F. Frost, R. Fechner, B. Ziberi, D. Flamm, and A. Schindler, “Large area smoothing of optical surfaces by low-energy ion beams,” Thin Solid Films 459(1-2), 100–105 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  19. F. Frost, B. Ziberi, A. Schindler, and B. Rauschenbach, “Surface engineering with ion beams: from self-organized nanostructures to ultra-smooth surfaces,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 91(4), 551–559 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  20. R. G. Wilson, “Ionic polishing of fused silica and glass,” Opt. Technol. 2(1), 19–26 (1970).
    [Crossref]
  21. S. Somekh, “Introduction to ion and plasma etching,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 13(5), 1003–1007 (1976).
    [Crossref]
  22. P. Gailly and K. Fleury-Frenette, “Ion beam figuring for precision optics,” SPIE Newsroom (2008).
  23. T. Hänsel, F. Frost, A. Nickel, and A. Schindler, “Ultra-precision surface finishing by ion beam techniques,” Vakuu. Forsch. Prax. 19(5), 24–30 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  24. L. F. Johnson and K. A. Ingersoll, “Ion polishing with the aid of a planarizing film,” Appl. Opt. 22(8), 1165–1167 (1983).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  25. L. F. Johnson, K. A. Ingersoll, and D. Kahng, “Planarization of patterned surfaces by ion beam erosion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 40(7), 636–638 (1982).
    [Crossref]

2014 (1)

S. Takeda, J. Guo, S. Morita, H. Ono, T. Oda, J. Kato, H. Sato, M. Hino, Y. Yamagata, and M. Furusaka, “Development of highly - mechanically polished metal - substrate for neutron supermirrors,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 528, 012011 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

A. Beaucamp and Y. Namba, “Super-smooth finishing of diamond turned hard X-ray molding dies by combined fluid jet and bonnet polishing,” CIRP Ann. - Manuf. Technol. 62(1), 315–318 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Sudagar, J. Lian, and W. Sha, “Electroless nickel, alloy, composite and nano coatings – A critical review,” J. Alloys Compd. 571, 183–204 (2013).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

T. Arnold, G. Bohm, R. Fechner, J. Meister, A. Nickel, F. Frost, T. Hansel, and A. Schindler, “Ultra-precision surface finishing by ion beam and plasma jet techniques — status and outlook,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 616(2-3), 147–156 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

D. M. Allen, P. Shore, R. W. Evans, C. Fanara, W. O’Brien, S. Marson, and W. O’Neill, “Ion beam, focused ion beam, and plasma discharge machining,” CIRP Ann. - Manuf. Technol. 58(2), 647–662 (2009).
[Crossref]

F. Frost, R. Fechner, B. Ziberi, J. Völlner, D. Flamm, and A. Schindler, “Large area smoothing of surfaces by ion bombardment: fundamentals and applications,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 21(22), 224026 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (3)

A. Beaucamp, R. Freeman, R. Morton, K. Ponudurai, and D. D. Walker, “Removal of diamond-turning signatures on x-ray mandrels and metal optics by fluid-jet polishing,” Proc. SPIE 7018, 701835 (2008).
[Crossref]

Y. Namba, T. Shimomura, A. Fushiki, A. Beaucamp, I. Inasaki, H. Kunieda, Y. Ogasaka, and K. Yamashita, “Ultra-precision polishing of electroless nickel molding dies for shorter wavelength applications,” CIRP Ann. - Manuf. Technol. 57(1), 337–340 (2008).
[Crossref]

F. Frost, B. Ziberi, A. Schindler, and B. Rauschenbach, “Surface engineering with ion beams: from self-organized nanostructures to ultra-smooth surfaces,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 91(4), 551–559 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

F. Frost, H. Takino, R. Fechner, A. Schindler, N. Ohi, and K. Nomura, “Smoothing of diamond-turned copper surfaces using ion beams with aid of planarizing film,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(9A), 6071–6073 (2007).
[Crossref]

T. Hänsel, F. Frost, A. Nickel, and A. Schindler, “Ultra-precision surface finishing by ion beam techniques,” Vakuu. Forsch. Prax. 19(5), 24–30 (2007).
[Crossref]

2004 (4)

R. Soufli, E. Spiller, M. A. Schmidt, J. C. Robinson, S. L. Baker, S. Ratti, M. A. Johnson, and E. M. Gullikson, “Smoothing of diamond-turned substrates for extreme ultraviolet illuminators,” Opt. Eng. 43(12), 3089–3095 (2004).
[Crossref]

R. Soufli, E. Spiller, M. A. Schmidt, J. C. Robinson, S. L. Baker, S. Ratti, M. A. Johnson, and E. M. Gullikson, “Smoothing of diamond-turned substrates for extreme ultraviolet lithography illuminators,” Proc. SPIE 5193, 98–104 (2004).
[Crossref]

R. Fechner, D. Flamm, W. Frank, A. Schindler, F. Frost, and B. Ziberi, “Ion beam assisted smoothing of optical surfaces,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 78(5), 651–654 (2004).
[Crossref]

F. Frost, R. Fechner, B. Ziberi, D. Flamm, and A. Schindler, “Large area smoothing of optical surfaces by low-energy ion beams,” Thin Solid Films 459(1-2), 100–105 (2004).
[Crossref]

1983 (1)

1982 (1)

L. F. Johnson, K. A. Ingersoll, and D. Kahng, “Planarization of patterned surfaces by ion beam erosion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 40(7), 636–638 (1982).
[Crossref]

1976 (1)

S. Somekh, “Introduction to ion and plasma etching,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 13(5), 1003–1007 (1976).
[Crossref]

1970 (1)

R. G. Wilson, “Ionic polishing of fused silica and glass,” Opt. Technol. 2(1), 19–26 (1970).
[Crossref]

1965 (1)

1962 (1)

D. Rosenberg and G. K. Wehner, “Sputtering yields for low energy He+-, Kr+-, and Xe+-ion bombardment,” J. Appl. Phys. 33(5), 1842–1845 (1962).
[Crossref]

1961 (1)

N. Laegreid and G. K. Wehner, “Sputtering yields of metals for Ar+ and Ne+ ions with energies from 50 to 600eV,” J. Appl. Phys. 32(3), 365–369 (1961).
[Crossref]

1960 (1)

O. C. Yonts, C. E. Normand, and D. E. Harrison., “High-energy sputtering,” J. Appl. Phys. 31(3), 447–450 (1960).
[Crossref]

Allen, D. M.

D. M. Allen, P. Shore, R. W. Evans, C. Fanara, W. O’Brien, S. Marson, and W. O’Neill, “Ion beam, focused ion beam, and plasma discharge machining,” CIRP Ann. - Manuf. Technol. 58(2), 647–662 (2009).
[Crossref]

Arnold, T.

T. Arnold, G. Bohm, R. Fechner, J. Meister, A. Nickel, F. Frost, T. Hansel, and A. Schindler, “Ultra-precision surface finishing by ion beam and plasma jet techniques — status and outlook,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 616(2-3), 147–156 (2010).
[Crossref]

Baker, S. L.

R. Soufli, E. Spiller, M. A. Schmidt, J. C. Robinson, S. L. Baker, S. Ratti, M. A. Johnson, and E. M. Gullikson, “Smoothing of diamond-turned substrates for extreme ultraviolet illuminators,” Opt. Eng. 43(12), 3089–3095 (2004).
[Crossref]

R. Soufli, E. Spiller, M. A. Schmidt, J. C. Robinson, S. L. Baker, S. Ratti, M. A. Johnson, and E. M. Gullikson, “Smoothing of diamond-turned substrates for extreme ultraviolet lithography illuminators,” Proc. SPIE 5193, 98–104 (2004).
[Crossref]

Bashkin, S.

Beaucamp, A.

A. Beaucamp and Y. Namba, “Super-smooth finishing of diamond turned hard X-ray molding dies by combined fluid jet and bonnet polishing,” CIRP Ann. - Manuf. Technol. 62(1), 315–318 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Beaucamp, R. Freeman, R. Morton, K. Ponudurai, and D. D. Walker, “Removal of diamond-turning signatures on x-ray mandrels and metal optics by fluid-jet polishing,” Proc. SPIE 7018, 701835 (2008).
[Crossref]

Y. Namba, T. Shimomura, A. Fushiki, A. Beaucamp, I. Inasaki, H. Kunieda, Y. Ogasaka, and K. Yamashita, “Ultra-precision polishing of electroless nickel molding dies for shorter wavelength applications,” CIRP Ann. - Manuf. Technol. 57(1), 337–340 (2008).
[Crossref]

Bohm, G.

T. Arnold, G. Bohm, R. Fechner, J. Meister, A. Nickel, F. Frost, T. Hansel, and A. Schindler, “Ultra-precision surface finishing by ion beam and plasma jet techniques — status and outlook,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 616(2-3), 147–156 (2010).
[Crossref]

Evans, R. W.

D. M. Allen, P. Shore, R. W. Evans, C. Fanara, W. O’Brien, S. Marson, and W. O’Neill, “Ion beam, focused ion beam, and plasma discharge machining,” CIRP Ann. - Manuf. Technol. 58(2), 647–662 (2009).
[Crossref]

Fanara, C.

D. M. Allen, P. Shore, R. W. Evans, C. Fanara, W. O’Brien, S. Marson, and W. O’Neill, “Ion beam, focused ion beam, and plasma discharge machining,” CIRP Ann. - Manuf. Technol. 58(2), 647–662 (2009).
[Crossref]

Fechner, R.

T. Arnold, G. Bohm, R. Fechner, J. Meister, A. Nickel, F. Frost, T. Hansel, and A. Schindler, “Ultra-precision surface finishing by ion beam and plasma jet techniques — status and outlook,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 616(2-3), 147–156 (2010).
[Crossref]

F. Frost, R. Fechner, B. Ziberi, J. Völlner, D. Flamm, and A. Schindler, “Large area smoothing of surfaces by ion bombardment: fundamentals and applications,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 21(22), 224026 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Frost, H. Takino, R. Fechner, A. Schindler, N. Ohi, and K. Nomura, “Smoothing of diamond-turned copper surfaces using ion beams with aid of planarizing film,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(9A), 6071–6073 (2007).
[Crossref]

R. Fechner, D. Flamm, W. Frank, A. Schindler, F. Frost, and B. Ziberi, “Ion beam assisted smoothing of optical surfaces,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 78(5), 651–654 (2004).
[Crossref]

F. Frost, R. Fechner, B. Ziberi, D. Flamm, and A. Schindler, “Large area smoothing of optical surfaces by low-energy ion beams,” Thin Solid Films 459(1-2), 100–105 (2004).
[Crossref]

Flamm, D.

F. Frost, R. Fechner, B. Ziberi, J. Völlner, D. Flamm, and A. Schindler, “Large area smoothing of surfaces by ion bombardment: fundamentals and applications,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 21(22), 224026 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Frost, R. Fechner, B. Ziberi, D. Flamm, and A. Schindler, “Large area smoothing of optical surfaces by low-energy ion beams,” Thin Solid Films 459(1-2), 100–105 (2004).
[Crossref]

R. Fechner, D. Flamm, W. Frank, A. Schindler, F. Frost, and B. Ziberi, “Ion beam assisted smoothing of optical surfaces,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 78(5), 651–654 (2004).
[Crossref]

Fleury-Frenette, K.

P. Gailly and K. Fleury-Frenette, “Ion beam figuring for precision optics,” SPIE Newsroom (2008).

Frank, W.

R. Fechner, D. Flamm, W. Frank, A. Schindler, F. Frost, and B. Ziberi, “Ion beam assisted smoothing of optical surfaces,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 78(5), 651–654 (2004).
[Crossref]

Freeman, R.

A. Beaucamp, R. Freeman, R. Morton, K. Ponudurai, and D. D. Walker, “Removal of diamond-turning signatures on x-ray mandrels and metal optics by fluid-jet polishing,” Proc. SPIE 7018, 701835 (2008).
[Crossref]

Frost, F.

T. Arnold, G. Bohm, R. Fechner, J. Meister, A. Nickel, F. Frost, T. Hansel, and A. Schindler, “Ultra-precision surface finishing by ion beam and plasma jet techniques — status and outlook,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 616(2-3), 147–156 (2010).
[Crossref]

F. Frost, R. Fechner, B. Ziberi, J. Völlner, D. Flamm, and A. Schindler, “Large area smoothing of surfaces by ion bombardment: fundamentals and applications,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 21(22), 224026 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Frost, B. Ziberi, A. Schindler, and B. Rauschenbach, “Surface engineering with ion beams: from self-organized nanostructures to ultra-smooth surfaces,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 91(4), 551–559 (2008).
[Crossref]

T. Hänsel, F. Frost, A. Nickel, and A. Schindler, “Ultra-precision surface finishing by ion beam techniques,” Vakuu. Forsch. Prax. 19(5), 24–30 (2007).
[Crossref]

F. Frost, H. Takino, R. Fechner, A. Schindler, N. Ohi, and K. Nomura, “Smoothing of diamond-turned copper surfaces using ion beams with aid of planarizing film,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(9A), 6071–6073 (2007).
[Crossref]

R. Fechner, D. Flamm, W. Frank, A. Schindler, F. Frost, and B. Ziberi, “Ion beam assisted smoothing of optical surfaces,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 78(5), 651–654 (2004).
[Crossref]

F. Frost, R. Fechner, B. Ziberi, D. Flamm, and A. Schindler, “Large area smoothing of optical surfaces by low-energy ion beams,” Thin Solid Films 459(1-2), 100–105 (2004).
[Crossref]

Furusaka, M.

S. Takeda, J. Guo, S. Morita, H. Ono, T. Oda, J. Kato, H. Sato, M. Hino, Y. Yamagata, and M. Furusaka, “Development of highly - mechanically polished metal - substrate for neutron supermirrors,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 528, 012011 (2014).
[Crossref]

Fushiki, A.

Y. Namba, T. Shimomura, A. Fushiki, A. Beaucamp, I. Inasaki, H. Kunieda, Y. Ogasaka, and K. Yamashita, “Ultra-precision polishing of electroless nickel molding dies for shorter wavelength applications,” CIRP Ann. - Manuf. Technol. 57(1), 337–340 (2008).
[Crossref]

Gailly, P.

P. Gailly and K. Fleury-Frenette, “Ion beam figuring for precision optics,” SPIE Newsroom (2008).

Gullikson, E. M.

R. Soufli, E. Spiller, M. A. Schmidt, J. C. Robinson, S. L. Baker, S. Ratti, M. A. Johnson, and E. M. Gullikson, “Smoothing of diamond-turned substrates for extreme ultraviolet lithography illuminators,” Proc. SPIE 5193, 98–104 (2004).
[Crossref]

R. Soufli, E. Spiller, M. A. Schmidt, J. C. Robinson, S. L. Baker, S. Ratti, M. A. Johnson, and E. M. Gullikson, “Smoothing of diamond-turned substrates for extreme ultraviolet illuminators,” Opt. Eng. 43(12), 3089–3095 (2004).
[Crossref]

Guo, J.

S. Takeda, J. Guo, S. Morita, H. Ono, T. Oda, J. Kato, H. Sato, M. Hino, Y. Yamagata, and M. Furusaka, “Development of highly - mechanically polished metal - substrate for neutron supermirrors,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 528, 012011 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hansel, T.

T. Arnold, G. Bohm, R. Fechner, J. Meister, A. Nickel, F. Frost, T. Hansel, and A. Schindler, “Ultra-precision surface finishing by ion beam and plasma jet techniques — status and outlook,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 616(2-3), 147–156 (2010).
[Crossref]

Hänsel, T.

T. Hänsel, F. Frost, A. Nickel, and A. Schindler, “Ultra-precision surface finishing by ion beam techniques,” Vakuu. Forsch. Prax. 19(5), 24–30 (2007).
[Crossref]

Harrison, D. E.

O. C. Yonts, C. E. Normand, and D. E. Harrison., “High-energy sputtering,” J. Appl. Phys. 31(3), 447–450 (1960).
[Crossref]

Hino, M.

S. Takeda, J. Guo, S. Morita, H. Ono, T. Oda, J. Kato, H. Sato, M. Hino, Y. Yamagata, and M. Furusaka, “Development of highly - mechanically polished metal - substrate for neutron supermirrors,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 528, 012011 (2014).
[Crossref]

Inasaki, I.

Y. Namba, T. Shimomura, A. Fushiki, A. Beaucamp, I. Inasaki, H. Kunieda, Y. Ogasaka, and K. Yamashita, “Ultra-precision polishing of electroless nickel molding dies for shorter wavelength applications,” CIRP Ann. - Manuf. Technol. 57(1), 337–340 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ingersoll, K. A.

L. F. Johnson and K. A. Ingersoll, “Ion polishing with the aid of a planarizing film,” Appl. Opt. 22(8), 1165–1167 (1983).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. F. Johnson, K. A. Ingersoll, and D. Kahng, “Planarization of patterned surfaces by ion beam erosion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 40(7), 636–638 (1982).
[Crossref]

Johnson, L. F.

L. F. Johnson and K. A. Ingersoll, “Ion polishing with the aid of a planarizing film,” Appl. Opt. 22(8), 1165–1167 (1983).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. F. Johnson, K. A. Ingersoll, and D. Kahng, “Planarization of patterned surfaces by ion beam erosion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 40(7), 636–638 (1982).
[Crossref]

Johnson, M. A.

R. Soufli, E. Spiller, M. A. Schmidt, J. C. Robinson, S. L. Baker, S. Ratti, M. A. Johnson, and E. M. Gullikson, “Smoothing of diamond-turned substrates for extreme ultraviolet lithography illuminators,” Proc. SPIE 5193, 98–104 (2004).
[Crossref]

R. Soufli, E. Spiller, M. A. Schmidt, J. C. Robinson, S. L. Baker, S. Ratti, M. A. Johnson, and E. M. Gullikson, “Smoothing of diamond-turned substrates for extreme ultraviolet illuminators,” Opt. Eng. 43(12), 3089–3095 (2004).
[Crossref]

Kahng, D.

L. F. Johnson, K. A. Ingersoll, and D. Kahng, “Planarization of patterned surfaces by ion beam erosion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 40(7), 636–638 (1982).
[Crossref]

Kato, J.

S. Takeda, J. Guo, S. Morita, H. Ono, T. Oda, J. Kato, H. Sato, M. Hino, Y. Yamagata, and M. Furusaka, “Development of highly - mechanically polished metal - substrate for neutron supermirrors,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 528, 012011 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kunieda, H.

Y. Namba, T. Shimomura, A. Fushiki, A. Beaucamp, I. Inasaki, H. Kunieda, Y. Ogasaka, and K. Yamashita, “Ultra-precision polishing of electroless nickel molding dies for shorter wavelength applications,” CIRP Ann. - Manuf. Technol. 57(1), 337–340 (2008).
[Crossref]

Laegreid, N.

N. Laegreid and G. K. Wehner, “Sputtering yields of metals for Ar+ and Ne+ ions with energies from 50 to 600eV,” J. Appl. Phys. 32(3), 365–369 (1961).
[Crossref]

Lian, J.

J. Sudagar, J. Lian, and W. Sha, “Electroless nickel, alloy, composite and nano coatings – A critical review,” J. Alloys Compd. 571, 183–204 (2013).
[Crossref]

Loomis, D. A.

Marson, S.

D. M. Allen, P. Shore, R. W. Evans, C. Fanara, W. O’Brien, S. Marson, and W. O’Neill, “Ion beam, focused ion beam, and plasma discharge machining,” CIRP Ann. - Manuf. Technol. 58(2), 647–662 (2009).
[Crossref]

Meinel, A. B.

Meister, J.

T. Arnold, G. Bohm, R. Fechner, J. Meister, A. Nickel, F. Frost, T. Hansel, and A. Schindler, “Ultra-precision surface finishing by ion beam and plasma jet techniques — status and outlook,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 616(2-3), 147–156 (2010).
[Crossref]

Morita, S.

S. Takeda, J. Guo, S. Morita, H. Ono, T. Oda, J. Kato, H. Sato, M. Hino, Y. Yamagata, and M. Furusaka, “Development of highly - mechanically polished metal - substrate for neutron supermirrors,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 528, 012011 (2014).
[Crossref]

Morton, R.

A. Beaucamp, R. Freeman, R. Morton, K. Ponudurai, and D. D. Walker, “Removal of diamond-turning signatures on x-ray mandrels and metal optics by fluid-jet polishing,” Proc. SPIE 7018, 701835 (2008).
[Crossref]

Namba, Y.

A. Beaucamp and Y. Namba, “Super-smooth finishing of diamond turned hard X-ray molding dies by combined fluid jet and bonnet polishing,” CIRP Ann. - Manuf. Technol. 62(1), 315–318 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Namba, T. Shimomura, A. Fushiki, A. Beaucamp, I. Inasaki, H. Kunieda, Y. Ogasaka, and K. Yamashita, “Ultra-precision polishing of electroless nickel molding dies for shorter wavelength applications,” CIRP Ann. - Manuf. Technol. 57(1), 337–340 (2008).
[Crossref]

Nickel, A.

T. Arnold, G. Bohm, R. Fechner, J. Meister, A. Nickel, F. Frost, T. Hansel, and A. Schindler, “Ultra-precision surface finishing by ion beam and plasma jet techniques — status and outlook,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 616(2-3), 147–156 (2010).
[Crossref]

T. Hänsel, F. Frost, A. Nickel, and A. Schindler, “Ultra-precision surface finishing by ion beam techniques,” Vakuu. Forsch. Prax. 19(5), 24–30 (2007).
[Crossref]

Nomura, K.

F. Frost, H. Takino, R. Fechner, A. Schindler, N. Ohi, and K. Nomura, “Smoothing of diamond-turned copper surfaces using ion beams with aid of planarizing film,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(9A), 6071–6073 (2007).
[Crossref]

Normand, C. E.

O. C. Yonts, C. E. Normand, and D. E. Harrison., “High-energy sputtering,” J. Appl. Phys. 31(3), 447–450 (1960).
[Crossref]

O’Brien, W.

D. M. Allen, P. Shore, R. W. Evans, C. Fanara, W. O’Brien, S. Marson, and W. O’Neill, “Ion beam, focused ion beam, and plasma discharge machining,” CIRP Ann. - Manuf. Technol. 58(2), 647–662 (2009).
[Crossref]

O’Neill, W.

D. M. Allen, P. Shore, R. W. Evans, C. Fanara, W. O’Brien, S. Marson, and W. O’Neill, “Ion beam, focused ion beam, and plasma discharge machining,” CIRP Ann. - Manuf. Technol. 58(2), 647–662 (2009).
[Crossref]

Oda, T.

S. Takeda, J. Guo, S. Morita, H. Ono, T. Oda, J. Kato, H. Sato, M. Hino, Y. Yamagata, and M. Furusaka, “Development of highly - mechanically polished metal - substrate for neutron supermirrors,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 528, 012011 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ogasaka, Y.

Y. Namba, T. Shimomura, A. Fushiki, A. Beaucamp, I. Inasaki, H. Kunieda, Y. Ogasaka, and K. Yamashita, “Ultra-precision polishing of electroless nickel molding dies for shorter wavelength applications,” CIRP Ann. - Manuf. Technol. 57(1), 337–340 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ohi, N.

F. Frost, H. Takino, R. Fechner, A. Schindler, N. Ohi, and K. Nomura, “Smoothing of diamond-turned copper surfaces using ion beams with aid of planarizing film,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(9A), 6071–6073 (2007).
[Crossref]

Ono, H.

S. Takeda, J. Guo, S. Morita, H. Ono, T. Oda, J. Kato, H. Sato, M. Hino, Y. Yamagata, and M. Furusaka, “Development of highly - mechanically polished metal - substrate for neutron supermirrors,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 528, 012011 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ponudurai, K.

A. Beaucamp, R. Freeman, R. Morton, K. Ponudurai, and D. D. Walker, “Removal of diamond-turning signatures on x-ray mandrels and metal optics by fluid-jet polishing,” Proc. SPIE 7018, 701835 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ratti, S.

R. Soufli, E. Spiller, M. A. Schmidt, J. C. Robinson, S. L. Baker, S. Ratti, M. A. Johnson, and E. M. Gullikson, “Smoothing of diamond-turned substrates for extreme ultraviolet illuminators,” Opt. Eng. 43(12), 3089–3095 (2004).
[Crossref]

R. Soufli, E. Spiller, M. A. Schmidt, J. C. Robinson, S. L. Baker, S. Ratti, M. A. Johnson, and E. M. Gullikson, “Smoothing of diamond-turned substrates for extreme ultraviolet lithography illuminators,” Proc. SPIE 5193, 98–104 (2004).
[Crossref]

Rauschenbach, B.

F. Frost, B. Ziberi, A. Schindler, and B. Rauschenbach, “Surface engineering with ion beams: from self-organized nanostructures to ultra-smooth surfaces,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 91(4), 551–559 (2008).
[Crossref]

Robinson, J. C.

R. Soufli, E. Spiller, M. A. Schmidt, J. C. Robinson, S. L. Baker, S. Ratti, M. A. Johnson, and E. M. Gullikson, “Smoothing of diamond-turned substrates for extreme ultraviolet lithography illuminators,” Proc. SPIE 5193, 98–104 (2004).
[Crossref]

R. Soufli, E. Spiller, M. A. Schmidt, J. C. Robinson, S. L. Baker, S. Ratti, M. A. Johnson, and E. M. Gullikson, “Smoothing of diamond-turned substrates for extreme ultraviolet illuminators,” Opt. Eng. 43(12), 3089–3095 (2004).
[Crossref]

Rosenberg, D.

D. Rosenberg and G. K. Wehner, “Sputtering yields for low energy He+-, Kr+-, and Xe+-ion bombardment,” J. Appl. Phys. 33(5), 1842–1845 (1962).
[Crossref]

Sato, H.

S. Takeda, J. Guo, S. Morita, H. Ono, T. Oda, J. Kato, H. Sato, M. Hino, Y. Yamagata, and M. Furusaka, “Development of highly - mechanically polished metal - substrate for neutron supermirrors,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 528, 012011 (2014).
[Crossref]

Schindler, A.

T. Arnold, G. Bohm, R. Fechner, J. Meister, A. Nickel, F. Frost, T. Hansel, and A. Schindler, “Ultra-precision surface finishing by ion beam and plasma jet techniques — status and outlook,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 616(2-3), 147–156 (2010).
[Crossref]

F. Frost, R. Fechner, B. Ziberi, J. Völlner, D. Flamm, and A. Schindler, “Large area smoothing of surfaces by ion bombardment: fundamentals and applications,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 21(22), 224026 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Frost, B. Ziberi, A. Schindler, and B. Rauschenbach, “Surface engineering with ion beams: from self-organized nanostructures to ultra-smooth surfaces,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 91(4), 551–559 (2008).
[Crossref]

T. Hänsel, F. Frost, A. Nickel, and A. Schindler, “Ultra-precision surface finishing by ion beam techniques,” Vakuu. Forsch. Prax. 19(5), 24–30 (2007).
[Crossref]

F. Frost, H. Takino, R. Fechner, A. Schindler, N. Ohi, and K. Nomura, “Smoothing of diamond-turned copper surfaces using ion beams with aid of planarizing film,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(9A), 6071–6073 (2007).
[Crossref]

R. Fechner, D. Flamm, W. Frank, A. Schindler, F. Frost, and B. Ziberi, “Ion beam assisted smoothing of optical surfaces,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 78(5), 651–654 (2004).
[Crossref]

F. Frost, R. Fechner, B. Ziberi, D. Flamm, and A. Schindler, “Large area smoothing of optical surfaces by low-energy ion beams,” Thin Solid Films 459(1-2), 100–105 (2004).
[Crossref]

Schmidt, M. A.

R. Soufli, E. Spiller, M. A. Schmidt, J. C. Robinson, S. L. Baker, S. Ratti, M. A. Johnson, and E. M. Gullikson, “Smoothing of diamond-turned substrates for extreme ultraviolet lithography illuminators,” Proc. SPIE 5193, 98–104 (2004).
[Crossref]

R. Soufli, E. Spiller, M. A. Schmidt, J. C. Robinson, S. L. Baker, S. Ratti, M. A. Johnson, and E. M. Gullikson, “Smoothing of diamond-turned substrates for extreme ultraviolet illuminators,” Opt. Eng. 43(12), 3089–3095 (2004).
[Crossref]

Sha, W.

J. Sudagar, J. Lian, and W. Sha, “Electroless nickel, alloy, composite and nano coatings – A critical review,” J. Alloys Compd. 571, 183–204 (2013).
[Crossref]

Shimomura, T.

Y. Namba, T. Shimomura, A. Fushiki, A. Beaucamp, I. Inasaki, H. Kunieda, Y. Ogasaka, and K. Yamashita, “Ultra-precision polishing of electroless nickel molding dies for shorter wavelength applications,” CIRP Ann. - Manuf. Technol. 57(1), 337–340 (2008).
[Crossref]

Shore, P.

D. M. Allen, P. Shore, R. W. Evans, C. Fanara, W. O’Brien, S. Marson, and W. O’Neill, “Ion beam, focused ion beam, and plasma discharge machining,” CIRP Ann. - Manuf. Technol. 58(2), 647–662 (2009).
[Crossref]

Somekh, S.

S. Somekh, “Introduction to ion and plasma etching,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 13(5), 1003–1007 (1976).
[Crossref]

Soufli, R.

R. Soufli, E. Spiller, M. A. Schmidt, J. C. Robinson, S. L. Baker, S. Ratti, M. A. Johnson, and E. M. Gullikson, “Smoothing of diamond-turned substrates for extreme ultraviolet illuminators,” Opt. Eng. 43(12), 3089–3095 (2004).
[Crossref]

R. Soufli, E. Spiller, M. A. Schmidt, J. C. Robinson, S. L. Baker, S. Ratti, M. A. Johnson, and E. M. Gullikson, “Smoothing of diamond-turned substrates for extreme ultraviolet lithography illuminators,” Proc. SPIE 5193, 98–104 (2004).
[Crossref]

Spiller, E.

R. Soufli, E. Spiller, M. A. Schmidt, J. C. Robinson, S. L. Baker, S. Ratti, M. A. Johnson, and E. M. Gullikson, “Smoothing of diamond-turned substrates for extreme ultraviolet lithography illuminators,” Proc. SPIE 5193, 98–104 (2004).
[Crossref]

R. Soufli, E. Spiller, M. A. Schmidt, J. C. Robinson, S. L. Baker, S. Ratti, M. A. Johnson, and E. M. Gullikson, “Smoothing of diamond-turned substrates for extreme ultraviolet illuminators,” Opt. Eng. 43(12), 3089–3095 (2004).
[Crossref]

Sudagar, J.

J. Sudagar, J. Lian, and W. Sha, “Electroless nickel, alloy, composite and nano coatings – A critical review,” J. Alloys Compd. 571, 183–204 (2013).
[Crossref]

Takeda, S.

S. Takeda, J. Guo, S. Morita, H. Ono, T. Oda, J. Kato, H. Sato, M. Hino, Y. Yamagata, and M. Furusaka, “Development of highly - mechanically polished metal - substrate for neutron supermirrors,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 528, 012011 (2014).
[Crossref]

Takino, H.

F. Frost, H. Takino, R. Fechner, A. Schindler, N. Ohi, and K. Nomura, “Smoothing of diamond-turned copper surfaces using ion beams with aid of planarizing film,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(9A), 6071–6073 (2007).
[Crossref]

Völlner, J.

F. Frost, R. Fechner, B. Ziberi, J. Völlner, D. Flamm, and A. Schindler, “Large area smoothing of surfaces by ion bombardment: fundamentals and applications,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 21(22), 224026 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Walker, D. D.

A. Beaucamp, R. Freeman, R. Morton, K. Ponudurai, and D. D. Walker, “Removal of diamond-turning signatures on x-ray mandrels and metal optics by fluid-jet polishing,” Proc. SPIE 7018, 701835 (2008).
[Crossref]

Wehner, G. K.

D. Rosenberg and G. K. Wehner, “Sputtering yields for low energy He+-, Kr+-, and Xe+-ion bombardment,” J. Appl. Phys. 33(5), 1842–1845 (1962).
[Crossref]

N. Laegreid and G. K. Wehner, “Sputtering yields of metals for Ar+ and Ne+ ions with energies from 50 to 600eV,” J. Appl. Phys. 32(3), 365–369 (1961).
[Crossref]

Wilson, R. G.

R. G. Wilson, “Ionic polishing of fused silica and glass,” Opt. Technol. 2(1), 19–26 (1970).
[Crossref]

Yamagata, Y.

S. Takeda, J. Guo, S. Morita, H. Ono, T. Oda, J. Kato, H. Sato, M. Hino, Y. Yamagata, and M. Furusaka, “Development of highly - mechanically polished metal - substrate for neutron supermirrors,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 528, 012011 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yamashita, K.

Y. Namba, T. Shimomura, A. Fushiki, A. Beaucamp, I. Inasaki, H. Kunieda, Y. Ogasaka, and K. Yamashita, “Ultra-precision polishing of electroless nickel molding dies for shorter wavelength applications,” CIRP Ann. - Manuf. Technol. 57(1), 337–340 (2008).
[Crossref]

Yonts, O. C.

O. C. Yonts, C. E. Normand, and D. E. Harrison., “High-energy sputtering,” J. Appl. Phys. 31(3), 447–450 (1960).
[Crossref]

Ziberi, B.

F. Frost, R. Fechner, B. Ziberi, J. Völlner, D. Flamm, and A. Schindler, “Large area smoothing of surfaces by ion bombardment: fundamentals and applications,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 21(22), 224026 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Frost, B. Ziberi, A. Schindler, and B. Rauschenbach, “Surface engineering with ion beams: from self-organized nanostructures to ultra-smooth surfaces,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 91(4), 551–559 (2008).
[Crossref]

F. Frost, R. Fechner, B. Ziberi, D. Flamm, and A. Schindler, “Large area smoothing of optical surfaces by low-energy ion beams,” Thin Solid Films 459(1-2), 100–105 (2004).
[Crossref]

R. Fechner, D. Flamm, W. Frank, A. Schindler, F. Frost, and B. Ziberi, “Ion beam assisted smoothing of optical surfaces,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 78(5), 651–654 (2004).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

L. F. Johnson, K. A. Ingersoll, and D. Kahng, “Planarization of patterned surfaces by ion beam erosion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 40(7), 636–638 (1982).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. (2)

R. Fechner, D. Flamm, W. Frank, A. Schindler, F. Frost, and B. Ziberi, “Ion beam assisted smoothing of optical surfaces,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 78(5), 651–654 (2004).
[Crossref]

F. Frost, B. Ziberi, A. Schindler, and B. Rauschenbach, “Surface engineering with ion beams: from self-organized nanostructures to ultra-smooth surfaces,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 91(4), 551–559 (2008).
[Crossref]

CIRP Ann. - Manuf. Technol. (3)

D. M. Allen, P. Shore, R. W. Evans, C. Fanara, W. O’Brien, S. Marson, and W. O’Neill, “Ion beam, focused ion beam, and plasma discharge machining,” CIRP Ann. - Manuf. Technol. 58(2), 647–662 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. Beaucamp and Y. Namba, “Super-smooth finishing of diamond turned hard X-ray molding dies by combined fluid jet and bonnet polishing,” CIRP Ann. - Manuf. Technol. 62(1), 315–318 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Namba, T. Shimomura, A. Fushiki, A. Beaucamp, I. Inasaki, H. Kunieda, Y. Ogasaka, and K. Yamashita, “Ultra-precision polishing of electroless nickel molding dies for shorter wavelength applications,” CIRP Ann. - Manuf. Technol. 57(1), 337–340 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Alloys Compd. (1)

J. Sudagar, J. Lian, and W. Sha, “Electroless nickel, alloy, composite and nano coatings – A critical review,” J. Alloys Compd. 571, 183–204 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (3)

O. C. Yonts, C. E. Normand, and D. E. Harrison., “High-energy sputtering,” J. Appl. Phys. 31(3), 447–450 (1960).
[Crossref]

D. Rosenberg and G. K. Wehner, “Sputtering yields for low energy He+-, Kr+-, and Xe+-ion bombardment,” J. Appl. Phys. 33(5), 1842–1845 (1962).
[Crossref]

N. Laegreid and G. K. Wehner, “Sputtering yields of metals for Ar+ and Ne+ ions with energies from 50 to 600eV,” J. Appl. Phys. 32(3), 365–369 (1961).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. Condens. Matter (1)

F. Frost, R. Fechner, B. Ziberi, J. Völlner, D. Flamm, and A. Schindler, “Large area smoothing of surfaces by ion bombardment: fundamentals and applications,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 21(22), 224026 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Phys. Conf. Ser. (1)

S. Takeda, J. Guo, S. Morita, H. Ono, T. Oda, J. Kato, H. Sato, M. Hino, Y. Yamagata, and M. Furusaka, “Development of highly - mechanically polished metal - substrate for neutron supermirrors,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 528, 012011 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. (1)

S. Somekh, “Introduction to ion and plasma etching,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 13(5), 1003–1007 (1976).
[Crossref]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

F. Frost, H. Takino, R. Fechner, A. Schindler, N. Ohi, and K. Nomura, “Smoothing of diamond-turned copper surfaces using ion beams with aid of planarizing film,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(9A), 6071–6073 (2007).
[Crossref]

Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A (1)

T. Arnold, G. Bohm, R. Fechner, J. Meister, A. Nickel, F. Frost, T. Hansel, and A. Schindler, “Ultra-precision surface finishing by ion beam and plasma jet techniques — status and outlook,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 616(2-3), 147–156 (2010).
[Crossref]

Opt. Eng. (1)

R. Soufli, E. Spiller, M. A. Schmidt, J. C. Robinson, S. L. Baker, S. Ratti, M. A. Johnson, and E. M. Gullikson, “Smoothing of diamond-turned substrates for extreme ultraviolet illuminators,” Opt. Eng. 43(12), 3089–3095 (2004).
[Crossref]

Opt. Technol. (1)

R. G. Wilson, “Ionic polishing of fused silica and glass,” Opt. Technol. 2(1), 19–26 (1970).
[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (2)

R. Soufli, E. Spiller, M. A. Schmidt, J. C. Robinson, S. L. Baker, S. Ratti, M. A. Johnson, and E. M. Gullikson, “Smoothing of diamond-turned substrates for extreme ultraviolet lithography illuminators,” Proc. SPIE 5193, 98–104 (2004).
[Crossref]

A. Beaucamp, R. Freeman, R. Morton, K. Ponudurai, and D. D. Walker, “Removal of diamond-turning signatures on x-ray mandrels and metal optics by fluid-jet polishing,” Proc. SPIE 7018, 701835 (2008).
[Crossref]

Thin Solid Films (1)

F. Frost, R. Fechner, B. Ziberi, D. Flamm, and A. Schindler, “Large area smoothing of optical surfaces by low-energy ion beams,” Thin Solid Films 459(1-2), 100–105 (2004).
[Crossref]

Vakuu. Forsch. Prax. (1)

T. Hänsel, F. Frost, A. Nickel, and A. Schindler, “Ultra-precision surface finishing by ion beam techniques,” Vakuu. Forsch. Prax. 19(5), 24–30 (2007).
[Crossref]

Other (2)

P. Gailly and K. Fleury-Frenette, “Ion beam figuring for precision optics,” SPIE Newsroom (2008).

F. Frost, H. Takino, R. Fechner, A. Schindler, N. Ohi, and K. Nomura, “Sub-nanometer smoothing of diamond-turned metal surfaces using ion beams,” in Towards Synthesis of Micro-/Nano-systems (Springer London), The 11th International Conference on Precision Engineering (ICPE),August 16–18,2006, Tokyo, Japan, pp. 239–242.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Preparation steps of NiP samples. The diamond turned samples were coated, baked and ion-etched successively. The NiP surface was covered with a mask with a hole of 10mm in diameter during ion beam planarization. This way, the diamond surfaces can be etched under various conditions. (Not to scale)
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Etching rate of photoresist and NiP versus the incident angle of ion beam. The rates for NiP and photoresist are almost the same as the incident angle is in between 30°~40°.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Diamond turned surfaces with different spatial wavelengths and depths of turning marks (sample A~F).
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Surface morphology of sample A after spray coating and ion beam planarization. The surface roughness dramatically decreased from >6nm to ~2nm. The sizes of the images are all 80μm × 20μm.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 The effect of depth of turning marks. (a) FOM for samples B, D, E with varied depth of turning mark after spray coating and ion beam planarization; (b) surface roughness after diamond turning, spray coating and planarization.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 The effect of spatial wavelength. a) FOM for samples A, C, D with different spatial wavelength of turning mark after spray coating and ion beam planarization; (b) surface roughness after diamond turning, spray coating and ion beam planarization.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Surface morphology of diamond-turned NiP sample B after different etching time. The surface roughness kept almost unchanged with increasing etching time up to 60min. The sizes of the images are 80μm × 20μm.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 PSD of samples C,E,F after ion beam planarization at 35°. All the samples can be smoothed over the measured band of spatial frequency, in particular the samples of large spatial wavelength. The diamond turned surfaces were scanned at 85μm × 85μm. The discrepancy between scan size 20μm × 20μm and 80μm × 80μm for sample F after ion beam planarization lies in the great spatial wavelength (25μm) of the sample.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 PSD of sample E after ion beam planarization at different incident angles. The diamond turned surfaces were scanned at 85μm × 85μm and 35μm × 35μm. Both planarization angles at 0°and 35°can improve PSD, but the improvement at 35°appears more significant.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Surface roughness of samples with various spatial wavelength before and after ion beam planarization @ 35°.

Metrics