Abstract

We report a vertically-aligned liquid crystal display (LCD) device with submillisecond response time, high transmittance, and low operation voltage. The top substrate has a common electrode, while the bottom substrate consists of hole-patterned fringing-field-switching (FFS) pixel electrodes. A negative dielectric anisotropy LC is employed. In the voltage-on state, the LC directors are reoriented by the fringing fields surrounding the hole area and by the longitudinal and fringe fields outside the hole area. After design optimization, we are able to achieve 85% peak transmittance under crossed circular polarizers. During the relaxation process, the standing walls exert a strong restoring force, leading to submillisecond gray-to-gray response time. Moreover, this device enables high resolution density because only one thin-film transistor per pixel is needed and the bottom FFS electrode has built-in capacitor. This device is particularly attractive for the emerging virtual reality displays.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. H. Kikuchi, M. Yokota, Y. Hisakado, H. Yang, and T. Kajiyama, “Polymer-stabilized liquid crystal blue phases,” Nat. Mater. 1(1), 64–68 (2002).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. Y. Huang, H. Chen, G. Tan, H. Tobata, S.-I. Yamamoto, E. Okabe, Y. F. Lan, C. Y. Tsai, and S. T. Wu, “Optimized blue-phase liquid crystal for field-sequential-color displays,” Opt. Mater. Express 7(2), 641–650 (2017).
    [Crossref]
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  6. A. Varanytsia and L. C. Chien, “Bimesogen-enhanced flexoelectro-optic behavior of polymer stabilized cholesteric liquid crystal,” J. Appl. Phys. 119(1), 014502 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  7. F. Castles, S. M. Morris, D. J. Gardiner, Q. M. Malik, and H. J. Coles, “Ultra-fast-switching flexoelectric liquid-crystal display with high contrast,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 18(2), 128–133 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  8. H. Chen, F. Gou, and S. T. Wu, “A submillisecond-response nematic liquid crystal for augmented reality displays,” Opt. Mater. Express 7(1), 195–201 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  9. D. J. Channin, “Triode optical gate: A new liquid crystal electro-optic device,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 26(11), 603–605 (1975).
    [Crossref]
  10. T. H. Choi, Y. J. Park, J. W. Kim, and T. H. Yoon, “Fast grey-to-grey switching of a homogeneously aligned liquid crystal device,” Liq. Cryst. 42(4), 492–496 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  11. Y. Iwata, M. Murata, K. Tanaka, A. Jinda, T. Ohtake, T. Shinomiya, and H. Yoshida, “Novel super-fast-response, ultra-wide temperature range VA-LCD,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 44(1), 431–434 (2013).
  12. Y. Chen, F. Peng, T. Yamaguchi, X. Song, and S. T. Wu, “High performance negative dielectric anisotropy liquid crystals for display applications,” Crystals 3(3), 483–503 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  13. S.-T. Wu, U. Efron, and L. D. Hess, “Birefringence measurements of liquid crystals,” Appl. Opt. 23(21), 3911–3915 (1984).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. I. Haller, “Thermodynamic and static properties of liquid crystals,” Prog. Solid State Chem. 10, 103–118 (1975).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. S.-T. Wu and C. S. Wu, “Rotational viscosity of nematic liquid crystals A critical examination of existing models,” Liq. Cryst. 8(2), 171–182 (1990).
    [Crossref]
  17. H. Chen, M. Hu, F. Peng, J. Li, Z. An, and S. T. Wu, “Ultra-low viscosity liquid crystals,” Opt. Mater. Express 5(3), 655–660 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  18. S. H. Lee, S. L. Lee, and H. Y. Kim, “Electro-optic characteristics and switching principle of a nematic liquid crystal cell controlled by fringe-field switching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(20), 2881–2883 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  19. K. H. Kim, K. H. Lee, S. B. Park, J. K. Song, S. N. Kim, and J. H. Souk, “Domain divided vertical alignment mode with optimized fringe field effect,” Proc. Asia Display 98, 383–386 (1998).
  20. T.-H. Choi, S.-W. Oh, Y.-J. Park, Y. Choi, and T.-H. Yoon, “Fast fringe-field switching of a liquid crystal cell by two-dimensional confinement with virtual walls,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 27936 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. H. Chen, G. Tan, Y. Huang, Y. Weng, T. H. Choi, T. H. Yoon, and S. T. Wu, “A low voltage liquid crystal phase grating with switchable diffraction angles,” Sci. Rep. 7, 39923 (2017).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  22. A. Lien, “Extended Jones matrix representation for the twisted nematic liquid crystal display at oblique incidence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57(26), 2767–2769 (1990).
    [Crossref]
  23. H. Chen, Y. Gao, and S. T. Wu, “n-FFS vs. p-FFS: Who wins?” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers46(1), 735–738 (2015).
  24. S. H. Lee, H. Y. Kim, I. C. Park, B. G. Rho, J. S. Park, H. S. Park, and C. H. Lee, “Rubbing-free, vertically aligned nematic liquid crystal display controlled by in-plane field,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(19), 2851–2853 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  25. H. Yoshida, Y. Nakanishi, T. Sasabayashi, Y. Tasaka, and K. Okamoto, “Fast-switching LCD with multi-domain vertical alignment driven by an oblique electric field,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 31(1), 334–337 (2000).
  26. J. W. Park, Y. J. Ahn, J. H. Jung, S. H. Lee, R. Lu, H. Y. Kim, and S. T. Wu, “Liquid crystal display using combined fringe and in-plane electric fields,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(8), 081103 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  27. S. T. Wu, “Nematic liquid crystal modulator with response time less than 100 μs at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57(10), 986–988 (1990).
    [Crossref]
  28. T. Kurita, “Moving picture quality improvement for hold-type AM-LCDs,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 32(1), 986–989 (2001).
  29. Y. Igarashi, T. Yamamoto, Y. Tanaka, J. Someya, Y. Nakakura, M. Yamakawa, S. Hasegawa, Y. Nishida, and T. Kurita, “Summary of moving picture response time (MPRT) and futures,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 35(1), 1262–1265 (2004).
  30. F. Peng, H. Chen, F. Gou, Y.-H. Lee, M. Wand, M.-C. Li, S.-L. Lee, and S.-T. Wu, “Analytical equation for the motion picture response time of display devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 121(2), 023108 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  31. H. Ito, M. Ogawa, and S. Sunaga, “Evaluation of an organic light-emitting diode display for precise visual stimulation,” J. Vis. 13(7), 6 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  32. Z. Ge, R. Lu, T. X. Wu, S.-T. Wu, C.-L. Lin, N.-C. Hsu, W.-Y. Li, and C.-K. Wei, “Extraordinarily wide-view circular polarizers for liquid crystal displays,” Opt. Express 16(5), 3120–3129 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  33. K. Käläntär, “A directional backlight with narrow angular luminance distribution for widening the viewing angle for an LCD with a front-surface light-scattering film,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 20(3), 133–142 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  34. Y. Gao, Z. Luo, R. Zhu, Q. Hong, S. T. Wu, M. C. Li, S. L. Lee, and W. C. Tsai, “A high performance LCD with wide luminance distribution,” J. Disp. Technol. 11(4), 315–324 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  35. S. S. Kim, B. H. Berkeley, K. H. Kim, and J. K. Song, “New technologies for advanced LCD-TV performance,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 12(4), 353–359 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  36. J. P. Yang, E. L. Hsiang, and H. M. Philip Chen, “Wide viewing angle TN LCD enhanced by printed quantum-dots film,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers47(1), 21–24 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  37. H. Chen, J. He, and S. T. Wu, “Recent advances on quantum-dot-enhanced liquid crystal displays,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 23(5), 1900611 (2017).
    [Crossref]

2017 (5)

Y. Huang, H. Chen, G. Tan, H. Tobata, S.-I. Yamamoto, E. Okabe, Y. F. Lan, C. Y. Tsai, and S. T. Wu, “Optimized blue-phase liquid crystal for field-sequential-color displays,” Opt. Mater. Express 7(2), 641–650 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Chen, F. Gou, and S. T. Wu, “A submillisecond-response nematic liquid crystal for augmented reality displays,” Opt. Mater. Express 7(1), 195–201 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Chen, G. Tan, Y. Huang, Y. Weng, T. H. Choi, T. H. Yoon, and S. T. Wu, “A low voltage liquid crystal phase grating with switchable diffraction angles,” Sci. Rep. 7, 39923 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Peng, H. Chen, F. Gou, Y.-H. Lee, M. Wand, M.-C. Li, S.-L. Lee, and S.-T. Wu, “Analytical equation for the motion picture response time of display devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 121(2), 023108 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Chen, J. He, and S. T. Wu, “Recent advances on quantum-dot-enhanced liquid crystal displays,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 23(5), 1900611 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (2)

T.-H. Choi, S.-W. Oh, Y.-J. Park, Y. Choi, and T.-H. Yoon, “Fast fringe-field switching of a liquid crystal cell by two-dimensional confinement with virtual walls,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 27936 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Varanytsia and L. C. Chien, “Bimesogen-enhanced flexoelectro-optic behavior of polymer stabilized cholesteric liquid crystal,” J. Appl. Phys. 119(1), 014502 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (3)

T. H. Choi, Y. J. Park, J. W. Kim, and T. H. Yoon, “Fast grey-to-grey switching of a homogeneously aligned liquid crystal device,” Liq. Cryst. 42(4), 492–496 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Chen, M. Hu, F. Peng, J. Li, Z. An, and S. T. Wu, “Ultra-low viscosity liquid crystals,” Opt. Mater. Express 5(3), 655–660 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Gao, Z. Luo, R. Zhu, Q. Hong, S. T. Wu, M. C. Li, S. L. Lee, and W. C. Tsai, “A high performance LCD with wide luminance distribution,” J. Disp. Technol. 11(4), 315–324 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

H. G. Hoffman, W. J. Meyer, M. Ramirez, L. Roberts, E. J. Seibel, B. Atzori, S. R. Sharar, and D. R. Patterson, “Feasibility of articulated arm mounted Oculus Rift Virtual Reality goggles for adjunctive pain control during occupational therapy in pediatric burn patients,” Cyberpsychol. Behav. Soc. Netw. 17(6), 397–401 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (3)

Y. Iwata, M. Murata, K. Tanaka, A. Jinda, T. Ohtake, T. Shinomiya, and H. Yoshida, “Novel super-fast-response, ultra-wide temperature range VA-LCD,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 44(1), 431–434 (2013).

Y. Chen, F. Peng, T. Yamaguchi, X. Song, and S. T. Wu, “High performance negative dielectric anisotropy liquid crystals for display applications,” Crystals 3(3), 483–503 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Ito, M. Ogawa, and S. Sunaga, “Evaluation of an organic light-emitting diode display for precise visual stimulation,” J. Vis. 13(7), 6 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (1)

K. Käläntär, “A directional backlight with narrow angular luminance distribution for widening the viewing angle for an LCD with a front-surface light-scattering film,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 20(3), 133–142 (2012).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

F. Castles, S. M. Morris, D. J. Gardiner, Q. M. Malik, and H. J. Coles, “Ultra-fast-switching flexoelectric liquid-crystal display with high contrast,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 18(2), 128–133 (2010).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

Z. Ge, R. Lu, T. X. Wu, S.-T. Wu, C.-L. Lin, N.-C. Hsu, W.-Y. Li, and C.-K. Wei, “Extraordinarily wide-view circular polarizers for liquid crystal displays,” Opt. Express 16(5), 3120–3129 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. W. Park, Y. J. Ahn, J. H. Jung, S. H. Lee, R. Lu, H. Y. Kim, and S. T. Wu, “Liquid crystal display using combined fringe and in-plane electric fields,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(8), 081103 (2008).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

O. Cakmakci and J. Rolland, “Head-worn displays: a review,” J. Disp. Technol. 2(3), 199–216 (2006).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

Y. Igarashi, T. Yamamoto, Y. Tanaka, J. Someya, Y. Nakakura, M. Yamakawa, S. Hasegawa, Y. Nishida, and T. Kurita, “Summary of moving picture response time (MPRT) and futures,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 35(1), 1262–1265 (2004).

S. S. Kim, B. H. Berkeley, K. H. Kim, and J. K. Song, “New technologies for advanced LCD-TV performance,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 12(4), 353–359 (2004).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

H. Kikuchi, M. Yokota, Y. Hisakado, H. Yang, and T. Kajiyama, “Polymer-stabilized liquid crystal blue phases,” Nat. Mater. 1(1), 64–68 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

T. Kurita, “Moving picture quality improvement for hold-type AM-LCDs,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 32(1), 986–989 (2001).

2000 (1)

H. Yoshida, Y. Nakanishi, T. Sasabayashi, Y. Tasaka, and K. Okamoto, “Fast-switching LCD with multi-domain vertical alignment driven by an oblique electric field,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 31(1), 334–337 (2000).

1998 (2)

S. H. Lee, S. L. Lee, and H. Y. Kim, “Electro-optic characteristics and switching principle of a nematic liquid crystal cell controlled by fringe-field switching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(20), 2881–2883 (1998).
[Crossref]

K. H. Kim, K. H. Lee, S. B. Park, J. K. Song, S. N. Kim, and J. H. Souk, “Domain divided vertical alignment mode with optimized fringe field effect,” Proc. Asia Display 98, 383–386 (1998).

1997 (1)

S. H. Lee, H. Y. Kim, I. C. Park, B. G. Rho, J. S. Park, H. S. Park, and C. H. Lee, “Rubbing-free, vertically aligned nematic liquid crystal display controlled by in-plane field,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(19), 2851–2853 (1997).
[Crossref]

1990 (3)

S. T. Wu, “Nematic liquid crystal modulator with response time less than 100 μs at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57(10), 986–988 (1990).
[Crossref]

S.-T. Wu and C. S. Wu, “Rotational viscosity of nematic liquid crystals A critical examination of existing models,” Liq. Cryst. 8(2), 171–182 (1990).
[Crossref]

A. Lien, “Extended Jones matrix representation for the twisted nematic liquid crystal display at oblique incidence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57(26), 2767–2769 (1990).
[Crossref]

1987 (1)

J. S. Patel and R. B. Meyer, “Flexoelectric electro-optics of a cholesteric liquid crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58(15), 1538–1540 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1986 (1)

S.-T. Wu, “Birefringence dispersions of liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. A Gen. Phys. 33(2), 1270–1274 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1984 (1)

1975 (2)

I. Haller, “Thermodynamic and static properties of liquid crystals,” Prog. Solid State Chem. 10, 103–118 (1975).
[Crossref]

D. J. Channin, “Triode optical gate: A new liquid crystal electro-optic device,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 26(11), 603–605 (1975).
[Crossref]

Ahn, Y. J.

J. W. Park, Y. J. Ahn, J. H. Jung, S. H. Lee, R. Lu, H. Y. Kim, and S. T. Wu, “Liquid crystal display using combined fringe and in-plane electric fields,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(8), 081103 (2008).
[Crossref]

An, Z.

Atzori, B.

H. G. Hoffman, W. J. Meyer, M. Ramirez, L. Roberts, E. J. Seibel, B. Atzori, S. R. Sharar, and D. R. Patterson, “Feasibility of articulated arm mounted Oculus Rift Virtual Reality goggles for adjunctive pain control during occupational therapy in pediatric burn patients,” Cyberpsychol. Behav. Soc. Netw. 17(6), 397–401 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Berkeley, B. H.

S. S. Kim, B. H. Berkeley, K. H. Kim, and J. K. Song, “New technologies for advanced LCD-TV performance,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 12(4), 353–359 (2004).
[Crossref]

Cakmakci, O.

O. Cakmakci and J. Rolland, “Head-worn displays: a review,” J. Disp. Technol. 2(3), 199–216 (2006).
[Crossref]

Castles, F.

F. Castles, S. M. Morris, D. J. Gardiner, Q. M. Malik, and H. J. Coles, “Ultra-fast-switching flexoelectric liquid-crystal display with high contrast,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 18(2), 128–133 (2010).
[Crossref]

Channin, D. J.

D. J. Channin, “Triode optical gate: A new liquid crystal electro-optic device,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 26(11), 603–605 (1975).
[Crossref]

Chen, H.

H. Chen, J. He, and S. T. Wu, “Recent advances on quantum-dot-enhanced liquid crystal displays,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 23(5), 1900611 (2017).
[Crossref]

F. Peng, H. Chen, F. Gou, Y.-H. Lee, M. Wand, M.-C. Li, S.-L. Lee, and S.-T. Wu, “Analytical equation for the motion picture response time of display devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 121(2), 023108 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Chen, G. Tan, Y. Huang, Y. Weng, T. H. Choi, T. H. Yoon, and S. T. Wu, “A low voltage liquid crystal phase grating with switchable diffraction angles,” Sci. Rep. 7, 39923 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Chen, F. Gou, and S. T. Wu, “A submillisecond-response nematic liquid crystal for augmented reality displays,” Opt. Mater. Express 7(1), 195–201 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Huang, H. Chen, G. Tan, H. Tobata, S.-I. Yamamoto, E. Okabe, Y. F. Lan, C. Y. Tsai, and S. T. Wu, “Optimized blue-phase liquid crystal for field-sequential-color displays,” Opt. Mater. Express 7(2), 641–650 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Chen, M. Hu, F. Peng, J. Li, Z. An, and S. T. Wu, “Ultra-low viscosity liquid crystals,” Opt. Mater. Express 5(3), 655–660 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Chen, Y. Gao, and S. T. Wu, “n-FFS vs. p-FFS: Who wins?” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers46(1), 735–738 (2015).

Chen, Y.

Y. Chen, F. Peng, T. Yamaguchi, X. Song, and S. T. Wu, “High performance negative dielectric anisotropy liquid crystals for display applications,” Crystals 3(3), 483–503 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chien, L. C.

A. Varanytsia and L. C. Chien, “Bimesogen-enhanced flexoelectro-optic behavior of polymer stabilized cholesteric liquid crystal,” J. Appl. Phys. 119(1), 014502 (2016).
[Crossref]

Choi, T. H.

H. Chen, G. Tan, Y. Huang, Y. Weng, T. H. Choi, T. H. Yoon, and S. T. Wu, “A low voltage liquid crystal phase grating with switchable diffraction angles,” Sci. Rep. 7, 39923 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. H. Choi, Y. J. Park, J. W. Kim, and T. H. Yoon, “Fast grey-to-grey switching of a homogeneously aligned liquid crystal device,” Liq. Cryst. 42(4), 492–496 (2015).
[Crossref]

Choi, T.-H.

T.-H. Choi, S.-W. Oh, Y.-J. Park, Y. Choi, and T.-H. Yoon, “Fast fringe-field switching of a liquid crystal cell by two-dimensional confinement with virtual walls,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 27936 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choi, Y.

T.-H. Choi, S.-W. Oh, Y.-J. Park, Y. Choi, and T.-H. Yoon, “Fast fringe-field switching of a liquid crystal cell by two-dimensional confinement with virtual walls,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 27936 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Coles, H. J.

F. Castles, S. M. Morris, D. J. Gardiner, Q. M. Malik, and H. J. Coles, “Ultra-fast-switching flexoelectric liquid-crystal display with high contrast,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 18(2), 128–133 (2010).
[Crossref]

Efron, U.

Gao, Y.

Y. Gao, Z. Luo, R. Zhu, Q. Hong, S. T. Wu, M. C. Li, S. L. Lee, and W. C. Tsai, “A high performance LCD with wide luminance distribution,” J. Disp. Technol. 11(4), 315–324 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Chen, Y. Gao, and S. T. Wu, “n-FFS vs. p-FFS: Who wins?” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers46(1), 735–738 (2015).

Gardiner, D. J.

F. Castles, S. M. Morris, D. J. Gardiner, Q. M. Malik, and H. J. Coles, “Ultra-fast-switching flexoelectric liquid-crystal display with high contrast,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 18(2), 128–133 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ge, Z.

Gou, F.

F. Peng, H. Chen, F. Gou, Y.-H. Lee, M. Wand, M.-C. Li, S.-L. Lee, and S.-T. Wu, “Analytical equation for the motion picture response time of display devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 121(2), 023108 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Chen, F. Gou, and S. T. Wu, “A submillisecond-response nematic liquid crystal for augmented reality displays,” Opt. Mater. Express 7(1), 195–201 (2017).
[Crossref]

Haller, I.

I. Haller, “Thermodynamic and static properties of liquid crystals,” Prog. Solid State Chem. 10, 103–118 (1975).
[Crossref]

Hasegawa, S.

Y. Igarashi, T. Yamamoto, Y. Tanaka, J. Someya, Y. Nakakura, M. Yamakawa, S. Hasegawa, Y. Nishida, and T. Kurita, “Summary of moving picture response time (MPRT) and futures,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 35(1), 1262–1265 (2004).

He, J.

H. Chen, J. He, and S. T. Wu, “Recent advances on quantum-dot-enhanced liquid crystal displays,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 23(5), 1900611 (2017).
[Crossref]

Hess, L. D.

Hisakado, Y.

H. Kikuchi, M. Yokota, Y. Hisakado, H. Yang, and T. Kajiyama, “Polymer-stabilized liquid crystal blue phases,” Nat. Mater. 1(1), 64–68 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hoffman, H. G.

H. G. Hoffman, W. J. Meyer, M. Ramirez, L. Roberts, E. J. Seibel, B. Atzori, S. R. Sharar, and D. R. Patterson, “Feasibility of articulated arm mounted Oculus Rift Virtual Reality goggles for adjunctive pain control during occupational therapy in pediatric burn patients,” Cyberpsychol. Behav. Soc. Netw. 17(6), 397–401 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hong, Q.

Y. Gao, Z. Luo, R. Zhu, Q. Hong, S. T. Wu, M. C. Li, S. L. Lee, and W. C. Tsai, “A high performance LCD with wide luminance distribution,” J. Disp. Technol. 11(4), 315–324 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hsiang, E. L.

J. P. Yang, E. L. Hsiang, and H. M. Philip Chen, “Wide viewing angle TN LCD enhanced by printed quantum-dots film,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers47(1), 21–24 (2016).
[Crossref]

Hsu, N.-C.

Hu, M.

Huang, Y.

H. Chen, G. Tan, Y. Huang, Y. Weng, T. H. Choi, T. H. Yoon, and S. T. Wu, “A low voltage liquid crystal phase grating with switchable diffraction angles,” Sci. Rep. 7, 39923 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Huang, H. Chen, G. Tan, H. Tobata, S.-I. Yamamoto, E. Okabe, Y. F. Lan, C. Y. Tsai, and S. T. Wu, “Optimized blue-phase liquid crystal for field-sequential-color displays,” Opt. Mater. Express 7(2), 641–650 (2017).
[Crossref]

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Y. Igarashi, T. Yamamoto, Y. Tanaka, J. Someya, Y. Nakakura, M. Yamakawa, S. Hasegawa, Y. Nishida, and T. Kurita, “Summary of moving picture response time (MPRT) and futures,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 35(1), 1262–1265 (2004).

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H. Ito, M. Ogawa, and S. Sunaga, “Evaluation of an organic light-emitting diode display for precise visual stimulation,” J. Vis. 13(7), 6 (2013).
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Y. Iwata, M. Murata, K. Tanaka, A. Jinda, T. Ohtake, T. Shinomiya, and H. Yoshida, “Novel super-fast-response, ultra-wide temperature range VA-LCD,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 44(1), 431–434 (2013).

Jinda, A.

Y. Iwata, M. Murata, K. Tanaka, A. Jinda, T. Ohtake, T. Shinomiya, and H. Yoshida, “Novel super-fast-response, ultra-wide temperature range VA-LCD,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 44(1), 431–434 (2013).

Jung, J. H.

J. W. Park, Y. J. Ahn, J. H. Jung, S. H. Lee, R. Lu, H. Y. Kim, and S. T. Wu, “Liquid crystal display using combined fringe and in-plane electric fields,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(8), 081103 (2008).
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H. Kikuchi, M. Yokota, Y. Hisakado, H. Yang, and T. Kajiyama, “Polymer-stabilized liquid crystal blue phases,” Nat. Mater. 1(1), 64–68 (2002).
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K. Käläntär, “A directional backlight with narrow angular luminance distribution for widening the viewing angle for an LCD with a front-surface light-scattering film,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 20(3), 133–142 (2012).
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H. Kikuchi, M. Yokota, Y. Hisakado, H. Yang, and T. Kajiyama, “Polymer-stabilized liquid crystal blue phases,” Nat. Mater. 1(1), 64–68 (2002).
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Kim, H. Y.

J. W. Park, Y. J. Ahn, J. H. Jung, S. H. Lee, R. Lu, H. Y. Kim, and S. T. Wu, “Liquid crystal display using combined fringe and in-plane electric fields,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(8), 081103 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. H. Lee, S. L. Lee, and H. Y. Kim, “Electro-optic characteristics and switching principle of a nematic liquid crystal cell controlled by fringe-field switching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(20), 2881–2883 (1998).
[Crossref]

S. H. Lee, H. Y. Kim, I. C. Park, B. G. Rho, J. S. Park, H. S. Park, and C. H. Lee, “Rubbing-free, vertically aligned nematic liquid crystal display controlled by in-plane field,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(19), 2851–2853 (1997).
[Crossref]

Kim, J. W.

T. H. Choi, Y. J. Park, J. W. Kim, and T. H. Yoon, “Fast grey-to-grey switching of a homogeneously aligned liquid crystal device,” Liq. Cryst. 42(4), 492–496 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kim, K. H.

S. S. Kim, B. H. Berkeley, K. H. Kim, and J. K. Song, “New technologies for advanced LCD-TV performance,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 12(4), 353–359 (2004).
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Kim, S. N.

K. H. Kim, K. H. Lee, S. B. Park, J. K. Song, S. N. Kim, and J. H. Souk, “Domain divided vertical alignment mode with optimized fringe field effect,” Proc. Asia Display 98, 383–386 (1998).

Kim, S. S.

S. S. Kim, B. H. Berkeley, K. H. Kim, and J. K. Song, “New technologies for advanced LCD-TV performance,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 12(4), 353–359 (2004).
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Y. Igarashi, T. Yamamoto, Y. Tanaka, J. Someya, Y. Nakakura, M. Yamakawa, S. Hasegawa, Y. Nishida, and T. Kurita, “Summary of moving picture response time (MPRT) and futures,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 35(1), 1262–1265 (2004).

T. Kurita, “Moving picture quality improvement for hold-type AM-LCDs,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 32(1), 986–989 (2001).

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Lee, C. H.

S. H. Lee, H. Y. Kim, I. C. Park, B. G. Rho, J. S. Park, H. S. Park, and C. H. Lee, “Rubbing-free, vertically aligned nematic liquid crystal display controlled by in-plane field,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(19), 2851–2853 (1997).
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Lee, K. H.

K. H. Kim, K. H. Lee, S. B. Park, J. K. Song, S. N. Kim, and J. H. Souk, “Domain divided vertical alignment mode with optimized fringe field effect,” Proc. Asia Display 98, 383–386 (1998).

Lee, S. H.

J. W. Park, Y. J. Ahn, J. H. Jung, S. H. Lee, R. Lu, H. Y. Kim, and S. T. Wu, “Liquid crystal display using combined fringe and in-plane electric fields,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(8), 081103 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. H. Lee, S. L. Lee, and H. Y. Kim, “Electro-optic characteristics and switching principle of a nematic liquid crystal cell controlled by fringe-field switching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(20), 2881–2883 (1998).
[Crossref]

S. H. Lee, H. Y. Kim, I. C. Park, B. G. Rho, J. S. Park, H. S. Park, and C. H. Lee, “Rubbing-free, vertically aligned nematic liquid crystal display controlled by in-plane field,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(19), 2851–2853 (1997).
[Crossref]

Lee, S. L.

Y. Gao, Z. Luo, R. Zhu, Q. Hong, S. T. Wu, M. C. Li, S. L. Lee, and W. C. Tsai, “A high performance LCD with wide luminance distribution,” J. Disp. Technol. 11(4), 315–324 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. H. Lee, S. L. Lee, and H. Y. Kim, “Electro-optic characteristics and switching principle of a nematic liquid crystal cell controlled by fringe-field switching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(20), 2881–2883 (1998).
[Crossref]

Lee, S.-L.

F. Peng, H. Chen, F. Gou, Y.-H. Lee, M. Wand, M.-C. Li, S.-L. Lee, and S.-T. Wu, “Analytical equation for the motion picture response time of display devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 121(2), 023108 (2017).
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Lee, Y.-H.

F. Peng, H. Chen, F. Gou, Y.-H. Lee, M. Wand, M.-C. Li, S.-L. Lee, and S.-T. Wu, “Analytical equation for the motion picture response time of display devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 121(2), 023108 (2017).
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Li, J.

Li, M. C.

Y. Gao, Z. Luo, R. Zhu, Q. Hong, S. T. Wu, M. C. Li, S. L. Lee, and W. C. Tsai, “A high performance LCD with wide luminance distribution,” J. Disp. Technol. 11(4), 315–324 (2015).
[Crossref]

Li, M.-C.

F. Peng, H. Chen, F. Gou, Y.-H. Lee, M. Wand, M.-C. Li, S.-L. Lee, and S.-T. Wu, “Analytical equation for the motion picture response time of display devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 121(2), 023108 (2017).
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A. Lien, “Extended Jones matrix representation for the twisted nematic liquid crystal display at oblique incidence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57(26), 2767–2769 (1990).
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Lu, R.

Z. Ge, R. Lu, T. X. Wu, S.-T. Wu, C.-L. Lin, N.-C. Hsu, W.-Y. Li, and C.-K. Wei, “Extraordinarily wide-view circular polarizers for liquid crystal displays,” Opt. Express 16(5), 3120–3129 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. W. Park, Y. J. Ahn, J. H. Jung, S. H. Lee, R. Lu, H. Y. Kim, and S. T. Wu, “Liquid crystal display using combined fringe and in-plane electric fields,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(8), 081103 (2008).
[Crossref]

Luo, Z.

Y. Gao, Z. Luo, R. Zhu, Q. Hong, S. T. Wu, M. C. Li, S. L. Lee, and W. C. Tsai, “A high performance LCD with wide luminance distribution,” J. Disp. Technol. 11(4), 315–324 (2015).
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Malik, Q. M.

F. Castles, S. M. Morris, D. J. Gardiner, Q. M. Malik, and H. J. Coles, “Ultra-fast-switching flexoelectric liquid-crystal display with high contrast,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 18(2), 128–133 (2010).
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Meyer, R. B.

J. S. Patel and R. B. Meyer, “Flexoelectric electro-optics of a cholesteric liquid crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58(15), 1538–1540 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Meyer, W. J.

H. G. Hoffman, W. J. Meyer, M. Ramirez, L. Roberts, E. J. Seibel, B. Atzori, S. R. Sharar, and D. R. Patterson, “Feasibility of articulated arm mounted Oculus Rift Virtual Reality goggles for adjunctive pain control during occupational therapy in pediatric burn patients,” Cyberpsychol. Behav. Soc. Netw. 17(6), 397–401 (2014).
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Morris, S. M.

F. Castles, S. M. Morris, D. J. Gardiner, Q. M. Malik, and H. J. Coles, “Ultra-fast-switching flexoelectric liquid-crystal display with high contrast,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 18(2), 128–133 (2010).
[Crossref]

Murata, M.

Y. Iwata, M. Murata, K. Tanaka, A. Jinda, T. Ohtake, T. Shinomiya, and H. Yoshida, “Novel super-fast-response, ultra-wide temperature range VA-LCD,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 44(1), 431–434 (2013).

Nakakura, Y.

Y. Igarashi, T. Yamamoto, Y. Tanaka, J. Someya, Y. Nakakura, M. Yamakawa, S. Hasegawa, Y. Nishida, and T. Kurita, “Summary of moving picture response time (MPRT) and futures,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 35(1), 1262–1265 (2004).

Nakanishi, Y.

H. Yoshida, Y. Nakanishi, T. Sasabayashi, Y. Tasaka, and K. Okamoto, “Fast-switching LCD with multi-domain vertical alignment driven by an oblique electric field,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 31(1), 334–337 (2000).

Nishida, Y.

Y. Igarashi, T. Yamamoto, Y. Tanaka, J. Someya, Y. Nakakura, M. Yamakawa, S. Hasegawa, Y. Nishida, and T. Kurita, “Summary of moving picture response time (MPRT) and futures,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 35(1), 1262–1265 (2004).

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H. Ito, M. Ogawa, and S. Sunaga, “Evaluation of an organic light-emitting diode display for precise visual stimulation,” J. Vis. 13(7), 6 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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T.-H. Choi, S.-W. Oh, Y.-J. Park, Y. Choi, and T.-H. Yoon, “Fast fringe-field switching of a liquid crystal cell by two-dimensional confinement with virtual walls,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 27936 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ohtake, T.

Y. Iwata, M. Murata, K. Tanaka, A. Jinda, T. Ohtake, T. Shinomiya, and H. Yoshida, “Novel super-fast-response, ultra-wide temperature range VA-LCD,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 44(1), 431–434 (2013).

Okabe, E.

Okamoto, K.

H. Yoshida, Y. Nakanishi, T. Sasabayashi, Y. Tasaka, and K. Okamoto, “Fast-switching LCD with multi-domain vertical alignment driven by an oblique electric field,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 31(1), 334–337 (2000).

Park, H. S.

S. H. Lee, H. Y. Kim, I. C. Park, B. G. Rho, J. S. Park, H. S. Park, and C. H. Lee, “Rubbing-free, vertically aligned nematic liquid crystal display controlled by in-plane field,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(19), 2851–2853 (1997).
[Crossref]

Park, I. C.

S. H. Lee, H. Y. Kim, I. C. Park, B. G. Rho, J. S. Park, H. S. Park, and C. H. Lee, “Rubbing-free, vertically aligned nematic liquid crystal display controlled by in-plane field,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(19), 2851–2853 (1997).
[Crossref]

Park, J. S.

S. H. Lee, H. Y. Kim, I. C. Park, B. G. Rho, J. S. Park, H. S. Park, and C. H. Lee, “Rubbing-free, vertically aligned nematic liquid crystal display controlled by in-plane field,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(19), 2851–2853 (1997).
[Crossref]

Park, J. W.

J. W. Park, Y. J. Ahn, J. H. Jung, S. H. Lee, R. Lu, H. Y. Kim, and S. T. Wu, “Liquid crystal display using combined fringe and in-plane electric fields,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(8), 081103 (2008).
[Crossref]

Park, S. B.

K. H. Kim, K. H. Lee, S. B. Park, J. K. Song, S. N. Kim, and J. H. Souk, “Domain divided vertical alignment mode with optimized fringe field effect,” Proc. Asia Display 98, 383–386 (1998).

Park, Y. J.

T. H. Choi, Y. J. Park, J. W. Kim, and T. H. Yoon, “Fast grey-to-grey switching of a homogeneously aligned liquid crystal device,” Liq. Cryst. 42(4), 492–496 (2015).
[Crossref]

Park, Y.-J.

T.-H. Choi, S.-W. Oh, Y.-J. Park, Y. Choi, and T.-H. Yoon, “Fast fringe-field switching of a liquid crystal cell by two-dimensional confinement with virtual walls,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 27936 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Patel, J. S.

J. S. Patel and R. B. Meyer, “Flexoelectric electro-optics of a cholesteric liquid crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58(15), 1538–1540 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Patterson, D. R.

H. G. Hoffman, W. J. Meyer, M. Ramirez, L. Roberts, E. J. Seibel, B. Atzori, S. R. Sharar, and D. R. Patterson, “Feasibility of articulated arm mounted Oculus Rift Virtual Reality goggles for adjunctive pain control during occupational therapy in pediatric burn patients,” Cyberpsychol. Behav. Soc. Netw. 17(6), 397–401 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Peng, F.

F. Peng, H. Chen, F. Gou, Y.-H. Lee, M. Wand, M.-C. Li, S.-L. Lee, and S.-T. Wu, “Analytical equation for the motion picture response time of display devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 121(2), 023108 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Chen, M. Hu, F. Peng, J. Li, Z. An, and S. T. Wu, “Ultra-low viscosity liquid crystals,” Opt. Mater. Express 5(3), 655–660 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen, F. Peng, T. Yamaguchi, X. Song, and S. T. Wu, “High performance negative dielectric anisotropy liquid crystals for display applications,” Crystals 3(3), 483–503 (2013).
[Crossref]

Philip Chen, H. M.

J. P. Yang, E. L. Hsiang, and H. M. Philip Chen, “Wide viewing angle TN LCD enhanced by printed quantum-dots film,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers47(1), 21–24 (2016).
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Ramirez, M.

H. G. Hoffman, W. J. Meyer, M. Ramirez, L. Roberts, E. J. Seibel, B. Atzori, S. R. Sharar, and D. R. Patterson, “Feasibility of articulated arm mounted Oculus Rift Virtual Reality goggles for adjunctive pain control during occupational therapy in pediatric burn patients,” Cyberpsychol. Behav. Soc. Netw. 17(6), 397–401 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rho, B. G.

S. H. Lee, H. Y. Kim, I. C. Park, B. G. Rho, J. S. Park, H. S. Park, and C. H. Lee, “Rubbing-free, vertically aligned nematic liquid crystal display controlled by in-plane field,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(19), 2851–2853 (1997).
[Crossref]

Roberts, L.

H. G. Hoffman, W. J. Meyer, M. Ramirez, L. Roberts, E. J. Seibel, B. Atzori, S. R. Sharar, and D. R. Patterson, “Feasibility of articulated arm mounted Oculus Rift Virtual Reality goggles for adjunctive pain control during occupational therapy in pediatric burn patients,” Cyberpsychol. Behav. Soc. Netw. 17(6), 397–401 (2014).
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O. Cakmakci and J. Rolland, “Head-worn displays: a review,” J. Disp. Technol. 2(3), 199–216 (2006).
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Sasabayashi, T.

H. Yoshida, Y. Nakanishi, T. Sasabayashi, Y. Tasaka, and K. Okamoto, “Fast-switching LCD with multi-domain vertical alignment driven by an oblique electric field,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 31(1), 334–337 (2000).

Seibel, E. J.

H. G. Hoffman, W. J. Meyer, M. Ramirez, L. Roberts, E. J. Seibel, B. Atzori, S. R. Sharar, and D. R. Patterson, “Feasibility of articulated arm mounted Oculus Rift Virtual Reality goggles for adjunctive pain control during occupational therapy in pediatric burn patients,” Cyberpsychol. Behav. Soc. Netw. 17(6), 397–401 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sharar, S. R.

H. G. Hoffman, W. J. Meyer, M. Ramirez, L. Roberts, E. J. Seibel, B. Atzori, S. R. Sharar, and D. R. Patterson, “Feasibility of articulated arm mounted Oculus Rift Virtual Reality goggles for adjunctive pain control during occupational therapy in pediatric burn patients,” Cyberpsychol. Behav. Soc. Netw. 17(6), 397–401 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shinomiya, T.

Y. Iwata, M. Murata, K. Tanaka, A. Jinda, T. Ohtake, T. Shinomiya, and H. Yoshida, “Novel super-fast-response, ultra-wide temperature range VA-LCD,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 44(1), 431–434 (2013).

Someya, J.

Y. Igarashi, T. Yamamoto, Y. Tanaka, J. Someya, Y. Nakakura, M. Yamakawa, S. Hasegawa, Y. Nishida, and T. Kurita, “Summary of moving picture response time (MPRT) and futures,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 35(1), 1262–1265 (2004).

Song, J. K.

S. S. Kim, B. H. Berkeley, K. H. Kim, and J. K. Song, “New technologies for advanced LCD-TV performance,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 12(4), 353–359 (2004).
[Crossref]

K. H. Kim, K. H. Lee, S. B. Park, J. K. Song, S. N. Kim, and J. H. Souk, “Domain divided vertical alignment mode with optimized fringe field effect,” Proc. Asia Display 98, 383–386 (1998).

Song, X.

Y. Chen, F. Peng, T. Yamaguchi, X. Song, and S. T. Wu, “High performance negative dielectric anisotropy liquid crystals for display applications,” Crystals 3(3), 483–503 (2013).
[Crossref]

Souk, J. H.

K. H. Kim, K. H. Lee, S. B. Park, J. K. Song, S. N. Kim, and J. H. Souk, “Domain divided vertical alignment mode with optimized fringe field effect,” Proc. Asia Display 98, 383–386 (1998).

Sunaga, S.

H. Ito, M. Ogawa, and S. Sunaga, “Evaluation of an organic light-emitting diode display for precise visual stimulation,” J. Vis. 13(7), 6 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tan, G.

H. Chen, G. Tan, Y. Huang, Y. Weng, T. H. Choi, T. H. Yoon, and S. T. Wu, “A low voltage liquid crystal phase grating with switchable diffraction angles,” Sci. Rep. 7, 39923 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Huang, H. Chen, G. Tan, H. Tobata, S.-I. Yamamoto, E. Okabe, Y. F. Lan, C. Y. Tsai, and S. T. Wu, “Optimized blue-phase liquid crystal for field-sequential-color displays,” Opt. Mater. Express 7(2), 641–650 (2017).
[Crossref]

Tanaka, K.

Y. Iwata, M. Murata, K. Tanaka, A. Jinda, T. Ohtake, T. Shinomiya, and H. Yoshida, “Novel super-fast-response, ultra-wide temperature range VA-LCD,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 44(1), 431–434 (2013).

Tanaka, Y.

Y. Igarashi, T. Yamamoto, Y. Tanaka, J. Someya, Y. Nakakura, M. Yamakawa, S. Hasegawa, Y. Nishida, and T. Kurita, “Summary of moving picture response time (MPRT) and futures,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 35(1), 1262–1265 (2004).

Tasaka, Y.

H. Yoshida, Y. Nakanishi, T. Sasabayashi, Y. Tasaka, and K. Okamoto, “Fast-switching LCD with multi-domain vertical alignment driven by an oblique electric field,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 31(1), 334–337 (2000).

Tobata, H.

Tsai, C. Y.

Tsai, W. C.

Y. Gao, Z. Luo, R. Zhu, Q. Hong, S. T. Wu, M. C. Li, S. L. Lee, and W. C. Tsai, “A high performance LCD with wide luminance distribution,” J. Disp. Technol. 11(4), 315–324 (2015).
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Wand, M.

F. Peng, H. Chen, F. Gou, Y.-H. Lee, M. Wand, M.-C. Li, S.-L. Lee, and S.-T. Wu, “Analytical equation for the motion picture response time of display devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 121(2), 023108 (2017).
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Wei, C.-K.

Weng, Y.

H. Chen, G. Tan, Y. Huang, Y. Weng, T. H. Choi, T. H. Yoon, and S. T. Wu, “A low voltage liquid crystal phase grating with switchable diffraction angles,” Sci. Rep. 7, 39923 (2017).
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Wu, C. S.

S.-T. Wu and C. S. Wu, “Rotational viscosity of nematic liquid crystals A critical examination of existing models,” Liq. Cryst. 8(2), 171–182 (1990).
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H. Chen, J. He, and S. T. Wu, “Recent advances on quantum-dot-enhanced liquid crystal displays,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 23(5), 1900611 (2017).
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H. Chen, G. Tan, Y. Huang, Y. Weng, T. H. Choi, T. H. Yoon, and S. T. Wu, “A low voltage liquid crystal phase grating with switchable diffraction angles,” Sci. Rep. 7, 39923 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Huang, H. Chen, G. Tan, H. Tobata, S.-I. Yamamoto, E. Okabe, Y. F. Lan, C. Y. Tsai, and S. T. Wu, “Optimized blue-phase liquid crystal for field-sequential-color displays,” Opt. Mater. Express 7(2), 641–650 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Chen, F. Gou, and S. T. Wu, “A submillisecond-response nematic liquid crystal for augmented reality displays,” Opt. Mater. Express 7(1), 195–201 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Chen, M. Hu, F. Peng, J. Li, Z. An, and S. T. Wu, “Ultra-low viscosity liquid crystals,” Opt. Mater. Express 5(3), 655–660 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Gao, Z. Luo, R. Zhu, Q. Hong, S. T. Wu, M. C. Li, S. L. Lee, and W. C. Tsai, “A high performance LCD with wide luminance distribution,” J. Disp. Technol. 11(4), 315–324 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen, F. Peng, T. Yamaguchi, X. Song, and S. T. Wu, “High performance negative dielectric anisotropy liquid crystals for display applications,” Crystals 3(3), 483–503 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. W. Park, Y. J. Ahn, J. H. Jung, S. H. Lee, R. Lu, H. Y. Kim, and S. T. Wu, “Liquid crystal display using combined fringe and in-plane electric fields,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(8), 081103 (2008).
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S. T. Wu, “Nematic liquid crystal modulator with response time less than 100 μs at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57(10), 986–988 (1990).
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H. Chen, Y. Gao, and S. T. Wu, “n-FFS vs. p-FFS: Who wins?” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers46(1), 735–738 (2015).

Wu, S.-T.

F. Peng, H. Chen, F. Gou, Y.-H. Lee, M. Wand, M.-C. Li, S.-L. Lee, and S.-T. Wu, “Analytical equation for the motion picture response time of display devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 121(2), 023108 (2017).
[Crossref]

Z. Ge, R. Lu, T. X. Wu, S.-T. Wu, C.-L. Lin, N.-C. Hsu, W.-Y. Li, and C.-K. Wei, “Extraordinarily wide-view circular polarizers for liquid crystal displays,” Opt. Express 16(5), 3120–3129 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S.-T. Wu and C. S. Wu, “Rotational viscosity of nematic liquid crystals A critical examination of existing models,” Liq. Cryst. 8(2), 171–182 (1990).
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S.-T. Wu, “Birefringence dispersions of liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. A Gen. Phys. 33(2), 1270–1274 (1986).
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Y. Chen, F. Peng, T. Yamaguchi, X. Song, and S. T. Wu, “High performance negative dielectric anisotropy liquid crystals for display applications,” Crystals 3(3), 483–503 (2013).
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Y. Igarashi, T. Yamamoto, Y. Tanaka, J. Someya, Y. Nakakura, M. Yamakawa, S. Hasegawa, Y. Nishida, and T. Kurita, “Summary of moving picture response time (MPRT) and futures,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 35(1), 1262–1265 (2004).

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Yamamoto, T.

Y. Igarashi, T. Yamamoto, Y. Tanaka, J. Someya, Y. Nakakura, M. Yamakawa, S. Hasegawa, Y. Nishida, and T. Kurita, “Summary of moving picture response time (MPRT) and futures,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 35(1), 1262–1265 (2004).

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H. Kikuchi, M. Yokota, Y. Hisakado, H. Yang, and T. Kajiyama, “Polymer-stabilized liquid crystal blue phases,” Nat. Mater. 1(1), 64–68 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, J. P.

J. P. Yang, E. L. Hsiang, and H. M. Philip Chen, “Wide viewing angle TN LCD enhanced by printed quantum-dots film,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers47(1), 21–24 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yokota, M.

H. Kikuchi, M. Yokota, Y. Hisakado, H. Yang, and T. Kajiyama, “Polymer-stabilized liquid crystal blue phases,” Nat. Mater. 1(1), 64–68 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yoon, T. H.

H. Chen, G. Tan, Y. Huang, Y. Weng, T. H. Choi, T. H. Yoon, and S. T. Wu, “A low voltage liquid crystal phase grating with switchable diffraction angles,” Sci. Rep. 7, 39923 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. H. Choi, Y. J. Park, J. W. Kim, and T. H. Yoon, “Fast grey-to-grey switching of a homogeneously aligned liquid crystal device,” Liq. Cryst. 42(4), 492–496 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yoon, T.-H.

T.-H. Choi, S.-W. Oh, Y.-J. Park, Y. Choi, and T.-H. Yoon, “Fast fringe-field switching of a liquid crystal cell by two-dimensional confinement with virtual walls,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 27936 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Y. Iwata, M. Murata, K. Tanaka, A. Jinda, T. Ohtake, T. Shinomiya, and H. Yoshida, “Novel super-fast-response, ultra-wide temperature range VA-LCD,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 44(1), 431–434 (2013).

H. Yoshida, Y. Nakanishi, T. Sasabayashi, Y. Tasaka, and K. Okamoto, “Fast-switching LCD with multi-domain vertical alignment driven by an oblique electric field,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 31(1), 334–337 (2000).

Zhu, R.

Y. Gao, Z. Luo, R. Zhu, Q. Hong, S. T. Wu, M. C. Li, S. L. Lee, and W. C. Tsai, “A high performance LCD with wide luminance distribution,” J. Disp. Technol. 11(4), 315–324 (2015).
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Y. Chen, F. Peng, T. Yamaguchi, X. Song, and S. T. Wu, “High performance negative dielectric anisotropy liquid crystals for display applications,” Crystals 3(3), 483–503 (2013).
[Crossref]

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H. G. Hoffman, W. J. Meyer, M. Ramirez, L. Roberts, E. J. Seibel, B. Atzori, S. R. Sharar, and D. R. Patterson, “Feasibility of articulated arm mounted Oculus Rift Virtual Reality goggles for adjunctive pain control during occupational therapy in pediatric burn patients,” Cyberpsychol. Behav. Soc. Netw. 17(6), 397–401 (2014).
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F. Peng, H. Chen, F. Gou, Y.-H. Lee, M. Wand, M.-C. Li, S.-L. Lee, and S.-T. Wu, “Analytical equation for the motion picture response time of display devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 121(2), 023108 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Disp. Technol. (2)

Y. Gao, Z. Luo, R. Zhu, Q. Hong, S. T. Wu, M. C. Li, S. L. Lee, and W. C. Tsai, “A high performance LCD with wide luminance distribution,” J. Disp. Technol. 11(4), 315–324 (2015).
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H. Ito, M. Ogawa, and S. Sunaga, “Evaluation of an organic light-emitting diode display for precise visual stimulation,” J. Vis. 13(7), 6 (2013).
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[Crossref]

Nat. Mater. (1)

H. Kikuchi, M. Yokota, Y. Hisakado, H. Yang, and T. Kajiyama, “Polymer-stabilized liquid crystal blue phases,” Nat. Mater. 1(1), 64–68 (2002).
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T.-H. Choi, S.-W. Oh, Y.-J. Park, Y. Choi, and T.-H. Yoon, “Fast fringe-field switching of a liquid crystal cell by two-dimensional confinement with virtual walls,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 27936 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Chen, G. Tan, Y. Huang, Y. Weng, T. H. Choi, T. H. Yoon, and S. T. Wu, “A low voltage liquid crystal phase grating with switchable diffraction angles,” Sci. Rep. 7, 39923 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers (4)

Y. Iwata, M. Murata, K. Tanaka, A. Jinda, T. Ohtake, T. Shinomiya, and H. Yoshida, “Novel super-fast-response, ultra-wide temperature range VA-LCD,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 44(1), 431–434 (2013).

H. Yoshida, Y. Nakanishi, T. Sasabayashi, Y. Tasaka, and K. Okamoto, “Fast-switching LCD with multi-domain vertical alignment driven by an oblique electric field,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 31(1), 334–337 (2000).

T. Kurita, “Moving picture quality improvement for hold-type AM-LCDs,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 32(1), 986–989 (2001).

Y. Igarashi, T. Yamamoto, Y. Tanaka, J. Someya, Y. Nakakura, M. Yamakawa, S. Hasegawa, Y. Nishida, and T. Kurita, “Summary of moving picture response time (MPRT) and futures,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 35(1), 1262–1265 (2004).

Other (2)

H. Chen, Y. Gao, and S. T. Wu, “n-FFS vs. p-FFS: Who wins?” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers46(1), 735–738 (2015).

J. P. Yang, E. L. Hsiang, and H. M. Philip Chen, “Wide viewing angle TN LCD enhanced by printed quantum-dots film,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers47(1), 21–24 (2016).
[Crossref]

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Figures (13)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Temperature dependent birefringence of UCF-N6 at λ = 633 nm. Dots are measured data and solid line is fitting curve with Eq. (1).
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Wavelength dependent birefringence of UCF-N6 at T = 25°C. Dots are measured data and solid line is fitting curve with Eq. (2).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Temperature dependent visco-elastic coefficient of UCF-N6. Dots are measured data and solid line is fitting curve with Eq. (3)
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Device structure of the proposed VA⊕FFS cell, and (b) top view of the pixel electrode.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Top view and (b) cross-sectional view of simulated LC director distributions of the VA⊕FFS cell at 7.5 Vrms. PI = polyimide.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Top view of on-state transmittance profiles of the VA⊕FFS cell with crossed (a) linear polarizers and (b) circular polarizers, at Von = 7.5 Vrms.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Simulated VT curves for VA⊕FFS cells using UCF-N6: (a) keeping g = 3 µm and varying w from 2~6 µm, and (b) keeping w = 4 µm, and varying g from 2~6 µm.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Simulated response time for our VA⊕FFS cells using UCF-N6. (a) g = 3 µm and w = 2~6 µm, and (b) w = 4 µm and g = 2~6 µm.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Simulated VT curves of the proposed VA⊕FFS cell at the specified wavelengths. d = 2.6 µm, w = 4 µm, and g = 3 µm.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 (a) The cross-sectional structure, (b) the simulated VT curve at λ = 550 nm, and (c) the simulated time-dependent transmittance curve of a VA-IPS LCD at 9.3 Vrms.
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 MPRT as a function of LC response time (a) with different frame rates, and (b) with different duty ratio at f = 144 Hz.
Fig. 12
Fig. 12 Calculated isocontrast contour of VA⊕FFS LCD with compensation films.
Fig. 13
Fig. 13 Calculated (a) isocontrast contour and (b) gamma curves at view angle θ = 0°, 20°, 40°, 60° and φ = 0° with a directional backlight and compensation films.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Measured physical properties of UCF-N6 at T = 25°C and f = 1 kHz.

Tables Icon

Table 2 Calculated GTG response time of the proposed VA⊕FFS cell. (unit: ms).

Tables Icon

Table 3 Calculated GTG MPRT of our VA⊕FFS LCD at f = 144 Hz. (unit: ms).

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Δn(T)=Δ n 0 S=Δ n 0 (1T/ T c ) β .
Δn=G λ 2 λ 2 λ 2 λ 2 .
γ 1 K 33 =A exp( E a / k B T) (1T/ T c ) β ,
MPRT τ 2 + (0.8× T f ) 2 .

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