Abstract

A compact see-through three-dimensional head-mounted display (3D-HMD) is proposed and investigated in this paper. Two phase holograms are analytically extracted from the object wavefront and uploaded on different zones of the spatial light modulator (SLM). A holographic grating is further used as the frequency filter to couple the separated holograms together for wavefront modulation. The developed preliminary prototype has a simple optical facility and a compact structure (133.8mm × 40.4mm × 35.4mm with a 47.7mm length viewing accessory). Optical experiments demonstrated that the proposed system can present 3D images to the human eye with full depth cues. Therefore, it is free of the accommodation-vergence conflict and visual fatigue problem. The dynamic display ability is also tested in the experiments, which provides a promising potential for the true 3D interactive display.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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References

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2017 (2)

Z. Chen, X. Sang, Q. Liu, J. Li, X. Yu, X. Gao, B. Yan, K. Wang, C. Yu, and S. Xie, “A see-through holographic head-mounted display with the large viewing angle,” Opt. Commun. 384, 125–129 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Qi, C. Chang, and J. Xia, “Accurate complex modulation by the iterative spatial cross-modulation method,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 15(2), 020901 (2017).

2016 (9)

H. Deng, Q. Wang, Z. Xiong, H. Zhang, and Y. Xing, “Magnified augmented reality 3D display based on integral imaging,” Optik (Stuttg.) 127(10), 4250–4253 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Jang, C. K. Lee, J. Jeong, G. Li, S. Lee, J. Yeom, K. Hong, and B. Lee, “Recent progress in see-through three-dimensional displays using holographic optical elements [Invited],” Appl. Opt. 55(3), A71–A85 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Le, Y. Piao, J. Kim, and N. Kim, “Quality enhancement of a complex holographic display using a single spatial light modulator and a circular grating,” J. Opt. Soc. Korea 20(1), 70–77 (2016).
[Crossref]

G. Li, D. Lee, Y. Jeong, J. Cho, and B. Lee, “Holographic display for see-through augmented reality using mirror-lens holographic optical element,” Opt. Lett. 41(11), 2486–2489 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. V. Johnson, J. A. Parnell, J. Kim, C. D. Saunter, G. D. Love, and M. S. Banks, “Dynamic lens and monovision 3D displays to improve viewer comfort,” Opt. Express 24(11), 11808–11827 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Chen, X. Sang, Q. Lin, J. Li, X. Yu, X. Gao, B. Yan, C. Yu, W. Dou, and L. Xiao, “Acceleration for computer-generated hologram in head-mounted display with effective diffraction area recording method for eyes,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 14(8), 080901 (2016).
[Crossref]

Q. Gao, J. Liu, J. Han, and X. Li, “Monocular 3D see-through head-mounted display via complex amplitude modulation,” Opt. Express 24(15), 17372–17383 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. K. Lee, S. Moon, S. Lee, D. Yoo, J. Y. Hong, and B. Lee, “Compact three-dimensional head-mounted display system with Savart plate,” Opt. Express 24(17), 19531–19544 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Qi, C. Chang, and J. Xia, “Speckleless holographic display by complex modulation based on double-phase method,” Opt. Express 24(26), 30368–30378 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (4)

2014 (7)

K. Hong, J. Yeom, C. Jang, J. Hong, and B. Lee, “Full-color lens-array holographic optical element for three-dimensional optical see-through augmented reality,” Opt. Lett. 39(1), 127–130 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Moon, M. Kim, J. Roh, H. Kim, and J. Hahn, “Holographic head-mounted display with RGB light emitting diode light source,” Opt. Express 22(6), 6526–6534 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Hua and B. Javidi, “A 3D integral imaging optical see-through head-mounted display,” Opt. Express 22(11), 13484–13491 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Xue, J. Liu, X. Li, J. Jia, Z. Zhang, B. Hu, and Y. Wang, “Multiplexing encoding method for full-color dynamic 3D holographic display,” Opt. Express 22(15), 18473–18482 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Kim, C. Y. Hwang, K. S. Kim, J. Roh, W. Moon, S. Kim, B. R. Lee, S. Oh, and J. Hahn, “Anamorphic optical transformation of an amplitude spatial light modulator to a complex spatial light modulator with square pixels [invited],” Appl. Opt. 53(27), G139–G146 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Choi, J. Roh, H. Song, G. Sung, J. An, W. Seo, K. Won, J. Ungnapatanin, M. Jung, Y. Yoon, H. S. Lee, C. H. Oh, J. Hahn, and H. Kim, “Modulation efficiency of double-phase hologram complex light modulation macro-pixels,” Opt. Express 22(18), 21460–21470 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Zhu and J. Wang, “Arbitrary manipulation of spatial amplitude and phase using phase-only spatial light modulators,” Sci. Rep. 4, 7441 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (3)

2012 (3)

2011 (4)

2008 (3)

2005 (1)

S. J. Watt, K. Akeley, M. O. Ernst, and M. S. Banks, “Focus cues affect perceived depth,” J. Vis. 5(10), 834–862 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

2000 (1)

1993 (1)

Akeley, K.

D. M. Hoffman, A. R. Girshick, K. Akeley, and M. S. Banks, “Vergence-accommodation conflicts hinder visual performance and cause visual fatigue,” J. Vis. 8(3), 33 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. J. Watt, K. Akeley, M. O. Ernst, and M. S. Banks, “Focus cues affect perceived depth,” J. Vis. 5(10), 834–862 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Amako, J.

An, J.

Anisetti, M.

J. Carmigniani, B. Furht, M. Anisetti, P. Ceravolo, E. Damiani, and M. Ivkovic, “Augmented reality technologies, system and applications,” Multimedia Tools Appl. 51(1), 341–377 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bagnoud, V.

Banks, M. S.

P. V. Johnson, J. A. Parnell, J. Kim, C. D. Saunter, G. D. Love, and M. S. Banks, “Dynamic lens and monovision 3D displays to improve viewer comfort,” Opt. Express 24(11), 11808–11827 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. M. Hoffman, A. R. Girshick, K. Akeley, and M. S. Banks, “Vergence-accommodation conflicts hinder visual performance and cause visual fatigue,” J. Vis. 8(3), 33 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. J. Watt, K. Akeley, M. O. Ernst, and M. S. Banks, “Focus cues affect perceived depth,” J. Vis. 5(10), 834–862 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bernet, S.

Birch, P. M.

Budgett, D.

Carmigniani, J.

J. Carmigniani, B. Furht, M. Anisetti, P. Ceravolo, E. Damiani, and M. Ivkovic, “Augmented reality technologies, system and applications,” Multimedia Tools Appl. 51(1), 341–377 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ceravolo, P.

J. Carmigniani, B. Furht, M. Anisetti, P. Ceravolo, E. Damiani, and M. Ivkovic, “Augmented reality technologies, system and applications,” Multimedia Tools Appl. 51(1), 341–377 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chang, C.

Chatwin, C.

Chen, J.

Chen, J. S.

Chen, N.

Chen, Z.

Z. Chen, X. Sang, Q. Liu, J. Li, X. Yu, X. Gao, B. Yan, K. Wang, C. Yu, and S. Xie, “A see-through holographic head-mounted display with the large viewing angle,” Opt. Commun. 384, 125–129 (2017).
[Crossref]

Z. Chen, X. Sang, Q. Lin, J. Li, X. Yu, X. Gao, B. Yan, C. Yu, W. Dou, and L. Xiao, “Acceleration for computer-generated hologram in head-mounted display with effective diffraction area recording method for eyes,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 14(8), 080901 (2016).
[Crossref]

Cho, J.

Choi, H. J.

Choi, S.

Chu, D. P.

Damiani, E.

J. Carmigniani, B. Furht, M. Anisetti, P. Ceravolo, E. Damiani, and M. Ivkovic, “Augmented reality technologies, system and applications,” Multimedia Tools Appl. 51(1), 341–377 (2011).
[Crossref]

Deng, H.

H. Deng, Q. Wang, Z. Xiong, H. Zhang, and Y. Xing, “Magnified augmented reality 3D display based on integral imaging,” Optik (Stuttg.) 127(10), 4250–4253 (2016).
[Crossref]

Dou, W.

Ernst, M. O.

S. J. Watt, K. Akeley, M. O. Ernst, and M. S. Banks, “Focus cues affect perceived depth,” J. Vis. 5(10), 834–862 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Furht, B.

J. Carmigniani, B. Furht, M. Anisetti, P. Ceravolo, E. Damiani, and M. Ivkovic, “Augmented reality technologies, system and applications,” Multimedia Tools Appl. 51(1), 341–377 (2011).
[Crossref]

Fütterer, G.

Gao, Q.

Gao, X.

Z. Chen, X. Sang, Q. Liu, J. Li, X. Yu, X. Gao, B. Yan, K. Wang, C. Yu, and S. Xie, “A see-through holographic head-mounted display with the large viewing angle,” Opt. Commun. 384, 125–129 (2017).
[Crossref]

Z. Chen, X. Sang, Q. Lin, J. Li, X. Yu, X. Gao, B. Yan, C. Yu, W. Dou, and L. Xiao, “Acceleration for computer-generated hologram in head-mounted display with effective diffraction area recording method for eyes,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 14(8), 080901 (2016).
[Crossref]

Girshick, A. R.

D. M. Hoffman, A. R. Girshick, K. Akeley, and M. S. Banks, “Vergence-accommodation conflicts hinder visual performance and cause visual fatigue,” J. Vis. 8(3), 33 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hahn, J.

Han, J.

Häussler, R.

Hoffman, D. M.

D. M. Hoffman, A. R. Girshick, K. Akeley, and M. S. Banks, “Vergence-accommodation conflicts hinder visual performance and cause visual fatigue,” J. Vis. 8(3), 33 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hong, J.

Hong, J. Y.

Hong, K.

Hsieh, W. Y.

Hu, B.

Hua, H.

Hwang, C. Y.

Ivkovic, M.

J. Carmigniani, B. Furht, M. Anisetti, P. Ceravolo, E. Damiani, and M. Ivkovic, “Augmented reality technologies, system and applications,” Multimedia Tools Appl. 51(1), 341–377 (2011).
[Crossref]

Jang, C.

Javidi, B.

Jeong, J.

Jeong, Y.

Jesacher, A.

Ji, Y. M.

Jia, J.

Johnson, P. V.

Jung, M.

Kanbayashi, Y.

Kato, H.

Kim, H.

Kim, H. J.

Kim, J.

Kim, K. S.

Kim, M.

Kim, N.

Kim, S.

Kim, S. B.

Kim, S. H.

Kim, Y.

Le, T.

Lee, B.

Lee, B. R.

Lee, C. K.

Lee, D.

Lee, H. S.

Lee, S.

Lei, W.

Leister, N.

Li, B.

Li, G.

Li, J.

Z. Chen, X. Sang, Q. Liu, J. Li, X. Yu, X. Gao, B. Yan, K. Wang, C. Yu, and S. Xie, “A see-through holographic head-mounted display with the large viewing angle,” Opt. Commun. 384, 125–129 (2017).
[Crossref]

Z. Chen, X. Sang, Q. Lin, J. Li, X. Yu, X. Gao, B. Yan, C. Yu, W. Dou, and L. Xiao, “Acceleration for computer-generated hologram in head-mounted display with effective diffraction area recording method for eyes,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 14(8), 080901 (2016).
[Crossref]

Li, X.

Lin, Q.

Liu, D.

Liu, J.

Liu, J. P.

Liu, P.

Liu, Q.

Z. Chen, X. Sang, Q. Liu, J. Li, X. Yu, X. Gao, B. Yan, K. Wang, C. Yu, and S. Xie, “A see-through holographic head-mounted display with the large viewing angle,” Opt. Commun. 384, 125–129 (2017).
[Crossref]

Love, G. D.

Maurer, C.

Min, S. W.

Miura, H.

Moon, E.

Moon, S.

Moon, W.

Oh, C. H.

Oh, S.

Pan, Y.

Park, J. H.

Parnell, J. A.

Piao, Y.

Poon, T. C.

Qi, Y.

Rabbi, I.

I. Rabbi and S. Ullah, “A survey on augmented reality challenges and tracking,” Acta Graph. 24(1–2), 29–46 (2013).

Reichelt, S.

Ritsch-Marte, M.

Roh, J.

Sang, X.

Z. Chen, X. Sang, Q. Liu, J. Li, X. Yu, X. Gao, B. Yan, K. Wang, C. Yu, and S. Xie, “A see-through holographic head-mounted display with the large viewing angle,” Opt. Commun. 384, 125–129 (2017).
[Crossref]

Z. Chen, X. Sang, Q. Lin, J. Li, X. Yu, X. Gao, B. Yan, C. Yu, W. Dou, and L. Xiao, “Acceleration for computer-generated hologram in head-mounted display with effective diffraction area recording method for eyes,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 14(8), 080901 (2016).
[Crossref]

Saunter, C. D.

Schwaighofer, A.

Seo, W.

Shi, R.

Sonehara, T.

Song, H.

Sung, G.

Takaki, Y.

Tsang, P.

Ullah, S.

I. Rabbi and S. Ullah, “A survey on augmented reality challenges and tracking,” Acta Graph. 24(1–2), 29–46 (2013).

Ungnapatanin, J.

Usukura, N.

Wang, J.

L. Zhu and J. Wang, “Arbitrary manipulation of spatial amplitude and phase using phase-only spatial light modulators,” Sci. Rep. 4, 7441 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, K.

Z. Chen, X. Sang, Q. Liu, J. Li, X. Yu, X. Gao, B. Yan, K. Wang, C. Yu, and S. Xie, “A see-through holographic head-mounted display with the large viewing angle,” Opt. Commun. 384, 125–129 (2017).
[Crossref]

Wang, Q.

H. Deng, Q. Wang, Z. Xiong, H. Zhang, and Y. Xing, “Magnified augmented reality 3D display based on integral imaging,” Optik (Stuttg.) 127(10), 4250–4253 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y.

Watt, S. J.

S. J. Watt, K. Akeley, M. O. Ernst, and M. S. Banks, “Focus cues affect perceived depth,” J. Vis. 5(10), 834–862 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Won, K.

Xia, J.

Xiao, L.

Xiao, R.

Xie, J.

Xie, S.

Z. Chen, X. Sang, Q. Liu, J. Li, X. Yu, X. Gao, B. Yan, K. Wang, C. Yu, and S. Xie, “A see-through holographic head-mounted display with the large viewing angle,” Opt. Commun. 384, 125–129 (2017).
[Crossref]

Xing, Y.

H. Deng, Q. Wang, Z. Xiong, H. Zhang, and Y. Xing, “Magnified augmented reality 3D display based on integral imaging,” Optik (Stuttg.) 127(10), 4250–4253 (2016).
[Crossref]

Xiong, Z.

H. Deng, Q. Wang, Z. Xiong, H. Zhang, and Y. Xing, “Magnified augmented reality 3D display based on integral imaging,” Optik (Stuttg.) 127(10), 4250–4253 (2016).
[Crossref]

Xu, J.

Xue, G.

Yamaguchi, Y.

Yan, B.

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Supplementary Material (2)

NameDescription
» Visualization 1: MOV (807 KB)      Focused images at different depths
» Visualization 2: MOV (622 KB)      Dynamic 3D see-through display

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Schematic of the proposed see-through 3D-HMD system, (b) the wearing effect for the AR application. The two real objects ‘Car’ and ‘Rubic’ locate at d1 and d2 distances with the modulated 3D instruction signals, respectively.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Illustration of the wavefront modulation with grating filter.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Illustration of the holographic grating fabrication, (b) a fabricated example.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 The Developed 3D-HMD prototype, (a) its detailed configuration, (b) the assembled module, and (c) the wearing performance.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 The testing experimental facility with two real objects (sunflower and monkey).
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) Illustration of the system FOV, the exit pupil and the distance of the virtual SLM are both 10mm, the BS coupler is 25.4mm, and the viewing window is 20.1mm, (b) the example of a calibrated hologram.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Reconstructed 3D images at different focused depths, (a) 3, d1 = 134mm, and (b) D, d2 = 184mm.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Focused images at different depths (Visualization 1), (a) spatial distribution of the 3D signals with 20mm intervals, and (b)-(f) are the focused images at 134mm, 154mm, 174mm, 194mm and 214mm, respectively.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Dynamic 3D see-through display (Visualization 2), (a)-(f) are the extracted frames.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Parameters of the prototype.

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Table 2 Computing times and Frame rates for different resolutions.

Equations (10)

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exp ( i θ 1 ) + exp ( i θ 2 ) = A exp ( i θ )
{ θ 1 = θ + c o s 1 ( A 2 ) θ 2 = θ c o s 1 ( A 2 )
U ( x g , y g ) = 1 i λ f F t { h 1 ( x s , y s d h 2 ) + h 2 ( x s , y s + d h 2 ) } G ( x g , y g ) = 1 i λ f H ( x g λ f , y g λ f ) G ( x g , y g )
G ( x g , y g ) = 1 2 + m 2 cos ( 2 π y g Δ )
U ( x c , y c ) = 1 i λ f F t { 1 i λ f H ( x g λ f , y g λ f ) [ 1 2 + m 2 cos ( 2 π y g Δ ) ] } = [ h 1 ( x c , y c d h 2 ) + h 2 ( x c , y c + d h 2 ) ] + m 4 [ h 1 ( x c , y c d h 2 + λ f Δ ) + h 2 ( x c , y c + d h 2 λ f Δ ) ] + m 4 [ h 1 ( x c , y c d h 2 λ f Δ ) + h 2 ( x c , y c + d h 2 + λ f Δ ) ]
d h = 2 π f Δ
U ( x c , y c ) = ... + m 4 [ h 1 ( x c , y c ) + h 2 ( x c , y c ) ] + ... = ... + m 4 [ exp ( i θ 1 ) + exp ( i θ 2 ) ] + ... = ... + m 4 A exp ( i θ ) + ...
O ( x , y ) = 1 i λ z o exp ( i k z o ) U ( x c , y c ) exp { i k 2 z o [ ( x x c ) 2 + ( y y c ) 2 ] } d x c d y c
I = | exp ( i k 1 r ) + exp ( i k 2 r ) | 2 = 2 + 2 cos [ ( k 1 k 2 ) r ]
Δ = λ 2 sin ( β 2 )

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