Abstract

Live coral cover (LCC) is regarded as the most efficient indicator of coral reef health. However, LCCs are usually sampled with standardized transect or photo quadrat techniques in field, which are incomplete and labour-intensive. To overcome such difficulties, we study a model to transfer the pixels of multispectral satellite images to quantitative LCCs. The idea is to extend band ratio-based (BR) indices to a novel index constructed using the ratio of different linear combinations (RDLC) of band reflectance and water depths. On the basis of field surveyed LCCs, an empirical process is further proposed to solve the unknown parameters of this RDLC. This approach provides new thinking for designing LCC-sensitive indices for given multispectral satellite images. The experimental results on Weizhou Island and Palmyra Atoll demonstrate that the method is effective and feasible, where the mean relative errors (MREs) are improved from 45 to 56% for BRs to 23–29% for RDLCs for Weizhou Island.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2018 (1)

S. Khanna, M. J. Santos, S. L. Ustin, K. Shapiro, P. J. Haverkamp, and M. Lay, “Comparing the potential of multispectral and hyperspectral data for monitoring oil spill impact,” Sensors (Basel) 18(2), 558 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2017 (1)

R. Huang, K. Yu, Y. Wang, J. Wang, L. Mu, and W. Wang, “Bathymetry of the Coral Reefs of Weizhou Island Based on Multispectral Satellite Images,” Remote Sens. (Basel) 9(12), 750 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (4)

H. Mohamed, A. Negm, M. Zahran, and O. C. Saavedra, “Bathymetry Determination from High Resolution Satellite Imagery Using Ensemble Learning Algorithms in Shallow Lakes,” Case Study El-Burullus Lake 7, 295–301 (2016).

W. Wang, K. Yu, and Y. Wang, “A Review on the Research of Coral Reefs in the Weizhou Island,Beibu Gulf,” Trop. Geogr. 36, 72–79 (2016).

P. V. D. N. Araújo and R. Farias Do Amaral, “Mapping of coral reefs in the continental shelf of Brazilian Northeast through remote sensing,” Revista de Gestão Costeira Integrada 16(1), 5–20 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Zhao, K. Yu, Q. Shi, H. Yang, B. Riegl, Q. Zhang, H. Yan, T. Chen, G. Liu, and Z. Lin, “The coral communities of Yongle atoll: status, threats and conservation significance for coral reefs in South China Sea,” Mar. Freshw. Res. 67(12), 1888–1896 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (2)

M. Papadopoulou, P. Lafazani, E. R. Mavridou, M. Tsakiri-Strati, and G. Doxani, “Creation of Digital Bathymetric Maps using High Resolution Satellite Imagery and Multispectral Bathymetric Modeling for Shallow Waters,” Tour. Manage. 14, 407–408 (2015).

F. Eugenio, J. Marcello, and J. Martin, “High-Resolution Maps of Bathymetry and Benthic Habitats in Shallow-Water Environments Using Multispectral Remote Sensing Imagery,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 53(7), 3539–3549 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (7)

L. Li, H. Luo, and H. Zhu, “Estimation of the Image Interpretability of ZY-3 Sensor Corrected Panchromatic Nadir Data,” Remote Sens. (Basel) 6(12), 4409–4429 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. L. Zoffoli, R. Frouin, and M. Kampel, “Water Column Correction for Coral Reef Studies by Remote Sensing,” Sensors (Basel) 14(9), 16881–16931 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Eugenio, J. Martin, J. Marcello, and E. Fraile-Nuez, “Environmental monitoring of El Hierro Island submarine volcano, by combining low and high resolution satellite imagery,” Int. J. Appl. Earth Obs. Geoinf. 29, 53–66 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Hu, Z. Liu, Z. Liu, C. Hu, and M. X. He, “Mapping bottom depth and albedo in coastal waters of the South China Sea islands and reefs using Landsat TM and ETM+ data,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 35(11-12), 4156–4172 (2014).
[Crossref]

O. Yuzugullu and A. Aksoy, “Generation of the bathymetry of a eutrophic shallow lake using WorldView-2 imagery,” J. Hydroinform. 16(1), 50–59 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Li, H. Luo, X. Tang, and Z. Li, “Characteristic analysis and quality assessment of ZY-3 multi-spectral image,” Remote sensing for land and resources 26, 17–24 (2014).

C. Yun and D. Gillieson, “Evaluation of Landsat TM vegetation indices for estimating vegetation cover on semi-arid rangelands: a case study from Australia,” Can. J. Rem. Sens. 35, 435–446 (2014).

2013 (6)

T. Chen, S. Li, K. Yu, Z. Zheng, L. Wang, and T. Chen, “Increasing temperature anomalies reduce coral growth in the Weizhou Island, northern South China Sea,” Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci. 130, 121–126 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. Chen, Z. Zheng, S. Mo, C. Tang, and X. Zhou, “Bioerosion in Porites corals at Weizhou Island and its environmental significance,” Chin. Sci. Bull. 58(17), 1574–1582 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. E. Joyce and S. R. Phinn, “Spectral index development for mapping live coral cover,” J. Appl. Remote Sens. 7(1), 262–279 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Roelfsema, S. Phinn, S. Jupiter, and J. C. S. Albert, “Mapping coral reefs at reef to reef-system scales, 10s-1000s km2, using object-based image analysis,” nt. Yaogan Xuebao 34, 6367–6388 (2013).

H. T. Kobryn, K. Wouters, L. E. Beckley, and T. Heege, “Ningaloo reef: shallow marine habitats mapped using a hyperspectral sensor,” PLoS One 8(7), e70105 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. E. Joyce, S. R. Phinn, and C. M. Roelfsema, “Live Coral Cover Index Testing and Application with Hyperspectral Airborne Image Data,” Remote Sens. (Basel) 5(12), 6116–6137 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (5)

J. D. Hedley, C. M. Roelfsema, S. R. Phinn, and P. J. Mumby, “Environmental and Sensor Limitations in Optical Remote Sensing of Coral Reefs: Implications for Monitoring and Sensor Design,” Remote Sens. (Basel) 4(12), 271–302 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. R. Phinn and C. M. R. P. Mumby, “Multi-scale, object-based image analysis for mapping geomorphic and ecological zones on coral reefs,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 33(12), 3768–3797 (2012).
[Crossref]

K. Yu, “Coral reefs in the South China Sea: Their response to and records on past environmental changes,” Sci. China Earth Sci. 55(8), 1217–1229 (2012).
[Crossref]

L. I. Deren and W. Mi, “On-orbit Geometric Calibration and Accuracy Assessment of ZY-3,” Spacecraft Recovery Remote Sensing 33, 1–6 (2012).

G. Doxani, M. Papadopoulou, P. Lafazani, C. Pikridas, and M. Tsakiristrati, “Shallow-Water Bathymetry Over Variable Bottom Types Using Multispectral WORLDVIEW-2 Image,” ISPRS - International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences XXXIX B8, 159–164 (2012).

2011 (2)

J. Leon and C. D. Woodroffe, “Improving the synoptic mapping of coral reef geomorphology using object-based image analysis,” Int. J. Geogr. Inf. Sci. 25(6), 949–969 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Hamylton, “Estimating the coverage of coral reef benthic communities from airborne hyperspectral remote sensing data: multiple discriminant function analysis and linear spectral unmixing,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 32(24), 9673–9690 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

M. A. Hamel and S. Andréfouët, “Using very high resolution remote sensing for the management of coral reef fisheries: Review and perspectives,” Mar. Pollut. Bull. 60(9), 1397–1405 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Zhao, K. Yu, Q. Zhang, and Q. Shi, “Long-term change in coral cover in luhuitou fringing reef, Sanya,” Oceanol. Limnol. Sin. 41, 440–447 (2010).

2007 (1)

C. M. Newman, A. J. Knudby, and E. F. Ledrew, “Assessing the effect of management zonation on live coral cover using multi-date IKONOS satellite imagery,” J. Appl. Remote Sens. 1(1), 285–300 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

D. R. Lyzenga, N. P. Malinas, and F. J. Tanis, “Multispectral bathymetry using a simple physically based algorithm,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 44(8), 2251–2259 (2006).
[Crossref]

Q. Zhang, Q. Shi, G. Chen, T. C. W. Fong, D. C. C. Wong, H. Huang, H. Wang, and M. Zhao, “Status monitoring and health assessment of Luhuitou fringing reef of Sanya, Hainan, China,” Chin. Sci. Bull. 51(S2), 81–88 (2006).
[Crossref]

2004 (3)

R. V. Platt and A. F. H. Goetz, “A Comparison of AVIRIS and Landsat for Land Use Classification at the Urban Fringe,” Photogramm. Eng. Remote Sensing 70(7), 813–819 (2004).
[Crossref]

A. C. Xavier and C. A. Vettorazzi, “Mapping leaf area index through spectral vegetation indices in a subtropical watershed,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 25(9), 1661–1672 (2004).
[Crossref]

P. J. Mumby, J. D. Hedley, J. Chisholm, C. D. Clark, H. Ripley, and J. Jaubert, “The cover of living and dead corals from airborne remote sensing,” Coral Reefs 23(2), 171–183 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (2)

J. M. Pandolfi, R. H. Bradbury, E. Sala, T. P. Hughes, K. A. Bjorndal, R. G. Cooke, D. McArdle, L. McClenachan, M. J. H. Newman, G. Paredes, R. R. Warner, and J. B. C. Jackson, “Global trajectories of the long-term decline of coral reef ecosystems,” Science 301(5635), 955–958 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. J. Hochberg and M. J. Atkinson, “Capabilities of remote sensors to classify coral, algae, and sand as pure and mixed spectra,” Remote Sens. Environ. 85(2), 174–189 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

A. Minghelli-Roman, J. R. Chisholm, M. Marchioretti, and J. M. Jaubert, “Discrimination of coral reflectance spectra in the Red Sea,” Coral Reefs 21(3), 307–314 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (2)

D. R. Bellwood and T. P. Hughes, “Regional-scale assembly rules and biodiversity of coral reefs,” Science 292(5521), 1532–1535 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Lee, K. L. Carder, R. F. Chen, and T. G. Peacock, “Properties of the water column and bottom derived from Airborne Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data,” J. Geophys. Res. 106(C6), 11639–11652 (2001).
[Crossref]

1999 (2)

1998 (2)

Q. Tian, L. Zheng, and Q. Tong, “Image based atmospheric radiation correction and reflectance retrieval methods,” Quarterly J. Appl. Meteorology 9, 456–461 (1998).

Z. Lee, K. L. Carder, C. D. Mobley, R. G. Steward, and J. S. Patch, “Hyperspectral remote sensing for shallow waters. I. A semianalytical model,” Appl. Opt. 37(27), 6329–6338 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

P. J. Mumby, E. P. Green, A. J. Edwards, and C. D. Clark, “Coral reef habitat mapping: how much detail can remote sensing provide?” Mar. Biol. 130(2), 193–202 (1997).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

S. Maritorena, A. Morel, and B. Gentili, “Diffuse reflectance of oceanic shallow waters: Influence of water depth and bottom albedo,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 39(7), 1689–1703 (1994).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

P. N. Bierwirth, “Shallow sea-floor reflectance and water depth derived by unmixing multispectral imagery,” Photogramm. Eng. Remote Sensing 59, 331–338 (1993).

1978 (2)

Aksoy, A.

O. Yuzugullu and A. Aksoy, “Generation of the bathymetry of a eutrophic shallow lake using WorldView-2 imagery,” J. Hydroinform. 16(1), 50–59 (2014).
[Crossref]

Albert, J. C. S.

C. Roelfsema, S. Phinn, S. Jupiter, and J. C. S. Albert, “Mapping coral reefs at reef to reef-system scales, 10s-1000s km2, using object-based image analysis,” nt. Yaogan Xuebao 34, 6367–6388 (2013).

Andréfouët, S.

M. A. Hamel and S. Andréfouët, “Using very high resolution remote sensing for the management of coral reef fisheries: Review and perspectives,” Mar. Pollut. Bull. 60(9), 1397–1405 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Araújo, P. V. D. N.

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H. T. Kobryn, K. Wouters, L. E. Beckley, and T. Heege, “Ningaloo reef: shallow marine habitats mapped using a hyperspectral sensor,” PLoS One 8(7), e70105 (2013).
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J. M. Pandolfi, R. H. Bradbury, E. Sala, T. P. Hughes, K. A. Bjorndal, R. G. Cooke, D. McArdle, L. McClenachan, M. J. H. Newman, G. Paredes, R. R. Warner, and J. B. C. Jackson, “Global trajectories of the long-term decline of coral reef ecosystems,” Science 301(5635), 955–958 (2003).
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S. Khanna, M. J. Santos, S. L. Ustin, K. Shapiro, P. J. Haverkamp, and M. Lay, “Comparing the potential of multispectral and hyperspectral data for monitoring oil spill impact,” Sensors (Basel) 18(2), 558 (2018).
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H. T. Kobryn, K. Wouters, L. E. Beckley, and T. Heege, “Ningaloo reef: shallow marine habitats mapped using a hyperspectral sensor,” PLoS One 8(7), e70105 (2013).
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M. Papadopoulou, P. Lafazani, E. R. Mavridou, M. Tsakiri-Strati, and G. Doxani, “Creation of Digital Bathymetric Maps using High Resolution Satellite Imagery and Multispectral Bathymetric Modeling for Shallow Waters,” Tour. Manage. 14, 407–408 (2015).

G. Doxani, M. Papadopoulou, P. Lafazani, C. Pikridas, and M. Tsakiristrati, “Shallow-Water Bathymetry Over Variable Bottom Types Using Multispectral WORLDVIEW-2 Image,” ISPRS - International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences XXXIX B8, 159–164 (2012).

Lay, M.

S. Khanna, M. J. Santos, S. L. Ustin, K. Shapiro, P. J. Haverkamp, and M. Lay, “Comparing the potential of multispectral and hyperspectral data for monitoring oil spill impact,” Sensors (Basel) 18(2), 558 (2018).
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H. Holden and E. Ledrew, “Hyperspectral identification of coral reef features,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 20(13), 2545–2563 (1999).
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C. M. Newman, A. J. Knudby, and E. F. Ledrew, “Assessing the effect of management zonation on live coral cover using multi-date IKONOS satellite imagery,” J. Appl. Remote Sens. 1(1), 285–300 (2007).
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T. Chen, S. Li, K. Yu, Z. Zheng, L. Wang, and T. Chen, “Increasing temperature anomalies reduce coral growth in the Weizhou Island, northern South China Sea,” Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci. 130, 121–126 (2013).
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M. Zhao, K. Yu, Q. Shi, H. Yang, B. Riegl, Q. Zhang, H. Yan, T. Chen, G. Liu, and Z. Lin, “The coral communities of Yongle atoll: status, threats and conservation significance for coral reefs in South China Sea,” Mar. Freshw. Res. 67(12), 1888–1896 (2016).
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M. Zhao, K. Yu, Q. Shi, H. Yang, B. Riegl, Q. Zhang, H. Yan, T. Chen, G. Liu, and Z. Lin, “The coral communities of Yongle atoll: status, threats and conservation significance for coral reefs in South China Sea,” Mar. Freshw. Res. 67(12), 1888–1896 (2016).
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L. Hu, Z. Liu, Z. Liu, C. Hu, and M. X. He, “Mapping bottom depth and albedo in coastal waters of the South China Sea islands and reefs using Landsat TM and ETM+ data,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 35(11-12), 4156–4172 (2014).
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L. Hu, Z. Liu, Z. Liu, C. Hu, and M. X. He, “Mapping bottom depth and albedo in coastal waters of the South China Sea islands and reefs using Landsat TM and ETM+ data,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 35(11-12), 4156–4172 (2014).
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S. D. Jawak and A. J. Luis, “High-resolution multispectral satellite imagery for extracting bathymetric information of Antarctic shallow lakes,” Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering (2016).

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L. Li, H. Luo, X. Tang, and Z. Li, “Characteristic analysis and quality assessment of ZY-3 multi-spectral image,” Remote sensing for land and resources 26, 17–24 (2014).

L. Li, H. Luo, and H. Zhu, “Estimation of the Image Interpretability of ZY-3 Sensor Corrected Panchromatic Nadir Data,” Remote Sens. (Basel) 6(12), 4409–4429 (2014).
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F. Eugenio, J. Marcello, and J. Martin, “High-Resolution Maps of Bathymetry and Benthic Habitats in Shallow-Water Environments Using Multispectral Remote Sensing Imagery,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 53(7), 3539–3549 (2015).
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A. Minghelli-Roman, J. R. Chisholm, M. Marchioretti, and J. M. Jaubert, “Discrimination of coral reflectance spectra in the Red Sea,” Coral Reefs 21(3), 307–314 (2002).
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McArdle, D.

J. M. Pandolfi, R. H. Bradbury, E. Sala, T. P. Hughes, K. A. Bjorndal, R. G. Cooke, D. McArdle, L. McClenachan, M. J. H. Newman, G. Paredes, R. R. Warner, and J. B. C. Jackson, “Global trajectories of the long-term decline of coral reef ecosystems,” Science 301(5635), 955–958 (2003).
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A. Minghelli-Roman, J. R. Chisholm, M. Marchioretti, and J. M. Jaubert, “Discrimination of coral reflectance spectra in the Red Sea,” Coral Reefs 21(3), 307–314 (2002).
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T. Chen, Z. Zheng, S. Mo, C. Tang, and X. Zhou, “Bioerosion in Porites corals at Weizhou Island and its environmental significance,” Chin. Sci. Bull. 58(17), 1574–1582 (2013).
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R. Huang, K. Yu, Y. Wang, J. Wang, L. Mu, and W. Wang, “Bathymetry of the Coral Reefs of Weizhou Island Based on Multispectral Satellite Images,” Remote Sens. (Basel) 9(12), 750 (2017).
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J. D. Hedley, C. M. Roelfsema, S. R. Phinn, and P. J. Mumby, “Environmental and Sensor Limitations in Optical Remote Sensing of Coral Reefs: Implications for Monitoring and Sensor Design,” Remote Sens. (Basel) 4(12), 271–302 (2012).
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P. J. Mumby, J. D. Hedley, J. Chisholm, C. D. Clark, H. Ripley, and J. Jaubert, “The cover of living and dead corals from airborne remote sensing,” Coral Reefs 23(2), 171–183 (2004).
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P. J. Mumby, E. P. Green, A. J. Edwards, and C. D. Clark, “Coral reef habitat mapping: how much detail can remote sensing provide?” Mar. Biol. 130(2), 193–202 (1997).
[Crossref]

Negm, A.

H. Mohamed, A. Negm, M. Zahran, and O. C. Saavedra, “Bathymetry Determination from High Resolution Satellite Imagery Using Ensemble Learning Algorithms in Shallow Lakes,” Case Study El-Burullus Lake 7, 295–301 (2016).

Newman, C. M.

C. M. Newman, A. J. Knudby, and E. F. Ledrew, “Assessing the effect of management zonation on live coral cover using multi-date IKONOS satellite imagery,” J. Appl. Remote Sens. 1(1), 285–300 (2007).
[Crossref]

Newman, M. J. H.

J. M. Pandolfi, R. H. Bradbury, E. Sala, T. P. Hughes, K. A. Bjorndal, R. G. Cooke, D. McArdle, L. McClenachan, M. J. H. Newman, G. Paredes, R. R. Warner, and J. B. C. Jackson, “Global trajectories of the long-term decline of coral reef ecosystems,” Science 301(5635), 955–958 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pandolfi, J. M.

J. M. Pandolfi, R. H. Bradbury, E. Sala, T. P. Hughes, K. A. Bjorndal, R. G. Cooke, D. McArdle, L. McClenachan, M. J. H. Newman, G. Paredes, R. R. Warner, and J. B. C. Jackson, “Global trajectories of the long-term decline of coral reef ecosystems,” Science 301(5635), 955–958 (2003).
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Papadopoulou, M.

M. Papadopoulou, P. Lafazani, E. R. Mavridou, M. Tsakiri-Strati, and G. Doxani, “Creation of Digital Bathymetric Maps using High Resolution Satellite Imagery and Multispectral Bathymetric Modeling for Shallow Waters,” Tour. Manage. 14, 407–408 (2015).

G. Doxani, M. Papadopoulou, P. Lafazani, C. Pikridas, and M. Tsakiristrati, “Shallow-Water Bathymetry Over Variable Bottom Types Using Multispectral WORLDVIEW-2 Image,” ISPRS - International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences XXXIX B8, 159–164 (2012).

Paredes, G.

J. M. Pandolfi, R. H. Bradbury, E. Sala, T. P. Hughes, K. A. Bjorndal, R. G. Cooke, D. McArdle, L. McClenachan, M. J. H. Newman, G. Paredes, R. R. Warner, and J. B. C. Jackson, “Global trajectories of the long-term decline of coral reef ecosystems,” Science 301(5635), 955–958 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Patch, J. S.

Peacock, T. G.

Z. Lee, K. L. Carder, R. F. Chen, and T. G. Peacock, “Properties of the water column and bottom derived from Airborne Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data,” J. Geophys. Res. 106(C6), 11639–11652 (2001).
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Phinn, S.

C. Roelfsema, S. Phinn, S. Jupiter, and J. C. S. Albert, “Mapping coral reefs at reef to reef-system scales, 10s-1000s km2, using object-based image analysis,” nt. Yaogan Xuebao 34, 6367–6388 (2013).

Phinn, S. R.

K. E. Joyce and S. R. Phinn, “Spectral index development for mapping live coral cover,” J. Appl. Remote Sens. 7(1), 262–279 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. E. Joyce, S. R. Phinn, and C. M. Roelfsema, “Live Coral Cover Index Testing and Application with Hyperspectral Airborne Image Data,” Remote Sens. (Basel) 5(12), 6116–6137 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. R. Phinn and C. M. R. P. Mumby, “Multi-scale, object-based image analysis for mapping geomorphic and ecological zones on coral reefs,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 33(12), 3768–3797 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. D. Hedley, C. M. Roelfsema, S. R. Phinn, and P. J. Mumby, “Environmental and Sensor Limitations in Optical Remote Sensing of Coral Reefs: Implications for Monitoring and Sensor Design,” Remote Sens. (Basel) 4(12), 271–302 (2012).
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Pikridas, C.

G. Doxani, M. Papadopoulou, P. Lafazani, C. Pikridas, and M. Tsakiristrati, “Shallow-Water Bathymetry Over Variable Bottom Types Using Multispectral WORLDVIEW-2 Image,” ISPRS - International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences XXXIX B8, 159–164 (2012).

Planes, S.

A. Collin, J. L. Hench, and S. Planes, “A novel spaceborne proxy for mapping coral cover,” in Proceedings of the 12th International Coral Reef Symposium (Cairns, Australia, 2012).

Platt, R. V.

R. V. Platt and A. F. H. Goetz, “A Comparison of AVIRIS and Landsat for Land Use Classification at the Urban Fringe,” Photogramm. Eng. Remote Sensing 70(7), 813–819 (2004).
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Riegl, B.

M. Zhao, K. Yu, Q. Shi, H. Yang, B. Riegl, Q. Zhang, H. Yan, T. Chen, G. Liu, and Z. Lin, “The coral communities of Yongle atoll: status, threats and conservation significance for coral reefs in South China Sea,” Mar. Freshw. Res. 67(12), 1888–1896 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ripley, H.

P. J. Mumby, J. D. Hedley, J. Chisholm, C. D. Clark, H. Ripley, and J. Jaubert, “The cover of living and dead corals from airborne remote sensing,” Coral Reefs 23(2), 171–183 (2004).
[Crossref]

Roelfsema, C.

C. Roelfsema, S. Phinn, S. Jupiter, and J. C. S. Albert, “Mapping coral reefs at reef to reef-system scales, 10s-1000s km2, using object-based image analysis,” nt. Yaogan Xuebao 34, 6367–6388 (2013).

Roelfsema, C. M.

K. E. Joyce, S. R. Phinn, and C. M. Roelfsema, “Live Coral Cover Index Testing and Application with Hyperspectral Airborne Image Data,” Remote Sens. (Basel) 5(12), 6116–6137 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. D. Hedley, C. M. Roelfsema, S. R. Phinn, and P. J. Mumby, “Environmental and Sensor Limitations in Optical Remote Sensing of Coral Reefs: Implications for Monitoring and Sensor Design,” Remote Sens. (Basel) 4(12), 271–302 (2012).
[Crossref]

Saavedra, O. C.

H. Mohamed, A. Negm, M. Zahran, and O. C. Saavedra, “Bathymetry Determination from High Resolution Satellite Imagery Using Ensemble Learning Algorithms in Shallow Lakes,” Case Study El-Burullus Lake 7, 295–301 (2016).

Sala, E.

J. M. Pandolfi, R. H. Bradbury, E. Sala, T. P. Hughes, K. A. Bjorndal, R. G. Cooke, D. McArdle, L. McClenachan, M. J. H. Newman, G. Paredes, R. R. Warner, and J. B. C. Jackson, “Global trajectories of the long-term decline of coral reef ecosystems,” Science 301(5635), 955–958 (2003).
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Santos, M. J.

S. Khanna, M. J. Santos, S. L. Ustin, K. Shapiro, P. J. Haverkamp, and M. Lay, “Comparing the potential of multispectral and hyperspectral data for monitoring oil spill impact,” Sensors (Basel) 18(2), 558 (2018).
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Shapiro, K.

S. Khanna, M. J. Santos, S. L. Ustin, K. Shapiro, P. J. Haverkamp, and M. Lay, “Comparing the potential of multispectral and hyperspectral data for monitoring oil spill impact,” Sensors (Basel) 18(2), 558 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shi, Q.

M. Zhao, K. Yu, Q. Shi, H. Yang, B. Riegl, Q. Zhang, H. Yan, T. Chen, G. Liu, and Z. Lin, “The coral communities of Yongle atoll: status, threats and conservation significance for coral reefs in South China Sea,” Mar. Freshw. Res. 67(12), 1888–1896 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Zhao, K. Yu, Q. Zhang, and Q. Shi, “Long-term change in coral cover in luhuitou fringing reef, Sanya,” Oceanol. Limnol. Sin. 41, 440–447 (2010).

Q. Zhang, Q. Shi, G. Chen, T. C. W. Fong, D. C. C. Wong, H. Huang, H. Wang, and M. Zhao, “Status monitoring and health assessment of Luhuitou fringing reef of Sanya, Hainan, China,” Chin. Sci. Bull. 51(S2), 81–88 (2006).
[Crossref]

Steward, R. G.

Tang, C.

T. Chen, Z. Zheng, S. Mo, C. Tang, and X. Zhou, “Bioerosion in Porites corals at Weizhou Island and its environmental significance,” Chin. Sci. Bull. 58(17), 1574–1582 (2013).
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Tang, X.

L. Li, H. Luo, X. Tang, and Z. Li, “Characteristic analysis and quality assessment of ZY-3 multi-spectral image,” Remote sensing for land and resources 26, 17–24 (2014).

Tanis, F. J.

D. R. Lyzenga, N. P. Malinas, and F. J. Tanis, “Multispectral bathymetry using a simple physically based algorithm,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 44(8), 2251–2259 (2006).
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Tian, Q.

Q. Tian, L. Zheng, and Q. Tong, “Image based atmospheric radiation correction and reflectance retrieval methods,” Quarterly J. Appl. Meteorology 9, 456–461 (1998).

Tong, Q.

Q. Tian, L. Zheng, and Q. Tong, “Image based atmospheric radiation correction and reflectance retrieval methods,” Quarterly J. Appl. Meteorology 9, 456–461 (1998).

Tsakiristrati, M.

G. Doxani, M. Papadopoulou, P. Lafazani, C. Pikridas, and M. Tsakiristrati, “Shallow-Water Bathymetry Over Variable Bottom Types Using Multispectral WORLDVIEW-2 Image,” ISPRS - International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences XXXIX B8, 159–164 (2012).

Tsakiri-Strati, M.

M. Papadopoulou, P. Lafazani, E. R. Mavridou, M. Tsakiri-Strati, and G. Doxani, “Creation of Digital Bathymetric Maps using High Resolution Satellite Imagery and Multispectral Bathymetric Modeling for Shallow Waters,” Tour. Manage. 14, 407–408 (2015).

Ustin, S. L.

S. Khanna, M. J. Santos, S. L. Ustin, K. Shapiro, P. J. Haverkamp, and M. Lay, “Comparing the potential of multispectral and hyperspectral data for monitoring oil spill impact,” Sensors (Basel) 18(2), 558 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vettorazzi, C. A.

A. C. Xavier and C. A. Vettorazzi, “Mapping leaf area index through spectral vegetation indices in a subtropical watershed,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 25(9), 1661–1672 (2004).
[Crossref]

Wang, H.

Q. Zhang, Q. Shi, G. Chen, T. C. W. Fong, D. C. C. Wong, H. Huang, H. Wang, and M. Zhao, “Status monitoring and health assessment of Luhuitou fringing reef of Sanya, Hainan, China,” Chin. Sci. Bull. 51(S2), 81–88 (2006).
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Wang, J.

R. Huang, K. Yu, Y. Wang, J. Wang, L. Mu, and W. Wang, “Bathymetry of the Coral Reefs of Weizhou Island Based on Multispectral Satellite Images,” Remote Sens. (Basel) 9(12), 750 (2017).
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Wang, L.

T. Chen, S. Li, K. Yu, Z. Zheng, L. Wang, and T. Chen, “Increasing temperature anomalies reduce coral growth in the Weizhou Island, northern South China Sea,” Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci. 130, 121–126 (2013).
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Wang, W.

R. Huang, K. Yu, Y. Wang, J. Wang, L. Mu, and W. Wang, “Bathymetry of the Coral Reefs of Weizhou Island Based on Multispectral Satellite Images,” Remote Sens. (Basel) 9(12), 750 (2017).
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W. Wang, K. Yu, and Y. Wang, “A Review on the Research of Coral Reefs in the Weizhou Island,Beibu Gulf,” Trop. Geogr. 36, 72–79 (2016).

Wang, Y.

R. Huang, K. Yu, Y. Wang, J. Wang, L. Mu, and W. Wang, “Bathymetry of the Coral Reefs of Weizhou Island Based on Multispectral Satellite Images,” Remote Sens. (Basel) 9(12), 750 (2017).
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W. Wang, K. Yu, and Y. Wang, “A Review on the Research of Coral Reefs in the Weizhou Island,Beibu Gulf,” Trop. Geogr. 36, 72–79 (2016).

Warner, R. R.

J. M. Pandolfi, R. H. Bradbury, E. Sala, T. P. Hughes, K. A. Bjorndal, R. G. Cooke, D. McArdle, L. McClenachan, M. J. H. Newman, G. Paredes, R. R. Warner, and J. B. C. Jackson, “Global trajectories of the long-term decline of coral reef ecosystems,” Science 301(5635), 955–958 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wong, D. C. C.

Q. Zhang, Q. Shi, G. Chen, T. C. W. Fong, D. C. C. Wong, H. Huang, H. Wang, and M. Zhao, “Status monitoring and health assessment of Luhuitou fringing reef of Sanya, Hainan, China,” Chin. Sci. Bull. 51(S2), 81–88 (2006).
[Crossref]

Woodroffe, C. D.

J. Leon and C. D. Woodroffe, “Improving the synoptic mapping of coral reef geomorphology using object-based image analysis,” Int. J. Geogr. Inf. Sci. 25(6), 949–969 (2011).
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Wouters, K.

H. T. Kobryn, K. Wouters, L. E. Beckley, and T. Heege, “Ningaloo reef: shallow marine habitats mapped using a hyperspectral sensor,” PLoS One 8(7), e70105 (2013).
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Xavier, A. C.

A. C. Xavier and C. A. Vettorazzi, “Mapping leaf area index through spectral vegetation indices in a subtropical watershed,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 25(9), 1661–1672 (2004).
[Crossref]

Yan, H.

M. Zhao, K. Yu, Q. Shi, H. Yang, B. Riegl, Q. Zhang, H. Yan, T. Chen, G. Liu, and Z. Lin, “The coral communities of Yongle atoll: status, threats and conservation significance for coral reefs in South China Sea,” Mar. Freshw. Res. 67(12), 1888–1896 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yang, H.

M. Zhao, K. Yu, Q. Shi, H. Yang, B. Riegl, Q. Zhang, H. Yan, T. Chen, G. Liu, and Z. Lin, “The coral communities of Yongle atoll: status, threats and conservation significance for coral reefs in South China Sea,” Mar. Freshw. Res. 67(12), 1888–1896 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yu, K.

R. Huang, K. Yu, Y. Wang, J. Wang, L. Mu, and W. Wang, “Bathymetry of the Coral Reefs of Weizhou Island Based on Multispectral Satellite Images,” Remote Sens. (Basel) 9(12), 750 (2017).
[Crossref]

W. Wang, K. Yu, and Y. Wang, “A Review on the Research of Coral Reefs in the Weizhou Island,Beibu Gulf,” Trop. Geogr. 36, 72–79 (2016).

M. Zhao, K. Yu, Q. Shi, H. Yang, B. Riegl, Q. Zhang, H. Yan, T. Chen, G. Liu, and Z. Lin, “The coral communities of Yongle atoll: status, threats and conservation significance for coral reefs in South China Sea,” Mar. Freshw. Res. 67(12), 1888–1896 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. Chen, S. Li, K. Yu, Z. Zheng, L. Wang, and T. Chen, “Increasing temperature anomalies reduce coral growth in the Weizhou Island, northern South China Sea,” Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci. 130, 121–126 (2013).
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K. Yu, “Coral reefs in the South China Sea: Their response to and records on past environmental changes,” Sci. China Earth Sci. 55(8), 1217–1229 (2012).
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M. Zhao, K. Yu, Q. Zhang, and Q. Shi, “Long-term change in coral cover in luhuitou fringing reef, Sanya,” Oceanol. Limnol. Sin. 41, 440–447 (2010).

Yun, C.

C. Yun and D. Gillieson, “Evaluation of Landsat TM vegetation indices for estimating vegetation cover on semi-arid rangelands: a case study from Australia,” Can. J. Rem. Sens. 35, 435–446 (2014).

Yuzugullu, O.

O. Yuzugullu and A. Aksoy, “Generation of the bathymetry of a eutrophic shallow lake using WorldView-2 imagery,” J. Hydroinform. 16(1), 50–59 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zahran, M.

H. Mohamed, A. Negm, M. Zahran, and O. C. Saavedra, “Bathymetry Determination from High Resolution Satellite Imagery Using Ensemble Learning Algorithms in Shallow Lakes,” Case Study El-Burullus Lake 7, 295–301 (2016).

Zhang, Q.

M. Zhao, K. Yu, Q. Shi, H. Yang, B. Riegl, Q. Zhang, H. Yan, T. Chen, G. Liu, and Z. Lin, “The coral communities of Yongle atoll: status, threats and conservation significance for coral reefs in South China Sea,” Mar. Freshw. Res. 67(12), 1888–1896 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Zhao, K. Yu, Q. Zhang, and Q. Shi, “Long-term change in coral cover in luhuitou fringing reef, Sanya,” Oceanol. Limnol. Sin. 41, 440–447 (2010).

Q. Zhang, Q. Shi, G. Chen, T. C. W. Fong, D. C. C. Wong, H. Huang, H. Wang, and M. Zhao, “Status monitoring and health assessment of Luhuitou fringing reef of Sanya, Hainan, China,” Chin. Sci. Bull. 51(S2), 81–88 (2006).
[Crossref]

Zhao, M.

M. Zhao, K. Yu, Q. Shi, H. Yang, B. Riegl, Q. Zhang, H. Yan, T. Chen, G. Liu, and Z. Lin, “The coral communities of Yongle atoll: status, threats and conservation significance for coral reefs in South China Sea,” Mar. Freshw. Res. 67(12), 1888–1896 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Zhao, K. Yu, Q. Zhang, and Q. Shi, “Long-term change in coral cover in luhuitou fringing reef, Sanya,” Oceanol. Limnol. Sin. 41, 440–447 (2010).

Q. Zhang, Q. Shi, G. Chen, T. C. W. Fong, D. C. C. Wong, H. Huang, H. Wang, and M. Zhao, “Status monitoring and health assessment of Luhuitou fringing reef of Sanya, Hainan, China,” Chin. Sci. Bull. 51(S2), 81–88 (2006).
[Crossref]

Zheng, L.

Q. Tian, L. Zheng, and Q. Tong, “Image based atmospheric radiation correction and reflectance retrieval methods,” Quarterly J. Appl. Meteorology 9, 456–461 (1998).

Zheng, Z.

T. Chen, S. Li, K. Yu, Z. Zheng, L. Wang, and T. Chen, “Increasing temperature anomalies reduce coral growth in the Weizhou Island, northern South China Sea,” Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci. 130, 121–126 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. Chen, Z. Zheng, S. Mo, C. Tang, and X. Zhou, “Bioerosion in Porites corals at Weizhou Island and its environmental significance,” Chin. Sci. Bull. 58(17), 1574–1582 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhou, X.

T. Chen, Z. Zheng, S. Mo, C. Tang, and X. Zhou, “Bioerosion in Porites corals at Weizhou Island and its environmental significance,” Chin. Sci. Bull. 58(17), 1574–1582 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhu, H.

L. Li, H. Luo, and H. Zhu, “Estimation of the Image Interpretability of ZY-3 Sensor Corrected Panchromatic Nadir Data,” Remote Sens. (Basel) 6(12), 4409–4429 (2014).
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Zoffoli, M. L.

M. L. Zoffoli, R. Frouin, and M. Kampel, “Water Column Correction for Coral Reef Studies by Remote Sensing,” Sensors (Basel) 14(9), 16881–16931 (2014).
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Appl. Opt. (3)

Can. J. Rem. Sens. (1)

C. Yun and D. Gillieson, “Evaluation of Landsat TM vegetation indices for estimating vegetation cover on semi-arid rangelands: a case study from Australia,” Can. J. Rem. Sens. 35, 435–446 (2014).

Case Study El-Burullus Lake (1)

H. Mohamed, A. Negm, M. Zahran, and O. C. Saavedra, “Bathymetry Determination from High Resolution Satellite Imagery Using Ensemble Learning Algorithms in Shallow Lakes,” Case Study El-Burullus Lake 7, 295–301 (2016).

Chin. Sci. Bull. (2)

Q. Zhang, Q. Shi, G. Chen, T. C. W. Fong, D. C. C. Wong, H. Huang, H. Wang, and M. Zhao, “Status monitoring and health assessment of Luhuitou fringing reef of Sanya, Hainan, China,” Chin. Sci. Bull. 51(S2), 81–88 (2006).
[Crossref]

T. Chen, Z. Zheng, S. Mo, C. Tang, and X. Zhou, “Bioerosion in Porites corals at Weizhou Island and its environmental significance,” Chin. Sci. Bull. 58(17), 1574–1582 (2013).
[Crossref]

Coral Reefs (2)

P. J. Mumby, J. D. Hedley, J. Chisholm, C. D. Clark, H. Ripley, and J. Jaubert, “The cover of living and dead corals from airborne remote sensing,” Coral Reefs 23(2), 171–183 (2004).
[Crossref]

A. Minghelli-Roman, J. R. Chisholm, M. Marchioretti, and J. M. Jaubert, “Discrimination of coral reflectance spectra in the Red Sea,” Coral Reefs 21(3), 307–314 (2002).
[Crossref]

Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci. (1)

T. Chen, S. Li, K. Yu, Z. Zheng, L. Wang, and T. Chen, “Increasing temperature anomalies reduce coral growth in the Weizhou Island, northern South China Sea,” Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci. 130, 121–126 (2013).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. (2)

F. Eugenio, J. Marcello, and J. Martin, “High-Resolution Maps of Bathymetry and Benthic Habitats in Shallow-Water Environments Using Multispectral Remote Sensing Imagery,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 53(7), 3539–3549 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. R. Lyzenga, N. P. Malinas, and F. J. Tanis, “Multispectral bathymetry using a simple physically based algorithm,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 44(8), 2251–2259 (2006).
[Crossref]

Int. J. Appl. Earth Obs. Geoinf. (1)

F. Eugenio, J. Martin, J. Marcello, and E. Fraile-Nuez, “Environmental monitoring of El Hierro Island submarine volcano, by combining low and high resolution satellite imagery,” Int. J. Appl. Earth Obs. Geoinf. 29, 53–66 (2014).
[Crossref]

Int. J. Geogr. Inf. Sci. (1)

J. Leon and C. D. Woodroffe, “Improving the synoptic mapping of coral reef geomorphology using object-based image analysis,” Int. J. Geogr. Inf. Sci. 25(6), 949–969 (2011).
[Crossref]

Int. J. Remote Sens. (5)

S. Hamylton, “Estimating the coverage of coral reef benthic communities from airborne hyperspectral remote sensing data: multiple discriminant function analysis and linear spectral unmixing,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 32(24), 9673–9690 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. R. Phinn and C. M. R. P. Mumby, “Multi-scale, object-based image analysis for mapping geomorphic and ecological zones on coral reefs,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 33(12), 3768–3797 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. C. Xavier and C. A. Vettorazzi, “Mapping leaf area index through spectral vegetation indices in a subtropical watershed,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 25(9), 1661–1672 (2004).
[Crossref]

H. Holden and E. Ledrew, “Hyperspectral identification of coral reef features,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 20(13), 2545–2563 (1999).
[Crossref]

L. Hu, Z. Liu, Z. Liu, C. Hu, and M. X. He, “Mapping bottom depth and albedo in coastal waters of the South China Sea islands and reefs using Landsat TM and ETM+ data,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 35(11-12), 4156–4172 (2014).
[Crossref]

ISPRS - International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences XXXIX (1)

G. Doxani, M. Papadopoulou, P. Lafazani, C. Pikridas, and M. Tsakiristrati, “Shallow-Water Bathymetry Over Variable Bottom Types Using Multispectral WORLDVIEW-2 Image,” ISPRS - International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences XXXIX B8, 159–164 (2012).

J. Appl. Remote Sens. (2)

K. E. Joyce and S. R. Phinn, “Spectral index development for mapping live coral cover,” J. Appl. Remote Sens. 7(1), 262–279 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. M. Newman, A. J. Knudby, and E. F. Ledrew, “Assessing the effect of management zonation on live coral cover using multi-date IKONOS satellite imagery,” J. Appl. Remote Sens. 1(1), 285–300 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Geophys. Res. (1)

Z. Lee, K. L. Carder, R. F. Chen, and T. G. Peacock, “Properties of the water column and bottom derived from Airborne Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data,” J. Geophys. Res. 106(C6), 11639–11652 (2001).
[Crossref]

J. Hydroinform. (1)

O. Yuzugullu and A. Aksoy, “Generation of the bathymetry of a eutrophic shallow lake using WorldView-2 imagery,” J. Hydroinform. 16(1), 50–59 (2014).
[Crossref]

Limnol. Oceanogr. (1)

S. Maritorena, A. Morel, and B. Gentili, “Diffuse reflectance of oceanic shallow waters: Influence of water depth and bottom albedo,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 39(7), 1689–1703 (1994).
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Mar. Biol. (1)

P. J. Mumby, E. P. Green, A. J. Edwards, and C. D. Clark, “Coral reef habitat mapping: how much detail can remote sensing provide?” Mar. Biol. 130(2), 193–202 (1997).
[Crossref]

Mar. Freshw. Res. (1)

M. Zhao, K. Yu, Q. Shi, H. Yang, B. Riegl, Q. Zhang, H. Yan, T. Chen, G. Liu, and Z. Lin, “The coral communities of Yongle atoll: status, threats and conservation significance for coral reefs in South China Sea,” Mar. Freshw. Res. 67(12), 1888–1896 (2016).
[Crossref]

Mar. Pollut. Bull. (1)

M. A. Hamel and S. Andréfouët, “Using very high resolution remote sensing for the management of coral reef fisheries: Review and perspectives,” Mar. Pollut. Bull. 60(9), 1397–1405 (2010).
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nt. Yaogan Xuebao (1)

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Figures (14)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 The position of Weizhou Island and the corresponding experimental satellite images: (a) position of Weizhou Island (the pentagram); (b) ZY-3 image; and (c) WV-3 image.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 The EO-1 ALI multispectral image of the northern Pacific Palmyra Atoll.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 The implementation of the RDLC model for estimating the LCCs of Weizhou Island.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 The correlation coefficients of the constructed RDLCs against different radii for the experimental multispectral images.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 The influence on the field surveyed local LCCs against different radii for a specific transect: (left) field surveyed local LCCs along the transect, which are calculated using different radii; (right) variations of field surveyed local LCCs along the transect against different radii.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 The LCCs estimated by the constructed RDLCs: (a) LCCs estimated from the ZY-3 image; (b) LCCs estimated from the WV-3 image.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 The comparisons between the estimated LCCs and the corresponding field surveyed ones for the constructed RDLC indices: (a) the comparisons for the ZY-3 image; (b) the comparisons for the WV-3 image.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 The comparisons between the estimated LCCs and their corresponding field surveyed ones for SBR and NDR: (a) the comparisons for the ZY-3 image; (b) the comparisons for the WV-3 image.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Statistics of the check errors for the RDLC index (Palmyra Atoll, EO-1 ALI image).
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 The position distribution of the video transects around Weizhou Island.
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 The method of recording the transect video for field LCC estimation.
Fig. 12
Fig. 12 The method for reading the position and length of live corals along the video transect.
Fig. 13
Fig. 13 The estimation of field surveyed LCCs and their matching to multispectral images: for such an approach, we can assign several pixels with LCCs for a specific transect.
Fig. 14
Fig. 14 Diagram for MRE estimation

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Statistics of the LCCs for the SBR and NDR indices for the field surveyed local LCCs.

Equations (26)

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L(λ)= L (λ)+k(λ) ρ b (λ)exp[ κ(λ)fH ]
ρ(λ)= ρ (λ)+t(λ) ρ b (λ)exp[ κ(λ)fH ]
ρ(λ) ρ (λ)=t(λ) ρ b (λ)exp[ κ(λ)fH ]
ln[ ρ(λ) ρ (λ) ]=lnt(λ)+ln ρ b (λ)κ(λ)fH
i a i ln[ ρ( λ i ) ρ ( λ i ) ] = i a i t( λ i ) + i a i ln ρ b ( λ i ) 2f i a i κ( λ i )H
I( a i )= i a i ln ρ b ( λ i ) = i a i ln[ ρ( λ i ) ρ ( λ i ) ] i a i t( λ i ) +2f i a i κ( λ i )H
I( a i , a i )= I( a i ) I( a i ) = i a i ln ρ b ( λ i ) i a i ln ρ b ( λ i )
LCC=mI( a i , a i )+n
I( a i , a i ,b, b ,c, c )= i a i ln[ ρ( λ i ) ρ ( λ i ) ] +bH+c i a i ln[ ρ( λ i ) ρ ( λ i ) ] + b H+ c
{ b=2f i a i κ( λ i ) b =2f i a i κ( λ i ) c= i a i t( λ i ) c = i a i t( λ i )
{ i a i 2 =1 i a i 2 =1
E ρ,H ( a i , a i ,b, b ,c, c ,m,n)=T( L ρ,H <u)(u L ρ,H )+T( L ρ,H >v)( L ρ,H v)
L ρ,H =mI( a i , a i ,b, b ,c, c )+n
E( a i , a i ,b, b ,c, c ,m,n)= 1 N ρ,H E ρ,H ( a i , a i ,b, b ,c, c ,m,n)
Variation(R)= 1 N(P) pP [LC C p (R+1)LC C p (R1)] 2
RMSE= 1 N i=1 N (LC C f,i LC C e,i ) 2
y=kx
k=tanθ
tanϕ=tan( 45 θ)= 1tanθ 1+tanθ = 1k 1+k
k= C e C f
tanϕ= C f C e C f + C e
RE=2tanϕ=2 1k 1+k
y= 1 k x
d i =min{ | C ei k C fi 1+ k 2 |,| k C ei C fi 1+ k 2 | }
L(k)= i d i 2
MRE=2 1 k ¯ 1+ k ¯

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