Abstract

The emission with a bandwidth of 1.5 terahertz based on the spin current in the ferromagnetic heterostructure Co/Pt is demonstrated. The spin transient launched by the NIR femtosecond laser pulse in the Co/Pt is converted into the in-plane charge current due to the inverse spin Hall effect, which gives rise to the terahertz emission towards free space. The dependence of the terahertz emission on the Pt-layer thickness is investigated. To optimize the geometry structure of the new type of emitter, we developed the theoretical model by carefully analyzing the spin transport. Our model reveals the importance to take into account the interfacial spin loss. It can be used to analyze more complex heterostructures.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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    [Crossref]
  2. N. Sarukura, H. Ohtake, S. Izumida, and Z. Liu, “High average-power THz radiation from femtosecond laser-irradiated InAs in a magnetic field and its elliptical polarization characteristics,” J. Appl. Phys. 84(1), 654–656 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  3. M. Nakajima, Y. Oda, and T. Suemoto, “Competing terahertz radiation mechanisms in semi-insulating InPat high-density excitation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(14), 2694–2696 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  4. M. Nakajima, M. Hangyo, M. Ohta, and H. Miyazaki, “Polarity reversal of terahertz waves radiated from semi-insulating InP surfaces induced by temperature,” Phys. Rev. B 67(19), 195308 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  5. M. Nakajima, M. Takahashi, and M. Hangyo, “Strong enhancement of THz radiation intensity from semi-insulating GaAs surfaces at high temperatures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(8), 1462–1464 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  6. D. H. Auston, K. P. Cheung, and P. R. Smith, “Picosecond photoconducting Hertzian dipoles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 45(3), 284–286 (1984).
    [Crossref]
  7. N. M. Burford and M. O. El-Shenawee, “Review of terahertz photoconductive antenna technology,” Opt. Eng. 56(1), 10901 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  8. E. Castro-Camus and M. Alfaro, “Photoconductive devices for terahertz pulsed spectroscopy: a review [Invited],” Photon. Res. 4(3), A36 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  9. M. Venkatesh, S. Ramakanth, A. K. Chaudhary, and K. C. J. Raju, “Study of terahertz emission from nickel (Ni) films of different thicknesses using ultrafast laser pulses,” Opt. Mater. Express 6(7), 2342 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  10. A. Ghosh, K. Garello, C. O. Avci, M. Gabureac, and P. Gambardella, “Interface-Enhanced Spin-Orbit Torques and Current-Induced Magnetization Switching of Pd/Co/AlOx Layers,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 7(1), 014004 (2017).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  12. H. Nakayama, M. Althammer, Y. T. Chen, K. Uchida, Y. Kajiwara, D. Kikuchi, T. Ohtani, S. Geprägs, M. Opel, S. Takahashi, R. Gross, G. E. W. Bauer, S. T. B. Goennenwein, and E. Saitoh, “Spin Hall Magnetoresistance Induced by a Nonequilibrium Proximity Effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(20), 206601 (2013).
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  13. O. Mosendz, G. Woltersdorf, B. Kardasz, B. Heinrich, and C. H. Back, “Magnetization dynamics in the presence of pure spin currents in magnetic single and double layers in spin ballistic and diffusive regimes,” Phys. Rev. B – Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 79(22), 224412 (2009).
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    [Crossref]
  18. Y. Sasaki, K. Z. Suzuki, and S. Mizukami, “Annealing effect on laser pulse-induced THz wave emission in Ta/CoFeB/MgO films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(10), 1–6 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  19. G. Torosyan, S. Keller, L. Scheuer, R. Beigang, and E. T. Papaioannou, “Optimized Spintronic Terahertz Emitters Based on Epitaxial Grown Fe/Pt Layer Structures,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 1311 (2018).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. M. Battiato, K. Carva, and P. M. Oppeneer, “Superdiffusive Spin Transport as a Mechanism of Ultrafast Demagnetization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(2), 027203 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. E. Y. Tsymbal and D. G. Pettifor, “Effects of band structure and spin-independent disorder on conductivity and giant magnetoresistance in Co/Cu and Fe/Cr multilayers,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 54(21), 15314–15329 (1996).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  22. K. C. Wong, E. P. Wohlfarth, and D. M. Hum, “Density of states and effective electron interaction in hexagonal cobalt,” Phys. Lett. A 29(8), 452–453 (1969).
    [Crossref]
  23. B. Hope and A. Horsfield, “Contrasting spin-polarization regimes in Co nanowires studied by density functional theory,” Phys. Rev. B 77(9), 094442 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  24. C. S. Fadley and D. A. Shirley, “X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopic Study of Iron, Cobalt, Nickel, Copper, and Platinum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 21(14), 980–983 (1968).
    [Crossref]
  25. R. Knorren, K. H. Bennemann, R. Burgermeister, and M. Aeschlimann, “Dynamics of excited electrons in copper and ferromagnetic transition metals: Theory and experiment,” Phys. Rev. B 61(14), 9427–9440 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  26. E. Saitoh, M. Ueda, H. Miyajima, and G. Tatara, “Conversion of spin current into charge current at room temperature: Inverse spin-Hall effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(18), 182509 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  27. N. Kumar, R. W. A. Hendrikx, A. J. L. Adam, and P. C. M. Planken, “Thickness dependent terahertz emission from cobalt thin films,” Opt. Express 23(11), 14252–14262 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  28. H. Kontani, T. Tanaka, D. S. Hirashima, K. Yamada, and J. Inoue, “Giant Orbital Hall Effect in Transition Metals: Origin of Large Spin and Anomalous Hall Effects,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(1), 016601 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  29. P. Johnson and R. Christy, “Optical constants of transition metals: Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, and Pd,” Phys. Rev. B 9(12), 5056–5070 (1974).
    [Crossref]
  30. P. M. Haney, H. W. Lee, K. J. Lee, A. Manchon, and M. D. Stiles, “Current induced torques and interfacial spin-orbit coupling: Semiclassical modeling,” Phys. Rev. B – Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 87(17), 174411 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  31. T. Valet and A. Fert, “Theory of the perpendicular magnetoresistance in magnetic multilayers,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 48(10), 7099–7113 (1993).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  32. M. D. Stiles, J. Xiao, and A. Zangwill, “Phenomenological theory of current-induced magnetization precession,” Phys. Rev. B 69(5), 54408 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  33. Y.-T. Chen, S. Takahashi, H. Nakayama, M. Althammer, S. T. B. Goennenwein, E. Saitoh, and G. E. W. Bauer, “Theory of spin Hall magnetoresistance,” Phys. Rev. B 87(14), 144411 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  34. M. Idrish Miah, “Spin drift and spin diffusion currents in semiconductors,” Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater. 9(3), 035014 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  35. E. S. Demidov, N. S. Gusev, L. I. Budarin, E. A. Karashtin, V. L. Mironov, and A. A. Fraerman, “Interlayer interaction in multilayer [Co/Pt]n/Pt/Co structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 120(17), 173901 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  36. P. Wyder, H. Van Kempen, and P. Wyder, “Boundary resistance of the ferromagnetic-nonferromagnetic metal interface,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58(21), 2271–2273 (1987).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  37. C.-F. Pai, Y. Ou, L. H. Vilela-Leão, D. C. Ralph, and R. A. Buhrman, “Dependence of the efficiency of spin Hall torque on the transparency of Pt/ferromagnetic layer interfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 92(6), 064426 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  38. Y. Liu, Z. Yuan, R. J. H. Wesselink, A. A. Starikov, and P. J. Kelly, “Interface Enhancement of Gilbert Damping from First Principles,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(20), 207202 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  39. W. Zhang, W. Han, X. Jiang, S.-H. Yang, and S. S. P. Parkin, “Role of transparency of platinum–ferromagnet interfaces in determining the intrinsic magnitude of the spin Hall effect,” Nat. Phys. 11(6), 496–502 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  40. J. C. Rojas-Sánchez, N. Reyren, P. Laczkowski, W. Savero, J. P. Attané, C. Deranlot, M. Jamet, J. M. George, L. Vila, and H. Jaffrès, “Spin pumping and inverse spin hall effect in platinum: The essential role of spin-memory loss at metallic interfaces,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112(10), 106602 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  41. O. Mosendz, J. E. Pearson, F. Y. Fradin, G. E. W. Bauer, S. D. Bader, and A. Hoffmann, “Quantifying Spin Hall Angles from Spin Pumping: Experiments and Theory,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(4), 046601 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2018 (1)

G. Torosyan, S. Keller, L. Scheuer, R. Beigang, and E. T. Papaioannou, “Optimized Spintronic Terahertz Emitters Based on Epitaxial Grown Fe/Pt Layer Structures,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 1311 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2017 (3)

N. M. Burford and M. O. El-Shenawee, “Review of terahertz photoconductive antenna technology,” Opt. Eng. 56(1), 10901 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Ghosh, K. Garello, C. O. Avci, M. Gabureac, and P. Gambardella, “Interface-Enhanced Spin-Orbit Torques and Current-Induced Magnetization Switching of Pd/Co/AlOx Layers,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 7(1), 014004 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Sasaki, K. Z. Suzuki, and S. Mizukami, “Annealing effect on laser pulse-induced THz wave emission in Ta/CoFeB/MgO films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(10), 1–6 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (6)

T. J. Huisman, R. V. Mikhaylovskiy, J. D. Costa, F. Freimuth, E. Paz, J. Ventura, P. P. Freitas, S. Blügel, Y. Mokrousov, T. Rasing, and A. V. Kimel, “Femtosecond control of electric currents in metallic ferromagnetic heterostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 11(5), 455–458 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Seifert, S. Jaiswal, U. Martens, J. Hannegan, L. Braun, P. Maldonado, F. Freimuth, A. Kronenberg, J. Henrizi, I. Radu, E. Beaurepaire, Y. Mokrousov, P. M. Oppeneer, M. Jourdan, G. Jakob, D. Turchinovich, L. M. Hayden, M. Wolf, M. Münzenberg, M. Kläui, and T. Kampfrath, “Efficient metallic spintronic emitters of ultrabroadband terahertz radiation,” Nat. Photonics 10(7), 483–488 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Yang, J. Liang, C. Zhou, L. Sun, R. Zheng, S. Luo, Y. Wu, and J. Qi, “Powerful and Tunable THz Emitters Based on the Fe/Pt Magnetic Heterostructure,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(12), 1944–1949 (2016).
[Crossref]

E. Castro-Camus and M. Alfaro, “Photoconductive devices for terahertz pulsed spectroscopy: a review [Invited],” Photon. Res. 4(3), A36 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Venkatesh, S. Ramakanth, A. K. Chaudhary, and K. C. J. Raju, “Study of terahertz emission from nickel (Ni) films of different thicknesses using ultrafast laser pulses,” Opt. Mater. Express 6(7), 2342 (2016).
[Crossref]

E. S. Demidov, N. S. Gusev, L. I. Budarin, E. A. Karashtin, V. L. Mironov, and A. A. Fraerman, “Interlayer interaction in multilayer [Co/Pt]n/Pt/Co structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 120(17), 173901 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (3)

N. Kumar, R. W. A. Hendrikx, A. J. L. Adam, and P. C. M. Planken, “Thickness dependent terahertz emission from cobalt thin films,” Opt. Express 23(11), 14252–14262 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C.-F. Pai, Y. Ou, L. H. Vilela-Leão, D. C. Ralph, and R. A. Buhrman, “Dependence of the efficiency of spin Hall torque on the transparency of Pt/ferromagnetic layer interfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 92(6), 064426 (2015).
[Crossref]

W. Zhang, W. Han, X. Jiang, S.-H. Yang, and S. S. P. Parkin, “Role of transparency of platinum–ferromagnet interfaces in determining the intrinsic magnitude of the spin Hall effect,” Nat. Phys. 11(6), 496–502 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

J. C. Rojas-Sánchez, N. Reyren, P. Laczkowski, W. Savero, J. P. Attané, C. Deranlot, M. Jamet, J. M. George, L. Vila, and H. Jaffrès, “Spin pumping and inverse spin hall effect in platinum: The essential role of spin-memory loss at metallic interfaces,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112(10), 106602 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Liu, Z. Yuan, R. J. H. Wesselink, A. A. Starikov, and P. J. Kelly, “Interface Enhancement of Gilbert Damping from First Principles,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(20), 207202 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (4)

P. M. Haney, H. W. Lee, K. J. Lee, A. Manchon, and M. D. Stiles, “Current induced torques and interfacial spin-orbit coupling: Semiclassical modeling,” Phys. Rev. B – Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 87(17), 174411 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y.-T. Chen, S. Takahashi, H. Nakayama, M. Althammer, S. T. B. Goennenwein, E. Saitoh, and G. E. W. Bauer, “Theory of spin Hall magnetoresistance,” Phys. Rev. B 87(14), 144411 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. Kampfrath, M. Battiato, P. Maldonado, G. Eilers, J. Nötzold, S. Mährlein, V. Zbarsky, F. Freimuth, Y. Mokrousov, S. Blügel, M. Wolf, I. Radu, P. M. Oppeneer, and M. Münzenberg, “Terahertz spin current pulses controlled by magnetic heterostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 8(4), 256–260 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Nakayama, M. Althammer, Y. T. Chen, K. Uchida, Y. Kajiwara, D. Kikuchi, T. Ohtani, S. Geprägs, M. Opel, S. Takahashi, R. Gross, G. E. W. Bauer, S. T. B. Goennenwein, and E. Saitoh, “Spin Hall Magnetoresistance Induced by a Nonequilibrium Proximity Effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(20), 206601 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (1)

C. F. Pai, L. Liu, Y. Li, H. W. Tseng, D. C. Ralph, and R. A. Buhrman, “Spin transfer torque devices utilizing the giant spin Hall effect of tungsten,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(12), 1–5 (2012).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

M. Battiato, K. Carva, and P. M. Oppeneer, “Superdiffusive Spin Transport as a Mechanism of Ultrafast Demagnetization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(2), 027203 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Mosendz, J. E. Pearson, F. Y. Fradin, G. E. W. Bauer, S. D. Bader, and A. Hoffmann, “Quantifying Spin Hall Angles from Spin Pumping: Experiments and Theory,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(4), 046601 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

H. Kontani, T. Tanaka, D. S. Hirashima, K. Yamada, and J. Inoue, “Giant Orbital Hall Effect in Transition Metals: Origin of Large Spin and Anomalous Hall Effects,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(1), 016601 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Mosendz, G. Woltersdorf, B. Kardasz, B. Heinrich, and C. H. Back, “Magnetization dynamics in the presence of pure spin currents in magnetic single and double layers in spin ballistic and diffusive regimes,” Phys. Rev. B – Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 79(22), 224412 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

M. Idrish Miah, “Spin drift and spin diffusion currents in semiconductors,” Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater. 9(3), 035014 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Hope and A. Horsfield, “Contrasting spin-polarization regimes in Co nanowires studied by density functional theory,” Phys. Rev. B 77(9), 094442 (2008).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

E. Saitoh, M. Ueda, H. Miyajima, and G. Tatara, “Conversion of spin current into charge current at room temperature: Inverse spin-Hall effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(18), 182509 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

M. Hangyo, M. Tani, and T. Nagashima, “Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of solids: A review,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 26(12), 1661–1690 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

M. Nakajima, Y. Oda, and T. Suemoto, “Competing terahertz radiation mechanisms in semi-insulating InPat high-density excitation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(14), 2694–2696 (2004).
[Crossref]

M. D. Stiles, J. Xiao, and A. Zangwill, “Phenomenological theory of current-induced magnetization precession,” Phys. Rev. B 69(5), 54408 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

M. Nakajima, M. Hangyo, M. Ohta, and H. Miyazaki, “Polarity reversal of terahertz waves radiated from semi-insulating InP surfaces induced by temperature,” Phys. Rev. B 67(19), 195308 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

M. Nakajima, M. Takahashi, and M. Hangyo, “Strong enhancement of THz radiation intensity from semi-insulating GaAs surfaces at high temperatures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(8), 1462–1464 (2002).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

R. Knorren, K. H. Bennemann, R. Burgermeister, and M. Aeschlimann, “Dynamics of excited electrons in copper and ferromagnetic transition metals: Theory and experiment,” Phys. Rev. B 61(14), 9427–9440 (2000).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

N. Sarukura, H. Ohtake, S. Izumida, and Z. Liu, “High average-power THz radiation from femtosecond laser-irradiated InAs in a magnetic field and its elliptical polarization characteristics,” J. Appl. Phys. 84(1), 654–656 (1998).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

E. Y. Tsymbal and D. G. Pettifor, “Effects of band structure and spin-independent disorder on conductivity and giant magnetoresistance in Co/Cu and Fe/Cr multilayers,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 54(21), 15314–15329 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

T. Valet and A. Fert, “Theory of the perpendicular magnetoresistance in magnetic multilayers,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 48(10), 7099–7113 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1987 (1)

P. Wyder, H. Van Kempen, and P. Wyder, “Boundary resistance of the ferromagnetic-nonferromagnetic metal interface,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58(21), 2271–2273 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1984 (1)

D. H. Auston, K. P. Cheung, and P. R. Smith, “Picosecond photoconducting Hertzian dipoles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 45(3), 284–286 (1984).
[Crossref]

1974 (1)

P. Johnson and R. Christy, “Optical constants of transition metals: Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, and Pd,” Phys. Rev. B 9(12), 5056–5070 (1974).
[Crossref]

1969 (1)

K. C. Wong, E. P. Wohlfarth, and D. M. Hum, “Density of states and effective electron interaction in hexagonal cobalt,” Phys. Lett. A 29(8), 452–453 (1969).
[Crossref]

1968 (1)

C. S. Fadley and D. A. Shirley, “X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopic Study of Iron, Cobalt, Nickel, Copper, and Platinum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 21(14), 980–983 (1968).
[Crossref]

Adam, A. J. L.

Aeschlimann, M.

R. Knorren, K. H. Bennemann, R. Burgermeister, and M. Aeschlimann, “Dynamics of excited electrons in copper and ferromagnetic transition metals: Theory and experiment,” Phys. Rev. B 61(14), 9427–9440 (2000).
[Crossref]

Alfaro, M.

Althammer, M.

Y.-T. Chen, S. Takahashi, H. Nakayama, M. Althammer, S. T. B. Goennenwein, E. Saitoh, and G. E. W. Bauer, “Theory of spin Hall magnetoresistance,” Phys. Rev. B 87(14), 144411 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Nakayama, M. Althammer, Y. T. Chen, K. Uchida, Y. Kajiwara, D. Kikuchi, T. Ohtani, S. Geprägs, M. Opel, S. Takahashi, R. Gross, G. E. W. Bauer, S. T. B. Goennenwein, and E. Saitoh, “Spin Hall Magnetoresistance Induced by a Nonequilibrium Proximity Effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(20), 206601 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Attané, J. P.

J. C. Rojas-Sánchez, N. Reyren, P. Laczkowski, W. Savero, J. P. Attané, C. Deranlot, M. Jamet, J. M. George, L. Vila, and H. Jaffrès, “Spin pumping and inverse spin hall effect in platinum: The essential role of spin-memory loss at metallic interfaces,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112(10), 106602 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Auston, D. H.

D. H. Auston, K. P. Cheung, and P. R. Smith, “Picosecond photoconducting Hertzian dipoles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 45(3), 284–286 (1984).
[Crossref]

Avci, C. O.

A. Ghosh, K. Garello, C. O. Avci, M. Gabureac, and P. Gambardella, “Interface-Enhanced Spin-Orbit Torques and Current-Induced Magnetization Switching of Pd/Co/AlOx Layers,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 7(1), 014004 (2017).
[Crossref]

Back, C. H.

O. Mosendz, G. Woltersdorf, B. Kardasz, B. Heinrich, and C. H. Back, “Magnetization dynamics in the presence of pure spin currents in magnetic single and double layers in spin ballistic and diffusive regimes,” Phys. Rev. B – Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 79(22), 224412 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bader, S. D.

O. Mosendz, J. E. Pearson, F. Y. Fradin, G. E. W. Bauer, S. D. Bader, and A. Hoffmann, “Quantifying Spin Hall Angles from Spin Pumping: Experiments and Theory,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(4), 046601 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Battiato, M.

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C. F. Pai, L. Liu, Y. Li, H. W. Tseng, D. C. Ralph, and R. A. Buhrman, “Spin transfer torque devices utilizing the giant spin Hall effect of tungsten,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(12), 1–5 (2012).
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C.-F. Pai, Y. Ou, L. H. Vilela-Leão, D. C. Ralph, and R. A. Buhrman, “Dependence of the efficiency of spin Hall torque on the transparency of Pt/ferromagnetic layer interfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 92(6), 064426 (2015).
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G. Torosyan, S. Keller, L. Scheuer, R. Beigang, and E. T. Papaioannou, “Optimized Spintronic Terahertz Emitters Based on Epitaxial Grown Fe/Pt Layer Structures,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 1311 (2018).
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O. Mosendz, J. E. Pearson, F. Y. Fradin, G. E. W. Bauer, S. D. Bader, and A. Hoffmann, “Quantifying Spin Hall Angles from Spin Pumping: Experiments and Theory,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(4), 046601 (2010).
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T. Seifert, S. Jaiswal, U. Martens, J. Hannegan, L. Braun, P. Maldonado, F. Freimuth, A. Kronenberg, J. Henrizi, I. Radu, E. Beaurepaire, Y. Mokrousov, P. M. Oppeneer, M. Jourdan, G. Jakob, D. Turchinovich, L. M. Hayden, M. Wolf, M. Münzenberg, M. Kläui, and T. Kampfrath, “Efficient metallic spintronic emitters of ultrabroadband terahertz radiation,” Nat. Photonics 10(7), 483–488 (2016).
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Ralph, D. C.

C.-F. Pai, Y. Ou, L. H. Vilela-Leão, D. C. Ralph, and R. A. Buhrman, “Dependence of the efficiency of spin Hall torque on the transparency of Pt/ferromagnetic layer interfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 92(6), 064426 (2015).
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Rasing, T.

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H. Nakayama, M. Althammer, Y. T. Chen, K. Uchida, Y. Kajiwara, D. Kikuchi, T. Ohtani, S. Geprägs, M. Opel, S. Takahashi, R. Gross, G. E. W. Bauer, S. T. B. Goennenwein, and E. Saitoh, “Spin Hall Magnetoresistance Induced by a Nonequilibrium Proximity Effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(20), 206601 (2013).
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Y.-T. Chen, S. Takahashi, H. Nakayama, M. Althammer, S. T. B. Goennenwein, E. Saitoh, and G. E. W. Bauer, “Theory of spin Hall magnetoresistance,” Phys. Rev. B 87(14), 144411 (2013).
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N. Sarukura, H. Ohtake, S. Izumida, and Z. Liu, “High average-power THz radiation from femtosecond laser-irradiated InAs in a magnetic field and its elliptical polarization characteristics,” J. Appl. Phys. 84(1), 654–656 (1998).
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Y. Sasaki, K. Z. Suzuki, and S. Mizukami, “Annealing effect on laser pulse-induced THz wave emission in Ta/CoFeB/MgO films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(10), 1–6 (2017).
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G. Torosyan, S. Keller, L. Scheuer, R. Beigang, and E. T. Papaioannou, “Optimized Spintronic Terahertz Emitters Based on Epitaxial Grown Fe/Pt Layer Structures,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 1311 (2018).
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[Crossref]

Smith, P. R.

D. H. Auston, K. P. Cheung, and P. R. Smith, “Picosecond photoconducting Hertzian dipoles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 45(3), 284–286 (1984).
[Crossref]

Starikov, A. A.

Y. Liu, Z. Yuan, R. J. H. Wesselink, A. A. Starikov, and P. J. Kelly, “Interface Enhancement of Gilbert Damping from First Principles,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(20), 207202 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stiles, M. D.

P. M. Haney, H. W. Lee, K. J. Lee, A. Manchon, and M. D. Stiles, “Current induced torques and interfacial spin-orbit coupling: Semiclassical modeling,” Phys. Rev. B – Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 87(17), 174411 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. D. Stiles, J. Xiao, and A. Zangwill, “Phenomenological theory of current-induced magnetization precession,” Phys. Rev. B 69(5), 54408 (2004).
[Crossref]

Suemoto, T.

M. Nakajima, Y. Oda, and T. Suemoto, “Competing terahertz radiation mechanisms in semi-insulating InPat high-density excitation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(14), 2694–2696 (2004).
[Crossref]

Sun, L.

D. Yang, J. Liang, C. Zhou, L. Sun, R. Zheng, S. Luo, Y. Wu, and J. Qi, “Powerful and Tunable THz Emitters Based on the Fe/Pt Magnetic Heterostructure,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(12), 1944–1949 (2016).
[Crossref]

Suzuki, K. Z.

Y. Sasaki, K. Z. Suzuki, and S. Mizukami, “Annealing effect on laser pulse-induced THz wave emission in Ta/CoFeB/MgO films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(10), 1–6 (2017).
[Crossref]

Takahashi, M.

M. Nakajima, M. Takahashi, and M. Hangyo, “Strong enhancement of THz radiation intensity from semi-insulating GaAs surfaces at high temperatures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(8), 1462–1464 (2002).
[Crossref]

Takahashi, S.

Y.-T. Chen, S. Takahashi, H. Nakayama, M. Althammer, S. T. B. Goennenwein, E. Saitoh, and G. E. W. Bauer, “Theory of spin Hall magnetoresistance,” Phys. Rev. B 87(14), 144411 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Nakayama, M. Althammer, Y. T. Chen, K. Uchida, Y. Kajiwara, D. Kikuchi, T. Ohtani, S. Geprägs, M. Opel, S. Takahashi, R. Gross, G. E. W. Bauer, S. T. B. Goennenwein, and E. Saitoh, “Spin Hall Magnetoresistance Induced by a Nonequilibrium Proximity Effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(20), 206601 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tanaka, T.

H. Kontani, T. Tanaka, D. S. Hirashima, K. Yamada, and J. Inoue, “Giant Orbital Hall Effect in Transition Metals: Origin of Large Spin and Anomalous Hall Effects,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(1), 016601 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tani, M.

M. Hangyo, M. Tani, and T. Nagashima, “Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of solids: A review,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 26(12), 1661–1690 (2005).
[Crossref]

Tatara, G.

E. Saitoh, M. Ueda, H. Miyajima, and G. Tatara, “Conversion of spin current into charge current at room temperature: Inverse spin-Hall effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(18), 182509 (2006).
[Crossref]

Torosyan, G.

G. Torosyan, S. Keller, L. Scheuer, R. Beigang, and E. T. Papaioannou, “Optimized Spintronic Terahertz Emitters Based on Epitaxial Grown Fe/Pt Layer Structures,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 1311 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tseng, H. W.

C. F. Pai, L. Liu, Y. Li, H. W. Tseng, D. C. Ralph, and R. A. Buhrman, “Spin transfer torque devices utilizing the giant spin Hall effect of tungsten,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(12), 1–5 (2012).
[Crossref]

Tsymbal, E. Y.

E. Y. Tsymbal and D. G. Pettifor, “Effects of band structure and spin-independent disorder on conductivity and giant magnetoresistance in Co/Cu and Fe/Cr multilayers,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 54(21), 15314–15329 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Turchinovich, D.

T. Seifert, S. Jaiswal, U. Martens, J. Hannegan, L. Braun, P. Maldonado, F. Freimuth, A. Kronenberg, J. Henrizi, I. Radu, E. Beaurepaire, Y. Mokrousov, P. M. Oppeneer, M. Jourdan, G. Jakob, D. Turchinovich, L. M. Hayden, M. Wolf, M. Münzenberg, M. Kläui, and T. Kampfrath, “Efficient metallic spintronic emitters of ultrabroadband terahertz radiation,” Nat. Photonics 10(7), 483–488 (2016).
[Crossref]

Uchida, K.

H. Nakayama, M. Althammer, Y. T. Chen, K. Uchida, Y. Kajiwara, D. Kikuchi, T. Ohtani, S. Geprägs, M. Opel, S. Takahashi, R. Gross, G. E. W. Bauer, S. T. B. Goennenwein, and E. Saitoh, “Spin Hall Magnetoresistance Induced by a Nonequilibrium Proximity Effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(20), 206601 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ueda, M.

E. Saitoh, M. Ueda, H. Miyajima, and G. Tatara, “Conversion of spin current into charge current at room temperature: Inverse spin-Hall effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(18), 182509 (2006).
[Crossref]

Valet, T.

T. Valet and A. Fert, “Theory of the perpendicular magnetoresistance in magnetic multilayers,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 48(10), 7099–7113 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Van Kempen, H.

P. Wyder, H. Van Kempen, and P. Wyder, “Boundary resistance of the ferromagnetic-nonferromagnetic metal interface,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58(21), 2271–2273 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Venkatesh, M.

Ventura, J.

T. J. Huisman, R. V. Mikhaylovskiy, J. D. Costa, F. Freimuth, E. Paz, J. Ventura, P. P. Freitas, S. Blügel, Y. Mokrousov, T. Rasing, and A. V. Kimel, “Femtosecond control of electric currents in metallic ferromagnetic heterostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 11(5), 455–458 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vila, L.

J. C. Rojas-Sánchez, N. Reyren, P. Laczkowski, W. Savero, J. P. Attané, C. Deranlot, M. Jamet, J. M. George, L. Vila, and H. Jaffrès, “Spin pumping and inverse spin hall effect in platinum: The essential role of spin-memory loss at metallic interfaces,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112(10), 106602 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vilela-Leão, L. H.

C.-F. Pai, Y. Ou, L. H. Vilela-Leão, D. C. Ralph, and R. A. Buhrman, “Dependence of the efficiency of spin Hall torque on the transparency of Pt/ferromagnetic layer interfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 92(6), 064426 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wesselink, R. J. H.

Y. Liu, Z. Yuan, R. J. H. Wesselink, A. A. Starikov, and P. J. Kelly, “Interface Enhancement of Gilbert Damping from First Principles,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(20), 207202 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wohlfarth, E. P.

K. C. Wong, E. P. Wohlfarth, and D. M. Hum, “Density of states and effective electron interaction in hexagonal cobalt,” Phys. Lett. A 29(8), 452–453 (1969).
[Crossref]

Wolf, M.

T. Seifert, S. Jaiswal, U. Martens, J. Hannegan, L. Braun, P. Maldonado, F. Freimuth, A. Kronenberg, J. Henrizi, I. Radu, E. Beaurepaire, Y. Mokrousov, P. M. Oppeneer, M. Jourdan, G. Jakob, D. Turchinovich, L. M. Hayden, M. Wolf, M. Münzenberg, M. Kläui, and T. Kampfrath, “Efficient metallic spintronic emitters of ultrabroadband terahertz radiation,” Nat. Photonics 10(7), 483–488 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. Kampfrath, M. Battiato, P. Maldonado, G. Eilers, J. Nötzold, S. Mährlein, V. Zbarsky, F. Freimuth, Y. Mokrousov, S. Blügel, M. Wolf, I. Radu, P. M. Oppeneer, and M. Münzenberg, “Terahertz spin current pulses controlled by magnetic heterostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 8(4), 256–260 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Woltersdorf, G.

O. Mosendz, G. Woltersdorf, B. Kardasz, B. Heinrich, and C. H. Back, “Magnetization dynamics in the presence of pure spin currents in magnetic single and double layers in spin ballistic and diffusive regimes,” Phys. Rev. B – Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 79(22), 224412 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wong, K. C.

K. C. Wong, E. P. Wohlfarth, and D. M. Hum, “Density of states and effective electron interaction in hexagonal cobalt,” Phys. Lett. A 29(8), 452–453 (1969).
[Crossref]

Wu, Y.

D. Yang, J. Liang, C. Zhou, L. Sun, R. Zheng, S. Luo, Y. Wu, and J. Qi, “Powerful and Tunable THz Emitters Based on the Fe/Pt Magnetic Heterostructure,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(12), 1944–1949 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wyder, P.

P. Wyder, H. Van Kempen, and P. Wyder, “Boundary resistance of the ferromagnetic-nonferromagnetic metal interface,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58(21), 2271–2273 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Wyder, H. Van Kempen, and P. Wyder, “Boundary resistance of the ferromagnetic-nonferromagnetic metal interface,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58(21), 2271–2273 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xiao, J.

M. D. Stiles, J. Xiao, and A. Zangwill, “Phenomenological theory of current-induced magnetization precession,” Phys. Rev. B 69(5), 54408 (2004).
[Crossref]

Yamada, K.

H. Kontani, T. Tanaka, D. S. Hirashima, K. Yamada, and J. Inoue, “Giant Orbital Hall Effect in Transition Metals: Origin of Large Spin and Anomalous Hall Effects,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(1), 016601 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, D.

D. Yang, J. Liang, C. Zhou, L. Sun, R. Zheng, S. Luo, Y. Wu, and J. Qi, “Powerful and Tunable THz Emitters Based on the Fe/Pt Magnetic Heterostructure,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(12), 1944–1949 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yang, S.-H.

W. Zhang, W. Han, X. Jiang, S.-H. Yang, and S. S. P. Parkin, “Role of transparency of platinum–ferromagnet interfaces in determining the intrinsic magnitude of the spin Hall effect,” Nat. Phys. 11(6), 496–502 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yuan, Z.

Y. Liu, Z. Yuan, R. J. H. Wesselink, A. A. Starikov, and P. J. Kelly, “Interface Enhancement of Gilbert Damping from First Principles,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(20), 207202 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zangwill, A.

M. D. Stiles, J. Xiao, and A. Zangwill, “Phenomenological theory of current-induced magnetization precession,” Phys. Rev. B 69(5), 54408 (2004).
[Crossref]

Zbarsky, V.

T. Kampfrath, M. Battiato, P. Maldonado, G. Eilers, J. Nötzold, S. Mährlein, V. Zbarsky, F. Freimuth, Y. Mokrousov, S. Blügel, M. Wolf, I. Radu, P. M. Oppeneer, and M. Münzenberg, “Terahertz spin current pulses controlled by magnetic heterostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 8(4), 256–260 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, W.

W. Zhang, W. Han, X. Jiang, S.-H. Yang, and S. S. P. Parkin, “Role of transparency of platinum–ferromagnet interfaces in determining the intrinsic magnitude of the spin Hall effect,” Nat. Phys. 11(6), 496–502 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zheng, R.

D. Yang, J. Liang, C. Zhou, L. Sun, R. Zheng, S. Luo, Y. Wu, and J. Qi, “Powerful and Tunable THz Emitters Based on the Fe/Pt Magnetic Heterostructure,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(12), 1944–1949 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhou, C.

D. Yang, J. Liang, C. Zhou, L. Sun, R. Zheng, S. Luo, Y. Wu, and J. Qi, “Powerful and Tunable THz Emitters Based on the Fe/Pt Magnetic Heterostructure,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(12), 1944–1949 (2016).
[Crossref]

Adv. Opt. Mater. (1)

D. Yang, J. Liang, C. Zhou, L. Sun, R. Zheng, S. Luo, Y. Wu, and J. Qi, “Powerful and Tunable THz Emitters Based on the Fe/Pt Magnetic Heterostructure,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(12), 1944–1949 (2016).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (6)

Y. Sasaki, K. Z. Suzuki, and S. Mizukami, “Annealing effect on laser pulse-induced THz wave emission in Ta/CoFeB/MgO films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(10), 1–6 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. F. Pai, L. Liu, Y. Li, H. W. Tseng, D. C. Ralph, and R. A. Buhrman, “Spin transfer torque devices utilizing the giant spin Hall effect of tungsten,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(12), 1–5 (2012).
[Crossref]

E. Saitoh, M. Ueda, H. Miyajima, and G. Tatara, “Conversion of spin current into charge current at room temperature: Inverse spin-Hall effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(18), 182509 (2006).
[Crossref]

M. Nakajima, Y. Oda, and T. Suemoto, “Competing terahertz radiation mechanisms in semi-insulating InPat high-density excitation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(14), 2694–2696 (2004).
[Crossref]

M. Nakajima, M. Takahashi, and M. Hangyo, “Strong enhancement of THz radiation intensity from semi-insulating GaAs surfaces at high temperatures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(8), 1462–1464 (2002).
[Crossref]

D. H. Auston, K. P. Cheung, and P. R. Smith, “Picosecond photoconducting Hertzian dipoles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 45(3), 284–286 (1984).
[Crossref]

Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves (1)

M. Hangyo, M. Tani, and T. Nagashima, “Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of solids: A review,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 26(12), 1661–1690 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

N. Sarukura, H. Ohtake, S. Izumida, and Z. Liu, “High average-power THz radiation from femtosecond laser-irradiated InAs in a magnetic field and its elliptical polarization characteristics,” J. Appl. Phys. 84(1), 654–656 (1998).
[Crossref]

E. S. Demidov, N. S. Gusev, L. I. Budarin, E. A. Karashtin, V. L. Mironov, and A. A. Fraerman, “Interlayer interaction in multilayer [Co/Pt]n/Pt/Co structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 120(17), 173901 (2016).
[Crossref]

Nat. Nanotechnol. (2)

T. Kampfrath, M. Battiato, P. Maldonado, G. Eilers, J. Nötzold, S. Mährlein, V. Zbarsky, F. Freimuth, Y. Mokrousov, S. Blügel, M. Wolf, I. Radu, P. M. Oppeneer, and M. Münzenberg, “Terahertz spin current pulses controlled by magnetic heterostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 8(4), 256–260 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. J. Huisman, R. V. Mikhaylovskiy, J. D. Costa, F. Freimuth, E. Paz, J. Ventura, P. P. Freitas, S. Blügel, Y. Mokrousov, T. Rasing, and A. V. Kimel, “Femtosecond control of electric currents in metallic ferromagnetic heterostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 11(5), 455–458 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

T. Seifert, S. Jaiswal, U. Martens, J. Hannegan, L. Braun, P. Maldonado, F. Freimuth, A. Kronenberg, J. Henrizi, I. Radu, E. Beaurepaire, Y. Mokrousov, P. M. Oppeneer, M. Jourdan, G. Jakob, D. Turchinovich, L. M. Hayden, M. Wolf, M. Münzenberg, M. Kläui, and T. Kampfrath, “Efficient metallic spintronic emitters of ultrabroadband terahertz radiation,” Nat. Photonics 10(7), 483–488 (2016).
[Crossref]

Nat. Phys. (1)

W. Zhang, W. Han, X. Jiang, S.-H. Yang, and S. S. P. Parkin, “Role of transparency of platinum–ferromagnet interfaces in determining the intrinsic magnitude of the spin Hall effect,” Nat. Phys. 11(6), 496–502 (2015).
[Crossref]

Opt. Eng. (1)

N. M. Burford and M. O. El-Shenawee, “Review of terahertz photoconductive antenna technology,” Opt. Eng. 56(1), 10901 (2017).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Mater. Express (1)

Photon. Res. (1)

Phys. Lett. A (1)

K. C. Wong, E. P. Wohlfarth, and D. M. Hum, “Density of states and effective electron interaction in hexagonal cobalt,” Phys. Lett. A 29(8), 452–453 (1969).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Appl. (1)

A. Ghosh, K. Garello, C. O. Avci, M. Gabureac, and P. Gambardella, “Interface-Enhanced Spin-Orbit Torques and Current-Induced Magnetization Switching of Pd/Co/AlOx Layers,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 7(1), 014004 (2017).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. B (7)

B. Hope and A. Horsfield, “Contrasting spin-polarization regimes in Co nanowires studied by density functional theory,” Phys. Rev. B 77(9), 094442 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. Nakajima, M. Hangyo, M. Ohta, and H. Miyazaki, “Polarity reversal of terahertz waves radiated from semi-insulating InP surfaces induced by temperature,” Phys. Rev. B 67(19), 195308 (2003).
[Crossref]

C.-F. Pai, Y. Ou, L. H. Vilela-Leão, D. C. Ralph, and R. A. Buhrman, “Dependence of the efficiency of spin Hall torque on the transparency of Pt/ferromagnetic layer interfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 92(6), 064426 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Johnson and R. Christy, “Optical constants of transition metals: Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, and Pd,” Phys. Rev. B 9(12), 5056–5070 (1974).
[Crossref]

M. D. Stiles, J. Xiao, and A. Zangwill, “Phenomenological theory of current-induced magnetization precession,” Phys. Rev. B 69(5), 54408 (2004).
[Crossref]

Y.-T. Chen, S. Takahashi, H. Nakayama, M. Althammer, S. T. B. Goennenwein, E. Saitoh, and G. E. W. Bauer, “Theory of spin Hall magnetoresistance,” Phys. Rev. B 87(14), 144411 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. Knorren, K. H. Bennemann, R. Burgermeister, and M. Aeschlimann, “Dynamics of excited electrons in copper and ferromagnetic transition metals: Theory and experiment,” Phys. Rev. B 61(14), 9427–9440 (2000).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. B – Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. (2)

P. M. Haney, H. W. Lee, K. J. Lee, A. Manchon, and M. D. Stiles, “Current induced torques and interfacial spin-orbit coupling: Semiclassical modeling,” Phys. Rev. B – Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 87(17), 174411 (2013).
[Crossref]

O. Mosendz, G. Woltersdorf, B. Kardasz, B. Heinrich, and C. H. Back, “Magnetization dynamics in the presence of pure spin currents in magnetic single and double layers in spin ballistic and diffusive regimes,” Phys. Rev. B – Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 79(22), 224412 (2009).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter (2)

E. Y. Tsymbal and D. G. Pettifor, “Effects of band structure and spin-independent disorder on conductivity and giant magnetoresistance in Co/Cu and Fe/Cr multilayers,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 54(21), 15314–15329 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Valet and A. Fert, “Theory of the perpendicular magnetoresistance in magnetic multilayers,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 48(10), 7099–7113 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (8)

H. Kontani, T. Tanaka, D. S. Hirashima, K. Yamada, and J. Inoue, “Giant Orbital Hall Effect in Transition Metals: Origin of Large Spin and Anomalous Hall Effects,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(1), 016601 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Liu, Z. Yuan, R. J. H. Wesselink, A. A. Starikov, and P. J. Kelly, “Interface Enhancement of Gilbert Damping from First Principles,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(20), 207202 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Wyder, H. Van Kempen, and P. Wyder, “Boundary resistance of the ferromagnetic-nonferromagnetic metal interface,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58(21), 2271–2273 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. C. Rojas-Sánchez, N. Reyren, P. Laczkowski, W. Savero, J. P. Attané, C. Deranlot, M. Jamet, J. M. George, L. Vila, and H. Jaffrès, “Spin pumping and inverse spin hall effect in platinum: The essential role of spin-memory loss at metallic interfaces,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112(10), 106602 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Mosendz, J. E. Pearson, F. Y. Fradin, G. E. W. Bauer, S. D. Bader, and A. Hoffmann, “Quantifying Spin Hall Angles from Spin Pumping: Experiments and Theory,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(4), 046601 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Battiato, K. Carva, and P. M. Oppeneer, “Superdiffusive Spin Transport as a Mechanism of Ultrafast Demagnetization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(2), 027203 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. S. Fadley and D. A. Shirley, “X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopic Study of Iron, Cobalt, Nickel, Copper, and Platinum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 21(14), 980–983 (1968).
[Crossref]

H. Nakayama, M. Althammer, Y. T. Chen, K. Uchida, Y. Kajiwara, D. Kikuchi, T. Ohtani, S. Geprägs, M. Opel, S. Takahashi, R. Gross, G. E. W. Bauer, S. T. B. Goennenwein, and E. Saitoh, “Spin Hall Magnetoresistance Induced by a Nonequilibrium Proximity Effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(20), 206601 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sci. Rep. (1)

G. Torosyan, S. Keller, L. Scheuer, R. Beigang, and E. T. Papaioannou, “Optimized Spintronic Terahertz Emitters Based on Epitaxial Grown Fe/Pt Layer Structures,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 1311 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater. (1)

M. Idrish Miah, “Spin drift and spin diffusion currents in semiconductors,” Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater. 9(3), 035014 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Experimental schematics of the THz emission from ferromagnetic heterostructures. The sample substrate/Co/Pt, which is magnetized in y-direction, is excited by the femtosecond laser pulses. The induced out-of-plane spin current Js is converted into an in-plane charge current Jc due to ISHE. The appearance of Jc gives rise to the THz emission into the free space. (b) The grey, red, and blue curves show the waveforms of THz emissions from the fused silica substrate, substrate/Co, and substrate/Co/Pt, respectively. The thickness of the Pt layer is 5 nm. The vertical axis shows the electric field of the THz emission that was detected by EO sampling. (c) The fluence dependence of the peak amplitude of the THz emission from substrate/Co/Pt.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 The influences of the magnetization direction and the pumping side on the THz emission. (a) The sample is pumped by the laser pulse on the Co side. (b) The sample is pumped on the Pt side. The insets in (a) and (b) illustrate the pumped sides of the samples. The curves with open and closed circles denote the THz waveforms measured under the magnetization directions of + M and -M, respectively.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) The temporal waveforms of the THz emission from heterostructures with various thicknesses of Pt layers. (b) The red squares denote the experimental data for the relationship between the THz amplitudes and the Pt-layer thickness. The solid curve is a fit to the experimental results according to Eq. (4) which takes into account the interfacial spin loss. As a comparison, the dotted curve is obtained without taking into account the interfacial spin loss.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Model of the spin diffusion in a FM/NM heterostructure. At the interface of the FM/NM bilayer, the spin loss happens both due to the interfacial spin resistance and the spin memory loss. (b) The Pt-layer-thickness dependence of the coefficient η= J s, NM d FM / J s, FM d FM .

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

A unit 1 n 1 + n 2 + Z 0 0 d NM σ(z)dz .
η( d NM )= J s, NM d FM J s, FM d FM = r s, FM/NM r s, FM/NM cosh(δ)+ r s, NM coth( d NM / l sf N )sinh(δ) .
J c, NM = d FM + d 0 d FM + d NM γ NM j s, NM (z, λ NM )dz
E THz ( d NM )η( d NM ) A FM ( d NM ) d FM + d 0 d FM + d NM γ NM sinh((z- d NM )/ λ NM )dz n 1 + n 2 + Z 0 0 d NM σ(z)dz .

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