Abstract

A multilayered water–skin model is used to experimentally verify a new sensing method for determining the skin penetration depth of radiation with 0.1–0.9 terahertz (THz) frequencies. A water overlayer is dripped on a skin sample to form a multilayered structure for dynamically measuring the reflected THz-wave amplitude during water desorption. Skin penetration depths can be successfully derived by using the multilayered water–skin model and by considering the measured reflectivity, water dielectric constants, and effective thicknesses of the water overlayer on the skin sample. The maximum penetration depth is approximately 0.3 mm and is obtained with wave frequencies of 0.4–0.6 THz. This penetration depth encompasses the stratum corneum (SC) and part of the epidermis. The high penetration depth of 0.4–0.6 THz waves is also confirmed in the dried and damaged SC.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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  24. I. Hayut, A. Puzenko, P. B. Ishai, A. Polsman, A. J. Agranat, and Y. Feldman, “The helical structure of sweat ducts: their influence on the electromagnetic reflection spectrum of the skin,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 3(2), 207–215 (2013).
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2015 (1)

S. R. Tripathi, E. Miyata, P. B. Ishai, and K. Kawase, “Morphology of human sweat ducts observed by optical coherence tomography and their frequency of resonance in the terahertz frequency region,” Sci. Rep. 5, 9071 (2015).

2014 (1)

M. Boncheva, “The physical chemistry of the stratum corneum lipids,” Int. J. Cosmet. Sci. 36(6), 505–515 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (3)

S. J. Oh, S.-H. Kim, K. Jeong, Y. Park, Y.-M. Huh, J.-H. Son, and J.-S. Suh, “Measurement depth enhancement in terahertz imaging of biological tissues,” Opt. Express 21(18), 21299–21305 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Echchgadda, J. A. Grundt, M. Tarango, B. L. Ibey, T. Tongue, M. Liang, H. Xin, and G. J. Wilmink, “Using a portable terahertz spectrometer to measure the optical properties of in vivo human skin,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(12), 120503 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Hayut, A. Puzenko, P. B. Ishai, A. Polsman, A. J. Agranat, and Y. Feldman, “The helical structure of sweat ducts: their influence on the electromagnetic reflection spectrum of the skin,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 3(2), 207–215 (2013).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

D. B. Bennett, W. Li, Z. D. Taylor, W. S. Grundfest, and E. R. Brown, “Stratified media model for terahertz reflectometry of the skin,” IEEE Sens. J. 11(5), 1253–1262 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (3)

G. J. Wilmink, B. L. Ibey, T. Tongue, B. Schulkin, X. Peralta, B. D. Rivest, E. C. Haywood, and W. P. Roach, “Measurement of the optical properties of skin using terahertz time-domain spectroscopic techniques,” Proc. SPIE 7562, 75620J (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Ney and I. Abdulhalim, “Does human skin truly behave as an array of helical antennae in the millimeter and terahertz wave ranges?” Opt. Lett. 35(19), 3180–3182 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Nakagawa, M. Matsumoto, and S. Sakai, “In vivo measurement of the water content in the dermis by confocal Raman spectroscopy,” Skin Res. Technol. 16(2), 137–141 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (3)

M. Meinhardt, R. Krebs, A. Anders, U. Heinrich, and H. Tronnier, “Wavelength-dependent penetration depths of ultraviolet radiation in human skin,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 044030 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. M. Png, J. W. Choi, B. W.-H. Ng, S. P. Mickan, D. Abbott, and X. C. Zhang, “The impact of hydration changes in fresh bio-tissue on THz spectroscopic measurements,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53(13), 3501–3517 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Feldman, A. Puzenko, P. Ben Ishai, A. Caduff, and A. J. Agranat, “Human skin as arrays of helical antennas in the millimeter and submillimeter wave range,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(12), 128102 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (3)

M. Nagai, H. Yada, T. Arikawa, and K. Tanaka, “Terahertz time-domain attenuated total reflection spectroscopy in water and biological solution,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves 27(4), 505–515 (2007).
[Crossref]

S. Ghosh, S. Hornby, G. Grove, C. Zerwick, Y. Appa, and D. Blankschtein, “Ranking of aqueous surfactant-humectant systems based on an analysis of in vitro and in vivo skin barrier perturbation measurements,” J. Cosmet. Sci. 58(6), 599–620 (2007).
[PubMed]

M. Tonouchi, “Cutting-edge terahertz technology,” Nat. Photonics 1(2), 97–105 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

E. Pickwell and V. P. Wallace, “Biomedical applications of terahertz technology,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 39(17), R301–R310 (2006).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

E. Pickwell, B. E. Cole, A. J. Fitzgerald, M. Pepper, and V. P. Wallace, “In vivo study of human skin using pulsed terahertz radiation,” Phys. Med. Biol. 49(9), 1595–1607 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Pickwell, B. E. Cole, A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, and M. Pepper, “Simulation of terahertz pulse propagation in biological systems,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(12), 2190–2192 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (2)

D. E. J. G. J. Dolmans, D. Fukumura, and R. K. Jain, “Photodynamic therapy for cancer,” Nat. Rev. Cancer 3(5), 380–387 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. M. Woodward, V. P. Wallace, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of skin cancer in the time and frequency domain,” J. Biol. Phys. 29(2-3), 257–259 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

R. M. Woodward, B. E. Cole, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging in reflection geometry of human skin cancer and skin tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(21), 3853–3863 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (2)

W. R. Lee, S. C. Shen, H. H. Lai, C. H. Hu, and J. Y. Fang, “Transdermal drug delivery enhanced and controlled by erbium:YAG laser: a comparative study of lipophilic and hydrophilic drugs,” J. Control. Release 75(1-2), 155–166 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Y. Han, M. Tani, M. Usami, S. Kono, R. Kersting, and X.-C. Zhang, “A direct comparison between terahertz time-domain spectroscopy and far-infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 89(4), 2357–2359 (2001).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

L. Thrane, R. H. Jacobsen, P. Uhd Jepsen, and S. R. Keiding, “THz reflection spectroscopy of liquid water,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 240(4), 330–333 (1995).
[Crossref]

Abbott, D.

G. M. Png, J. W. Choi, B. W.-H. Ng, S. P. Mickan, D. Abbott, and X. C. Zhang, “The impact of hydration changes in fresh bio-tissue on THz spectroscopic measurements,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53(13), 3501–3517 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Abdulhalim, I.

Agranat, A. J.

I. Hayut, A. Puzenko, P. B. Ishai, A. Polsman, A. J. Agranat, and Y. Feldman, “The helical structure of sweat ducts: their influence on the electromagnetic reflection spectrum of the skin,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 3(2), 207–215 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Feldman, A. Puzenko, P. Ben Ishai, A. Caduff, and A. J. Agranat, “Human skin as arrays of helical antennas in the millimeter and submillimeter wave range,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(12), 128102 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Anders, A.

M. Meinhardt, R. Krebs, A. Anders, U. Heinrich, and H. Tronnier, “Wavelength-dependent penetration depths of ultraviolet radiation in human skin,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 044030 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appa, Y.

S. Ghosh, S. Hornby, G. Grove, C. Zerwick, Y. Appa, and D. Blankschtein, “Ranking of aqueous surfactant-humectant systems based on an analysis of in vitro and in vivo skin barrier perturbation measurements,” J. Cosmet. Sci. 58(6), 599–620 (2007).
[PubMed]

Arikawa, T.

M. Nagai, H. Yada, T. Arikawa, and K. Tanaka, “Terahertz time-domain attenuated total reflection spectroscopy in water and biological solution,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves 27(4), 505–515 (2007).
[Crossref]

Arnone, D. D.

R. M. Woodward, V. P. Wallace, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of skin cancer in the time and frequency domain,” J. Biol. Phys. 29(2-3), 257–259 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. M. Woodward, B. E. Cole, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging in reflection geometry of human skin cancer and skin tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(21), 3853–3863 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ben Ishai, P.

Y. Feldman, A. Puzenko, P. Ben Ishai, A. Caduff, and A. J. Agranat, “Human skin as arrays of helical antennas in the millimeter and submillimeter wave range,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(12), 128102 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bennett, D. B.

D. B. Bennett, W. Li, Z. D. Taylor, W. S. Grundfest, and E. R. Brown, “Stratified media model for terahertz reflectometry of the skin,” IEEE Sens. J. 11(5), 1253–1262 (2011).
[Crossref]

Blankschtein, D.

S. Ghosh, S. Hornby, G. Grove, C. Zerwick, Y. Appa, and D. Blankschtein, “Ranking of aqueous surfactant-humectant systems based on an analysis of in vitro and in vivo skin barrier perturbation measurements,” J. Cosmet. Sci. 58(6), 599–620 (2007).
[PubMed]

Boncheva, M.

M. Boncheva, “The physical chemistry of the stratum corneum lipids,” Int. J. Cosmet. Sci. 36(6), 505–515 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brown, E. R.

D. B. Bennett, W. Li, Z. D. Taylor, W. S. Grundfest, and E. R. Brown, “Stratified media model for terahertz reflectometry of the skin,” IEEE Sens. J. 11(5), 1253–1262 (2011).
[Crossref]

Caduff, A.

Y. Feldman, A. Puzenko, P. Ben Ishai, A. Caduff, and A. J. Agranat, “Human skin as arrays of helical antennas in the millimeter and submillimeter wave range,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(12), 128102 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choi, J. W.

G. M. Png, J. W. Choi, B. W.-H. Ng, S. P. Mickan, D. Abbott, and X. C. Zhang, “The impact of hydration changes in fresh bio-tissue on THz spectroscopic measurements,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53(13), 3501–3517 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cole, B. E.

E. Pickwell, B. E. Cole, A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, and M. Pepper, “Simulation of terahertz pulse propagation in biological systems,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(12), 2190–2192 (2004).
[Crossref]

E. Pickwell, B. E. Cole, A. J. Fitzgerald, M. Pepper, and V. P. Wallace, “In vivo study of human skin using pulsed terahertz radiation,” Phys. Med. Biol. 49(9), 1595–1607 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. M. Woodward, B. E. Cole, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging in reflection geometry of human skin cancer and skin tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(21), 3853–3863 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dolmans, D. E. J. G. J.

D. E. J. G. J. Dolmans, D. Fukumura, and R. K. Jain, “Photodynamic therapy for cancer,” Nat. Rev. Cancer 3(5), 380–387 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Echchgadda, I.

I. Echchgadda, J. A. Grundt, M. Tarango, B. L. Ibey, T. Tongue, M. Liang, H. Xin, and G. J. Wilmink, “Using a portable terahertz spectrometer to measure the optical properties of in vivo human skin,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(12), 120503 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fang, J. Y.

W. R. Lee, S. C. Shen, H. H. Lai, C. H. Hu, and J. Y. Fang, “Transdermal drug delivery enhanced and controlled by erbium:YAG laser: a comparative study of lipophilic and hydrophilic drugs,” J. Control. Release 75(1-2), 155–166 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Feldman, Y.

I. Hayut, A. Puzenko, P. B. Ishai, A. Polsman, A. J. Agranat, and Y. Feldman, “The helical structure of sweat ducts: their influence on the electromagnetic reflection spectrum of the skin,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 3(2), 207–215 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Feldman, A. Puzenko, P. Ben Ishai, A. Caduff, and A. J. Agranat, “Human skin as arrays of helical antennas in the millimeter and submillimeter wave range,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(12), 128102 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fitzgerald, A. J.

E. Pickwell, B. E. Cole, A. J. Fitzgerald, M. Pepper, and V. P. Wallace, “In vivo study of human skin using pulsed terahertz radiation,” Phys. Med. Biol. 49(9), 1595–1607 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Pickwell, B. E. Cole, A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, and M. Pepper, “Simulation of terahertz pulse propagation in biological systems,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(12), 2190–2192 (2004).
[Crossref]

Fukumura, D.

D. E. J. G. J. Dolmans, D. Fukumura, and R. K. Jain, “Photodynamic therapy for cancer,” Nat. Rev. Cancer 3(5), 380–387 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ghosh, S.

S. Ghosh, S. Hornby, G. Grove, C. Zerwick, Y. Appa, and D. Blankschtein, “Ranking of aqueous surfactant-humectant systems based on an analysis of in vitro and in vivo skin barrier perturbation measurements,” J. Cosmet. Sci. 58(6), 599–620 (2007).
[PubMed]

Grove, G.

S. Ghosh, S. Hornby, G. Grove, C. Zerwick, Y. Appa, and D. Blankschtein, “Ranking of aqueous surfactant-humectant systems based on an analysis of in vitro and in vivo skin barrier perturbation measurements,” J. Cosmet. Sci. 58(6), 599–620 (2007).
[PubMed]

Grundfest, W. S.

D. B. Bennett, W. Li, Z. D. Taylor, W. S. Grundfest, and E. R. Brown, “Stratified media model for terahertz reflectometry of the skin,” IEEE Sens. J. 11(5), 1253–1262 (2011).
[Crossref]

Grundt, J. A.

I. Echchgadda, J. A. Grundt, M. Tarango, B. L. Ibey, T. Tongue, M. Liang, H. Xin, and G. J. Wilmink, “Using a portable terahertz spectrometer to measure the optical properties of in vivo human skin,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(12), 120503 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Han, P. Y.

P. Y. Han, M. Tani, M. Usami, S. Kono, R. Kersting, and X.-C. Zhang, “A direct comparison between terahertz time-domain spectroscopy and far-infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 89(4), 2357–2359 (2001).
[Crossref]

Hayut, I.

I. Hayut, A. Puzenko, P. B. Ishai, A. Polsman, A. J. Agranat, and Y. Feldman, “The helical structure of sweat ducts: their influence on the electromagnetic reflection spectrum of the skin,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 3(2), 207–215 (2013).
[Crossref]

Haywood, E. C.

G. J. Wilmink, B. L. Ibey, T. Tongue, B. Schulkin, X. Peralta, B. D. Rivest, E. C. Haywood, and W. P. Roach, “Measurement of the optical properties of skin using terahertz time-domain spectroscopic techniques,” Proc. SPIE 7562, 75620J (2010).
[Crossref]

Heinrich, U.

M. Meinhardt, R. Krebs, A. Anders, U. Heinrich, and H. Tronnier, “Wavelength-dependent penetration depths of ultraviolet radiation in human skin,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 044030 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hornby, S.

S. Ghosh, S. Hornby, G. Grove, C. Zerwick, Y. Appa, and D. Blankschtein, “Ranking of aqueous surfactant-humectant systems based on an analysis of in vitro and in vivo skin barrier perturbation measurements,” J. Cosmet. Sci. 58(6), 599–620 (2007).
[PubMed]

Hu, C. H.

W. R. Lee, S. C. Shen, H. H. Lai, C. H. Hu, and J. Y. Fang, “Transdermal drug delivery enhanced and controlled by erbium:YAG laser: a comparative study of lipophilic and hydrophilic drugs,” J. Control. Release 75(1-2), 155–166 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huh, Y.-M.

Ibey, B. L.

I. Echchgadda, J. A. Grundt, M. Tarango, B. L. Ibey, T. Tongue, M. Liang, H. Xin, and G. J. Wilmink, “Using a portable terahertz spectrometer to measure the optical properties of in vivo human skin,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(12), 120503 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. J. Wilmink, B. L. Ibey, T. Tongue, B. Schulkin, X. Peralta, B. D. Rivest, E. C. Haywood, and W. P. Roach, “Measurement of the optical properties of skin using terahertz time-domain spectroscopic techniques,” Proc. SPIE 7562, 75620J (2010).
[Crossref]

Ishai, P. B.

S. R. Tripathi, E. Miyata, P. B. Ishai, and K. Kawase, “Morphology of human sweat ducts observed by optical coherence tomography and their frequency of resonance in the terahertz frequency region,” Sci. Rep. 5, 9071 (2015).

I. Hayut, A. Puzenko, P. B. Ishai, A. Polsman, A. J. Agranat, and Y. Feldman, “The helical structure of sweat ducts: their influence on the electromagnetic reflection spectrum of the skin,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 3(2), 207–215 (2013).
[Crossref]

Jacobsen, R. H.

L. Thrane, R. H. Jacobsen, P. Uhd Jepsen, and S. R. Keiding, “THz reflection spectroscopy of liquid water,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 240(4), 330–333 (1995).
[Crossref]

Jain, R. K.

D. E. J. G. J. Dolmans, D. Fukumura, and R. K. Jain, “Photodynamic therapy for cancer,” Nat. Rev. Cancer 3(5), 380–387 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jeong, K.

Kawase, K.

S. R. Tripathi, E. Miyata, P. B. Ishai, and K. Kawase, “Morphology of human sweat ducts observed by optical coherence tomography and their frequency of resonance in the terahertz frequency region,” Sci. Rep. 5, 9071 (2015).

Keiding, S. R.

L. Thrane, R. H. Jacobsen, P. Uhd Jepsen, and S. R. Keiding, “THz reflection spectroscopy of liquid water,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 240(4), 330–333 (1995).
[Crossref]

Kersting, R.

P. Y. Han, M. Tani, M. Usami, S. Kono, R. Kersting, and X.-C. Zhang, “A direct comparison between terahertz time-domain spectroscopy and far-infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 89(4), 2357–2359 (2001).
[Crossref]

Kim, S.-H.

Kono, S.

P. Y. Han, M. Tani, M. Usami, S. Kono, R. Kersting, and X.-C. Zhang, “A direct comparison between terahertz time-domain spectroscopy and far-infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 89(4), 2357–2359 (2001).
[Crossref]

Krebs, R.

M. Meinhardt, R. Krebs, A. Anders, U. Heinrich, and H. Tronnier, “Wavelength-dependent penetration depths of ultraviolet radiation in human skin,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 044030 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lai, H. H.

W. R. Lee, S. C. Shen, H. H. Lai, C. H. Hu, and J. Y. Fang, “Transdermal drug delivery enhanced and controlled by erbium:YAG laser: a comparative study of lipophilic and hydrophilic drugs,” J. Control. Release 75(1-2), 155–166 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, W. R.

W. R. Lee, S. C. Shen, H. H. Lai, C. H. Hu, and J. Y. Fang, “Transdermal drug delivery enhanced and controlled by erbium:YAG laser: a comparative study of lipophilic and hydrophilic drugs,” J. Control. Release 75(1-2), 155–166 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, W.

D. B. Bennett, W. Li, Z. D. Taylor, W. S. Grundfest, and E. R. Brown, “Stratified media model for terahertz reflectometry of the skin,” IEEE Sens. J. 11(5), 1253–1262 (2011).
[Crossref]

Liang, M.

I. Echchgadda, J. A. Grundt, M. Tarango, B. L. Ibey, T. Tongue, M. Liang, H. Xin, and G. J. Wilmink, “Using a portable terahertz spectrometer to measure the optical properties of in vivo human skin,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(12), 120503 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Linfield, E. H.

R. M. Woodward, V. P. Wallace, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of skin cancer in the time and frequency domain,” J. Biol. Phys. 29(2-3), 257–259 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. M. Woodward, B. E. Cole, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging in reflection geometry of human skin cancer and skin tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(21), 3853–3863 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Matsumoto, M.

N. Nakagawa, M. Matsumoto, and S. Sakai, “In vivo measurement of the water content in the dermis by confocal Raman spectroscopy,” Skin Res. Technol. 16(2), 137–141 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Meinhardt, M.

M. Meinhardt, R. Krebs, A. Anders, U. Heinrich, and H. Tronnier, “Wavelength-dependent penetration depths of ultraviolet radiation in human skin,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 044030 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mickan, S. P.

G. M. Png, J. W. Choi, B. W.-H. Ng, S. P. Mickan, D. Abbott, and X. C. Zhang, “The impact of hydration changes in fresh bio-tissue on THz spectroscopic measurements,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53(13), 3501–3517 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Miyata, E.

S. R. Tripathi, E. Miyata, P. B. Ishai, and K. Kawase, “Morphology of human sweat ducts observed by optical coherence tomography and their frequency of resonance in the terahertz frequency region,” Sci. Rep. 5, 9071 (2015).

Nagai, M.

M. Nagai, H. Yada, T. Arikawa, and K. Tanaka, “Terahertz time-domain attenuated total reflection spectroscopy in water and biological solution,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves 27(4), 505–515 (2007).
[Crossref]

Nakagawa, N.

N. Nakagawa, M. Matsumoto, and S. Sakai, “In vivo measurement of the water content in the dermis by confocal Raman spectroscopy,” Skin Res. Technol. 16(2), 137–141 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ney, M.

Ng, B. W.-H.

G. M. Png, J. W. Choi, B. W.-H. Ng, S. P. Mickan, D. Abbott, and X. C. Zhang, “The impact of hydration changes in fresh bio-tissue on THz spectroscopic measurements,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53(13), 3501–3517 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Oh, S. J.

Park, Y.

Pepper, M.

E. Pickwell, B. E. Cole, A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, and M. Pepper, “Simulation of terahertz pulse propagation in biological systems,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(12), 2190–2192 (2004).
[Crossref]

E. Pickwell, B. E. Cole, A. J. Fitzgerald, M. Pepper, and V. P. Wallace, “In vivo study of human skin using pulsed terahertz radiation,” Phys. Med. Biol. 49(9), 1595–1607 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. M. Woodward, V. P. Wallace, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of skin cancer in the time and frequency domain,” J. Biol. Phys. 29(2-3), 257–259 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. M. Woodward, B. E. Cole, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging in reflection geometry of human skin cancer and skin tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(21), 3853–3863 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Peralta, X.

G. J. Wilmink, B. L. Ibey, T. Tongue, B. Schulkin, X. Peralta, B. D. Rivest, E. C. Haywood, and W. P. Roach, “Measurement of the optical properties of skin using terahertz time-domain spectroscopic techniques,” Proc. SPIE 7562, 75620J (2010).
[Crossref]

Pickwell, E.

E. Pickwell and V. P. Wallace, “Biomedical applications of terahertz technology,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 39(17), R301–R310 (2006).
[Crossref]

E. Pickwell, B. E. Cole, A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, and M. Pepper, “Simulation of terahertz pulse propagation in biological systems,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(12), 2190–2192 (2004).
[Crossref]

E. Pickwell, B. E. Cole, A. J. Fitzgerald, M. Pepper, and V. P. Wallace, “In vivo study of human skin using pulsed terahertz radiation,” Phys. Med. Biol. 49(9), 1595–1607 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Png, G. M.

G. M. Png, J. W. Choi, B. W.-H. Ng, S. P. Mickan, D. Abbott, and X. C. Zhang, “The impact of hydration changes in fresh bio-tissue on THz spectroscopic measurements,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53(13), 3501–3517 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Polsman, A.

I. Hayut, A. Puzenko, P. B. Ishai, A. Polsman, A. J. Agranat, and Y. Feldman, “The helical structure of sweat ducts: their influence on the electromagnetic reflection spectrum of the skin,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 3(2), 207–215 (2013).
[Crossref]

Puzenko, A.

I. Hayut, A. Puzenko, P. B. Ishai, A. Polsman, A. J. Agranat, and Y. Feldman, “The helical structure of sweat ducts: their influence on the electromagnetic reflection spectrum of the skin,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 3(2), 207–215 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Feldman, A. Puzenko, P. Ben Ishai, A. Caduff, and A. J. Agranat, “Human skin as arrays of helical antennas in the millimeter and submillimeter wave range,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(12), 128102 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pye, R. J.

R. M. Woodward, B. E. Cole, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging in reflection geometry of human skin cancer and skin tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(21), 3853–3863 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rivest, B. D.

G. J. Wilmink, B. L. Ibey, T. Tongue, B. Schulkin, X. Peralta, B. D. Rivest, E. C. Haywood, and W. P. Roach, “Measurement of the optical properties of skin using terahertz time-domain spectroscopic techniques,” Proc. SPIE 7562, 75620J (2010).
[Crossref]

Roach, W. P.

G. J. Wilmink, B. L. Ibey, T. Tongue, B. Schulkin, X. Peralta, B. D. Rivest, E. C. Haywood, and W. P. Roach, “Measurement of the optical properties of skin using terahertz time-domain spectroscopic techniques,” Proc. SPIE 7562, 75620J (2010).
[Crossref]

Sakai, S.

N. Nakagawa, M. Matsumoto, and S. Sakai, “In vivo measurement of the water content in the dermis by confocal Raman spectroscopy,” Skin Res. Technol. 16(2), 137–141 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schulkin, B.

G. J. Wilmink, B. L. Ibey, T. Tongue, B. Schulkin, X. Peralta, B. D. Rivest, E. C. Haywood, and W. P. Roach, “Measurement of the optical properties of skin using terahertz time-domain spectroscopic techniques,” Proc. SPIE 7562, 75620J (2010).
[Crossref]

Shen, S. C.

W. R. Lee, S. C. Shen, H. H. Lai, C. H. Hu, and J. Y. Fang, “Transdermal drug delivery enhanced and controlled by erbium:YAG laser: a comparative study of lipophilic and hydrophilic drugs,” J. Control. Release 75(1-2), 155–166 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Son, J.-H.

Suh, J.-S.

Tanaka, K.

M. Nagai, H. Yada, T. Arikawa, and K. Tanaka, “Terahertz time-domain attenuated total reflection spectroscopy in water and biological solution,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves 27(4), 505–515 (2007).
[Crossref]

Tani, M.

P. Y. Han, M. Tani, M. Usami, S. Kono, R. Kersting, and X.-C. Zhang, “A direct comparison between terahertz time-domain spectroscopy and far-infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 89(4), 2357–2359 (2001).
[Crossref]

Tarango, M.

I. Echchgadda, J. A. Grundt, M. Tarango, B. L. Ibey, T. Tongue, M. Liang, H. Xin, and G. J. Wilmink, “Using a portable terahertz spectrometer to measure the optical properties of in vivo human skin,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(12), 120503 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Taylor, Z. D.

D. B. Bennett, W. Li, Z. D. Taylor, W. S. Grundfest, and E. R. Brown, “Stratified media model for terahertz reflectometry of the skin,” IEEE Sens. J. 11(5), 1253–1262 (2011).
[Crossref]

Thrane, L.

L. Thrane, R. H. Jacobsen, P. Uhd Jepsen, and S. R. Keiding, “THz reflection spectroscopy of liquid water,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 240(4), 330–333 (1995).
[Crossref]

Tongue, T.

I. Echchgadda, J. A. Grundt, M. Tarango, B. L. Ibey, T. Tongue, M. Liang, H. Xin, and G. J. Wilmink, “Using a portable terahertz spectrometer to measure the optical properties of in vivo human skin,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(12), 120503 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. J. Wilmink, B. L. Ibey, T. Tongue, B. Schulkin, X. Peralta, B. D. Rivest, E. C. Haywood, and W. P. Roach, “Measurement of the optical properties of skin using terahertz time-domain spectroscopic techniques,” Proc. SPIE 7562, 75620J (2010).
[Crossref]

Tonouchi, M.

M. Tonouchi, “Cutting-edge terahertz technology,” Nat. Photonics 1(2), 97–105 (2007).
[Crossref]

Tripathi, S. R.

S. R. Tripathi, E. Miyata, P. B. Ishai, and K. Kawase, “Morphology of human sweat ducts observed by optical coherence tomography and their frequency of resonance in the terahertz frequency region,” Sci. Rep. 5, 9071 (2015).

Tronnier, H.

M. Meinhardt, R. Krebs, A. Anders, U. Heinrich, and H. Tronnier, “Wavelength-dependent penetration depths of ultraviolet radiation in human skin,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 044030 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Uhd Jepsen, P.

L. Thrane, R. H. Jacobsen, P. Uhd Jepsen, and S. R. Keiding, “THz reflection spectroscopy of liquid water,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 240(4), 330–333 (1995).
[Crossref]

Usami, M.

P. Y. Han, M. Tani, M. Usami, S. Kono, R. Kersting, and X.-C. Zhang, “A direct comparison between terahertz time-domain spectroscopy and far-infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 89(4), 2357–2359 (2001).
[Crossref]

Wallace, V. P.

E. Pickwell and V. P. Wallace, “Biomedical applications of terahertz technology,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 39(17), R301–R310 (2006).
[Crossref]

E. Pickwell, B. E. Cole, A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, and M. Pepper, “Simulation of terahertz pulse propagation in biological systems,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(12), 2190–2192 (2004).
[Crossref]

E. Pickwell, B. E. Cole, A. J. Fitzgerald, M. Pepper, and V. P. Wallace, “In vivo study of human skin using pulsed terahertz radiation,” Phys. Med. Biol. 49(9), 1595–1607 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. M. Woodward, V. P. Wallace, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of skin cancer in the time and frequency domain,” J. Biol. Phys. 29(2-3), 257–259 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. M. Woodward, B. E. Cole, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging in reflection geometry of human skin cancer and skin tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(21), 3853–3863 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wilmink, G. J.

I. Echchgadda, J. A. Grundt, M. Tarango, B. L. Ibey, T. Tongue, M. Liang, H. Xin, and G. J. Wilmink, “Using a portable terahertz spectrometer to measure the optical properties of in vivo human skin,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(12), 120503 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. J. Wilmink, B. L. Ibey, T. Tongue, B. Schulkin, X. Peralta, B. D. Rivest, E. C. Haywood, and W. P. Roach, “Measurement of the optical properties of skin using terahertz time-domain spectroscopic techniques,” Proc. SPIE 7562, 75620J (2010).
[Crossref]

Woodward, R. M.

R. M. Woodward, V. P. Wallace, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of skin cancer in the time and frequency domain,” J. Biol. Phys. 29(2-3), 257–259 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. M. Woodward, B. E. Cole, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging in reflection geometry of human skin cancer and skin tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(21), 3853–3863 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xin, H.

I. Echchgadda, J. A. Grundt, M. Tarango, B. L. Ibey, T. Tongue, M. Liang, H. Xin, and G. J. Wilmink, “Using a portable terahertz spectrometer to measure the optical properties of in vivo human skin,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(12), 120503 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yada, H.

M. Nagai, H. Yada, T. Arikawa, and K. Tanaka, “Terahertz time-domain attenuated total reflection spectroscopy in water and biological solution,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves 27(4), 505–515 (2007).
[Crossref]

Zerwick, C.

S. Ghosh, S. Hornby, G. Grove, C. Zerwick, Y. Appa, and D. Blankschtein, “Ranking of aqueous surfactant-humectant systems based on an analysis of in vitro and in vivo skin barrier perturbation measurements,” J. Cosmet. Sci. 58(6), 599–620 (2007).
[PubMed]

Zhang, X. C.

G. M. Png, J. W. Choi, B. W.-H. Ng, S. P. Mickan, D. Abbott, and X. C. Zhang, “The impact of hydration changes in fresh bio-tissue on THz spectroscopic measurements,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53(13), 3501–3517 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.-C.

P. Y. Han, M. Tani, M. Usami, S. Kono, R. Kersting, and X.-C. Zhang, “A direct comparison between terahertz time-domain spectroscopy and far-infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 89(4), 2357–2359 (2001).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

E. Pickwell, B. E. Cole, A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, and M. Pepper, “Simulation of terahertz pulse propagation in biological systems,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(12), 2190–2192 (2004).
[Crossref]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

L. Thrane, R. H. Jacobsen, P. Uhd Jepsen, and S. R. Keiding, “THz reflection spectroscopy of liquid water,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 240(4), 330–333 (1995).
[Crossref]

IEEE Sens. J. (1)

D. B. Bennett, W. Li, Z. D. Taylor, W. S. Grundfest, and E. R. Brown, “Stratified media model for terahertz reflectometry of the skin,” IEEE Sens. J. 11(5), 1253–1262 (2011).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. (1)

I. Hayut, A. Puzenko, P. B. Ishai, A. Polsman, A. J. Agranat, and Y. Feldman, “The helical structure of sweat ducts: their influence on the electromagnetic reflection spectrum of the skin,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 3(2), 207–215 (2013).
[Crossref]

Int. J. Cosmet. Sci. (1)

M. Boncheva, “The physical chemistry of the stratum corneum lipids,” Int. J. Cosmet. Sci. 36(6), 505–515 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

P. Y. Han, M. Tani, M. Usami, S. Kono, R. Kersting, and X.-C. Zhang, “A direct comparison between terahertz time-domain spectroscopy and far-infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 89(4), 2357–2359 (2001).
[Crossref]

J. Biol. Phys. (1)

R. M. Woodward, V. P. Wallace, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of skin cancer in the time and frequency domain,” J. Biol. Phys. 29(2-3), 257–259 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (2)

M. Meinhardt, R. Krebs, A. Anders, U. Heinrich, and H. Tronnier, “Wavelength-dependent penetration depths of ultraviolet radiation in human skin,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 044030 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Echchgadda, J. A. Grundt, M. Tarango, B. L. Ibey, T. Tongue, M. Liang, H. Xin, and G. J. Wilmink, “Using a portable terahertz spectrometer to measure the optical properties of in vivo human skin,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(12), 120503 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Control. Release (1)

W. R. Lee, S. C. Shen, H. H. Lai, C. H. Hu, and J. Y. Fang, “Transdermal drug delivery enhanced and controlled by erbium:YAG laser: a comparative study of lipophilic and hydrophilic drugs,” J. Control. Release 75(1-2), 155–166 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Cosmet. Sci. (1)

S. Ghosh, S. Hornby, G. Grove, C. Zerwick, Y. Appa, and D. Blankschtein, “Ranking of aqueous surfactant-humectant systems based on an analysis of in vitro and in vivo skin barrier perturbation measurements,” J. Cosmet. Sci. 58(6), 599–620 (2007).
[PubMed]

J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves (1)

M. Nagai, H. Yada, T. Arikawa, and K. Tanaka, “Terahertz time-domain attenuated total reflection spectroscopy in water and biological solution,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves 27(4), 505–515 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. (1)

E. Pickwell and V. P. Wallace, “Biomedical applications of terahertz technology,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 39(17), R301–R310 (2006).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (1)

M. Tonouchi, “Cutting-edge terahertz technology,” Nat. Photonics 1(2), 97–105 (2007).
[Crossref]

Nat. Rev. Cancer (1)

D. E. J. G. J. Dolmans, D. Fukumura, and R. K. Jain, “Photodynamic therapy for cancer,” Nat. Rev. Cancer 3(5), 380–387 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Med. Biol. (3)

R. M. Woodward, B. E. Cole, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging in reflection geometry of human skin cancer and skin tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(21), 3853–3863 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Pickwell, B. E. Cole, A. J. Fitzgerald, M. Pepper, and V. P. Wallace, “In vivo study of human skin using pulsed terahertz radiation,” Phys. Med. Biol. 49(9), 1595–1607 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. M. Png, J. W. Choi, B. W.-H. Ng, S. P. Mickan, D. Abbott, and X. C. Zhang, “The impact of hydration changes in fresh bio-tissue on THz spectroscopic measurements,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53(13), 3501–3517 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

Y. Feldman, A. Puzenko, P. Ben Ishai, A. Caduff, and A. J. Agranat, “Human skin as arrays of helical antennas in the millimeter and submillimeter wave range,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(12), 128102 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (1)

G. J. Wilmink, B. L. Ibey, T. Tongue, B. Schulkin, X. Peralta, B. D. Rivest, E. C. Haywood, and W. P. Roach, “Measurement of the optical properties of skin using terahertz time-domain spectroscopic techniques,” Proc. SPIE 7562, 75620J (2010).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (1)

S. R. Tripathi, E. Miyata, P. B. Ishai, and K. Kawase, “Morphology of human sweat ducts observed by optical coherence tomography and their frequency of resonance in the terahertz frequency region,” Sci. Rep. 5, 9071 (2015).

Skin Res. Technol. (1)

N. Nakagawa, M. Matsumoto, and S. Sakai, “In vivo measurement of the water content in the dermis by confocal Raman spectroscopy,” Skin Res. Technol. 16(2), 137–141 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (1)

B. E. A. Saleh and M. C. Teich, Fundamental of Photonics (John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1991), chap 3.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Cross-section schematic and (b) photograph of the multilayered water–skin sample in a sample holder. (c) Photograph of skin sample dried under hot air flow. (d) Photographs of normal and damaged skin samples during natural evaporation.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Optical configuration of the reflective THz system. (b) Power spectrum of input THz waves.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Stratified model of normal skin samples under a water overlayer adsorption. (b) Multilayered structure of a damaged skin sample.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Spectral reflectivity of a skin sample under different water overlayer weights. The spectra are acquired during water desorption.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Reflectivity (Re.) of THz radiation at different frequencies from skin samples under different water overlayer weights or water content.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) Refractive indices and (b) absorption coefficients of a skin sample. (c) THz penetration depths and reflection percentage of a skin sample after the loss of 4 mg of water.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 (a) Waveforms of THz pulses reflected from damaged skin during water desorption. (b) THz spectral OPDs of damaged skin after undergoing water loss.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Field amplitude variations ΔE at different THz frequencies under different water evaporation losses from a damaged skin sample.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 (a) Schema of THz wave interference in a damaged skin sample. (b) Estimation of the calculated maximum THz penetration depth.

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