Abstract

We propose a novel security enhancement technique for a physical layer secure orthogonal frequency division multiplexed passive optical network (OFDM-PON) based on three-dimensional Brownian motion and chaos in cell (3DBCC). This method confuses an OFDM symbol via transforming it into a 3D symbol matrix and a 3D cell matrix with different size lengths. Different dividing-confusion rules then generate different complementary cumulative distribution functions (CCDFs) of peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR). And we can pre-estimate bit error rate (BER) performance by calculating the CCDF values. We also find that the processing time decreases with the matrix’s side length decreasing simultaneously. A new weighted comprehensive value (Qw) is further used to evaluate the overall performance between the processing time and the BER. Finally, an experiment successfully demonstrates a physical layer secure OFDM signal transmission with 22.06-Gb/s data rate over a 25.4-km standard single mode fiber (SSMF). These results indicate that cell (53) has the weighted optimum overall performance, which verifies that the proposed encryption technique is promising for building a physical layer security enhanced OFDM-PON system with a low processing time delay and a good BER for future access network systems.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

Full Article  |  PDF Article
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References

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]

2018 (3)

C. Zhang, Y. Yan, T. Wu, X. Zhang, G. Wen, and K. Qiu, “Phase masking and time-frequency chaotic encryption for DFMA-PON,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(4), 7203009 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. A. E. Hajomer, X. Yang, and W. S. Hu, “Secure OFDM transmission precoded by chaotic discrete Hartley transform,” IEEE Photon. J. 10(2), Art. No. 7901209 (2018).

C. F. Zhang, W. Zhang, C. Chen, X. J. He, and K. Qiu, “Physical-enhanced secure strategy for OFDMA-PON using chaos and deoxyribonucleic acid encoding,” J. Lightwave Technol. 36(9), 1706–1712 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (9)

W. Zhang, C. F. Zhang, C. Chen, and K. Qiu, “Experimental demonstration of security-enhanced OFDMA-PON using chaotic constellation transformation and pilot-aided secure key agreement,” J. Lightwave Technol. 35(9), 1524–1530 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. H. Bi, S. S. Fu, X. F. Zhou, X. L. Yang, S. L. Xiao, and W. S. Hu, “Chaotic nonlinear encryption scheme for CPAs resistance and PAPR reduction in OFDM-PON,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(24), 2147–2150 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. H. Bi, S. S. Fu, X. F. Zhou, L. Zhang, G. W. Yang, X. L. Yang, S. L. Xiao, and W. S. Hu, “A key space enhanced chaotic encryption scheme for physical layer security in OFDM-PON,” IEEE Photon. J. 9(1), Art. NO. 7901510 (2017).

W. Zhang, C. F. Zhang, C. Chen, H. J. Zhang, and K. Qiu, “Brownian motion encryption for physical-layer security improvement in CO-OFDM-PON,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(12), 1023–1026 (2017).
[Crossref]

X.-L. Chai, Z.-H. Gan, K. Yuan, Y. Lu, and Y.-R. Chen, “An image encryption scheme based on three-dimensional Brownian motion and chaotic system,” Chin. Phys. B 26(2), 99–113 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. Chai, “An image encryption algorithm based on bit level Brownian motion and new chaotic systems,” Multimedia Tools Appl. 76(1), 1159–1175 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Kaushal and G. Kaddoum, “Applications of lasers for tactical military operations,” IEEE Access 5, 20736–20753 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. F. Zhang, W. Zhang, X. J. He, C. Chen, H. J. Zhang, and K. Qiu, “Physically secured optical OFDM-PON by employing chaotic pseudorandom RF subcarriers,” IEEE Photon. J. 9(5), Art. No. 7204408 (2017).

W. Zhang, C. F. Zhang, C. Chen, H. J. Zhang, W. Jin, and K. Qiu, “Hybrid chaotic confusion and diffusion for physical layer security in OFDM-PON,” IEEE Photon. J. 9(2), Art. No. 7201010 (2017).

2016 (4)

Z. Shen, X. Yang, H. He, and W. S. Hu, “Secure transmission of optical DFT-S-OFDM data encrypted by digital chaos,” IEEE Photon. J. 8(3), Art. No. 7904609 (2016).

G. Kaddoum, “Wireless chaos-based communication systems: A comprehensive survey,” IEEE Access 4, 2621–2648 (2016).
[Crossref]

B. Liu, L. Zhang, X. J. Xin, and N. Liu, “Piecewise chaotic permutation method for physical layer security in OFDM-PON,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(21), 2359–2362 (2016).
[Crossref]

W. Zhang, C. F. Zhang, C. Chen, W. Jin, and K. Qiu, “Joint PAPR reduction and physical layer security enhancement in OFDMA-PON,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(9), 998–1001 (2016).

2015 (1)

M. Cheng, L. Deng, X. Gao, H. Li, M. Tang, S. N. Fu, P. Shum, and D. Liu, “Security-enhanced OFDM-PON using hybrid chaotic system,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(3), 326–329 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

W. Zhang, C. F. Zhang, W. Jin, C. Chen, N. Jiang, and K. Qiu, “Chaos coding-based QAM IQ-encryption for improved security in OFDMA-PON,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(19), 1964–1967 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Deng, M. Cheng, X. Wang, H. Li, M. Tang, S. Fu, P. Shum, and D. Liu, “Secure OFDM-PON system based on chaos and fractional Fourier transform techniques,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(15), 2629–2635 (2014).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

2011 (2)

2010 (2)

J. Chen, L. Wosinska, C. M. Machuca, and M. Jaeger, “Cost vs. reliability performance study of fiber access network architectures,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 48(2), 56–65 (2010).
[Crossref]

T. Kodama, N. Nakagawa, N. Kataoka, N. Wada, G. Cincotti, X. Wang, T. Miyazaki, and K. Kitayama, “Secure 2.5 Gbit/s, 16-ary OCDM block-ciphering with XOR using a single multi-port en/decoder,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(1), 181–187 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

2005 (1)

A. Argyris, D. Syvridis, L. Larger, V. Annovazzi-Lodi, P. Colet, I. Fischer, J. García-Ojalvo, C. R. Mirasso, L. Pesquera, and K. A. Shore, “Chaos-based communications at high bit rates using commercial fibre-optic links,” Nature 438(7066), 343–346 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Annovazzi-Lodi, V.

A. Argyris, D. Syvridis, L. Larger, V. Annovazzi-Lodi, P. Colet, I. Fischer, J. García-Ojalvo, C. R. Mirasso, L. Pesquera, and K. A. Shore, “Chaos-based communications at high bit rates using commercial fibre-optic links,” Nature 438(7066), 343–346 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Argyris, A.

A. Argyris, D. Syvridis, L. Larger, V. Annovazzi-Lodi, P. Colet, I. Fischer, J. García-Ojalvo, C. R. Mirasso, L. Pesquera, and K. A. Shore, “Chaos-based communications at high bit rates using commercial fibre-optic links,” Nature 438(7066), 343–346 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Armstrong, J.

Bi, M. H.

M. H. Bi, S. S. Fu, X. F. Zhou, X. L. Yang, S. L. Xiao, and W. S. Hu, “Chaotic nonlinear encryption scheme for CPAs resistance and PAPR reduction in OFDM-PON,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(24), 2147–2150 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. H. Bi, S. S. Fu, X. F. Zhou, L. Zhang, G. W. Yang, X. L. Yang, S. L. Xiao, and W. S. Hu, “A key space enhanced chaotic encryption scheme for physical layer security in OFDM-PON,” IEEE Photon. J. 9(1), Art. NO. 7901510 (2017).

Chai, X.

X. Chai, “An image encryption algorithm based on bit level Brownian motion and new chaotic systems,” Multimedia Tools Appl. 76(1), 1159–1175 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chai, X.-L.

X.-L. Chai, Z.-H. Gan, K. Yuan, Y. Lu, and Y.-R. Chen, “An image encryption scheme based on three-dimensional Brownian motion and chaotic system,” Chin. Phys. B 26(2), 99–113 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chen, C.

C. F. Zhang, W. Zhang, C. Chen, X. J. He, and K. Qiu, “Physical-enhanced secure strategy for OFDMA-PON using chaos and deoxyribonucleic acid encoding,” J. Lightwave Technol. 36(9), 1706–1712 (2018).
[Crossref]

W. Zhang, C. F. Zhang, C. Chen, and K. Qiu, “Experimental demonstration of security-enhanced OFDMA-PON using chaotic constellation transformation and pilot-aided secure key agreement,” J. Lightwave Technol. 35(9), 1524–1530 (2017).
[Crossref]

W. Zhang, C. F. Zhang, C. Chen, H. J. Zhang, and K. Qiu, “Brownian motion encryption for physical-layer security improvement in CO-OFDM-PON,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(12), 1023–1026 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. F. Zhang, W. Zhang, X. J. He, C. Chen, H. J. Zhang, and K. Qiu, “Physically secured optical OFDM-PON by employing chaotic pseudorandom RF subcarriers,” IEEE Photon. J. 9(5), Art. No. 7204408 (2017).

W. Zhang, C. F. Zhang, C. Chen, H. J. Zhang, W. Jin, and K. Qiu, “Hybrid chaotic confusion and diffusion for physical layer security in OFDM-PON,” IEEE Photon. J. 9(2), Art. No. 7201010 (2017).

W. Zhang, C. F. Zhang, C. Chen, W. Jin, and K. Qiu, “Joint PAPR reduction and physical layer security enhancement in OFDMA-PON,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(9), 998–1001 (2016).

W. Zhang, C. F. Zhang, W. Jin, C. Chen, N. Jiang, and K. Qiu, “Chaos coding-based QAM IQ-encryption for improved security in OFDMA-PON,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(19), 1964–1967 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Chen, C. Zhang, D. Liu, K. Qiu, and S. Liu, “Tunable optical frequency comb enabled scalable and cost-effective multiuser orthogonal frequency-division multiple access passive optical network with source-free optical network units,” Opt. Lett. 37(19), 3954–3956 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, J.

J. Chen, L. Wosinska, C. M. Machuca, and M. Jaeger, “Cost vs. reliability performance study of fiber access network architectures,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 48(2), 56–65 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y.-R.

X.-L. Chai, Z.-H. Gan, K. Yuan, Y. Lu, and Y.-R. Chen, “An image encryption scheme based on three-dimensional Brownian motion and chaotic system,” Chin. Phys. B 26(2), 99–113 (2017).
[Crossref]

Cheng, M.

M. Cheng, L. Deng, X. Gao, H. Li, M. Tang, S. N. Fu, P. Shum, and D. Liu, “Security-enhanced OFDM-PON using hybrid chaotic system,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(3), 326–329 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Deng, M. Cheng, X. Wang, H. Li, M. Tang, S. Fu, P. Shum, and D. Liu, “Secure OFDM-PON system based on chaos and fractional Fourier transform techniques,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(15), 2629–2635 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cincotti, G.

Colet, P.

A. Argyris, D. Syvridis, L. Larger, V. Annovazzi-Lodi, P. Colet, I. Fischer, J. García-Ojalvo, C. R. Mirasso, L. Pesquera, and K. A. Shore, “Chaos-based communications at high bit rates using commercial fibre-optic links,” Nature 438(7066), 343–346 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Deng, L.

M. Cheng, L. Deng, X. Gao, H. Li, M. Tang, S. N. Fu, P. Shum, and D. Liu, “Security-enhanced OFDM-PON using hybrid chaotic system,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(3), 326–329 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Deng, M. Cheng, X. Wang, H. Li, M. Tang, S. Fu, P. Shum, and D. Liu, “Secure OFDM-PON system based on chaos and fractional Fourier transform techniques,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(15), 2629–2635 (2014).
[Crossref]

Effenberger, F.

Effenberger, F. J.

Feng, Z.

Fischer, I.

A. Argyris, D. Syvridis, L. Larger, V. Annovazzi-Lodi, P. Colet, I. Fischer, J. García-Ojalvo, C. R. Mirasso, L. Pesquera, and K. A. Shore, “Chaos-based communications at high bit rates using commercial fibre-optic links,” Nature 438(7066), 343–346 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Forcucci, A.

Fu, S.

Fu, S. N.

M. Cheng, L. Deng, X. Gao, H. Li, M. Tang, S. N. Fu, P. Shum, and D. Liu, “Security-enhanced OFDM-PON using hybrid chaotic system,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(3), 326–329 (2015).
[Crossref]

Fu, S. S.

M. H. Bi, S. S. Fu, X. F. Zhou, L. Zhang, G. W. Yang, X. L. Yang, S. L. Xiao, and W. S. Hu, “A key space enhanced chaotic encryption scheme for physical layer security in OFDM-PON,” IEEE Photon. J. 9(1), Art. NO. 7901510 (2017).

M. H. Bi, S. S. Fu, X. F. Zhou, X. L. Yang, S. L. Xiao, and W. S. Hu, “Chaotic nonlinear encryption scheme for CPAs resistance and PAPR reduction in OFDM-PON,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(24), 2147–2150 (2017).
[Crossref]

Gan, Z.-H.

X.-L. Chai, Z.-H. Gan, K. Yuan, Y. Lu, and Y.-R. Chen, “An image encryption scheme based on three-dimensional Brownian motion and chaotic system,” Chin. Phys. B 26(2), 99–113 (2017).
[Crossref]

Gao, X.

M. Cheng, L. Deng, X. Gao, H. Li, M. Tang, S. N. Fu, P. Shum, and D. Liu, “Security-enhanced OFDM-PON using hybrid chaotic system,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(3), 326–329 (2015).
[Crossref]

García-Ojalvo, J.

A. Argyris, D. Syvridis, L. Larger, V. Annovazzi-Lodi, P. Colet, I. Fischer, J. García-Ojalvo, C. R. Mirasso, L. Pesquera, and K. A. Shore, “Chaos-based communications at high bit rates using commercial fibre-optic links,” Nature 438(7066), 343–346 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guo, W.

Hajomer, A. A. E.

A. A. E. Hajomer, X. Yang, and W. S. Hu, “Secure OFDM transmission precoded by chaotic discrete Hartley transform,” IEEE Photon. J. 10(2), Art. No. 7901209 (2018).

He, H.

Z. Shen, X. Yang, H. He, and W. S. Hu, “Secure transmission of optical DFT-S-OFDM data encrypted by digital chaos,” IEEE Photon. J. 8(3), Art. No. 7904609 (2016).

He, X. J.

C. F. Zhang, W. Zhang, C. Chen, X. J. He, and K. Qiu, “Physical-enhanced secure strategy for OFDMA-PON using chaos and deoxyribonucleic acid encoding,” J. Lightwave Technol. 36(9), 1706–1712 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. F. Zhang, W. Zhang, X. J. He, C. Chen, H. J. Zhang, and K. Qiu, “Physically secured optical OFDM-PON by employing chaotic pseudorandom RF subcarriers,” IEEE Photon. J. 9(5), Art. No. 7204408 (2017).

Hu, W. S.

A. A. E. Hajomer, X. Yang, and W. S. Hu, “Secure OFDM transmission precoded by chaotic discrete Hartley transform,” IEEE Photon. J. 10(2), Art. No. 7901209 (2018).

M. H. Bi, S. S. Fu, X. F. Zhou, X. L. Yang, S. L. Xiao, and W. S. Hu, “Chaotic nonlinear encryption scheme for CPAs resistance and PAPR reduction in OFDM-PON,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(24), 2147–2150 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. H. Bi, S. S. Fu, X. F. Zhou, L. Zhang, G. W. Yang, X. L. Yang, S. L. Xiao, and W. S. Hu, “A key space enhanced chaotic encryption scheme for physical layer security in OFDM-PON,” IEEE Photon. J. 9(1), Art. NO. 7901510 (2017).

Z. Shen, X. Yang, H. He, and W. S. Hu, “Secure transmission of optical DFT-S-OFDM data encrypted by digital chaos,” IEEE Photon. J. 8(3), Art. No. 7904609 (2016).

Jaeger, M.

J. Chen, L. Wosinska, C. M. Machuca, and M. Jaeger, “Cost vs. reliability performance study of fiber access network architectures,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 48(2), 56–65 (2010).
[Crossref]

Jain, S.

Jiang, N.

W. Zhang, C. F. Zhang, W. Jin, C. Chen, N. Jiang, and K. Qiu, “Chaos coding-based QAM IQ-encryption for improved security in OFDMA-PON,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(19), 1964–1967 (2014).
[Crossref]

Jin, W.

W. Zhang, C. F. Zhang, C. Chen, H. J. Zhang, W. Jin, and K. Qiu, “Hybrid chaotic confusion and diffusion for physical layer security in OFDM-PON,” IEEE Photon. J. 9(2), Art. No. 7201010 (2017).

W. Zhang, C. F. Zhang, C. Chen, W. Jin, and K. Qiu, “Joint PAPR reduction and physical layer security enhancement in OFDMA-PON,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(9), 998–1001 (2016).

W. Zhang, C. F. Zhang, W. Jin, C. Chen, N. Jiang, and K. Qiu, “Chaos coding-based QAM IQ-encryption for improved security in OFDMA-PON,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(19), 1964–1967 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kaddoum, G.

H. Kaushal and G. Kaddoum, “Applications of lasers for tactical military operations,” IEEE Access 5, 20736–20753 (2017).
[Crossref]

G. Kaddoum, “Wireless chaos-based communication systems: A comprehensive survey,” IEEE Access 4, 2621–2648 (2016).
[Crossref]

Kataoka, N.

Kaushal, H.

H. Kaushal and G. Kaddoum, “Applications of lasers for tactical military operations,” IEEE Access 5, 20736–20753 (2017).
[Crossref]

Kitayama, K.

Kodama, T.

Larger, L.

A. Argyris, D. Syvridis, L. Larger, V. Annovazzi-Lodi, P. Colet, I. Fischer, J. García-Ojalvo, C. R. Mirasso, L. Pesquera, and K. A. Shore, “Chaos-based communications at high bit rates using commercial fibre-optic links,” Nature 438(7066), 343–346 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, H.

M. Cheng, L. Deng, X. Gao, H. Li, M. Tang, S. N. Fu, P. Shum, and D. Liu, “Security-enhanced OFDM-PON using hybrid chaotic system,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(3), 326–329 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Deng, M. Cheng, X. Wang, H. Li, M. Tang, S. Fu, P. Shum, and D. Liu, “Secure OFDM-PON system based on chaos and fractional Fourier transform techniques,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(15), 2629–2635 (2014).
[Crossref]

Liu, B.

B. Liu, L. Zhang, X. J. Xin, and N. Liu, “Piecewise chaotic permutation method for physical layer security in OFDM-PON,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(21), 2359–2362 (2016).
[Crossref]

Liu, D.

Liu, N.

B. Liu, L. Zhang, X. J. Xin, and N. Liu, “Piecewise chaotic permutation method for physical layer security in OFDM-PON,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(21), 2359–2362 (2016).
[Crossref]

Liu, S.

Lu, Y.

X.-L. Chai, Z.-H. Gan, K. Yuan, Y. Lu, and Y.-R. Chen, “An image encryption scheme based on three-dimensional Brownian motion and chaotic system,” Chin. Phys. B 26(2), 99–113 (2017).
[Crossref]

Luo, Y.

Machuca, C. M.

J. Chen, L. Wosinska, C. M. Machuca, and M. Jaeger, “Cost vs. reliability performance study of fiber access network architectures,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 48(2), 56–65 (2010).
[Crossref]

Mapes, R.

Mirasso, C. R.

A. Argyris, D. Syvridis, L. Larger, V. Annovazzi-Lodi, P. Colet, I. Fischer, J. García-Ojalvo, C. R. Mirasso, L. Pesquera, and K. A. Shore, “Chaos-based communications at high bit rates using commercial fibre-optic links,” Nature 438(7066), 343–346 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Miyazaki, T.

Nakagawa, N.

O’Byrne, V.

Pesquera, L.

A. Argyris, D. Syvridis, L. Larger, V. Annovazzi-Lodi, P. Colet, I. Fischer, J. García-Ojalvo, C. R. Mirasso, L. Pesquera, and K. A. Shore, “Chaos-based communications at high bit rates using commercial fibre-optic links,” Nature 438(7066), 343–346 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Qiu, K.

C. F. Zhang, W. Zhang, C. Chen, X. J. He, and K. Qiu, “Physical-enhanced secure strategy for OFDMA-PON using chaos and deoxyribonucleic acid encoding,” J. Lightwave Technol. 36(9), 1706–1712 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. Zhang, Y. Yan, T. Wu, X. Zhang, G. Wen, and K. Qiu, “Phase masking and time-frequency chaotic encryption for DFMA-PON,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(4), 7203009 (2018).
[Crossref]

W. Zhang, C. F. Zhang, C. Chen, H. J. Zhang, and K. Qiu, “Brownian motion encryption for physical-layer security improvement in CO-OFDM-PON,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(12), 1023–1026 (2017).
[Crossref]

W. Zhang, C. F. Zhang, C. Chen, and K. Qiu, “Experimental demonstration of security-enhanced OFDMA-PON using chaotic constellation transformation and pilot-aided secure key agreement,” J. Lightwave Technol. 35(9), 1524–1530 (2017).
[Crossref]

W. Zhang, C. F. Zhang, C. Chen, H. J. Zhang, W. Jin, and K. Qiu, “Hybrid chaotic confusion and diffusion for physical layer security in OFDM-PON,” IEEE Photon. J. 9(2), Art. No. 7201010 (2017).

C. F. Zhang, W. Zhang, X. J. He, C. Chen, H. J. Zhang, and K. Qiu, “Physically secured optical OFDM-PON by employing chaotic pseudorandom RF subcarriers,” IEEE Photon. J. 9(5), Art. No. 7204408 (2017).

W. Zhang, C. F. Zhang, C. Chen, W. Jin, and K. Qiu, “Joint PAPR reduction and physical layer security enhancement in OFDMA-PON,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(9), 998–1001 (2016).

W. Zhang, C. F. Zhang, W. Jin, C. Chen, N. Jiang, and K. Qiu, “Chaos coding-based QAM IQ-encryption for improved security in OFDMA-PON,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(19), 1964–1967 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Chen, C. Zhang, D. Liu, K. Qiu, and S. Liu, “Tunable optical frequency comb enabled scalable and cost-effective multiuser orthogonal frequency-division multiple access passive optical network with source-free optical network units,” Opt. Lett. 37(19), 3954–3956 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shen, Z.

Z. Shen, X. Yang, H. He, and W. S. Hu, “Secure transmission of optical DFT-S-OFDM data encrypted by digital chaos,” IEEE Photon. J. 8(3), Art. No. 7904609 (2016).

Shore, K. A.

A. Argyris, D. Syvridis, L. Larger, V. Annovazzi-Lodi, P. Colet, I. Fischer, J. García-Ojalvo, C. R. Mirasso, L. Pesquera, and K. A. Shore, “Chaos-based communications at high bit rates using commercial fibre-optic links,” Nature 438(7066), 343–346 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shum, P.

M. Cheng, L. Deng, X. Gao, H. Li, M. Tang, S. N. Fu, P. Shum, and D. Liu, “Security-enhanced OFDM-PON using hybrid chaotic system,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(3), 326–329 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Deng, M. Cheng, X. Wang, H. Li, M. Tang, S. Fu, P. Shum, and D. Liu, “Secure OFDM-PON system based on chaos and fractional Fourier transform techniques,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(15), 2629–2635 (2014).
[Crossref]

Syvridis, D.

A. Argyris, D. Syvridis, L. Larger, V. Annovazzi-Lodi, P. Colet, I. Fischer, J. García-Ojalvo, C. R. Mirasso, L. Pesquera, and K. A. Shore, “Chaos-based communications at high bit rates using commercial fibre-optic links,” Nature 438(7066), 343–346 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Szabo, A.

Tang, M.

M. Cheng, L. Deng, X. Gao, H. Li, M. Tang, S. N. Fu, P. Shum, and D. Liu, “Security-enhanced OFDM-PON using hybrid chaotic system,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(3), 326–329 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Deng, M. Cheng, X. Wang, H. Li, M. Tang, S. Fu, P. Shum, and D. Liu, “Secure OFDM-PON system based on chaos and fractional Fourier transform techniques,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(15), 2629–2635 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wada, N.

Wang, X.

Wen, G.

C. Zhang, Y. Yan, T. Wu, X. Zhang, G. Wen, and K. Qiu, “Phase masking and time-frequency chaotic encryption for DFMA-PON,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(4), 7203009 (2018).
[Crossref]

Wosinska, L.

J. Chen, L. Wosinska, C. M. Machuca, and M. Jaeger, “Cost vs. reliability performance study of fiber access network architectures,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 48(2), 56–65 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wu, T.

C. Zhang, Y. Yan, T. Wu, X. Zhang, G. Wen, and K. Qiu, “Phase masking and time-frequency chaotic encryption for DFMA-PON,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(4), 7203009 (2018).
[Crossref]

Xiao, S. L.

M. H. Bi, S. S. Fu, X. F. Zhou, L. Zhang, G. W. Yang, X. L. Yang, S. L. Xiao, and W. S. Hu, “A key space enhanced chaotic encryption scheme for physical layer security in OFDM-PON,” IEEE Photon. J. 9(1), Art. NO. 7901510 (2017).

M. H. Bi, S. S. Fu, X. F. Zhou, X. L. Yang, S. L. Xiao, and W. S. Hu, “Chaotic nonlinear encryption scheme for CPAs resistance and PAPR reduction in OFDM-PON,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(24), 2147–2150 (2017).
[Crossref]

Xin, X. J.

B. Liu, L. Zhang, X. J. Xin, and N. Liu, “Piecewise chaotic permutation method for physical layer security in OFDM-PON,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(21), 2359–2362 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yan, Y.

C. Zhang, Y. Yan, T. Wu, X. Zhang, G. Wen, and K. Qiu, “Phase masking and time-frequency chaotic encryption for DFMA-PON,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(4), 7203009 (2018).
[Crossref]

Yang, G. W.

M. H. Bi, S. S. Fu, X. F. Zhou, L. Zhang, G. W. Yang, X. L. Yang, S. L. Xiao, and W. S. Hu, “A key space enhanced chaotic encryption scheme for physical layer security in OFDM-PON,” IEEE Photon. J. 9(1), Art. NO. 7901510 (2017).

Yang, X.

A. A. E. Hajomer, X. Yang, and W. S. Hu, “Secure OFDM transmission precoded by chaotic discrete Hartley transform,” IEEE Photon. J. 10(2), Art. No. 7901209 (2018).

Z. Shen, X. Yang, H. He, and W. S. Hu, “Secure transmission of optical DFT-S-OFDM data encrypted by digital chaos,” IEEE Photon. J. 8(3), Art. No. 7904609 (2016).

Yang, X. L.

M. H. Bi, S. S. Fu, X. F. Zhou, L. Zhang, G. W. Yang, X. L. Yang, S. L. Xiao, and W. S. Hu, “A key space enhanced chaotic encryption scheme for physical layer security in OFDM-PON,” IEEE Photon. J. 9(1), Art. NO. 7901510 (2017).

M. H. Bi, S. S. Fu, X. F. Zhou, X. L. Yang, S. L. Xiao, and W. S. Hu, “Chaotic nonlinear encryption scheme for CPAs resistance and PAPR reduction in OFDM-PON,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(24), 2147–2150 (2017).
[Crossref]

Yuan, K.

X.-L. Chai, Z.-H. Gan, K. Yuan, Y. Lu, and Y.-R. Chen, “An image encryption scheme based on three-dimensional Brownian motion and chaotic system,” Chin. Phys. B 26(2), 99–113 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhang, C.

Zhang, C. F.

C. F. Zhang, W. Zhang, C. Chen, X. J. He, and K. Qiu, “Physical-enhanced secure strategy for OFDMA-PON using chaos and deoxyribonucleic acid encoding,” J. Lightwave Technol. 36(9), 1706–1712 (2018).
[Crossref]

W. Zhang, C. F. Zhang, C. Chen, and K. Qiu, “Experimental demonstration of security-enhanced OFDMA-PON using chaotic constellation transformation and pilot-aided secure key agreement,” J. Lightwave Technol. 35(9), 1524–1530 (2017).
[Crossref]

W. Zhang, C. F. Zhang, C. Chen, H. J. Zhang, and K. Qiu, “Brownian motion encryption for physical-layer security improvement in CO-OFDM-PON,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(12), 1023–1026 (2017).
[Crossref]

W. Zhang, C. F. Zhang, C. Chen, H. J. Zhang, W. Jin, and K. Qiu, “Hybrid chaotic confusion and diffusion for physical layer security in OFDM-PON,” IEEE Photon. J. 9(2), Art. No. 7201010 (2017).

C. F. Zhang, W. Zhang, X. J. He, C. Chen, H. J. Zhang, and K. Qiu, “Physically secured optical OFDM-PON by employing chaotic pseudorandom RF subcarriers,” IEEE Photon. J. 9(5), Art. No. 7204408 (2017).

W. Zhang, C. F. Zhang, C. Chen, W. Jin, and K. Qiu, “Joint PAPR reduction and physical layer security enhancement in OFDMA-PON,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(9), 998–1001 (2016).

W. Zhang, C. F. Zhang, W. Jin, C. Chen, N. Jiang, and K. Qiu, “Chaos coding-based QAM IQ-encryption for improved security in OFDMA-PON,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(19), 1964–1967 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhang, H. J.

C. F. Zhang, W. Zhang, X. J. He, C. Chen, H. J. Zhang, and K. Qiu, “Physically secured optical OFDM-PON by employing chaotic pseudorandom RF subcarriers,” IEEE Photon. J. 9(5), Art. No. 7204408 (2017).

W. Zhang, C. F. Zhang, C. Chen, H. J. Zhang, W. Jin, and K. Qiu, “Hybrid chaotic confusion and diffusion for physical layer security in OFDM-PON,” IEEE Photon. J. 9(2), Art. No. 7201010 (2017).

W. Zhang, C. F. Zhang, C. Chen, H. J. Zhang, and K. Qiu, “Brownian motion encryption for physical-layer security improvement in CO-OFDM-PON,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(12), 1023–1026 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhang, L.

M. H. Bi, S. S. Fu, X. F. Zhou, L. Zhang, G. W. Yang, X. L. Yang, S. L. Xiao, and W. S. Hu, “A key space enhanced chaotic encryption scheme for physical layer security in OFDM-PON,” IEEE Photon. J. 9(1), Art. NO. 7901510 (2017).

B. Liu, L. Zhang, X. J. Xin, and N. Liu, “Piecewise chaotic permutation method for physical layer security in OFDM-PON,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(21), 2359–2362 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhang, W.

C. F. Zhang, W. Zhang, C. Chen, X. J. He, and K. Qiu, “Physical-enhanced secure strategy for OFDMA-PON using chaos and deoxyribonucleic acid encoding,” J. Lightwave Technol. 36(9), 1706–1712 (2018).
[Crossref]

W. Zhang, C. F. Zhang, C. Chen, and K. Qiu, “Experimental demonstration of security-enhanced OFDMA-PON using chaotic constellation transformation and pilot-aided secure key agreement,” J. Lightwave Technol. 35(9), 1524–1530 (2017).
[Crossref]

W. Zhang, C. F. Zhang, C. Chen, H. J. Zhang, and K. Qiu, “Brownian motion encryption for physical-layer security improvement in CO-OFDM-PON,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(12), 1023–1026 (2017).
[Crossref]

W. Zhang, C. F. Zhang, C. Chen, H. J. Zhang, W. Jin, and K. Qiu, “Hybrid chaotic confusion and diffusion for physical layer security in OFDM-PON,” IEEE Photon. J. 9(2), Art. No. 7201010 (2017).

C. F. Zhang, W. Zhang, X. J. He, C. Chen, H. J. Zhang, and K. Qiu, “Physically secured optical OFDM-PON by employing chaotic pseudorandom RF subcarriers,” IEEE Photon. J. 9(5), Art. No. 7204408 (2017).

W. Zhang, C. F. Zhang, C. Chen, W. Jin, and K. Qiu, “Joint PAPR reduction and physical layer security enhancement in OFDMA-PON,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(9), 998–1001 (2016).

W. Zhang, C. F. Zhang, W. Jin, C. Chen, N. Jiang, and K. Qiu, “Chaos coding-based QAM IQ-encryption for improved security in OFDMA-PON,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(19), 1964–1967 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X.

C. Zhang, Y. Yan, T. Wu, X. Zhang, G. Wen, and K. Qiu, “Phase masking and time-frequency chaotic encryption for DFMA-PON,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(4), 7203009 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Y.

Zhou, X. F.

M. H. Bi, S. S. Fu, X. F. Zhou, L. Zhang, G. W. Yang, X. L. Yang, S. L. Xiao, and W. S. Hu, “A key space enhanced chaotic encryption scheme for physical layer security in OFDM-PON,” IEEE Photon. J. 9(1), Art. NO. 7901510 (2017).

M. H. Bi, S. S. Fu, X. F. Zhou, X. L. Yang, S. L. Xiao, and W. S. Hu, “Chaotic nonlinear encryption scheme for CPAs resistance and PAPR reduction in OFDM-PON,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(24), 2147–2150 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chin. Phys. B (1)

X.-L. Chai, Z.-H. Gan, K. Yuan, Y. Lu, and Y.-R. Chen, “An image encryption scheme based on three-dimensional Brownian motion and chaotic system,” Chin. Phys. B 26(2), 99–113 (2017).
[Crossref]

IEEE Access (2)

H. Kaushal and G. Kaddoum, “Applications of lasers for tactical military operations,” IEEE Access 5, 20736–20753 (2017).
[Crossref]

G. Kaddoum, “Wireless chaos-based communication systems: A comprehensive survey,” IEEE Access 4, 2621–2648 (2016).
[Crossref]

IEEE Commun. Mag. (1)

J. Chen, L. Wosinska, C. M. Machuca, and M. Jaeger, “Cost vs. reliability performance study of fiber access network architectures,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 48(2), 56–65 (2010).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. J. (5)

C. F. Zhang, W. Zhang, X. J. He, C. Chen, H. J. Zhang, and K. Qiu, “Physically secured optical OFDM-PON by employing chaotic pseudorandom RF subcarriers,” IEEE Photon. J. 9(5), Art. No. 7204408 (2017).

W. Zhang, C. F. Zhang, C. Chen, H. J. Zhang, W. Jin, and K. Qiu, “Hybrid chaotic confusion and diffusion for physical layer security in OFDM-PON,” IEEE Photon. J. 9(2), Art. No. 7201010 (2017).

Z. Shen, X. Yang, H. He, and W. S. Hu, “Secure transmission of optical DFT-S-OFDM data encrypted by digital chaos,” IEEE Photon. J. 8(3), Art. No. 7904609 (2016).

A. A. E. Hajomer, X. Yang, and W. S. Hu, “Secure OFDM transmission precoded by chaotic discrete Hartley transform,” IEEE Photon. J. 10(2), Art. No. 7901209 (2018).

M. H. Bi, S. S. Fu, X. F. Zhou, L. Zhang, G. W. Yang, X. L. Yang, S. L. Xiao, and W. S. Hu, “A key space enhanced chaotic encryption scheme for physical layer security in OFDM-PON,” IEEE Photon. J. 9(1), Art. NO. 7901510 (2017).

IEEE Photonics J. (1)

C. Zhang, Y. Yan, T. Wu, X. Zhang, G. Wen, and K. Qiu, “Phase masking and time-frequency chaotic encryption for DFMA-PON,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(4), 7203009 (2018).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (6)

W. Zhang, C. F. Zhang, C. Chen, H. J. Zhang, and K. Qiu, “Brownian motion encryption for physical-layer security improvement in CO-OFDM-PON,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(12), 1023–1026 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. H. Bi, S. S. Fu, X. F. Zhou, X. L. Yang, S. L. Xiao, and W. S. Hu, “Chaotic nonlinear encryption scheme for CPAs resistance and PAPR reduction in OFDM-PON,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(24), 2147–2150 (2017).
[Crossref]

B. Liu, L. Zhang, X. J. Xin, and N. Liu, “Piecewise chaotic permutation method for physical layer security in OFDM-PON,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(21), 2359–2362 (2016).
[Crossref]

W. Zhang, C. F. Zhang, W. Jin, C. Chen, N. Jiang, and K. Qiu, “Chaos coding-based QAM IQ-encryption for improved security in OFDMA-PON,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(19), 1964–1967 (2014).
[Crossref]

W. Zhang, C. F. Zhang, C. Chen, W. Jin, and K. Qiu, “Joint PAPR reduction and physical layer security enhancement in OFDMA-PON,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(9), 998–1001 (2016).

M. Cheng, L. Deng, X. Gao, H. Li, M. Tang, S. N. Fu, P. Shum, and D. Liu, “Security-enhanced OFDM-PON using hybrid chaotic system,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(3), 326–329 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (7)

Multimedia Tools Appl. (1)

X. Chai, “An image encryption algorithm based on bit level Brownian motion and new chaotic systems,” Multimedia Tools Appl. 76(1), 1159–1175 (2017).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

A. Argyris, D. Syvridis, L. Larger, V. Annovazzi-Lodi, P. Colet, I. Fischer, J. García-Ojalvo, C. R. Mirasso, L. Pesquera, and K. A. Shore, “Chaos-based communications at high bit rates using commercial fibre-optic links,” Nature 438(7066), 343–346 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (1)

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Normalized 3DBC motivation path of one particle.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Symbol scrambling in a 3D matrix using 3DBC.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Cell scrambling in a 3D matrix-cell using 3DBCC.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Experiment setup. AWG: arbitrary waveform generator; LD: laser diode; IM: intensity modulator; SSMF: standard single mode fiber; TOA: tunable optical attenuator; PD: photodetector; OLT: optical line terminal; ONU: optical network unit.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Bifurcation diagrams of LSS, LTS and TSS. (a) LSS, (b) LTS, (c) TSS.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 PAPRs of different encryption rules.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Measured results of the received OFDM signals versus different encryptions.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 LE and PE of each parameter (u, v, δ, dx, dy, dz)

Tables Icon

Table 2 The processing time of 3DBC and 3DBCC with cell (203,103, 53, 43)

Tables Icon

Table 3 The comprehensive performance of 3DBC and 3DBCC with cell (203,103, 53, 43)

Equations (11)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

d x = δ sin a cos b d y = δ sin a sin b , d z = δ cos a
a = u × 2 × π , b = v × 2 × π ,
u n + 1 = L S S ( p u , u n ) = ( p u u n ( 1 u n ) + ( 4 p u ) sin ( π u n ) / 4 ) mod 1 ,
v n + 1 = L T S ( p v , v n ) = { ( p v v n ( 1 v n ) + ( 4 p v ) v n / 2 ) mod 1 v n < 0.5 ( p v v n ( 1 v n ) + ( 4 p v ) ( 1 v n ) / 2 ) mod 1 v n 0.5 ,
δ n + 1 = T S S ( p δ , δ n ) = { ( p δ δ n / 2 + ( 4 p δ ) sin ( π τ n ) / 4 ) mod 1 δ n < 0.5 ( p δ ( 1 δ n ) / 2 + ( 4 p δ ) sin ( π τ n ) / 4 ) mod 1 δ n 0.5 ,
x k e n = c e i l ( ( x k + d x x , y , z ) mod L ) y k e n = c e i l ( ( y k + d y x , y , z ) mod W ) , z k e n = c e i l ( ( z k + d z x , y , z ) mod H )
M 3 D e n = x = 1 L y = 1 W z = 1 H e x c h a n g e ( T k ( x , y , z ) , T k e n ( x k e n , y k e n , z k e n ) ) ,
x k d e = c e i l ( ( x k e n d x x , y , z ) mod L ) y k d e = c e i l ( ( y k e n d y x , y , z ) mod W ) . z k d e = c e i l ( ( y k e n d z x , y , z ) mod H )
F d e = x = 1 L y = 1 W z = 1 H e x c h a n g e ( T k e n ( x k e n , y k e n , z k e n ) , T k d e ( x k d e , y k d e , z k d e ) ) .
V P A P R = n = 1 K p ( n ) i ( n ) ,
Q w = k 1 × T + k 2 × V P A P R .

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