Abstract

A bifacial CdS/CdTe thin-film solar cell with a superstrate configuration was demonstrated by using copper nanowire (CuNW)/indium tin oxide (ITO) back contacts as a transparent and conductive electrode (TCE). CdS and CdTe were deposited by chemical bath deposition and close-spaced sublimation techniques, respectively. The CuNWs acted both as an acceptor dopant and TCE for the p-CdTe, improving the total cell efficiency compared to a copper-free back contact. CuNW/ITO back contacts with high optical transmittance (72.3% at 550 nm) and low sheet resistance (47.1 Ω/sq.) were obtained. The average cell efficiency of the bifacial CdS/CdTe thin-film cells with the optimized CuNW/ITO back contact was 10.0% (front-side illumination) and 0.55% (rear-side illumination). The quantum efficiencies under front-side and rear-side illumination were studied. The prepared bifacial cell can facilitate full usage of incoming sunlight (direct or diffused), enhancing the output power under cloudy conditions.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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  8. J. Park, Z. Ouyang, C. Yan, K. Sun, H. Sun, F. Liu, M. Green, and X. Hao, “Hybrid Ag nanowire–ITO as transparent conductive electrode for pure sulfide kesterite Cu2ZnSnS4 solar cells,” J. Phys. Chem. C 121(38), 20597–20604 (2017).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. H.-G. Im, S. Jeong, J. Jin, J. Lee, D.-Y. Youn, W.-T. Koo, S.-B. Kang, H.-J. Kim, J. Jang, D. Lee, H.-K. Kim, I.-D. Kim, J.-Y. Lee, and B.-S. Bae, “Hybrid crystalline-ITO/metal nanowire mesh transparent electrodes and their application for highly flexible perovskite solar cells,” NPG Asia Mater. 8(6), e282 (2016).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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  16. H. C. Chou, A. Rohatgi, N. M. Jokerst, E. W. Thomas, and S. Kamra, “Copper migration in CdTe heterojunction solar cells,” J. Electron. Mater. 25(7), 1093–1098 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  17. K. Durose, P. R. Edwards, and D. P. Halliday, “Materials aspects of CdTe/CdS solar cells,” J. Cryst. Growth 197(3), 733–742 (1999).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  19. E. Kučys, J. Jerhot, K. Bertulis, and V. Bariss, “Copper impurity behaviour in CdTe films,” Phys. Status Solidi 59(1), 91–99 (1980).
    [Crossref]
  20. I. Rimmaudo, A. Salavei, and A. Romeo, “Ageing of CdTe device by copper diffusion,” in Proceedings of 27th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition (2012), pp. 2828–2832.
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    [Crossref]
  22. A. N. Tiwari, G. Khrypunov, F. Kurdzesau, D. L. Bätzber, A. Romeo, and H. Zogg, “CdTe solar cell in a novel configuration,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 12(1), 33–38 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  23. S. Marsillac, V. Y. Parikh, and A. D. Compaan, “Ultra-thin bifacial CdTe solar cell,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91(15–16), 1398–1402 (2007).
    [Crossref]

2018 (2)

M. A. Green, Y. Hishikawa, E. D. Dunlop, D. H. Levi, J. Hohl-Ebinger, and A. W. Y. Ho-Baillie, “Solar cell efficiency tables (version 51),” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 26(1), 3–12 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Kwon, J. Seo, Y. Kang, D. Kim, and J. Kim, “Bifacial CdS/CdTe thin-film solar cells using a transparent silver nanowire/indium tin oxide back contact,” Opt. Express 26(2), A30–A38 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2017 (2)

J. Park, Z. Ouyang, C. Yan, K. Sun, H. Sun, F. Liu, M. Green, and X. Hao, “Hybrid Ag nanowire–ITO as transparent conductive electrode for pure sulfide kesterite Cu2ZnSnS4 solar cells,” J. Phys. Chem. C 121(38), 20597–20604 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Manikandan, L. Lee, Y.-C. Wang, C.-W. Chen, Y.-Z. Chen, H. Medina, J.-Y. Tseng, Z. M. Wang, and Y.-L. Chueh, “Graphene-coated copper nanowire networks as a highly stable transparent electrode in harsh environments toward efficient electrocatalytic hydrogen evolution reactions,” J. Mater. Chem. A Mater. Energy Sustain. 5(26), 13320–13328 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (3)

Q. Wei, C. Wu, X. Liu, S. Zhang, F. Qian, J. Lu, W. Lian, and P. Ni, “The Glass-glass Module Using n-type Bifacial Solar Cell with PERT Structure and its Performance,” Energy Procedia 92, 750–754 (2016).
[Crossref]

H.-G. Im, S. Jeong, J. Jin, J. Lee, D.-Y. Youn, W.-T. Koo, S.-B. Kang, H.-J. Kim, J. Jang, D. Lee, H.-K. Kim, I.-D. Kim, J.-Y. Lee, and B.-S. Bae, “Hybrid crystalline-ITO/metal nanowire mesh transparent electrodes and their application for highly flexible perovskite solar cells,” NPG Asia Mater. 8(6), e282 (2016).
[Crossref]

R. R. Khanal, A. B. Phillips, Z. Song, Y. Xie, H. P. Mahabaduge, M. D. Dorogi, S. Zafar, G. T. Faykosh, and M. J. Heben, “Substrate configuration, bifacial CdTe solar cells grown directly on transparent single wall carbon nanotube back contacts,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 157, 35–41 (2016).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

T. Kim, A. Canlier, G. H. Kim, J. Choi, M. Park, and S. M. Han, “Electrostatic spray deposition of highly transparent silver nanowire electrode on flexible substrate,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 5(3), 788–794 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

A. R. Rathmell, S. M. Bergin, Y.-L. Hua, Z.-Y. Li, and B. J. Wiley, “The growth mechanism of copper nanowires and their properties in flexible, transparent conducting films,” Adv. Mater. 22(32), 3558–3563 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. K. Chin, “p-Doping limit and donor compensation in CdTe polycrystalline thin film solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94(10), 1627–1629 (2010).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

A. Romeo, G. Khrypunov, S. Galassini, H. Zogg, and A. N. Tiwari, “Bifacial configurations for CdTe solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91(15–16), 1388–1391 (2007).
[Crossref]

S. Marsillac, V. Y. Parikh, and A. D. Compaan, “Ultra-thin bifacial CdTe solar cell,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91(15–16), 1398–1402 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

A. Morales-Acevedo, “Thin film CdS/CdTe solar cells: Research perspectives,” Sol. Energy 80(6), 675–681 (2006).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

C. R. Corwine, A. O. Pudov, M. Gloeckler, S. H. Demtsu, and J. R. Sites, “Copper inclusion and migration from the back contact in CdTe solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 82(4), 481–489 (2004).

A. N. Tiwari, G. Khrypunov, F. Kurdzesau, D. L. Bätzber, A. Romeo, and H. Zogg, “CdTe solar cell in a novel configuration,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 12(1), 33–38 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

K. Nakamura, M. Gotoh, T. Fujihara, T. Toyama, and H. Okamoto, “Influence of CdS window layer on 2-μm thick CdS/CdTe thin film solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 75(1-2), 185–192 (2003).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

K. Durose, P. R. Edwards, and D. P. Halliday, “Materials aspects of CdTe/CdS solar cells,” J. Cryst. Growth 197(3), 733–742 (1999).
[Crossref]

1996 (2)

H. C. Chou, A. Rohatgi, N. M. Jokerst, E. W. Thomas, and S. Kamra, “Copper migration in CdTe heterojunction solar cells,” J. Electron. Mater. 25(7), 1093–1098 (1996).
[Crossref]

R. A. Sinton and A. Cuevas, “Contactless determination of current–voltage characteristics and minority–carrier lifetimes in semiconductors from quasi-steady-state photoconductance data,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(17), 2510–2512 (1996).
[Crossref]

1980 (1)

E. Kučys, J. Jerhot, K. Bertulis, and V. Bariss, “Copper impurity behaviour in CdTe films,” Phys. Status Solidi 59(1), 91–99 (1980).
[Crossref]

Albright, S.

T. A. Gessert, P. Sheldon, X. Li, D. Dunlavy, D. Niles, R. Sasala, S. Albright, and B. Zadler, “Studies of ZnTe back contacts to CdS/CdTe solar cells,” in Proceedings of the Twenty Sixth IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (1997), pp. 419–422.
[Crossref]

Bae, B.-S.

H.-G. Im, S. Jeong, J. Jin, J. Lee, D.-Y. Youn, W.-T. Koo, S.-B. Kang, H.-J. Kim, J. Jang, D. Lee, H.-K. Kim, I.-D. Kim, J.-Y. Lee, and B.-S. Bae, “Hybrid crystalline-ITO/metal nanowire mesh transparent electrodes and their application for highly flexible perovskite solar cells,” NPG Asia Mater. 8(6), e282 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bariss, V.

E. Kučys, J. Jerhot, K. Bertulis, and V. Bariss, “Copper impurity behaviour in CdTe films,” Phys. Status Solidi 59(1), 91–99 (1980).
[Crossref]

Bätzber, D. L.

A. N. Tiwari, G. Khrypunov, F. Kurdzesau, D. L. Bätzber, A. Romeo, and H. Zogg, “CdTe solar cell in a novel configuration,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 12(1), 33–38 (2004).
[Crossref]

Bergin, S. M.

A. R. Rathmell, S. M. Bergin, Y.-L. Hua, Z.-Y. Li, and B. J. Wiley, “The growth mechanism of copper nanowires and their properties in flexible, transparent conducting films,” Adv. Mater. 22(32), 3558–3563 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bertulis, K.

E. Kučys, J. Jerhot, K. Bertulis, and V. Bariss, “Copper impurity behaviour in CdTe films,” Phys. Status Solidi 59(1), 91–99 (1980).
[Crossref]

Bosio, A.

N. Romeo, A. Bosio, S. Mazzamuto, A. Romeo, and L. Vaillant-Roca, “High efficiency CdTe/CdS thin film solar cells with a novel back contact,” in Proceedings of 22nd European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference (2007), pp. 3–7.

Canlier, A.

T. Kim, A. Canlier, G. H. Kim, J. Choi, M. Park, and S. M. Han, “Electrostatic spray deposition of highly transparent silver nanowire electrode on flexible substrate,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 5(3), 788–794 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, C.-W.

A. Manikandan, L. Lee, Y.-C. Wang, C.-W. Chen, Y.-Z. Chen, H. Medina, J.-Y. Tseng, Z. M. Wang, and Y.-L. Chueh, “Graphene-coated copper nanowire networks as a highly stable transparent electrode in harsh environments toward efficient electrocatalytic hydrogen evolution reactions,” J. Mater. Chem. A Mater. Energy Sustain. 5(26), 13320–13328 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y.-Z.

A. Manikandan, L. Lee, Y.-C. Wang, C.-W. Chen, Y.-Z. Chen, H. Medina, J.-Y. Tseng, Z. M. Wang, and Y.-L. Chueh, “Graphene-coated copper nanowire networks as a highly stable transparent electrode in harsh environments toward efficient electrocatalytic hydrogen evolution reactions,” J. Mater. Chem. A Mater. Energy Sustain. 5(26), 13320–13328 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chin, K. K.

K. K. Chin, “p-Doping limit and donor compensation in CdTe polycrystalline thin film solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94(10), 1627–1629 (2010).
[Crossref]

Choi, J.

T. Kim, A. Canlier, G. H. Kim, J. Choi, M. Park, and S. M. Han, “Electrostatic spray deposition of highly transparent silver nanowire electrode on flexible substrate,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 5(3), 788–794 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chou, H. C.

H. C. Chou, A. Rohatgi, N. M. Jokerst, E. W. Thomas, and S. Kamra, “Copper migration in CdTe heterojunction solar cells,” J. Electron. Mater. 25(7), 1093–1098 (1996).
[Crossref]

Chueh, Y.-L.

A. Manikandan, L. Lee, Y.-C. Wang, C.-W. Chen, Y.-Z. Chen, H. Medina, J.-Y. Tseng, Z. M. Wang, and Y.-L. Chueh, “Graphene-coated copper nanowire networks as a highly stable transparent electrode in harsh environments toward efficient electrocatalytic hydrogen evolution reactions,” J. Mater. Chem. A Mater. Energy Sustain. 5(26), 13320–13328 (2017).
[Crossref]

Compaan, A. D.

S. Marsillac, V. Y. Parikh, and A. D. Compaan, “Ultra-thin bifacial CdTe solar cell,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91(15–16), 1398–1402 (2007).
[Crossref]

Corwine, C. R.

C. R. Corwine, A. O. Pudov, M. Gloeckler, S. H. Demtsu, and J. R. Sites, “Copper inclusion and migration from the back contact in CdTe solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 82(4), 481–489 (2004).

Cuevas, A.

R. A. Sinton and A. Cuevas, “Contactless determination of current–voltage characteristics and minority–carrier lifetimes in semiconductors from quasi-steady-state photoconductance data,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(17), 2510–2512 (1996).
[Crossref]

Demtsu, S. H.

C. R. Corwine, A. O. Pudov, M. Gloeckler, S. H. Demtsu, and J. R. Sites, “Copper inclusion and migration from the back contact in CdTe solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 82(4), 481–489 (2004).

Dorogi, M. D.

R. R. Khanal, A. B. Phillips, Z. Song, Y. Xie, H. P. Mahabaduge, M. D. Dorogi, S. Zafar, G. T. Faykosh, and M. J. Heben, “Substrate configuration, bifacial CdTe solar cells grown directly on transparent single wall carbon nanotube back contacts,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 157, 35–41 (2016).
[Crossref]

Dunlavy, D.

T. A. Gessert, P. Sheldon, X. Li, D. Dunlavy, D. Niles, R. Sasala, S. Albright, and B. Zadler, “Studies of ZnTe back contacts to CdS/CdTe solar cells,” in Proceedings of the Twenty Sixth IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (1997), pp. 419–422.
[Crossref]

Dunlop, E. D.

M. A. Green, Y. Hishikawa, E. D. Dunlop, D. H. Levi, J. Hohl-Ebinger, and A. W. Y. Ho-Baillie, “Solar cell efficiency tables (version 51),” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 26(1), 3–12 (2018).
[Crossref]

Durose, K.

K. Durose, P. R. Edwards, and D. P. Halliday, “Materials aspects of CdTe/CdS solar cells,” J. Cryst. Growth 197(3), 733–742 (1999).
[Crossref]

Edwards, P. R.

K. Durose, P. R. Edwards, and D. P. Halliday, “Materials aspects of CdTe/CdS solar cells,” J. Cryst. Growth 197(3), 733–742 (1999).
[Crossref]

Faykosh, G. T.

R. R. Khanal, A. B. Phillips, Z. Song, Y. Xie, H. P. Mahabaduge, M. D. Dorogi, S. Zafar, G. T. Faykosh, and M. J. Heben, “Substrate configuration, bifacial CdTe solar cells grown directly on transparent single wall carbon nanotube back contacts,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 157, 35–41 (2016).
[Crossref]

Fujihara, T.

K. Nakamura, M. Gotoh, T. Fujihara, T. Toyama, and H. Okamoto, “Influence of CdS window layer on 2-μm thick CdS/CdTe thin film solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 75(1-2), 185–192 (2003).
[Crossref]

Galassini, S.

A. Romeo, G. Khrypunov, S. Galassini, H. Zogg, and A. N. Tiwari, “Bifacial configurations for CdTe solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91(15–16), 1388–1391 (2007).
[Crossref]

Gessert, T. A.

T. A. Gessert, P. Sheldon, X. Li, D. Dunlavy, D. Niles, R. Sasala, S. Albright, and B. Zadler, “Studies of ZnTe back contacts to CdS/CdTe solar cells,” in Proceedings of the Twenty Sixth IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (1997), pp. 419–422.
[Crossref]

Gloeckler, M.

C. R. Corwine, A. O. Pudov, M. Gloeckler, S. H. Demtsu, and J. R. Sites, “Copper inclusion and migration from the back contact in CdTe solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 82(4), 481–489 (2004).

Gotoh, M.

K. Nakamura, M. Gotoh, T. Fujihara, T. Toyama, and H. Okamoto, “Influence of CdS window layer on 2-μm thick CdS/CdTe thin film solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 75(1-2), 185–192 (2003).
[Crossref]

Green, M.

J. Park, Z. Ouyang, C. Yan, K. Sun, H. Sun, F. Liu, M. Green, and X. Hao, “Hybrid Ag nanowire–ITO as transparent conductive electrode for pure sulfide kesterite Cu2ZnSnS4 solar cells,” J. Phys. Chem. C 121(38), 20597–20604 (2017).
[Crossref]

Green, M. A.

M. A. Green, Y. Hishikawa, E. D. Dunlop, D. H. Levi, J. Hohl-Ebinger, and A. W. Y. Ho-Baillie, “Solar cell efficiency tables (version 51),” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 26(1), 3–12 (2018).
[Crossref]

Halliday, D. P.

K. Durose, P. R. Edwards, and D. P. Halliday, “Materials aspects of CdTe/CdS solar cells,” J. Cryst. Growth 197(3), 733–742 (1999).
[Crossref]

Han, S. M.

T. Kim, A. Canlier, G. H. Kim, J. Choi, M. Park, and S. M. Han, “Electrostatic spray deposition of highly transparent silver nanowire electrode on flexible substrate,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 5(3), 788–794 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hao, X.

J. Park, Z. Ouyang, C. Yan, K. Sun, H. Sun, F. Liu, M. Green, and X. Hao, “Hybrid Ag nanowire–ITO as transparent conductive electrode for pure sulfide kesterite Cu2ZnSnS4 solar cells,” J. Phys. Chem. C 121(38), 20597–20604 (2017).
[Crossref]

Heben, M. J.

R. R. Khanal, A. B. Phillips, Z. Song, Y. Xie, H. P. Mahabaduge, M. D. Dorogi, S. Zafar, G. T. Faykosh, and M. J. Heben, “Substrate configuration, bifacial CdTe solar cells grown directly on transparent single wall carbon nanotube back contacts,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 157, 35–41 (2016).
[Crossref]

Hishikawa, Y.

M. A. Green, Y. Hishikawa, E. D. Dunlop, D. H. Levi, J. Hohl-Ebinger, and A. W. Y. Ho-Baillie, “Solar cell efficiency tables (version 51),” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 26(1), 3–12 (2018).
[Crossref]

Ho-Baillie, A. W. Y.

M. A. Green, Y. Hishikawa, E. D. Dunlop, D. H. Levi, J. Hohl-Ebinger, and A. W. Y. Ho-Baillie, “Solar cell efficiency tables (version 51),” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 26(1), 3–12 (2018).
[Crossref]

Hohl-Ebinger, J.

M. A. Green, Y. Hishikawa, E. D. Dunlop, D. H. Levi, J. Hohl-Ebinger, and A. W. Y. Ho-Baillie, “Solar cell efficiency tables (version 51),” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 26(1), 3–12 (2018).
[Crossref]

Hua, Y.-L.

A. R. Rathmell, S. M. Bergin, Y.-L. Hua, Z.-Y. Li, and B. J. Wiley, “The growth mechanism of copper nanowires and their properties in flexible, transparent conducting films,” Adv. Mater. 22(32), 3558–3563 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Im, H.-G.

H.-G. Im, S. Jeong, J. Jin, J. Lee, D.-Y. Youn, W.-T. Koo, S.-B. Kang, H.-J. Kim, J. Jang, D. Lee, H.-K. Kim, I.-D. Kim, J.-Y. Lee, and B.-S. Bae, “Hybrid crystalline-ITO/metal nanowire mesh transparent electrodes and their application for highly flexible perovskite solar cells,” NPG Asia Mater. 8(6), e282 (2016).
[Crossref]

Jang, J.

H.-G. Im, S. Jeong, J. Jin, J. Lee, D.-Y. Youn, W.-T. Koo, S.-B. Kang, H.-J. Kim, J. Jang, D. Lee, H.-K. Kim, I.-D. Kim, J.-Y. Lee, and B.-S. Bae, “Hybrid crystalline-ITO/metal nanowire mesh transparent electrodes and their application for highly flexible perovskite solar cells,” NPG Asia Mater. 8(6), e282 (2016).
[Crossref]

Jeong, S.

H.-G. Im, S. Jeong, J. Jin, J. Lee, D.-Y. Youn, W.-T. Koo, S.-B. Kang, H.-J. Kim, J. Jang, D. Lee, H.-K. Kim, I.-D. Kim, J.-Y. Lee, and B.-S. Bae, “Hybrid crystalline-ITO/metal nanowire mesh transparent electrodes and their application for highly flexible perovskite solar cells,” NPG Asia Mater. 8(6), e282 (2016).
[Crossref]

Jerhot, J.

E. Kučys, J. Jerhot, K. Bertulis, and V. Bariss, “Copper impurity behaviour in CdTe films,” Phys. Status Solidi 59(1), 91–99 (1980).
[Crossref]

Jin, J.

H.-G. Im, S. Jeong, J. Jin, J. Lee, D.-Y. Youn, W.-T. Koo, S.-B. Kang, H.-J. Kim, J. Jang, D. Lee, H.-K. Kim, I.-D. Kim, J.-Y. Lee, and B.-S. Bae, “Hybrid crystalline-ITO/metal nanowire mesh transparent electrodes and their application for highly flexible perovskite solar cells,” NPG Asia Mater. 8(6), e282 (2016).
[Crossref]

Jokerst, N. M.

H. C. Chou, A. Rohatgi, N. M. Jokerst, E. W. Thomas, and S. Kamra, “Copper migration in CdTe heterojunction solar cells,” J. Electron. Mater. 25(7), 1093–1098 (1996).
[Crossref]

Kamra, S.

H. C. Chou, A. Rohatgi, N. M. Jokerst, E. W. Thomas, and S. Kamra, “Copper migration in CdTe heterojunction solar cells,” J. Electron. Mater. 25(7), 1093–1098 (1996).
[Crossref]

Kang, S.-B.

H.-G. Im, S. Jeong, J. Jin, J. Lee, D.-Y. Youn, W.-T. Koo, S.-B. Kang, H.-J. Kim, J. Jang, D. Lee, H.-K. Kim, I.-D. Kim, J.-Y. Lee, and B.-S. Bae, “Hybrid crystalline-ITO/metal nanowire mesh transparent electrodes and their application for highly flexible perovskite solar cells,” NPG Asia Mater. 8(6), e282 (2016).
[Crossref]

Kang, Y.

Khanal, R. R.

R. R. Khanal, A. B. Phillips, Z. Song, Y. Xie, H. P. Mahabaduge, M. D. Dorogi, S. Zafar, G. T. Faykosh, and M. J. Heben, “Substrate configuration, bifacial CdTe solar cells grown directly on transparent single wall carbon nanotube back contacts,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 157, 35–41 (2016).
[Crossref]

Khrypunov, G.

A. Romeo, G. Khrypunov, S. Galassini, H. Zogg, and A. N. Tiwari, “Bifacial configurations for CdTe solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91(15–16), 1388–1391 (2007).
[Crossref]

A. N. Tiwari, G. Khrypunov, F. Kurdzesau, D. L. Bätzber, A. Romeo, and H. Zogg, “CdTe solar cell in a novel configuration,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 12(1), 33–38 (2004).
[Crossref]

Kim, D.

Kim, G. H.

T. Kim, A. Canlier, G. H. Kim, J. Choi, M. Park, and S. M. Han, “Electrostatic spray deposition of highly transparent silver nanowire electrode on flexible substrate,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 5(3), 788–794 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, H.-J.

H.-G. Im, S. Jeong, J. Jin, J. Lee, D.-Y. Youn, W.-T. Koo, S.-B. Kang, H.-J. Kim, J. Jang, D. Lee, H.-K. Kim, I.-D. Kim, J.-Y. Lee, and B.-S. Bae, “Hybrid crystalline-ITO/metal nanowire mesh transparent electrodes and their application for highly flexible perovskite solar cells,” NPG Asia Mater. 8(6), e282 (2016).
[Crossref]

Kim, H.-K.

H.-G. Im, S. Jeong, J. Jin, J. Lee, D.-Y. Youn, W.-T. Koo, S.-B. Kang, H.-J. Kim, J. Jang, D. Lee, H.-K. Kim, I.-D. Kim, J.-Y. Lee, and B.-S. Bae, “Hybrid crystalline-ITO/metal nanowire mesh transparent electrodes and their application for highly flexible perovskite solar cells,” NPG Asia Mater. 8(6), e282 (2016).
[Crossref]

Kim, I.-D.

H.-G. Im, S. Jeong, J. Jin, J. Lee, D.-Y. Youn, W.-T. Koo, S.-B. Kang, H.-J. Kim, J. Jang, D. Lee, H.-K. Kim, I.-D. Kim, J.-Y. Lee, and B.-S. Bae, “Hybrid crystalline-ITO/metal nanowire mesh transparent electrodes and their application for highly flexible perovskite solar cells,” NPG Asia Mater. 8(6), e282 (2016).
[Crossref]

Kim, J.

Kim, T.

T. Kim, A. Canlier, G. H. Kim, J. Choi, M. Park, and S. M. Han, “Electrostatic spray deposition of highly transparent silver nanowire electrode on flexible substrate,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 5(3), 788–794 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Koo, W.-T.

H.-G. Im, S. Jeong, J. Jin, J. Lee, D.-Y. Youn, W.-T. Koo, S.-B. Kang, H.-J. Kim, J. Jang, D. Lee, H.-K. Kim, I.-D. Kim, J.-Y. Lee, and B.-S. Bae, “Hybrid crystalline-ITO/metal nanowire mesh transparent electrodes and their application for highly flexible perovskite solar cells,” NPG Asia Mater. 8(6), e282 (2016).
[Crossref]

Kucys, E.

E. Kučys, J. Jerhot, K. Bertulis, and V. Bariss, “Copper impurity behaviour in CdTe films,” Phys. Status Solidi 59(1), 91–99 (1980).
[Crossref]

Kurdzesau, F.

A. N. Tiwari, G. Khrypunov, F. Kurdzesau, D. L. Bätzber, A. Romeo, and H. Zogg, “CdTe solar cell in a novel configuration,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 12(1), 33–38 (2004).
[Crossref]

Kwon, Y.

Lee, D.

H.-G. Im, S. Jeong, J. Jin, J. Lee, D.-Y. Youn, W.-T. Koo, S.-B. Kang, H.-J. Kim, J. Jang, D. Lee, H.-K. Kim, I.-D. Kim, J.-Y. Lee, and B.-S. Bae, “Hybrid crystalline-ITO/metal nanowire mesh transparent electrodes and their application for highly flexible perovskite solar cells,” NPG Asia Mater. 8(6), e282 (2016).
[Crossref]

Lee, J.

H.-G. Im, S. Jeong, J. Jin, J. Lee, D.-Y. Youn, W.-T. Koo, S.-B. Kang, H.-J. Kim, J. Jang, D. Lee, H.-K. Kim, I.-D. Kim, J.-Y. Lee, and B.-S. Bae, “Hybrid crystalline-ITO/metal nanowire mesh transparent electrodes and their application for highly flexible perovskite solar cells,” NPG Asia Mater. 8(6), e282 (2016).
[Crossref]

Lee, J.-Y.

H.-G. Im, S. Jeong, J. Jin, J. Lee, D.-Y. Youn, W.-T. Koo, S.-B. Kang, H.-J. Kim, J. Jang, D. Lee, H.-K. Kim, I.-D. Kim, J.-Y. Lee, and B.-S. Bae, “Hybrid crystalline-ITO/metal nanowire mesh transparent electrodes and their application for highly flexible perovskite solar cells,” NPG Asia Mater. 8(6), e282 (2016).
[Crossref]

Lee, L.

A. Manikandan, L. Lee, Y.-C. Wang, C.-W. Chen, Y.-Z. Chen, H. Medina, J.-Y. Tseng, Z. M. Wang, and Y.-L. Chueh, “Graphene-coated copper nanowire networks as a highly stable transparent electrode in harsh environments toward efficient electrocatalytic hydrogen evolution reactions,” J. Mater. Chem. A Mater. Energy Sustain. 5(26), 13320–13328 (2017).
[Crossref]

Levi, D. H.

M. A. Green, Y. Hishikawa, E. D. Dunlop, D. H. Levi, J. Hohl-Ebinger, and A. W. Y. Ho-Baillie, “Solar cell efficiency tables (version 51),” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 26(1), 3–12 (2018).
[Crossref]

Li, X.

T. A. Gessert, P. Sheldon, X. Li, D. Dunlavy, D. Niles, R. Sasala, S. Albright, and B. Zadler, “Studies of ZnTe back contacts to CdS/CdTe solar cells,” in Proceedings of the Twenty Sixth IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (1997), pp. 419–422.
[Crossref]

Li, Z.-Y.

A. R. Rathmell, S. M. Bergin, Y.-L. Hua, Z.-Y. Li, and B. J. Wiley, “The growth mechanism of copper nanowires and their properties in flexible, transparent conducting films,” Adv. Mater. 22(32), 3558–3563 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lian, W.

Q. Wei, C. Wu, X. Liu, S. Zhang, F. Qian, J. Lu, W. Lian, and P. Ni, “The Glass-glass Module Using n-type Bifacial Solar Cell with PERT Structure and its Performance,” Energy Procedia 92, 750–754 (2016).
[Crossref]

Liu, F.

J. Park, Z. Ouyang, C. Yan, K. Sun, H. Sun, F. Liu, M. Green, and X. Hao, “Hybrid Ag nanowire–ITO as transparent conductive electrode for pure sulfide kesterite Cu2ZnSnS4 solar cells,” J. Phys. Chem. C 121(38), 20597–20604 (2017).
[Crossref]

Liu, X.

Q. Wei, C. Wu, X. Liu, S. Zhang, F. Qian, J. Lu, W. Lian, and P. Ni, “The Glass-glass Module Using n-type Bifacial Solar Cell with PERT Structure and its Performance,” Energy Procedia 92, 750–754 (2016).
[Crossref]

Lu, J.

Q. Wei, C. Wu, X. Liu, S. Zhang, F. Qian, J. Lu, W. Lian, and P. Ni, “The Glass-glass Module Using n-type Bifacial Solar Cell with PERT Structure and its Performance,” Energy Procedia 92, 750–754 (2016).
[Crossref]

Mahabaduge, H. P.

R. R. Khanal, A. B. Phillips, Z. Song, Y. Xie, H. P. Mahabaduge, M. D. Dorogi, S. Zafar, G. T. Faykosh, and M. J. Heben, “Substrate configuration, bifacial CdTe solar cells grown directly on transparent single wall carbon nanotube back contacts,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 157, 35–41 (2016).
[Crossref]

Manikandan, A.

A. Manikandan, L. Lee, Y.-C. Wang, C.-W. Chen, Y.-Z. Chen, H. Medina, J.-Y. Tseng, Z. M. Wang, and Y.-L. Chueh, “Graphene-coated copper nanowire networks as a highly stable transparent electrode in harsh environments toward efficient electrocatalytic hydrogen evolution reactions,” J. Mater. Chem. A Mater. Energy Sustain. 5(26), 13320–13328 (2017).
[Crossref]

Marsillac, S.

S. Marsillac, V. Y. Parikh, and A. D. Compaan, “Ultra-thin bifacial CdTe solar cell,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91(15–16), 1398–1402 (2007).
[Crossref]

Mazzamuto, S.

N. Romeo, A. Bosio, S. Mazzamuto, A. Romeo, and L. Vaillant-Roca, “High efficiency CdTe/CdS thin film solar cells with a novel back contact,” in Proceedings of 22nd European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference (2007), pp. 3–7.

Medina, H.

A. Manikandan, L. Lee, Y.-C. Wang, C.-W. Chen, Y.-Z. Chen, H. Medina, J.-Y. Tseng, Z. M. Wang, and Y.-L. Chueh, “Graphene-coated copper nanowire networks as a highly stable transparent electrode in harsh environments toward efficient electrocatalytic hydrogen evolution reactions,” J. Mater. Chem. A Mater. Energy Sustain. 5(26), 13320–13328 (2017).
[Crossref]

Morales-Acevedo, A.

A. Morales-Acevedo, “Thin film CdS/CdTe solar cells: Research perspectives,” Sol. Energy 80(6), 675–681 (2006).
[Crossref]

Nakamura, K.

K. Nakamura, M. Gotoh, T. Fujihara, T. Toyama, and H. Okamoto, “Influence of CdS window layer on 2-μm thick CdS/CdTe thin film solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 75(1-2), 185–192 (2003).
[Crossref]

Ni, P.

Q. Wei, C. Wu, X. Liu, S. Zhang, F. Qian, J. Lu, W. Lian, and P. Ni, “The Glass-glass Module Using n-type Bifacial Solar Cell with PERT Structure and its Performance,” Energy Procedia 92, 750–754 (2016).
[Crossref]

Niles, D.

T. A. Gessert, P. Sheldon, X. Li, D. Dunlavy, D. Niles, R. Sasala, S. Albright, and B. Zadler, “Studies of ZnTe back contacts to CdS/CdTe solar cells,” in Proceedings of the Twenty Sixth IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (1997), pp. 419–422.
[Crossref]

Okamoto, H.

K. Nakamura, M. Gotoh, T. Fujihara, T. Toyama, and H. Okamoto, “Influence of CdS window layer on 2-μm thick CdS/CdTe thin film solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 75(1-2), 185–192 (2003).
[Crossref]

Ouyang, Z.

J. Park, Z. Ouyang, C. Yan, K. Sun, H. Sun, F. Liu, M. Green, and X. Hao, “Hybrid Ag nanowire–ITO as transparent conductive electrode for pure sulfide kesterite Cu2ZnSnS4 solar cells,” J. Phys. Chem. C 121(38), 20597–20604 (2017).
[Crossref]

Parikh, V. Y.

S. Marsillac, V. Y. Parikh, and A. D. Compaan, “Ultra-thin bifacial CdTe solar cell,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91(15–16), 1398–1402 (2007).
[Crossref]

Park, J.

J. Park, Z. Ouyang, C. Yan, K. Sun, H. Sun, F. Liu, M. Green, and X. Hao, “Hybrid Ag nanowire–ITO as transparent conductive electrode for pure sulfide kesterite Cu2ZnSnS4 solar cells,” J. Phys. Chem. C 121(38), 20597–20604 (2017).
[Crossref]

Park, M.

T. Kim, A. Canlier, G. H. Kim, J. Choi, M. Park, and S. M. Han, “Electrostatic spray deposition of highly transparent silver nanowire electrode on flexible substrate,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 5(3), 788–794 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phillips, A. B.

R. R. Khanal, A. B. Phillips, Z. Song, Y. Xie, H. P. Mahabaduge, M. D. Dorogi, S. Zafar, G. T. Faykosh, and M. J. Heben, “Substrate configuration, bifacial CdTe solar cells grown directly on transparent single wall carbon nanotube back contacts,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 157, 35–41 (2016).
[Crossref]

Pudov, A. O.

C. R. Corwine, A. O. Pudov, M. Gloeckler, S. H. Demtsu, and J. R. Sites, “Copper inclusion and migration from the back contact in CdTe solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 82(4), 481–489 (2004).

Qian, F.

Q. Wei, C. Wu, X. Liu, S. Zhang, F. Qian, J. Lu, W. Lian, and P. Ni, “The Glass-glass Module Using n-type Bifacial Solar Cell with PERT Structure and its Performance,” Energy Procedia 92, 750–754 (2016).
[Crossref]

Rathmell, A. R.

A. R. Rathmell, S. M. Bergin, Y.-L. Hua, Z.-Y. Li, and B. J. Wiley, “The growth mechanism of copper nanowires and their properties in flexible, transparent conducting films,” Adv. Mater. 22(32), 3558–3563 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rimmaudo, I.

I. Rimmaudo, A. Salavei, and A. Romeo, “Ageing of CdTe device by copper diffusion,” in Proceedings of 27th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition (2012), pp. 2828–2832.

Rohatgi, A.

H. C. Chou, A. Rohatgi, N. M. Jokerst, E. W. Thomas, and S. Kamra, “Copper migration in CdTe heterojunction solar cells,” J. Electron. Mater. 25(7), 1093–1098 (1996).
[Crossref]

Romeo, A.

A. Romeo, G. Khrypunov, S. Galassini, H. Zogg, and A. N. Tiwari, “Bifacial configurations for CdTe solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91(15–16), 1388–1391 (2007).
[Crossref]

A. N. Tiwari, G. Khrypunov, F. Kurdzesau, D. L. Bätzber, A. Romeo, and H. Zogg, “CdTe solar cell in a novel configuration,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 12(1), 33–38 (2004).
[Crossref]

N. Romeo, A. Bosio, S. Mazzamuto, A. Romeo, and L. Vaillant-Roca, “High efficiency CdTe/CdS thin film solar cells with a novel back contact,” in Proceedings of 22nd European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference (2007), pp. 3–7.

I. Rimmaudo, A. Salavei, and A. Romeo, “Ageing of CdTe device by copper diffusion,” in Proceedings of 27th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition (2012), pp. 2828–2832.

Romeo, N.

N. Romeo, A. Bosio, S. Mazzamuto, A. Romeo, and L. Vaillant-Roca, “High efficiency CdTe/CdS thin film solar cells with a novel back contact,” in Proceedings of 22nd European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference (2007), pp. 3–7.

Salavei, A.

I. Rimmaudo, A. Salavei, and A. Romeo, “Ageing of CdTe device by copper diffusion,” in Proceedings of 27th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition (2012), pp. 2828–2832.

Sasala, R.

T. A. Gessert, P. Sheldon, X. Li, D. Dunlavy, D. Niles, R. Sasala, S. Albright, and B. Zadler, “Studies of ZnTe back contacts to CdS/CdTe solar cells,” in Proceedings of the Twenty Sixth IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (1997), pp. 419–422.
[Crossref]

Seo, J.

Sheldon, P.

T. A. Gessert, P. Sheldon, X. Li, D. Dunlavy, D. Niles, R. Sasala, S. Albright, and B. Zadler, “Studies of ZnTe back contacts to CdS/CdTe solar cells,” in Proceedings of the Twenty Sixth IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (1997), pp. 419–422.
[Crossref]

Sinton, R. A.

R. A. Sinton and A. Cuevas, “Contactless determination of current–voltage characteristics and minority–carrier lifetimes in semiconductors from quasi-steady-state photoconductance data,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(17), 2510–2512 (1996).
[Crossref]

Sites, J. R.

C. R. Corwine, A. O. Pudov, M. Gloeckler, S. H. Demtsu, and J. R. Sites, “Copper inclusion and migration from the back contact in CdTe solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 82(4), 481–489 (2004).

Song, Z.

R. R. Khanal, A. B. Phillips, Z. Song, Y. Xie, H. P. Mahabaduge, M. D. Dorogi, S. Zafar, G. T. Faykosh, and M. J. Heben, “Substrate configuration, bifacial CdTe solar cells grown directly on transparent single wall carbon nanotube back contacts,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 157, 35–41 (2016).
[Crossref]

Sun, H.

J. Park, Z. Ouyang, C. Yan, K. Sun, H. Sun, F. Liu, M. Green, and X. Hao, “Hybrid Ag nanowire–ITO as transparent conductive electrode for pure sulfide kesterite Cu2ZnSnS4 solar cells,” J. Phys. Chem. C 121(38), 20597–20604 (2017).
[Crossref]

Sun, K.

J. Park, Z. Ouyang, C. Yan, K. Sun, H. Sun, F. Liu, M. Green, and X. Hao, “Hybrid Ag nanowire–ITO as transparent conductive electrode for pure sulfide kesterite Cu2ZnSnS4 solar cells,” J. Phys. Chem. C 121(38), 20597–20604 (2017).
[Crossref]

Thomas, E. W.

H. C. Chou, A. Rohatgi, N. M. Jokerst, E. W. Thomas, and S. Kamra, “Copper migration in CdTe heterojunction solar cells,” J. Electron. Mater. 25(7), 1093–1098 (1996).
[Crossref]

Tiwari, A. N.

A. Romeo, G. Khrypunov, S. Galassini, H. Zogg, and A. N. Tiwari, “Bifacial configurations for CdTe solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91(15–16), 1388–1391 (2007).
[Crossref]

A. N. Tiwari, G. Khrypunov, F. Kurdzesau, D. L. Bätzber, A. Romeo, and H. Zogg, “CdTe solar cell in a novel configuration,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 12(1), 33–38 (2004).
[Crossref]

Toyama, T.

K. Nakamura, M. Gotoh, T. Fujihara, T. Toyama, and H. Okamoto, “Influence of CdS window layer on 2-μm thick CdS/CdTe thin film solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 75(1-2), 185–192 (2003).
[Crossref]

Tseng, J.-Y.

A. Manikandan, L. Lee, Y.-C. Wang, C.-W. Chen, Y.-Z. Chen, H. Medina, J.-Y. Tseng, Z. M. Wang, and Y.-L. Chueh, “Graphene-coated copper nanowire networks as a highly stable transparent electrode in harsh environments toward efficient electrocatalytic hydrogen evolution reactions,” J. Mater. Chem. A Mater. Energy Sustain. 5(26), 13320–13328 (2017).
[Crossref]

Vaillant-Roca, L.

N. Romeo, A. Bosio, S. Mazzamuto, A. Romeo, and L. Vaillant-Roca, “High efficiency CdTe/CdS thin film solar cells with a novel back contact,” in Proceedings of 22nd European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference (2007), pp. 3–7.

Wang, Y.-C.

A. Manikandan, L. Lee, Y.-C. Wang, C.-W. Chen, Y.-Z. Chen, H. Medina, J.-Y. Tseng, Z. M. Wang, and Y.-L. Chueh, “Graphene-coated copper nanowire networks as a highly stable transparent electrode in harsh environments toward efficient electrocatalytic hydrogen evolution reactions,” J. Mater. Chem. A Mater. Energy Sustain. 5(26), 13320–13328 (2017).
[Crossref]

Wang, Z. M.

A. Manikandan, L. Lee, Y.-C. Wang, C.-W. Chen, Y.-Z. Chen, H. Medina, J.-Y. Tseng, Z. M. Wang, and Y.-L. Chueh, “Graphene-coated copper nanowire networks as a highly stable transparent electrode in harsh environments toward efficient electrocatalytic hydrogen evolution reactions,” J. Mater. Chem. A Mater. Energy Sustain. 5(26), 13320–13328 (2017).
[Crossref]

Wei, Q.

Q. Wei, C. Wu, X. Liu, S. Zhang, F. Qian, J. Lu, W. Lian, and P. Ni, “The Glass-glass Module Using n-type Bifacial Solar Cell with PERT Structure and its Performance,” Energy Procedia 92, 750–754 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wiley, B. J.

A. R. Rathmell, S. M. Bergin, Y.-L. Hua, Z.-Y. Li, and B. J. Wiley, “The growth mechanism of copper nanowires and their properties in flexible, transparent conducting films,” Adv. Mater. 22(32), 3558–3563 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, C.

Q. Wei, C. Wu, X. Liu, S. Zhang, F. Qian, J. Lu, W. Lian, and P. Ni, “The Glass-glass Module Using n-type Bifacial Solar Cell with PERT Structure and its Performance,” Energy Procedia 92, 750–754 (2016).
[Crossref]

Xie, Y.

R. R. Khanal, A. B. Phillips, Z. Song, Y. Xie, H. P. Mahabaduge, M. D. Dorogi, S. Zafar, G. T. Faykosh, and M. J. Heben, “Substrate configuration, bifacial CdTe solar cells grown directly on transparent single wall carbon nanotube back contacts,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 157, 35–41 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yan, C.

J. Park, Z. Ouyang, C. Yan, K. Sun, H. Sun, F. Liu, M. Green, and X. Hao, “Hybrid Ag nanowire–ITO as transparent conductive electrode for pure sulfide kesterite Cu2ZnSnS4 solar cells,” J. Phys. Chem. C 121(38), 20597–20604 (2017).
[Crossref]

Youn, D.-Y.

H.-G. Im, S. Jeong, J. Jin, J. Lee, D.-Y. Youn, W.-T. Koo, S.-B. Kang, H.-J. Kim, J. Jang, D. Lee, H.-K. Kim, I.-D. Kim, J.-Y. Lee, and B.-S. Bae, “Hybrid crystalline-ITO/metal nanowire mesh transparent electrodes and their application for highly flexible perovskite solar cells,” NPG Asia Mater. 8(6), e282 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zadler, B.

T. A. Gessert, P. Sheldon, X. Li, D. Dunlavy, D. Niles, R. Sasala, S. Albright, and B. Zadler, “Studies of ZnTe back contacts to CdS/CdTe solar cells,” in Proceedings of the Twenty Sixth IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (1997), pp. 419–422.
[Crossref]

Zafar, S.

R. R. Khanal, A. B. Phillips, Z. Song, Y. Xie, H. P. Mahabaduge, M. D. Dorogi, S. Zafar, G. T. Faykosh, and M. J. Heben, “Substrate configuration, bifacial CdTe solar cells grown directly on transparent single wall carbon nanotube back contacts,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 157, 35–41 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhang, S.

Q. Wei, C. Wu, X. Liu, S. Zhang, F. Qian, J. Lu, W. Lian, and P. Ni, “The Glass-glass Module Using n-type Bifacial Solar Cell with PERT Structure and its Performance,” Energy Procedia 92, 750–754 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zogg, H.

A. Romeo, G. Khrypunov, S. Galassini, H. Zogg, and A. N. Tiwari, “Bifacial configurations for CdTe solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91(15–16), 1388–1391 (2007).
[Crossref]

A. N. Tiwari, G. Khrypunov, F. Kurdzesau, D. L. Bätzber, A. Romeo, and H. Zogg, “CdTe solar cell in a novel configuration,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 12(1), 33–38 (2004).
[Crossref]

ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces (1)

T. Kim, A. Canlier, G. H. Kim, J. Choi, M. Park, and S. M. Han, “Electrostatic spray deposition of highly transparent silver nanowire electrode on flexible substrate,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 5(3), 788–794 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adv. Mater. (1)

A. R. Rathmell, S. M. Bergin, Y.-L. Hua, Z.-Y. Li, and B. J. Wiley, “The growth mechanism of copper nanowires and their properties in flexible, transparent conducting films,” Adv. Mater. 22(32), 3558–3563 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

R. A. Sinton and A. Cuevas, “Contactless determination of current–voltage characteristics and minority–carrier lifetimes in semiconductors from quasi-steady-state photoconductance data,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(17), 2510–2512 (1996).
[Crossref]

Energy Procedia (1)

Q. Wei, C. Wu, X. Liu, S. Zhang, F. Qian, J. Lu, W. Lian, and P. Ni, “The Glass-glass Module Using n-type Bifacial Solar Cell with PERT Structure and its Performance,” Energy Procedia 92, 750–754 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Cryst. Growth (1)

K. Durose, P. R. Edwards, and D. P. Halliday, “Materials aspects of CdTe/CdS solar cells,” J. Cryst. Growth 197(3), 733–742 (1999).
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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Flow diagram of the fabrication process of bifacial CdS/CdTe solar cells. (b) Cross-sectional schematic of the bifacial CdS/CdTe solar cell. ITO/n-CdS/p-CdTe layers were deposited on glass substrate and the back contact was formed on the CdTe layer by spray-coating CuNWs, followed by deposition of ITO.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Surface SEM image of the CuNW/ITO hybrid electrode deposited on polycrystalline CdTe. (b) Cross-sectional SEM image of the bifacial CdS/CdTe solar cell with a CuNW/ITO hybrid back electrode. (c) PL spectrum of p-CdTe layer at room temperature
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Sheet resistance vs. optical transmittance for the CuNW/ITO hybrid transparent electrodes with different CuNW densities compared to an ITO-only electrode. A higher density of CuNWs resulted in low sheet resistance and optical transmittance. (b) Photograph of the CuNW/ITO electrodes with different CuNW densities.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Comparison of the photovoltaic parameters of the bifacial CdS/CdTe solar cells illuminated from front and rear sides of the cell. The CuNW density used on the back contact was defined by the number of spray coating cycles.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 J–V curves of the bifacial solar cells under (a) front-side illumination and (b) rear-side illumination. (c) QE from the bifacial solar cell with a 10-cycle spray-coated back electrode. (d) Total PCE (sum of the PCE values obtained under front- and rear-side illumination).

Equations (2)

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Cu+Cd Cd Cu Cd - +Cd i +
Cu Cd - +Cu Cu Cd - +Cu i +

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