Abstract

Monolithic perovskite/c-Si tandem solar cells have the potential to exceed the Shockley-Queisser limit for single junction solar cells. However, reflection losses at internal interfaces play a crucial role for the overall efficiency of the tandem devices. Significant reflection losses are caused by the charge selective contacts which have a significantly lower refractive index compared to the absorber materials. Here, we present an approach to overcome a significant part of these reflection losses by introducing a multilayer stack between the top and bottom cell which shows spectrally selective transmission/reflection behavior. The layer stack is designed and optimized by optical simulations using transfer matrix method and a genetic algorithm. The incident sun light is split into a direct part and an isotropic diffuse part. The tandem solar cell with interlayer shows an absolute improvement of short-circuit current density of 0.82 mA/cm2.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2018 (2)

A. Richter, V. Smirnov, A. Lambertz, K. Nomoto, K. Welter, and K. Ding, “Versatility of doped nanocrystalline silicon oxide for applications in silicon thin-film and heterojunction solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 174, 96–201 (2018).
[Crossref]

L. Mazzarella, M. Werth, K. Jäger, M. Jošt, L. Korte, S. Albrecht, R. Schlatmann, and B. Stannowski, “Infrared photocurrent management in monolithic perovskite/silicon heterojunction tandem solar cells by using a nanocrystalline silicon oxide interlayer,” Opt. Express 26(10), A487–A497 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2017 (11)

Y. Wu, D. Yan, J. Peng, T. Duong, Y. Wan, S. P. Phang, H. Shen, N. Wu, C. Barugkin, X. Fu, S. Surve, D. Grant, D. Walter, T. P. White, K. R. Catchpole, and K. J. Weber, “Monolithic perovskite/silicon-homojunction tandem solar cell with over 22% efficiency,” Energy Environ. Sci. 10(11), 2472–2479 (2017).
[Crossref]

P. S. C. Schulze, A. J. Bett, K. Winkler, A. Hinsch, S. Lee, S. Mastroianni, L. E. Mundt, M. Mundus, U. Würfel, S. W. Glunz, M. Hermle, and J. C. Goldschmidt, “Novel Low-Temperature Process for Perovskite Solar Cells with a Mesoporous TiO2 Scaffold,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 9(36), 30567–30574 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Tan, A. Jain, O. Voznyy, X. Lan, F. P. García de Arquer, J. Z. Fan, R. Quintero-Bermudez, M. Yuan, B. Zhang, Y. Zhao, F. Fan, P. Li, L. N. Quan, Y. Zhao, Z.-H. Lu, Z. Yang, S. Hoogland, and E. H. Sargent, “Efficient and stable solution-processed planar perovskite solar cells via contact passivation,” Science 355(6326), 722–726 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Mellor, N. P. Hylton, S. A. Maier, and N. Ekins-Daukes, “Interstitial light-trapping design for multi-junction solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 159, 212–218 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Jaysankar, W. Qiu, M. van Eerden, T. Aernouts, R. Gehlhaar, M. Debucquoy, U. W. Paetzold, and J. Poortmans, “Four-Terminal Perovskite/Silicon Multijunction Solar Modules,” Adv. Energy Mater. 7(15), 1602807 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. A. Bush, A. F. Palmstrom, Z. J. Yu, M. Boccard, R. Cheacharoen, J. P. Mailoa, D. P. McMeekin, R. L. Z. Hoye, C. D. Bailie, T. Leijtens, I. M. Peters, M. C. Minichetti, N. Rolston, R. Prasanna, S. Sofia, D. Harwood, W. Ma, F. Moghadam, H. J. Snaith, T. Buonassisi, Z. C. Holman, S. F. Bent, and M. D. McGehee, “23.6%-efficient monolithic perovskite/silicon tandem solar cells with improved stability,” Nat. Energy 2(4), 17009 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. Yoshikawa, H. Kawasaki, W. Yoshida, T. Irie, K. Konishi, K. Nakano, T. Uto, D. Adachi, M. Kanematsu, H. Uzu, and K. Yamamoto, “Silicon heterojunction solar cell with interdigitated back contacts for a photoconversion efficiency over 26%,” Nat. Energy 2(5), 17032 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. K. Ono, E. J. Juarez-Perez, and Y. Qi, “Progress on Perovskite Materials and Solar Cells with Mixed Cations and Halide Anions,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 9(36), 30197–30246 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. E. Eperon, M. T. Hörantner, and H. J. Snaith, “Metal halide perovskite tandem and multiple-junction photovoltaics,” Nat. Rev. Chem. 1(12), 0095 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. T. Hörantner and H. J. Snaith, “Predicting and optimising the energy yield of perovskite-on-silicon tandem solar cells under real world conditions,” Energy Environ. Sci. 10(9), 1983–1993 (2017).
[Crossref]

G. W. P. Adhyaksa, E. Johlin, and E. C. Garnett, “Nanoscale Back Contact Perovskite Solar Cell Design for Improved Tandem Efficiency,” Nano Lett. 17(9), 5206–5212 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (8)

W. Zhang, G. E. Eperon, and H. J. Snaith, “Metal halide perovskites for energy applications,” Nat. Energy 1(6), 16048 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. T. Grant, K. R. Catchpole, K. J. Weber, and T. P. White, “Design guidelines for perovskite/silicon 2-terminal tandem solar cells: an optical study,” Opt. Express 24(22), A1454–A1470 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Albrecht, M. Saliba, J. P. Correa-Baena, F. Lang, K. Kegelmann, M. Mews, L. Steier, A. Abate, J. Rappich, L. Korte, R. Schlatmann, M. K. Nazeeruddin, A. Hagfeldt, M. Grätzel, and B. Rech, “Monolithic Perovskite/Silicon-Heterojunction Tandem Solar Cells Processed at Low Temperature,” Energy Environ. Sci. 9(1), 81–88 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Jiang, I. Almansouri, S. Huang, T. Young, Y. Li, Y. Peng, Q. Hou, L. Spiccia, U. Bach, Y. Cheng, M. A. Green, and A. Ho-Baillie, “Optical analysis of perovskite/silicon tandem solar cells,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 4(24), 5679–5689 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Albrecht, M. Saliba, J. Correa-Baena, K. Jäger, L. Korte, A. Hagfeldt, M. Grätzel, and B. Rech, “Towards optical optimization of planar monolithic perovskite/silicon-heterojunction tandem solar cells,” J. Opt. 18(6), 064012 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Hoffmann, K. Bittkau, C. Zhang, M. Meier, R. Carius, and U. Rau, “Photon Tunneling in Tandem Solar Cells With Intermediate Reflector,” IEEE J. Photovolt. 6(3), 597–603 (2016).
[Crossref]

R. Santbergen, R. Mishima, T. Meguro, M. Hino, H. Uzu, J. Blanker, K. Yamamoto, and M. Zeman, “Minimizing optical losses in monolithic perovskite/c-Si tandem solar cells with a flat top cell,” Opt. Express 24(18), A1288–A1299 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Saliba, T. Matsui, J.-Y. Seo, K. Domanski, J.-P. Correa-Baena, M. K. Nazeeruddin, S. M. Zakeeruddin, W. Tress, A. Abate, A. Hagfeldt, and M. Grätzel, “Cesium-containing triple cation perovskite solar cells: improved stability, reproducibility and high efficiency,” Energy Environ. Sci. 9(6), 1989–1997 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (7)

S. D. Stranks and H. J. Snaith, “Metal-halide perovskites for photovoltaic and light-emitting devices,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(5), 391–402 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Filipič, P. Löper, B. Niesen, S. De Wolf, J. Krč, C. Ballif, and M. Topič, “CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite / silicon tandem solar cells: characterization based optical simulations,” Opt. Express 23(7), A263–A278 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. H. Kim, P. W. Liang, S. T. Williams, N. Cho, C. C. Chueh, M. S. Glaz, D. S. Ginger, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “High-Performance and Environmentally Stable Planar Heterojunction Perovskite Solar Cells Based on a Solution-Processed Copper-Doped Nickel Oxide Hole-Transporting Layer,” Adv. Mater. 27(4), 695–701 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. P. Mailoa, C. D. Bailie, E. C. Johlin, E. T. Hoke, A. J. Akey, W. H. Nguyen, M. D. McGehee, and T. Buonassisi, “2-Terminal Perovskite/Silicon Multijunction Solar Cell Enabled by a Silicon Tunnel Junction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(12), 121105 (2015).
[Crossref]

W. S. Yang, J. H. Noh, N. J. Jeon, Y. C. Kim, S. Ryu, J. Seo, and S. I. Seok, “High-performance photovoltaic perovskite layers fabricated through intramolecular exchange,” Science 348(6240), 1234–1237 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. M. Yang, Q. Chen, Y. T. Hsieh, T. B. Song, N. D. Marco, H. Zhou, and Y. Yang, “Multilayer Transparent Top Electrode for Solution Processed Perovskite/Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S)2 Four Terminal Tandem Solar Cells,” ACS Nano 9(7), 7714–7721 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. D. Bailie and M. D. McGehee, “High-efficiency tandem perovskite solar cells,” MRS Bull. 40(08), 681–686 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (4)

T. P. White, N. N. Lal, and K. R. Catchpole, “Tandem Solar Cells Based on High-Efficiency c-Si Bottom Cells: Top Cell Requirements for >30% Efficiency,” IEEE J. Photovolt. 4(1), 208–214 (2014).
[Crossref]

N. N. Lal, T. P. White, and K. R. Catchpole, “Optics and Light Trapping for Tandem Solar Cells on Silicon,” IEEE J. Photovolt. 4(6), 1380–1386 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Taguchi, A. Yano, S. Tohoda, K. Matsuyama, Y. Nakamura, T. Nishiwaki, K. Fujita, and E. Maruyama, “24.7% Record Efficiency HIT Solar Cell on Thin Silicon Wafer,” IEEE J. Photovolt. 4(1), 96–99 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Hoffmann, U. W. Paetzold, C. Zhang, T. Merdzhanova, A. Lambertz, C. Ulbrich, K. Bittkau, and U. Rau, “Advancing tandem solar cells by spectrally selective multilayer intermediate reflectors,” Opt. Express 22(S5Suppl 5), A1270–A1277 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (2)

J. H. Heo, S. H. Im, J. H. Noh, T. N. Mandal, C. S. Lim, J. A. Chang, Y. H. Lee, H. J. Kim, A. Sarkar, M. K. Nazeeruddin, M. Grätzel, and S. I. Seok, “Efficient Inorganic-Organic Hybrid Heterojunction Solar Cells Containing Perovskite Compound and Polymeric Hole Conductors,” Nat. Photonics 7(6), 486–491 (2013).
[Crossref]

Z. C. Holman, M. Filipič, A. Descoeudres, S. De Wolf, F. Smole, M. Topič, and C. Ballif, “Infrared light management in high-efficiency silicon heterojunction and rear-passivated solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(1), 013107 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

H. S. Kim, C. R. Lee, J. H. Im, K. B. Lee, T. Moehl, A. Marchioro, S. J. Moon, R. Humphry-Baker, J. H. Yum, J. E. Moser, M. Grätzel, and N. G. Park, “Lead Iodide Perovskite Sensitized All-Solid-State Submicron Thin Film Mesoscopic Solar Cell With Efficiency Exceeding 9%,” Sci. Rep. 2(1), 591 (2012).
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M. M. Lee, J. Teuscher, T. Miyasaka, T. N. Murakami, and H. J. Snaith, “Efficient Hybrid Solar Cells Based on Meso-Superstructured Organometal Halide Perovskites,” Science 338(6107), 643–647 (2012).
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2011 (1)

A. Lambertz, T. Grundler, and F. Finger, “Hydrogenated amorphous silicon oxide containing a microcrystalline silicon phase and usage as an intermediate reflector in thin–film silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(11), 113109 (2011).
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2010 (2)

P. G. O’Brien, A. Chutinan, K. Leong, N. P. Kherani, G. A. Ozin, and S. Zukotynski, “Photonic crystal intermediate reflectors for micromorph solar cells: A comparative study,” Opt. Express 18(5), 4478–4490 (2010).
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V. M. Emelyanov, N. A. Kalyuzhnyy, S. A. Mintairov, M. Z. Shvarts, and V. M. Lantratov, “Multijunction GaInP/GaInAs/Ge Solar Cells with Bragg Reflectors,” Semiconductors 44(12), 1600–1605 (2010).
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2009 (1)

2007 (2)

P. Buehlmann, J. Bailat, D. Dominé, A. Billet, F. Meillaud, A. Feltrin, and C. Ballif, “In situ silicon oxide based intermediate reflector for thin–film silicon micromorph solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(14), 143505 (2007).
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P. G. Loutzenhiser, H. Manz, C. Felsmann, P. A. Strachan, T. Frank, and G. M. Maxwell, “Empirical validation of models to compute solar irradiance on inclined surfaces for building energy simulation,” Sol. Energy 81(2), 254–267 (2007).
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2003 (1)

J. Pla, M. Tamasi, R. Rizzoli, M. Losurdo, E. Centurioni, C. Summonte, and F. Rubinelli, “Optimization of ITO layers for applications in a-Si/c-Si heterojunction solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 425(1-2), 185–192 (2003).
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1992 (1)

G. E. Jellison., “Optical functions of silicon determined by two-channel polarization modulation ellipsometry,” Opt. Mater. 1(1), 41–47 (1992).
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1986 (1)

R. Perez, R. Stewart, C. Arbogast, R. Seals, and J. Scott, “An anisotropic hourly diffuse radiation model for sloping surfaces: description, performance validation, site dependency evaluation,” Sol. Energy 36(6), 481–497 (1986).
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1972 (1)

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical Constants of the Noble Metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
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Abate, A.

S. Albrecht, M. Saliba, J. P. Correa-Baena, F. Lang, K. Kegelmann, M. Mews, L. Steier, A. Abate, J. Rappich, L. Korte, R. Schlatmann, M. K. Nazeeruddin, A. Hagfeldt, M. Grätzel, and B. Rech, “Monolithic Perovskite/Silicon-Heterojunction Tandem Solar Cells Processed at Low Temperature,” Energy Environ. Sci. 9(1), 81–88 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Saliba, T. Matsui, J.-Y. Seo, K. Domanski, J.-P. Correa-Baena, M. K. Nazeeruddin, S. M. Zakeeruddin, W. Tress, A. Abate, A. Hagfeldt, and M. Grätzel, “Cesium-containing triple cation perovskite solar cells: improved stability, reproducibility and high efficiency,” Energy Environ. Sci. 9(6), 1989–1997 (2016).
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Adachi, D.

K. Yoshikawa, H. Kawasaki, W. Yoshida, T. Irie, K. Konishi, K. Nakano, T. Uto, D. Adachi, M. Kanematsu, H. Uzu, and K. Yamamoto, “Silicon heterojunction solar cell with interdigitated back contacts for a photoconversion efficiency over 26%,” Nat. Energy 2(5), 17032 (2017).
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Adhyaksa, G. W. P.

G. W. P. Adhyaksa, E. Johlin, and E. C. Garnett, “Nanoscale Back Contact Perovskite Solar Cell Design for Improved Tandem Efficiency,” Nano Lett. 17(9), 5206–5212 (2017).
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Aernouts, T.

M. Jaysankar, W. Qiu, M. van Eerden, T. Aernouts, R. Gehlhaar, M. Debucquoy, U. W. Paetzold, and J. Poortmans, “Four-Terminal Perovskite/Silicon Multijunction Solar Modules,” Adv. Energy Mater. 7(15), 1602807 (2017).
[Crossref]

Akey, A. J.

J. P. Mailoa, C. D. Bailie, E. C. Johlin, E. T. Hoke, A. J. Akey, W. H. Nguyen, M. D. McGehee, and T. Buonassisi, “2-Terminal Perovskite/Silicon Multijunction Solar Cell Enabled by a Silicon Tunnel Junction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(12), 121105 (2015).
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Albrecht, S.

L. Mazzarella, M. Werth, K. Jäger, M. Jošt, L. Korte, S. Albrecht, R. Schlatmann, and B. Stannowski, “Infrared photocurrent management in monolithic perovskite/silicon heterojunction tandem solar cells by using a nanocrystalline silicon oxide interlayer,” Opt. Express 26(10), A487–A497 (2018).
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S. Albrecht, M. Saliba, J. P. Correa-Baena, F. Lang, K. Kegelmann, M. Mews, L. Steier, A. Abate, J. Rappich, L. Korte, R. Schlatmann, M. K. Nazeeruddin, A. Hagfeldt, M. Grätzel, and B. Rech, “Monolithic Perovskite/Silicon-Heterojunction Tandem Solar Cells Processed at Low Temperature,” Energy Environ. Sci. 9(1), 81–88 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Albrecht, M. Saliba, J. Correa-Baena, K. Jäger, L. Korte, A. Hagfeldt, M. Grätzel, and B. Rech, “Towards optical optimization of planar monolithic perovskite/silicon-heterojunction tandem solar cells,” J. Opt. 18(6), 064012 (2016).
[Crossref]

Almansouri, I.

Y. Jiang, I. Almansouri, S. Huang, T. Young, Y. Li, Y. Peng, Q. Hou, L. Spiccia, U. Bach, Y. Cheng, M. A. Green, and A. Ho-Baillie, “Optical analysis of perovskite/silicon tandem solar cells,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 4(24), 5679–5689 (2016).
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Anderson, K. F.

B. C. Duck, R. B. Dunbar, O. Lee, K. F. Anderson, T. W. Jones, G. J. Wilson, and C. J. Fell, “Energy Yield Potential of Perovskite-Silicon Tandem Devices,” in 43rd IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC) (2016), pp. 1624–1629.
[Crossref]

Arbogast, C.

R. Perez, R. Stewart, C. Arbogast, R. Seals, and J. Scott, “An anisotropic hourly diffuse radiation model for sloping surfaces: description, performance validation, site dependency evaluation,” Sol. Energy 36(6), 481–497 (1986).
[Crossref]

Bach, U.

Y. Jiang, I. Almansouri, S. Huang, T. Young, Y. Li, Y. Peng, Q. Hou, L. Spiccia, U. Bach, Y. Cheng, M. A. Green, and A. Ho-Baillie, “Optical analysis of perovskite/silicon tandem solar cells,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 4(24), 5679–5689 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bailat, J.

P. Buehlmann, J. Bailat, D. Dominé, A. Billet, F. Meillaud, A. Feltrin, and C. Ballif, “In situ silicon oxide based intermediate reflector for thin–film silicon micromorph solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(14), 143505 (2007).
[Crossref]

Bailie, C. D.

K. A. Bush, A. F. Palmstrom, Z. J. Yu, M. Boccard, R. Cheacharoen, J. P. Mailoa, D. P. McMeekin, R. L. Z. Hoye, C. D. Bailie, T. Leijtens, I. M. Peters, M. C. Minichetti, N. Rolston, R. Prasanna, S. Sofia, D. Harwood, W. Ma, F. Moghadam, H. J. Snaith, T. Buonassisi, Z. C. Holman, S. F. Bent, and M. D. McGehee, “23.6%-efficient monolithic perovskite/silicon tandem solar cells with improved stability,” Nat. Energy 2(4), 17009 (2017).
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C. D. Bailie and M. D. McGehee, “High-efficiency tandem perovskite solar cells,” MRS Bull. 40(08), 681–686 (2015).
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J. P. Mailoa, C. D. Bailie, E. C. Johlin, E. T. Hoke, A. J. Akey, W. H. Nguyen, M. D. McGehee, and T. Buonassisi, “2-Terminal Perovskite/Silicon Multijunction Solar Cell Enabled by a Silicon Tunnel Junction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(12), 121105 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ballif, C.

M. Filipič, P. Löper, B. Niesen, S. De Wolf, J. Krč, C. Ballif, and M. Topič, “CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite / silicon tandem solar cells: characterization based optical simulations,” Opt. Express 23(7), A263–A278 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. C. Holman, M. Filipič, A. Descoeudres, S. De Wolf, F. Smole, M. Topič, and C. Ballif, “Infrared light management in high-efficiency silicon heterojunction and rear-passivated solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(1), 013107 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. Buehlmann, J. Bailat, D. Dominé, A. Billet, F. Meillaud, A. Feltrin, and C. Ballif, “In situ silicon oxide based intermediate reflector for thin–film silicon micromorph solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(14), 143505 (2007).
[Crossref]

Barugkin, C.

Y. Wu, D. Yan, J. Peng, T. Duong, Y. Wan, S. P. Phang, H. Shen, N. Wu, C. Barugkin, X. Fu, S. Surve, D. Grant, D. Walter, T. P. White, K. R. Catchpole, and K. J. Weber, “Monolithic perovskite/silicon-homojunction tandem solar cell with over 22% efficiency,” Energy Environ. Sci. 10(11), 2472–2479 (2017).
[Crossref]

Bent, S. F.

K. A. Bush, A. F. Palmstrom, Z. J. Yu, M. Boccard, R. Cheacharoen, J. P. Mailoa, D. P. McMeekin, R. L. Z. Hoye, C. D. Bailie, T. Leijtens, I. M. Peters, M. C. Minichetti, N. Rolston, R. Prasanna, S. Sofia, D. Harwood, W. Ma, F. Moghadam, H. J. Snaith, T. Buonassisi, Z. C. Holman, S. F. Bent, and M. D. McGehee, “23.6%-efficient monolithic perovskite/silicon tandem solar cells with improved stability,” Nat. Energy 2(4), 17009 (2017).
[Crossref]

Bett, A. J.

P. S. C. Schulze, A. J. Bett, K. Winkler, A. Hinsch, S. Lee, S. Mastroianni, L. E. Mundt, M. Mundus, U. Würfel, S. W. Glunz, M. Hermle, and J. C. Goldschmidt, “Novel Low-Temperature Process for Perovskite Solar Cells with a Mesoporous TiO2 Scaffold,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 9(36), 30567–30574 (2017).
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Bielawny, A.

Billet, A.

P. Buehlmann, J. Bailat, D. Dominé, A. Billet, F. Meillaud, A. Feltrin, and C. Ballif, “In situ silicon oxide based intermediate reflector for thin–film silicon micromorph solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(14), 143505 (2007).
[Crossref]

Bittkau, K.

A. Hoffmann, K. Bittkau, C. Zhang, M. Meier, R. Carius, and U. Rau, “Photon Tunneling in Tandem Solar Cells With Intermediate Reflector,” IEEE J. Photovolt. 6(3), 597–603 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Hoffmann, U. W. Paetzold, C. Zhang, T. Merdzhanova, A. Lambertz, C. Ulbrich, K. Bittkau, and U. Rau, “Advancing tandem solar cells by spectrally selective multilayer intermediate reflectors,” Opt. Express 22(S5Suppl 5), A1270–A1277 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Blanker, J.

Boccard, M.

K. A. Bush, A. F. Palmstrom, Z. J. Yu, M. Boccard, R. Cheacharoen, J. P. Mailoa, D. P. McMeekin, R. L. Z. Hoye, C. D. Bailie, T. Leijtens, I. M. Peters, M. C. Minichetti, N. Rolston, R. Prasanna, S. Sofia, D. Harwood, W. Ma, F. Moghadam, H. J. Snaith, T. Buonassisi, Z. C. Holman, S. F. Bent, and M. D. McGehee, “23.6%-efficient monolithic perovskite/silicon tandem solar cells with improved stability,” Nat. Energy 2(4), 17009 (2017).
[Crossref]

Buehlmann, P.

P. Buehlmann, J. Bailat, D. Dominé, A. Billet, F. Meillaud, A. Feltrin, and C. Ballif, “In situ silicon oxide based intermediate reflector for thin–film silicon micromorph solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(14), 143505 (2007).
[Crossref]

Buonassisi, T.

K. A. Bush, A. F. Palmstrom, Z. J. Yu, M. Boccard, R. Cheacharoen, J. P. Mailoa, D. P. McMeekin, R. L. Z. Hoye, C. D. Bailie, T. Leijtens, I. M. Peters, M. C. Minichetti, N. Rolston, R. Prasanna, S. Sofia, D. Harwood, W. Ma, F. Moghadam, H. J. Snaith, T. Buonassisi, Z. C. Holman, S. F. Bent, and M. D. McGehee, “23.6%-efficient monolithic perovskite/silicon tandem solar cells with improved stability,” Nat. Energy 2(4), 17009 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. P. Mailoa, C. D. Bailie, E. C. Johlin, E. T. Hoke, A. J. Akey, W. H. Nguyen, M. D. McGehee, and T. Buonassisi, “2-Terminal Perovskite/Silicon Multijunction Solar Cell Enabled by a Silicon Tunnel Junction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(12), 121105 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bush, K. A.

K. A. Bush, A. F. Palmstrom, Z. J. Yu, M. Boccard, R. Cheacharoen, J. P. Mailoa, D. P. McMeekin, R. L. Z. Hoye, C. D. Bailie, T. Leijtens, I. M. Peters, M. C. Minichetti, N. Rolston, R. Prasanna, S. Sofia, D. Harwood, W. Ma, F. Moghadam, H. J. Snaith, T. Buonassisi, Z. C. Holman, S. F. Bent, and M. D. McGehee, “23.6%-efficient monolithic perovskite/silicon tandem solar cells with improved stability,” Nat. Energy 2(4), 17009 (2017).
[Crossref]

Carius, R.

A. Hoffmann, K. Bittkau, C. Zhang, M. Meier, R. Carius, and U. Rau, “Photon Tunneling in Tandem Solar Cells With Intermediate Reflector,” IEEE J. Photovolt. 6(3), 597–603 (2016).
[Crossref]

Catchpole, K. R.

Y. Wu, D. Yan, J. Peng, T. Duong, Y. Wan, S. P. Phang, H. Shen, N. Wu, C. Barugkin, X. Fu, S. Surve, D. Grant, D. Walter, T. P. White, K. R. Catchpole, and K. J. Weber, “Monolithic perovskite/silicon-homojunction tandem solar cell with over 22% efficiency,” Energy Environ. Sci. 10(11), 2472–2479 (2017).
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D. T. Grant, K. R. Catchpole, K. J. Weber, and T. P. White, “Design guidelines for perovskite/silicon 2-terminal tandem solar cells: an optical study,” Opt. Express 24(22), A1454–A1470 (2016).
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N. N. Lal, T. P. White, and K. R. Catchpole, “Optics and Light Trapping for Tandem Solar Cells on Silicon,” IEEE J. Photovolt. 4(6), 1380–1386 (2014).
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T. P. White, N. N. Lal, and K. R. Catchpole, “Tandem Solar Cells Based on High-Efficiency c-Si Bottom Cells: Top Cell Requirements for >30% Efficiency,” IEEE J. Photovolt. 4(1), 208–214 (2014).
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Centurioni, E.

J. Pla, M. Tamasi, R. Rizzoli, M. Losurdo, E. Centurioni, C. Summonte, and F. Rubinelli, “Optimization of ITO layers for applications in a-Si/c-Si heterojunction solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 425(1-2), 185–192 (2003).
[Crossref]

Chang, J. A.

J. H. Heo, S. H. Im, J. H. Noh, T. N. Mandal, C. S. Lim, J. A. Chang, Y. H. Lee, H. J. Kim, A. Sarkar, M. K. Nazeeruddin, M. Grätzel, and S. I. Seok, “Efficient Inorganic-Organic Hybrid Heterojunction Solar Cells Containing Perovskite Compound and Polymeric Hole Conductors,” Nat. Photonics 7(6), 486–491 (2013).
[Crossref]

Cheacharoen, R.

K. A. Bush, A. F. Palmstrom, Z. J. Yu, M. Boccard, R. Cheacharoen, J. P. Mailoa, D. P. McMeekin, R. L. Z. Hoye, C. D. Bailie, T. Leijtens, I. M. Peters, M. C. Minichetti, N. Rolston, R. Prasanna, S. Sofia, D. Harwood, W. Ma, F. Moghadam, H. J. Snaith, T. Buonassisi, Z. C. Holman, S. F. Bent, and M. D. McGehee, “23.6%-efficient monolithic perovskite/silicon tandem solar cells with improved stability,” Nat. Energy 2(4), 17009 (2017).
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Chen, Q.

Y. M. Yang, Q. Chen, Y. T. Hsieh, T. B. Song, N. D. Marco, H. Zhou, and Y. Yang, “Multilayer Transparent Top Electrode for Solution Processed Perovskite/Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S)2 Four Terminal Tandem Solar Cells,” ACS Nano 9(7), 7714–7721 (2015).
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Cheng, Y.

Y. Jiang, I. Almansouri, S. Huang, T. Young, Y. Li, Y. Peng, Q. Hou, L. Spiccia, U. Bach, Y. Cheng, M. A. Green, and A. Ho-Baillie, “Optical analysis of perovskite/silicon tandem solar cells,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 4(24), 5679–5689 (2016).
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Cho, N.

J. H. Kim, P. W. Liang, S. T. Williams, N. Cho, C. C. Chueh, M. S. Glaz, D. S. Ginger, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “High-Performance and Environmentally Stable Planar Heterojunction Perovskite Solar Cells Based on a Solution-Processed Copper-Doped Nickel Oxide Hole-Transporting Layer,” Adv. Mater. 27(4), 695–701 (2015).
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Christy, R. W.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical Constants of the Noble Metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
[Crossref]

Chueh, C. C.

J. H. Kim, P. W. Liang, S. T. Williams, N. Cho, C. C. Chueh, M. S. Glaz, D. S. Ginger, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “High-Performance and Environmentally Stable Planar Heterojunction Perovskite Solar Cells Based on a Solution-Processed Copper-Doped Nickel Oxide Hole-Transporting Layer,” Adv. Mater. 27(4), 695–701 (2015).
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Chutinan, A.

Correa-Baena, J.

S. Albrecht, M. Saliba, J. Correa-Baena, K. Jäger, L. Korte, A. Hagfeldt, M. Grätzel, and B. Rech, “Towards optical optimization of planar monolithic perovskite/silicon-heterojunction tandem solar cells,” J. Opt. 18(6), 064012 (2016).
[Crossref]

Correa-Baena, J. P.

S. Albrecht, M. Saliba, J. P. Correa-Baena, F. Lang, K. Kegelmann, M. Mews, L. Steier, A. Abate, J. Rappich, L. Korte, R. Schlatmann, M. K. Nazeeruddin, A. Hagfeldt, M. Grätzel, and B. Rech, “Monolithic Perovskite/Silicon-Heterojunction Tandem Solar Cells Processed at Low Temperature,” Energy Environ. Sci. 9(1), 81–88 (2016).
[Crossref]

Correa-Baena, J.-P.

M. Saliba, T. Matsui, J.-Y. Seo, K. Domanski, J.-P. Correa-Baena, M. K. Nazeeruddin, S. M. Zakeeruddin, W. Tress, A. Abate, A. Hagfeldt, and M. Grätzel, “Cesium-containing triple cation perovskite solar cells: improved stability, reproducibility and high efficiency,” Energy Environ. Sci. 9(6), 1989–1997 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

De Wolf, S.

M. Filipič, P. Löper, B. Niesen, S. De Wolf, J. Krč, C. Ballif, and M. Topič, “CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite / silicon tandem solar cells: characterization based optical simulations,” Opt. Express 23(7), A263–A278 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. C. Holman, M. Filipič, A. Descoeudres, S. De Wolf, F. Smole, M. Topič, and C. Ballif, “Infrared light management in high-efficiency silicon heterojunction and rear-passivated solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(1), 013107 (2013).
[Crossref]

Debucquoy, M.

M. Jaysankar, W. Qiu, M. van Eerden, T. Aernouts, R. Gehlhaar, M. Debucquoy, U. W. Paetzold, and J. Poortmans, “Four-Terminal Perovskite/Silicon Multijunction Solar Modules,” Adv. Energy Mater. 7(15), 1602807 (2017).
[Crossref]

Descoeudres, A.

Z. C. Holman, M. Filipič, A. Descoeudres, S. De Wolf, F. Smole, M. Topič, and C. Ballif, “Infrared light management in high-efficiency silicon heterojunction and rear-passivated solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(1), 013107 (2013).
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Ding, K.

A. Richter, V. Smirnov, A. Lambertz, K. Nomoto, K. Welter, and K. Ding, “Versatility of doped nanocrystalline silicon oxide for applications in silicon thin-film and heterojunction solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 174, 96–201 (2018).
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Domanski, K.

M. Saliba, T. Matsui, J.-Y. Seo, K. Domanski, J.-P. Correa-Baena, M. K. Nazeeruddin, S. M. Zakeeruddin, W. Tress, A. Abate, A. Hagfeldt, and M. Grätzel, “Cesium-containing triple cation perovskite solar cells: improved stability, reproducibility and high efficiency,” Energy Environ. Sci. 9(6), 1989–1997 (2016).
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Dominé, D.

P. Buehlmann, J. Bailat, D. Dominé, A. Billet, F. Meillaud, A. Feltrin, and C. Ballif, “In situ silicon oxide based intermediate reflector for thin–film silicon micromorph solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(14), 143505 (2007).
[Crossref]

Duck, B. C.

B. C. Duck, R. B. Dunbar, O. Lee, K. F. Anderson, T. W. Jones, G. J. Wilson, and C. J. Fell, “Energy Yield Potential of Perovskite-Silicon Tandem Devices,” in 43rd IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC) (2016), pp. 1624–1629.
[Crossref]

Dunbar, R. B.

B. C. Duck, R. B. Dunbar, O. Lee, K. F. Anderson, T. W. Jones, G. J. Wilson, and C. J. Fell, “Energy Yield Potential of Perovskite-Silicon Tandem Devices,” in 43rd IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC) (2016), pp. 1624–1629.
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Duong, T.

Y. Wu, D. Yan, J. Peng, T. Duong, Y. Wan, S. P. Phang, H. Shen, N. Wu, C. Barugkin, X. Fu, S. Surve, D. Grant, D. Walter, T. P. White, K. R. Catchpole, and K. J. Weber, “Monolithic perovskite/silicon-homojunction tandem solar cell with over 22% efficiency,” Energy Environ. Sci. 10(11), 2472–2479 (2017).
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Ekins-Daukes, N.

A. Mellor, N. P. Hylton, S. A. Maier, and N. Ekins-Daukes, “Interstitial light-trapping design for multi-junction solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 159, 212–218 (2017).
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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Illustration of the layer stack used for the study. Thicknesses were provided for those layers, where the thickness was not varied during the optimization procedure. The arrows at the top illustrate the assumed incident sun light with AM1.5d at normal incidence and the isotropic impinging diffuse part of the AM1.5g.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Refractive index n and (b) extinction coefficient k for the most relevant materials for the optical matching condition between top and bottom cell. The vertical dotted lines depict the wavelength which corresponds to the optical bandgap of the perovskite.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Optical loss analysis for the tandem solar cell stack without IL (a) and with IL3 (b). The colored areas illustrate the distribution of light absorption over the involved layers. The white area represents the reflected light. The correlated JSC values were provided in the legend
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Solar cell reflectance as a function of the wavelength of incident light and (b) absorptance of top cell (black) and bottom cell (red). The tandem solar cell without IL is represented as solid lines, the tandem solar cell with IL1 and IL3 as dotted and dashed lines, respectively. The horizontal line represents the expected reflectance (maximal achievable absorptance) that originates from the front cover glass.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Short-circuit current density JSC as a function of the wavelength of incident light. The result for the tandem solar cell without IL is shown in black lines, those for the tandem solar cell with IL3 as red lines. Solid lines show the results for diffuse irradiance, dotted lines the results for specular irradiance.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Layer thicknesses resulting from the optimization of the tandem solar cell without and with IL

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Table 2 Short-circuit current densities JSC and integrated reflection losses of the tandem solar cells without and with intermediate layers

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