Abstract

We report an electron-initiated 1064 nm InGaAsP avalanche photodetectors (APDs) with an InAlAs multiplier. By utilizing a tailored digital alloy superlattice grading structure, a charge layer and a p type InAlAs multiplier, an unity gain quantum efficiency of 48%, a low room temperature dark current of 470 pA at 90% breakdown voltage, and a low multiplication noise with an effective k ratio of ∼0.2 are achieved. The measured maximum gain factor is 5 at room temperature, which is currently limited by the non-optimized electric field profiles, and can be readily enhanced by modifying the doping and thickness parameters for the multiplier and the charge layer.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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2017 (1)

Y. J. Ma, Y. G. Zhang, Y. Gu, X. Y. Chen, Y. H. Shi, W. Y. Ji, S. P. Xi, B. Du, H. J. Tang, Y. F. Li, and J. X. Fang, “Low operating voltage and small gain slope of InGaAs APDs with p-type multiplication layer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 29, 55–58 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (1)

S. Xi, Y. Gu, Y. Zhang, X. Chen, Y. Ma, L. Zhou, B. Du, X. Shao, and J. Fang, “InGaAsP/InP photodetectors targeting on 1.06 μm wavelength detection,” Infrared Phys. Techn. 75, 65–69 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (4)

S. Xie, S. Zhang, and C. H. Tan, “InGaAs/InAlAs avalanche photodiode with low dark current for high-speed operation,” IEEE Photon. Techno. L. 27, 1745–1748 (2015).
[Crossref]

W. E. Clifton, B. Steele, G. Nelson, A. Truscott, M. Itzler, and M. Entwistle, “Medium altitude airborne Geiger-mode mapping LIDAR system,” Proc. SPIE 9465, 946506 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. J. Ma, Y. G. Zhang, Y. Gu, X. Y. Chen, S. P. Xi, B. Du, and H. Li, “Tailoring the performances of low operating voltage InAlAs/InGaAs avalanche photodetectors,” Opt. Express 23, 19278–19287 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. G. Zhang, L. Zhou, Y. Gu, Y. J. Ma, X. Y. Chen, X. M. Shao, H. M. Gong, and J. X. Fang, “Correction of response spectra of quantum type photodetectors measured by FTIR,” J. Infrared Millim. Waves 34, 737–743 (2015).

2012 (1)

S. R. Bowman, “High-power diode-pumped solid-state lasers,” Opt. Eng. 52, 021012 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

2010 (1)

M. A. Itzler, X. Jiang, M. Entwistle, B. M. Onat, and K. Slomkowskik, “Single-photon detectors based on InP avalanche diodes: status and prospects,” Proc. of SPIE 7681, 76810V (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

F. Laforce, “Low noise optical receiver using Si APD,” Proc. SPIE 7212, 721210 (2009).
[Crossref]

P. Yuan, R. Sudharsanan, J. Boisvert, X. Bai, P. McDonald, T. Isshiki, W. Hong, M. Salisbury, C. Hu, M. Liu, and J. C. Campbell, “High performance InP Geiger-mode SWIR avalanche photodiodes,” Proc. of SPIE 7320, 73200P (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

J. P. R. David and C. H. Tan, “Material considerations for avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 14, 998–1009 (2008).
[Crossref]

X. Jiang, M. A. Itzler, R. Ben-Michael, K. Slomkowski, M. A. Krainak, S. Wu, and X. Sun, “Afterpulsing effect in freerunning InGaAsP single-photon avalanche diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44, 3–11 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

X. Jiang, M. A. Itzler, R. Ben-Michael, and K. Slomkowski, “InGaAsP-InP avalanche photodiodes for single photon detection,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. Elect. 13, 895–905 (2007).
[Crossref]

Y. L. Goh, A. R. J. Marshall, D. J. Massey, J. S. Ng, C. H. Tan, M. Hopkinson, J. P. R. David, S. K. Jones, C. C. Button, and S. M. Pinches, “Excess avalanche noise in In0.52Al0.48As,” IEEE J. Quantum. Elect. 43, 503–507 (2007).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

R. S. N. Li, X. W. Li, F. Ma, X. G. Zheng, S. L. Wang, G. Karve, S. Demiguel, J. Archie, L. Holmes, and J. C. Campbell, “InGaAs/InAlAs avalanche photodiode with undepleted absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2175–2177 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (3)

K. A. McIntosh, J. P. Donnelly, D. C. Oakley, A. Napoleone, S. D. Calawa, L. J. Mahoney, K. M. Molvar, E. K. Duerr, S. H. Groves, and D. C. Shaver, “InGaAsP/InP avalanche photodiodes for photon counting at 1.06 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2505–2507 (2002).
[Crossref]

X. W. Li, X. G. Zheng, S. L. Wang, F. Ma, and J. C. Campbell, “Calculation of gain and noise with dead space for GaAs and AlxGa1−xAs avalanche photodiode,” IEEE T Electron. Dev. 49, 1112–1117 (2002).
[Crossref]

C. N. Harrison, J. P. R. David, M. Hopkinson, and G. J. Rees, “Temperature dependence of avalanche multiplication in submicron Al0.6Ga0.4As diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 92, 7684–7686 (2002).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

P. Yuan, C. C. Hansing, K. A. Anselm, C. V. Lenox, H. Nie, J. A. L. Holmes, B. G. Streetman, and J. C. Campbell, “Impact ionization characteristics of III–V semiconductors for a wide range of multiplication region thicknesses,” IEEE J. Quantum Elect. 36, 198–204 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (2)

C. Lenox, H. Nie, P. Yuan, G. Kinsey, A. L. Holmes, B. G. Streetman, and J. C. Campbell, “Resonant-cavity InGaAs-InAlAs avalanche photodiodes with gain-bandwidth product of 290 GHz,” IEEE Photonic. Tech. L. 11, 1162–1164 (1999).
[Crossref]

R. J. McIntyre, “A new look at impact ionization-part I: a theory of gain, noise, breakdown probability, and frequency response,” IEEE T Electron. Dev. 46, 1623–1631 (1999).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

Y. G. Zhang, A. Z. Li, and J. X. Chen, “Improved performance of InAlAs-InGaAs-InP MSM photodetectors with graded superlattice structure grown by gas source MBE,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 830–832 (1996).
[Crossref]

1989 (1)

J. C. Campbell, S. Chandrasekhar, W. T. Tsang, G. J. Qua, and B. C. Johnson, “Multiplication noise of wide-bandwidth InP/InGaAsP/InGaAs avalanche photodiodes,” J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 473–478 (1989).
[Crossref]

1980 (2)

L. W. Cook, M. Feng, M. M. Tashima, R. J. Blattner, and G. E. Stillman, “Interface grading in InGaAsP liquid phase epitaxial heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 37, 173 (1980).
[Crossref]

S. Akiba, K. Sakai, Y. Matsushima, and T. Yamamoto, “Effects of double-cladding structure on LPE-grown InGaAsP/InP lasers in the 1.5 μm range,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 19, L79–L82 (1980).
[Crossref]

1966 (1)

R. J. McIntyre, “Multiplication noise in uniform avalanche diodes,” IEEE T. Electron Dev. 13, 164–168 (1966).
[Crossref]

Akiba, S.

S. Akiba, K. Sakai, Y. Matsushima, and T. Yamamoto, “Effects of double-cladding structure on LPE-grown InGaAsP/InP lasers in the 1.5 μm range,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 19, L79–L82 (1980).
[Crossref]

Anselm, K. A.

P. Yuan, C. C. Hansing, K. A. Anselm, C. V. Lenox, H. Nie, J. A. L. Holmes, B. G. Streetman, and J. C. Campbell, “Impact ionization characteristics of III–V semiconductors for a wide range of multiplication region thicknesses,” IEEE J. Quantum Elect. 36, 198–204 (2000).
[Crossref]

Archie, J.

R. S. N. Li, X. W. Li, F. Ma, X. G. Zheng, S. L. Wang, G. Karve, S. Demiguel, J. Archie, L. Holmes, and J. C. Campbell, “InGaAs/InAlAs avalanche photodiode with undepleted absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2175–2177 (2003).
[Crossref]

Bai, X.

P. Yuan, R. Sudharsanan, J. Boisvert, X. Bai, P. McDonald, T. Isshiki, W. Hong, M. Salisbury, C. Hu, M. Liu, and J. C. Campbell, “High performance InP Geiger-mode SWIR avalanche photodiodes,” Proc. of SPIE 7320, 73200P (2009).
[Crossref]

Ben-Michael, R.

X. Jiang, M. A. Itzler, R. Ben-Michael, K. Slomkowski, M. A. Krainak, S. Wu, and X. Sun, “Afterpulsing effect in freerunning InGaAsP single-photon avalanche diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44, 3–11 (2008).
[Crossref]

X. Jiang, M. A. Itzler, R. Ben-Michael, and K. Slomkowski, “InGaAsP-InP avalanche photodiodes for single photon detection,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. Elect. 13, 895–905 (2007).
[Crossref]

Blattner, R. J.

L. W. Cook, M. Feng, M. M. Tashima, R. J. Blattner, and G. E. Stillman, “Interface grading in InGaAsP liquid phase epitaxial heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 37, 173 (1980).
[Crossref]

Boisvert, J.

P. Yuan, R. Sudharsanan, J. Boisvert, X. Bai, P. McDonald, T. Isshiki, W. Hong, M. Salisbury, C. Hu, M. Liu, and J. C. Campbell, “High performance InP Geiger-mode SWIR avalanche photodiodes,” Proc. of SPIE 7320, 73200P (2009).
[Crossref]

Bowman, S. R.

S. R. Bowman, “High-power diode-pumped solid-state lasers,” Opt. Eng. 52, 021012 (2012).
[Crossref]

Button, C. C.

Y. L. Goh, A. R. J. Marshall, D. J. Massey, J. S. Ng, C. H. Tan, M. Hopkinson, J. P. R. David, S. K. Jones, C. C. Button, and S. M. Pinches, “Excess avalanche noise in In0.52Al0.48As,” IEEE J. Quantum. Elect. 43, 503–507 (2007).
[Crossref]

Calawa, S. D.

K. A. McIntosh, J. P. Donnelly, D. C. Oakley, A. Napoleone, S. D. Calawa, L. J. Mahoney, K. M. Molvar, E. K. Duerr, S. H. Groves, and D. C. Shaver, “InGaAsP/InP avalanche photodiodes for photon counting at 1.06 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2505–2507 (2002).
[Crossref]

Campbell, J. C.

P. Yuan, R. Sudharsanan, J. Boisvert, X. Bai, P. McDonald, T. Isshiki, W. Hong, M. Salisbury, C. Hu, M. Liu, and J. C. Campbell, “High performance InP Geiger-mode SWIR avalanche photodiodes,” Proc. of SPIE 7320, 73200P (2009).
[Crossref]

R. S. N. Li, X. W. Li, F. Ma, X. G. Zheng, S. L. Wang, G. Karve, S. Demiguel, J. Archie, L. Holmes, and J. C. Campbell, “InGaAs/InAlAs avalanche photodiode with undepleted absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2175–2177 (2003).
[Crossref]

X. W. Li, X. G. Zheng, S. L. Wang, F. Ma, and J. C. Campbell, “Calculation of gain and noise with dead space for GaAs and AlxGa1−xAs avalanche photodiode,” IEEE T Electron. Dev. 49, 1112–1117 (2002).
[Crossref]

P. Yuan, C. C. Hansing, K. A. Anselm, C. V. Lenox, H. Nie, J. A. L. Holmes, B. G. Streetman, and J. C. Campbell, “Impact ionization characteristics of III–V semiconductors for a wide range of multiplication region thicknesses,” IEEE J. Quantum Elect. 36, 198–204 (2000).
[Crossref]

C. Lenox, H. Nie, P. Yuan, G. Kinsey, A. L. Holmes, B. G. Streetman, and J. C. Campbell, “Resonant-cavity InGaAs-InAlAs avalanche photodiodes with gain-bandwidth product of 290 GHz,” IEEE Photonic. Tech. L. 11, 1162–1164 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. C. Campbell, S. Chandrasekhar, W. T. Tsang, G. J. Qua, and B. C. Johnson, “Multiplication noise of wide-bandwidth InP/InGaAsP/InGaAs avalanche photodiodes,” J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 473–478 (1989).
[Crossref]

Chandrasekhar, S.

J. C. Campbell, S. Chandrasekhar, W. T. Tsang, G. J. Qua, and B. C. Johnson, “Multiplication noise of wide-bandwidth InP/InGaAsP/InGaAs avalanche photodiodes,” J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 473–478 (1989).
[Crossref]

Chen, J. X.

Y. G. Zhang, A. Z. Li, and J. X. Chen, “Improved performance of InAlAs-InGaAs-InP MSM photodetectors with graded superlattice structure grown by gas source MBE,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 830–832 (1996).
[Crossref]

Chen, X.

S. Xi, Y. Gu, Y. Zhang, X. Chen, Y. Ma, L. Zhou, B. Du, X. Shao, and J. Fang, “InGaAsP/InP photodetectors targeting on 1.06 μm wavelength detection,” Infrared Phys. Techn. 75, 65–69 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chen, X. Y.

Y. J. Ma, Y. G. Zhang, Y. Gu, X. Y. Chen, Y. H. Shi, W. Y. Ji, S. P. Xi, B. Du, H. J. Tang, Y. F. Li, and J. X. Fang, “Low operating voltage and small gain slope of InGaAs APDs with p-type multiplication layer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 29, 55–58 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. G. Zhang, L. Zhou, Y. Gu, Y. J. Ma, X. Y. Chen, X. M. Shao, H. M. Gong, and J. X. Fang, “Correction of response spectra of quantum type photodetectors measured by FTIR,” J. Infrared Millim. Waves 34, 737–743 (2015).

Y. J. Ma, Y. G. Zhang, Y. Gu, X. Y. Chen, S. P. Xi, B. Du, and H. Li, “Tailoring the performances of low operating voltage InAlAs/InGaAs avalanche photodetectors,” Opt. Express 23, 19278–19287 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Clifton, W. E.

W. E. Clifton, B. Steele, G. Nelson, A. Truscott, M. Itzler, and M. Entwistle, “Medium altitude airborne Geiger-mode mapping LIDAR system,” Proc. SPIE 9465, 946506 (2015).
[Crossref]

Cook, L. W.

L. W. Cook, M. Feng, M. M. Tashima, R. J. Blattner, and G. E. Stillman, “Interface grading in InGaAsP liquid phase epitaxial heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 37, 173 (1980).
[Crossref]

David, J. P. R.

J. P. R. David and C. H. Tan, “Material considerations for avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 14, 998–1009 (2008).
[Crossref]

Y. L. Goh, A. R. J. Marshall, D. J. Massey, J. S. Ng, C. H. Tan, M. Hopkinson, J. P. R. David, S. K. Jones, C. C. Button, and S. M. Pinches, “Excess avalanche noise in In0.52Al0.48As,” IEEE J. Quantum. Elect. 43, 503–507 (2007).
[Crossref]

C. N. Harrison, J. P. R. David, M. Hopkinson, and G. J. Rees, “Temperature dependence of avalanche multiplication in submicron Al0.6Ga0.4As diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 92, 7684–7686 (2002).
[Crossref]

Demiguel, S.

R. S. N. Li, X. W. Li, F. Ma, X. G. Zheng, S. L. Wang, G. Karve, S. Demiguel, J. Archie, L. Holmes, and J. C. Campbell, “InGaAs/InAlAs avalanche photodiode with undepleted absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2175–2177 (2003).
[Crossref]

Donnelly, J. P.

K. A. McIntosh, J. P. Donnelly, D. C. Oakley, A. Napoleone, S. D. Calawa, L. J. Mahoney, K. M. Molvar, E. K. Duerr, S. H. Groves, and D. C. Shaver, “InGaAsP/InP avalanche photodiodes for photon counting at 1.06 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2505–2507 (2002).
[Crossref]

Du, B.

Y. J. Ma, Y. G. Zhang, Y. Gu, X. Y. Chen, Y. H. Shi, W. Y. Ji, S. P. Xi, B. Du, H. J. Tang, Y. F. Li, and J. X. Fang, “Low operating voltage and small gain slope of InGaAs APDs with p-type multiplication layer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 29, 55–58 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Xi, Y. Gu, Y. Zhang, X. Chen, Y. Ma, L. Zhou, B. Du, X. Shao, and J. Fang, “InGaAsP/InP photodetectors targeting on 1.06 μm wavelength detection,” Infrared Phys. Techn. 75, 65–69 (2016).
[Crossref]

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K. A. McIntosh, J. P. Donnelly, D. C. Oakley, A. Napoleone, S. D. Calawa, L. J. Mahoney, K. M. Molvar, E. K. Duerr, S. H. Groves, and D. C. Shaver, “InGaAsP/InP avalanche photodiodes for photon counting at 1.06 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2505–2507 (2002).
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S. Xi, Y. Gu, Y. Zhang, X. Chen, Y. Ma, L. Zhou, B. Du, X. Shao, and J. Fang, “InGaAsP/InP photodetectors targeting on 1.06 μm wavelength detection,” Infrared Phys. Techn. 75, 65–69 (2016).
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Y. J. Ma, Y. G. Zhang, Y. Gu, X. Y. Chen, Y. H. Shi, W. Y. Ji, S. P. Xi, B. Du, H. J. Tang, Y. F. Li, and J. X. Fang, “Low operating voltage and small gain slope of InGaAs APDs with p-type multiplication layer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 29, 55–58 (2017).
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Y. G. Zhang, L. Zhou, Y. Gu, Y. J. Ma, X. Y. Chen, X. M. Shao, H. M. Gong, and J. X. Fang, “Correction of response spectra of quantum type photodetectors measured by FTIR,” J. Infrared Millim. Waves 34, 737–743 (2015).

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K. A. McIntosh, J. P. Donnelly, D. C. Oakley, A. Napoleone, S. D. Calawa, L. J. Mahoney, K. M. Molvar, E. K. Duerr, S. H. Groves, and D. C. Shaver, “InGaAsP/InP avalanche photodiodes for photon counting at 1.06 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2505–2507 (2002).
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Y. J. Ma, Y. G. Zhang, Y. Gu, X. Y. Chen, Y. H. Shi, W. Y. Ji, S. P. Xi, B. Du, H. J. Tang, Y. F. Li, and J. X. Fang, “Low operating voltage and small gain slope of InGaAs APDs with p-type multiplication layer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 29, 55–58 (2017).
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S. Xi, Y. Gu, Y. Zhang, X. Chen, Y. Ma, L. Zhou, B. Du, X. Shao, and J. Fang, “InGaAsP/InP photodetectors targeting on 1.06 μm wavelength detection,” Infrared Phys. Techn. 75, 65–69 (2016).
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Y. J. Ma, Y. G. Zhang, Y. Gu, X. Y. Chen, S. P. Xi, B. Du, and H. Li, “Tailoring the performances of low operating voltage InAlAs/InGaAs avalanche photodetectors,” Opt. Express 23, 19278–19287 (2015).
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P. Yuan, C. C. Hansing, K. A. Anselm, C. V. Lenox, H. Nie, J. A. L. Holmes, B. G. Streetman, and J. C. Campbell, “Impact ionization characteristics of III–V semiconductors for a wide range of multiplication region thicknesses,” IEEE J. Quantum Elect. 36, 198–204 (2000).
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C. Lenox, H. Nie, P. Yuan, G. Kinsey, A. L. Holmes, B. G. Streetman, and J. C. Campbell, “Resonant-cavity InGaAs-InAlAs avalanche photodiodes with gain-bandwidth product of 290 GHz,” IEEE Photonic. Tech. L. 11, 1162–1164 (1999).
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P. Yuan, C. C. Hansing, K. A. Anselm, C. V. Lenox, H. Nie, J. A. L. Holmes, B. G. Streetman, and J. C. Campbell, “Impact ionization characteristics of III–V semiconductors for a wide range of multiplication region thicknesses,” IEEE J. Quantum Elect. 36, 198–204 (2000).
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R. S. N. Li, X. W. Li, F. Ma, X. G. Zheng, S. L. Wang, G. Karve, S. Demiguel, J. Archie, L. Holmes, and J. C. Campbell, “InGaAs/InAlAs avalanche photodiode with undepleted absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2175–2177 (2003).
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P. Yuan, R. Sudharsanan, J. Boisvert, X. Bai, P. McDonald, T. Isshiki, W. Hong, M. Salisbury, C. Hu, M. Liu, and J. C. Campbell, “High performance InP Geiger-mode SWIR avalanche photodiodes,” Proc. of SPIE 7320, 73200P (2009).
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Y. L. Goh, A. R. J. Marshall, D. J. Massey, J. S. Ng, C. H. Tan, M. Hopkinson, J. P. R. David, S. K. Jones, C. C. Button, and S. M. Pinches, “Excess avalanche noise in In0.52Al0.48As,” IEEE J. Quantum. Elect. 43, 503–507 (2007).
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C. N. Harrison, J. P. R. David, M. Hopkinson, and G. J. Rees, “Temperature dependence of avalanche multiplication in submicron Al0.6Ga0.4As diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 92, 7684–7686 (2002).
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P. Yuan, R. Sudharsanan, J. Boisvert, X. Bai, P. McDonald, T. Isshiki, W. Hong, M. Salisbury, C. Hu, M. Liu, and J. C. Campbell, “High performance InP Geiger-mode SWIR avalanche photodiodes,” Proc. of SPIE 7320, 73200P (2009).
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Isshiki, T.

P. Yuan, R. Sudharsanan, J. Boisvert, X. Bai, P. McDonald, T. Isshiki, W. Hong, M. Salisbury, C. Hu, M. Liu, and J. C. Campbell, “High performance InP Geiger-mode SWIR avalanche photodiodes,” Proc. of SPIE 7320, 73200P (2009).
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W. E. Clifton, B. Steele, G. Nelson, A. Truscott, M. Itzler, and M. Entwistle, “Medium altitude airborne Geiger-mode mapping LIDAR system,” Proc. SPIE 9465, 946506 (2015).
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Itzler, M. A.

M. A. Itzler, X. Jiang, M. Entwistle, B. M. Onat, and K. Slomkowskik, “Single-photon detectors based on InP avalanche diodes: status and prospects,” Proc. of SPIE 7681, 76810V (2010).
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X. Jiang, M. A. Itzler, R. Ben-Michael, K. Slomkowski, M. A. Krainak, S. Wu, and X. Sun, “Afterpulsing effect in freerunning InGaAsP single-photon avalanche diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44, 3–11 (2008).
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X. Jiang, M. A. Itzler, R. Ben-Michael, and K. Slomkowski, “InGaAsP-InP avalanche photodiodes for single photon detection,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. Elect. 13, 895–905 (2007).
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Y. J. Ma, Y. G. Zhang, Y. Gu, X. Y. Chen, Y. H. Shi, W. Y. Ji, S. P. Xi, B. Du, H. J. Tang, Y. F. Li, and J. X. Fang, “Low operating voltage and small gain slope of InGaAs APDs with p-type multiplication layer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 29, 55–58 (2017).
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Jiang, X.

M. A. Itzler, X. Jiang, M. Entwistle, B. M. Onat, and K. Slomkowskik, “Single-photon detectors based on InP avalanche diodes: status and prospects,” Proc. of SPIE 7681, 76810V (2010).
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X. Jiang, M. A. Itzler, R. Ben-Michael, K. Slomkowski, M. A. Krainak, S. Wu, and X. Sun, “Afterpulsing effect in freerunning InGaAsP single-photon avalanche diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44, 3–11 (2008).
[Crossref]

X. Jiang, M. A. Itzler, R. Ben-Michael, and K. Slomkowski, “InGaAsP-InP avalanche photodiodes for single photon detection,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. Elect. 13, 895–905 (2007).
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Johnson, B. C.

J. C. Campbell, S. Chandrasekhar, W. T. Tsang, G. J. Qua, and B. C. Johnson, “Multiplication noise of wide-bandwidth InP/InGaAsP/InGaAs avalanche photodiodes,” J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 473–478 (1989).
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Jones, S. K.

Y. L. Goh, A. R. J. Marshall, D. J. Massey, J. S. Ng, C. H. Tan, M. Hopkinson, J. P. R. David, S. K. Jones, C. C. Button, and S. M. Pinches, “Excess avalanche noise in In0.52Al0.48As,” IEEE J. Quantum. Elect. 43, 503–507 (2007).
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Karve, G.

R. S. N. Li, X. W. Li, F. Ma, X. G. Zheng, S. L. Wang, G. Karve, S. Demiguel, J. Archie, L. Holmes, and J. C. Campbell, “InGaAs/InAlAs avalanche photodiode with undepleted absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2175–2177 (2003).
[Crossref]

Kinsey, G.

C. Lenox, H. Nie, P. Yuan, G. Kinsey, A. L. Holmes, B. G. Streetman, and J. C. Campbell, “Resonant-cavity InGaAs-InAlAs avalanche photodiodes with gain-bandwidth product of 290 GHz,” IEEE Photonic. Tech. L. 11, 1162–1164 (1999).
[Crossref]

Krainak, M. A.

X. Jiang, M. A. Itzler, R. Ben-Michael, K. Slomkowski, M. A. Krainak, S. Wu, and X. Sun, “Afterpulsing effect in freerunning InGaAsP single-photon avalanche diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44, 3–11 (2008).
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C. Lenox, H. Nie, P. Yuan, G. Kinsey, A. L. Holmes, B. G. Streetman, and J. C. Campbell, “Resonant-cavity InGaAs-InAlAs avalanche photodiodes with gain-bandwidth product of 290 GHz,” IEEE Photonic. Tech. L. 11, 1162–1164 (1999).
[Crossref]

Lenox, C. V.

P. Yuan, C. C. Hansing, K. A. Anselm, C. V. Lenox, H. Nie, J. A. L. Holmes, B. G. Streetman, and J. C. Campbell, “Impact ionization characteristics of III–V semiconductors for a wide range of multiplication region thicknesses,” IEEE J. Quantum Elect. 36, 198–204 (2000).
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Y. G. Zhang, A. Z. Li, and J. X. Chen, “Improved performance of InAlAs-InGaAs-InP MSM photodetectors with graded superlattice structure grown by gas source MBE,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 830–832 (1996).
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Li, R. S. N.

R. S. N. Li, X. W. Li, F. Ma, X. G. Zheng, S. L. Wang, G. Karve, S. Demiguel, J. Archie, L. Holmes, and J. C. Campbell, “InGaAs/InAlAs avalanche photodiode with undepleted absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2175–2177 (2003).
[Crossref]

Li, X. W.

R. S. N. Li, X. W. Li, F. Ma, X. G. Zheng, S. L. Wang, G. Karve, S. Demiguel, J. Archie, L. Holmes, and J. C. Campbell, “InGaAs/InAlAs avalanche photodiode with undepleted absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2175–2177 (2003).
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X. W. Li, X. G. Zheng, S. L. Wang, F. Ma, and J. C. Campbell, “Calculation of gain and noise with dead space for GaAs and AlxGa1−xAs avalanche photodiode,” IEEE T Electron. Dev. 49, 1112–1117 (2002).
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Li, Y. F.

Y. J. Ma, Y. G. Zhang, Y. Gu, X. Y. Chen, Y. H. Shi, W. Y. Ji, S. P. Xi, B. Du, H. J. Tang, Y. F. Li, and J. X. Fang, “Low operating voltage and small gain slope of InGaAs APDs with p-type multiplication layer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 29, 55–58 (2017).
[Crossref]

Liu, J.

Liu, M.

P. Yuan, R. Sudharsanan, J. Boisvert, X. Bai, P. McDonald, T. Isshiki, W. Hong, M. Salisbury, C. Hu, M. Liu, and J. C. Campbell, “High performance InP Geiger-mode SWIR avalanche photodiodes,” Proc. of SPIE 7320, 73200P (2009).
[Crossref]

Liu, W.

Ma, F.

R. S. N. Li, X. W. Li, F. Ma, X. G. Zheng, S. L. Wang, G. Karve, S. Demiguel, J. Archie, L. Holmes, and J. C. Campbell, “InGaAs/InAlAs avalanche photodiode with undepleted absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2175–2177 (2003).
[Crossref]

X. W. Li, X. G. Zheng, S. L. Wang, F. Ma, and J. C. Campbell, “Calculation of gain and noise with dead space for GaAs and AlxGa1−xAs avalanche photodiode,” IEEE T Electron. Dev. 49, 1112–1117 (2002).
[Crossref]

Ma, Y.

S. Xi, Y. Gu, Y. Zhang, X. Chen, Y. Ma, L. Zhou, B. Du, X. Shao, and J. Fang, “InGaAsP/InP photodetectors targeting on 1.06 μm wavelength detection,” Infrared Phys. Techn. 75, 65–69 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ma, Y. J.

Y. J. Ma, Y. G. Zhang, Y. Gu, X. Y. Chen, Y. H. Shi, W. Y. Ji, S. P. Xi, B. Du, H. J. Tang, Y. F. Li, and J. X. Fang, “Low operating voltage and small gain slope of InGaAs APDs with p-type multiplication layer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 29, 55–58 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. G. Zhang, L. Zhou, Y. Gu, Y. J. Ma, X. Y. Chen, X. M. Shao, H. M. Gong, and J. X. Fang, “Correction of response spectra of quantum type photodetectors measured by FTIR,” J. Infrared Millim. Waves 34, 737–743 (2015).

Y. J. Ma, Y. G. Zhang, Y. Gu, X. Y. Chen, S. P. Xi, B. Du, and H. Li, “Tailoring the performances of low operating voltage InAlAs/InGaAs avalanche photodetectors,” Opt. Express 23, 19278–19287 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mahoney, L. J.

K. A. McIntosh, J. P. Donnelly, D. C. Oakley, A. Napoleone, S. D. Calawa, L. J. Mahoney, K. M. Molvar, E. K. Duerr, S. H. Groves, and D. C. Shaver, “InGaAsP/InP avalanche photodiodes for photon counting at 1.06 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2505–2507 (2002).
[Crossref]

Marshall, A. R. J.

Y. L. Goh, A. R. J. Marshall, D. J. Massey, J. S. Ng, C. H. Tan, M. Hopkinson, J. P. R. David, S. K. Jones, C. C. Button, and S. M. Pinches, “Excess avalanche noise in In0.52Al0.48As,” IEEE J. Quantum. Elect. 43, 503–507 (2007).
[Crossref]

Massey, D. J.

Y. L. Goh, A. R. J. Marshall, D. J. Massey, J. S. Ng, C. H. Tan, M. Hopkinson, J. P. R. David, S. K. Jones, C. C. Button, and S. M. Pinches, “Excess avalanche noise in In0.52Al0.48As,” IEEE J. Quantum. Elect. 43, 503–507 (2007).
[Crossref]

Matsushima, Y.

S. Akiba, K. Sakai, Y. Matsushima, and T. Yamamoto, “Effects of double-cladding structure on LPE-grown InGaAsP/InP lasers in the 1.5 μm range,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 19, L79–L82 (1980).
[Crossref]

McDonald, P.

P. Yuan, R. Sudharsanan, J. Boisvert, X. Bai, P. McDonald, T. Isshiki, W. Hong, M. Salisbury, C. Hu, M. Liu, and J. C. Campbell, “High performance InP Geiger-mode SWIR avalanche photodiodes,” Proc. of SPIE 7320, 73200P (2009).
[Crossref]

McIntosh, K. A.

K. A. McIntosh, J. P. Donnelly, D. C. Oakley, A. Napoleone, S. D. Calawa, L. J. Mahoney, K. M. Molvar, E. K. Duerr, S. H. Groves, and D. C. Shaver, “InGaAsP/InP avalanche photodiodes for photon counting at 1.06 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2505–2507 (2002).
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R. J. McIntyre, “A new look at impact ionization-part I: a theory of gain, noise, breakdown probability, and frequency response,” IEEE T Electron. Dev. 46, 1623–1631 (1999).
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Molvar, K. M.

K. A. McIntosh, J. P. Donnelly, D. C. Oakley, A. Napoleone, S. D. Calawa, L. J. Mahoney, K. M. Molvar, E. K. Duerr, S. H. Groves, and D. C. Shaver, “InGaAsP/InP avalanche photodiodes for photon counting at 1.06 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2505–2507 (2002).
[Crossref]

Napoleone, A.

K. A. McIntosh, J. P. Donnelly, D. C. Oakley, A. Napoleone, S. D. Calawa, L. J. Mahoney, K. M. Molvar, E. K. Duerr, S. H. Groves, and D. C. Shaver, “InGaAsP/InP avalanche photodiodes for photon counting at 1.06 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2505–2507 (2002).
[Crossref]

Nelson, G.

W. E. Clifton, B. Steele, G. Nelson, A. Truscott, M. Itzler, and M. Entwistle, “Medium altitude airborne Geiger-mode mapping LIDAR system,” Proc. SPIE 9465, 946506 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ng, J. S.

Y. L. Goh, A. R. J. Marshall, D. J. Massey, J. S. Ng, C. H. Tan, M. Hopkinson, J. P. R. David, S. K. Jones, C. C. Button, and S. M. Pinches, “Excess avalanche noise in In0.52Al0.48As,” IEEE J. Quantum. Elect. 43, 503–507 (2007).
[Crossref]

Nie, H.

P. Yuan, C. C. Hansing, K. A. Anselm, C. V. Lenox, H. Nie, J. A. L. Holmes, B. G. Streetman, and J. C. Campbell, “Impact ionization characteristics of III–V semiconductors for a wide range of multiplication region thicknesses,” IEEE J. Quantum Elect. 36, 198–204 (2000).
[Crossref]

C. Lenox, H. Nie, P. Yuan, G. Kinsey, A. L. Holmes, B. G. Streetman, and J. C. Campbell, “Resonant-cavity InGaAs-InAlAs avalanche photodiodes with gain-bandwidth product of 290 GHz,” IEEE Photonic. Tech. L. 11, 1162–1164 (1999).
[Crossref]

Oakley, D. C.

K. A. McIntosh, J. P. Donnelly, D. C. Oakley, A. Napoleone, S. D. Calawa, L. J. Mahoney, K. M. Molvar, E. K. Duerr, S. H. Groves, and D. C. Shaver, “InGaAsP/InP avalanche photodiodes for photon counting at 1.06 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2505–2507 (2002).
[Crossref]

Onat, B. M.

M. A. Itzler, X. Jiang, M. Entwistle, B. M. Onat, and K. Slomkowskik, “Single-photon detectors based on InP avalanche diodes: status and prospects,” Proc. of SPIE 7681, 76810V (2010).
[Crossref]

Pinches, S. M.

Y. L. Goh, A. R. J. Marshall, D. J. Massey, J. S. Ng, C. H. Tan, M. Hopkinson, J. P. R. David, S. K. Jones, C. C. Button, and S. M. Pinches, “Excess avalanche noise in In0.52Al0.48As,” IEEE J. Quantum. Elect. 43, 503–507 (2007).
[Crossref]

Qin, L.

Qua, G. J.

J. C. Campbell, S. Chandrasekhar, W. T. Tsang, G. J. Qua, and B. C. Johnson, “Multiplication noise of wide-bandwidth InP/InGaAsP/InGaAs avalanche photodiodes,” J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 473–478 (1989).
[Crossref]

Rees, G. J.

C. N. Harrison, J. P. R. David, M. Hopkinson, and G. J. Rees, “Temperature dependence of avalanche multiplication in submicron Al0.6Ga0.4As diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 92, 7684–7686 (2002).
[Crossref]

Sakai, K.

S. Akiba, K. Sakai, Y. Matsushima, and T. Yamamoto, “Effects of double-cladding structure on LPE-grown InGaAsP/InP lasers in the 1.5 μm range,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 19, L79–L82 (1980).
[Crossref]

Salisbury, M.

P. Yuan, R. Sudharsanan, J. Boisvert, X. Bai, P. McDonald, T. Isshiki, W. Hong, M. Salisbury, C. Hu, M. Liu, and J. C. Campbell, “High performance InP Geiger-mode SWIR avalanche photodiodes,” Proc. of SPIE 7320, 73200P (2009).
[Crossref]

Shao, X.

S. Xi, Y. Gu, Y. Zhang, X. Chen, Y. Ma, L. Zhou, B. Du, X. Shao, and J. Fang, “InGaAsP/InP photodetectors targeting on 1.06 μm wavelength detection,” Infrared Phys. Techn. 75, 65–69 (2016).
[Crossref]

Shao, X. M.

Y. G. Zhang, L. Zhou, Y. Gu, Y. J. Ma, X. Y. Chen, X. M. Shao, H. M. Gong, and J. X. Fang, “Correction of response spectra of quantum type photodetectors measured by FTIR,” J. Infrared Millim. Waves 34, 737–743 (2015).

Shaver, D. C.

K. A. McIntosh, J. P. Donnelly, D. C. Oakley, A. Napoleone, S. D. Calawa, L. J. Mahoney, K. M. Molvar, E. K. Duerr, S. H. Groves, and D. C. Shaver, “InGaAsP/InP avalanche photodiodes for photon counting at 1.06 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2505–2507 (2002).
[Crossref]

Shi, Y. H.

Y. J. Ma, Y. G. Zhang, Y. Gu, X. Y. Chen, Y. H. Shi, W. Y. Ji, S. P. Xi, B. Du, H. J. Tang, Y. F. Li, and J. X. Fang, “Low operating voltage and small gain slope of InGaAs APDs with p-type multiplication layer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 29, 55–58 (2017).
[Crossref]

Slomkowski, K.

X. Jiang, M. A. Itzler, R. Ben-Michael, K. Slomkowski, M. A. Krainak, S. Wu, and X. Sun, “Afterpulsing effect in freerunning InGaAsP single-photon avalanche diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44, 3–11 (2008).
[Crossref]

X. Jiang, M. A. Itzler, R. Ben-Michael, and K. Slomkowski, “InGaAsP-InP avalanche photodiodes for single photon detection,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. Elect. 13, 895–905 (2007).
[Crossref]

Slomkowskik, K.

M. A. Itzler, X. Jiang, M. Entwistle, B. M. Onat, and K. Slomkowskik, “Single-photon detectors based on InP avalanche diodes: status and prospects,” Proc. of SPIE 7681, 76810V (2010).
[Crossref]

Steele, B.

W. E. Clifton, B. Steele, G. Nelson, A. Truscott, M. Itzler, and M. Entwistle, “Medium altitude airborne Geiger-mode mapping LIDAR system,” Proc. SPIE 9465, 946506 (2015).
[Crossref]

Stillman, G. E.

L. W. Cook, M. Feng, M. M. Tashima, R. J. Blattner, and G. E. Stillman, “Interface grading in InGaAsP liquid phase epitaxial heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 37, 173 (1980).
[Crossref]

Streetman, B. G.

P. Yuan, C. C. Hansing, K. A. Anselm, C. V. Lenox, H. Nie, J. A. L. Holmes, B. G. Streetman, and J. C. Campbell, “Impact ionization characteristics of III–V semiconductors for a wide range of multiplication region thicknesses,” IEEE J. Quantum Elect. 36, 198–204 (2000).
[Crossref]

C. Lenox, H. Nie, P. Yuan, G. Kinsey, A. L. Holmes, B. G. Streetman, and J. C. Campbell, “Resonant-cavity InGaAs-InAlAs avalanche photodiodes with gain-bandwidth product of 290 GHz,” IEEE Photonic. Tech. L. 11, 1162–1164 (1999).
[Crossref]

Sudharsanan, R.

P. Yuan, R. Sudharsanan, J. Boisvert, X. Bai, P. McDonald, T. Isshiki, W. Hong, M. Salisbury, C. Hu, M. Liu, and J. C. Campbell, “High performance InP Geiger-mode SWIR avalanche photodiodes,” Proc. of SPIE 7320, 73200P (2009).
[Crossref]

Sun, X.

X. Jiang, M. A. Itzler, R. Ben-Michael, K. Slomkowski, M. A. Krainak, S. Wu, and X. Sun, “Afterpulsing effect in freerunning InGaAsP single-photon avalanche diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44, 3–11 (2008).
[Crossref]

Tan, C. H.

S. Xie, S. Zhang, and C. H. Tan, “InGaAs/InAlAs avalanche photodiode with low dark current for high-speed operation,” IEEE Photon. Techno. L. 27, 1745–1748 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. P. R. David and C. H. Tan, “Material considerations for avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 14, 998–1009 (2008).
[Crossref]

Y. L. Goh, A. R. J. Marshall, D. J. Massey, J. S. Ng, C. H. Tan, M. Hopkinson, J. P. R. David, S. K. Jones, C. C. Button, and S. M. Pinches, “Excess avalanche noise in In0.52Al0.48As,” IEEE J. Quantum. Elect. 43, 503–507 (2007).
[Crossref]

Tang, H. J.

Y. J. Ma, Y. G. Zhang, Y. Gu, X. Y. Chen, Y. H. Shi, W. Y. Ji, S. P. Xi, B. Du, H. J. Tang, Y. F. Li, and J. X. Fang, “Low operating voltage and small gain slope of InGaAs APDs with p-type multiplication layer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 29, 55–58 (2017).
[Crossref]

Tang, Q.

Tashima, M. M.

L. W. Cook, M. Feng, M. M. Tashima, R. J. Blattner, and G. E. Stillman, “Interface grading in InGaAsP liquid phase epitaxial heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 37, 173 (1980).
[Crossref]

Truscott, A.

W. E. Clifton, B. Steele, G. Nelson, A. Truscott, M. Itzler, and M. Entwistle, “Medium altitude airborne Geiger-mode mapping LIDAR system,” Proc. SPIE 9465, 946506 (2015).
[Crossref]

Tsang, W. T.

J. C. Campbell, S. Chandrasekhar, W. T. Tsang, G. J. Qua, and B. C. Johnson, “Multiplication noise of wide-bandwidth InP/InGaAsP/InGaAs avalanche photodiodes,” J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 473–478 (1989).
[Crossref]

Wang, S. L.

R. S. N. Li, X. W. Li, F. Ma, X. G. Zheng, S. L. Wang, G. Karve, S. Demiguel, J. Archie, L. Holmes, and J. C. Campbell, “InGaAs/InAlAs avalanche photodiode with undepleted absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2175–2177 (2003).
[Crossref]

X. W. Li, X. G. Zheng, S. L. Wang, F. Ma, and J. C. Campbell, “Calculation of gain and noise with dead space for GaAs and AlxGa1−xAs avalanche photodiode,” IEEE T Electron. Dev. 49, 1112–1117 (2002).
[Crossref]

Wu, R. H.

Wu, S.

X. Jiang, M. A. Itzler, R. Ben-Michael, K. Slomkowski, M. A. Krainak, S. Wu, and X. Sun, “Afterpulsing effect in freerunning InGaAsP single-photon avalanche diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44, 3–11 (2008).
[Crossref]

Xi, S.

S. Xi, Y. Gu, Y. Zhang, X. Chen, Y. Ma, L. Zhou, B. Du, X. Shao, and J. Fang, “InGaAsP/InP photodetectors targeting on 1.06 μm wavelength detection,” Infrared Phys. Techn. 75, 65–69 (2016).
[Crossref]

Xi, S. P.

Y. J. Ma, Y. G. Zhang, Y. Gu, X. Y. Chen, Y. H. Shi, W. Y. Ji, S. P. Xi, B. Du, H. J. Tang, Y. F. Li, and J. X. Fang, “Low operating voltage and small gain slope of InGaAs APDs with p-type multiplication layer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 29, 55–58 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. J. Ma, Y. G. Zhang, Y. Gu, X. Y. Chen, S. P. Xi, B. Du, and H. Li, “Tailoring the performances of low operating voltage InAlAs/InGaAs avalanche photodetectors,” Opt. Express 23, 19278–19287 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xie, S.

S. Xie, S. Zhang, and C. H. Tan, “InGaAs/InAlAs avalanche photodiode with low dark current for high-speed operation,” IEEE Photon. Techno. L. 27, 1745–1748 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yamamoto, T.

S. Akiba, K. Sakai, Y. Matsushima, and T. Yamamoto, “Effects of double-cladding structure on LPE-grown InGaAsP/InP lasers in the 1.5 μm range,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 19, L79–L82 (1980).
[Crossref]

Yuan, P.

P. Yuan, R. Sudharsanan, J. Boisvert, X. Bai, P. McDonald, T. Isshiki, W. Hong, M. Salisbury, C. Hu, M. Liu, and J. C. Campbell, “High performance InP Geiger-mode SWIR avalanche photodiodes,” Proc. of SPIE 7320, 73200P (2009).
[Crossref]

P. Yuan, C. C. Hansing, K. A. Anselm, C. V. Lenox, H. Nie, J. A. L. Holmes, B. G. Streetman, and J. C. Campbell, “Impact ionization characteristics of III–V semiconductors for a wide range of multiplication region thicknesses,” IEEE J. Quantum Elect. 36, 198–204 (2000).
[Crossref]

C. Lenox, H. Nie, P. Yuan, G. Kinsey, A. L. Holmes, B. G. Streetman, and J. C. Campbell, “Resonant-cavity InGaAs-InAlAs avalanche photodiodes with gain-bandwidth product of 290 GHz,” IEEE Photonic. Tech. L. 11, 1162–1164 (1999).
[Crossref]

Yuan, X.

Zhang, D.

Zhang, H.

Zhang, S.

S. Xie, S. Zhang, and C. H. Tan, “InGaAs/InAlAs avalanche photodiode with low dark current for high-speed operation,” IEEE Photon. Techno. L. 27, 1745–1748 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Y.

S. Xi, Y. Gu, Y. Zhang, X. Chen, Y. Ma, L. Zhou, B. Du, X. Shao, and J. Fang, “InGaAsP/InP photodetectors targeting on 1.06 μm wavelength detection,” Infrared Phys. Techn. 75, 65–69 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhao, D. Zhang, L. Qin, Q. Tang, R. H. Wu, J. Liu, Y. Zhang, H. Zhang, X. Yuan, and W. Liu, “InGaAs-InP avalanche photodiodes with dark current limited by generation-recombination,” Opt. Express 19, 8546–8556 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, Y. G.

Y. J. Ma, Y. G. Zhang, Y. Gu, X. Y. Chen, Y. H. Shi, W. Y. Ji, S. P. Xi, B. Du, H. J. Tang, Y. F. Li, and J. X. Fang, “Low operating voltage and small gain slope of InGaAs APDs with p-type multiplication layer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 29, 55–58 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. G. Zhang, L. Zhou, Y. Gu, Y. J. Ma, X. Y. Chen, X. M. Shao, H. M. Gong, and J. X. Fang, “Correction of response spectra of quantum type photodetectors measured by FTIR,” J. Infrared Millim. Waves 34, 737–743 (2015).

Y. J. Ma, Y. G. Zhang, Y. Gu, X. Y. Chen, S. P. Xi, B. Du, and H. Li, “Tailoring the performances of low operating voltage InAlAs/InGaAs avalanche photodetectors,” Opt. Express 23, 19278–19287 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. G. Zhang, A. Z. Li, and J. X. Chen, “Improved performance of InAlAs-InGaAs-InP MSM photodetectors with graded superlattice structure grown by gas source MBE,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 830–832 (1996).
[Crossref]

Zhao, Y.

Zheng, X. G.

R. S. N. Li, X. W. Li, F. Ma, X. G. Zheng, S. L. Wang, G. Karve, S. Demiguel, J. Archie, L. Holmes, and J. C. Campbell, “InGaAs/InAlAs avalanche photodiode with undepleted absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2175–2177 (2003).
[Crossref]

X. W. Li, X. G. Zheng, S. L. Wang, F. Ma, and J. C. Campbell, “Calculation of gain and noise with dead space for GaAs and AlxGa1−xAs avalanche photodiode,” IEEE T Electron. Dev. 49, 1112–1117 (2002).
[Crossref]

Zhou, L.

S. Xi, Y. Gu, Y. Zhang, X. Chen, Y. Ma, L. Zhou, B. Du, X. Shao, and J. Fang, “InGaAsP/InP photodetectors targeting on 1.06 μm wavelength detection,” Infrared Phys. Techn. 75, 65–69 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. G. Zhang, L. Zhou, Y. Gu, Y. J. Ma, X. Y. Chen, X. M. Shao, H. M. Gong, and J. X. Fang, “Correction of response spectra of quantum type photodetectors measured by FTIR,” J. Infrared Millim. Waves 34, 737–743 (2015).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

K. A. McIntosh, J. P. Donnelly, D. C. Oakley, A. Napoleone, S. D. Calawa, L. J. Mahoney, K. M. Molvar, E. K. Duerr, S. H. Groves, and D. C. Shaver, “InGaAsP/InP avalanche photodiodes for photon counting at 1.06 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2505–2507 (2002).
[Crossref]

R. S. N. Li, X. W. Li, F. Ma, X. G. Zheng, S. L. Wang, G. Karve, S. Demiguel, J. Archie, L. Holmes, and J. C. Campbell, “InGaAs/InAlAs avalanche photodiode with undepleted absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2175–2177 (2003).
[Crossref]

L. W. Cook, M. Feng, M. M. Tashima, R. J. Blattner, and G. E. Stillman, “Interface grading in InGaAsP liquid phase epitaxial heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 37, 173 (1980).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Elect. (1)

P. Yuan, C. C. Hansing, K. A. Anselm, C. V. Lenox, H. Nie, J. A. L. Holmes, B. G. Streetman, and J. C. Campbell, “Impact ionization characteristics of III–V semiconductors for a wide range of multiplication region thicknesses,” IEEE J. Quantum Elect. 36, 198–204 (2000).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

X. Jiang, M. A. Itzler, R. Ben-Michael, K. Slomkowski, M. A. Krainak, S. Wu, and X. Sun, “Afterpulsing effect in freerunning InGaAsP single-photon avalanche diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44, 3–11 (2008).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum. Elect. (1)

Y. L. Goh, A. R. J. Marshall, D. J. Massey, J. S. Ng, C. H. Tan, M. Hopkinson, J. P. R. David, S. K. Jones, C. C. Button, and S. M. Pinches, “Excess avalanche noise in In0.52Al0.48As,” IEEE J. Quantum. Elect. 43, 503–507 (2007).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. (1)

J. P. R. David and C. H. Tan, “Material considerations for avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 14, 998–1009 (2008).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. Elect. (1)

X. Jiang, M. A. Itzler, R. Ben-Michael, and K. Slomkowski, “InGaAsP-InP avalanche photodiodes for single photon detection,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. Elect. 13, 895–905 (2007).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Techno. L. (1)

S. Xie, S. Zhang, and C. H. Tan, “InGaAs/InAlAs avalanche photodiode with low dark current for high-speed operation,” IEEE Photon. Techno. L. 27, 1745–1748 (2015).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

Y. G. Zhang, A. Z. Li, and J. X. Chen, “Improved performance of InAlAs-InGaAs-InP MSM photodetectors with graded superlattice structure grown by gas source MBE,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 830–832 (1996).
[Crossref]

Y. J. Ma, Y. G. Zhang, Y. Gu, X. Y. Chen, Y. H. Shi, W. Y. Ji, S. P. Xi, B. Du, H. J. Tang, Y. F. Li, and J. X. Fang, “Low operating voltage and small gain slope of InGaAs APDs with p-type multiplication layer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 29, 55–58 (2017).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonic. Tech. L. (1)

C. Lenox, H. Nie, P. Yuan, G. Kinsey, A. L. Holmes, B. G. Streetman, and J. C. Campbell, “Resonant-cavity InGaAs-InAlAs avalanche photodiodes with gain-bandwidth product of 290 GHz,” IEEE Photonic. Tech. L. 11, 1162–1164 (1999).
[Crossref]

IEEE T Electron. Dev. (2)

X. W. Li, X. G. Zheng, S. L. Wang, F. Ma, and J. C. Campbell, “Calculation of gain and noise with dead space for GaAs and AlxGa1−xAs avalanche photodiode,” IEEE T Electron. Dev. 49, 1112–1117 (2002).
[Crossref]

R. J. McIntyre, “A new look at impact ionization-part I: a theory of gain, noise, breakdown probability, and frequency response,” IEEE T Electron. Dev. 46, 1623–1631 (1999).
[Crossref]

IEEE T. Electron Dev. (1)

R. J. McIntyre, “Multiplication noise in uniform avalanche diodes,” IEEE T. Electron Dev. 13, 164–168 (1966).
[Crossref]

Infrared Phys. Techn. (1)

S. Xi, Y. Gu, Y. Zhang, X. Chen, Y. Ma, L. Zhou, B. Du, X. Shao, and J. Fang, “InGaAsP/InP photodetectors targeting on 1.06 μm wavelength detection,” Infrared Phys. Techn. 75, 65–69 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

C. N. Harrison, J. P. R. David, M. Hopkinson, and G. J. Rees, “Temperature dependence of avalanche multiplication in submicron Al0.6Ga0.4As diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 92, 7684–7686 (2002).
[Crossref]

J. Infrared Millim. Waves (1)

Y. G. Zhang, L. Zhou, Y. Gu, Y. J. Ma, X. Y. Chen, X. M. Shao, H. M. Gong, and J. X. Fang, “Correction of response spectra of quantum type photodetectors measured by FTIR,” J. Infrared Millim. Waves 34, 737–743 (2015).

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. C. Campbell, S. Chandrasekhar, W. T. Tsang, G. J. Qua, and B. C. Johnson, “Multiplication noise of wide-bandwidth InP/InGaAsP/InGaAs avalanche photodiodes,” J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 473–478 (1989).
[Crossref]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

S. Akiba, K. Sakai, Y. Matsushima, and T. Yamamoto, “Effects of double-cladding structure on LPE-grown InGaAsP/InP lasers in the 1.5 μm range,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 19, L79–L82 (1980).
[Crossref]

Opt. Eng. (1)

S. R. Bowman, “High-power diode-pumped solid-state lasers,” Opt. Eng. 52, 021012 (2012).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (2)

Proc. of SPIE (2)

M. A. Itzler, X. Jiang, M. Entwistle, B. M. Onat, and K. Slomkowskik, “Single-photon detectors based on InP avalanche diodes: status and prospects,” Proc. of SPIE 7681, 76810V (2010).
[Crossref]

P. Yuan, R. Sudharsanan, J. Boisvert, X. Bai, P. McDonald, T. Isshiki, W. Hong, M. Salisbury, C. Hu, M. Liu, and J. C. Campbell, “High performance InP Geiger-mode SWIR avalanche photodiodes,” Proc. of SPIE 7320, 73200P (2009).
[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (2)

W. E. Clifton, B. Steele, G. Nelson, A. Truscott, M. Itzler, and M. Entwistle, “Medium altitude airborne Geiger-mode mapping LIDAR system,” Proc. SPIE 9465, 946506 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Laforce, “Low noise optical receiver using Si APD,” Proc. SPIE 7212, 721210 (2009).
[Crossref]

Other (6)

Fujitsu Ltd., Tokyo, Japan, Lightwave Semiconductors Data Book (1992).

G. Gray, “High altitude LIDAR operations experiment (HALOE)-Part 1, system design and operation,” in “Proceedings of Military Sensing Symposium, Active Electro-Optic Systems,” (2011), p. AH03.

Silvaco Inc., Santa Clara, CA, ATLAS User’s Manual (2012). 1405–1409.

Excelitas Technologies Corp., Waltham, MA, US, Long Wavelength Enhanced Silicon Avalanche Photodiode (2016).

Hamamatsu Photonics K.K., Hamamatsu City, Japan, InGaAs Avalanche Photodiode (2009).

Spectrolab Inc., Sylmar, CA, US, 200 μm Low Capacitance InGaAs Avalanche Photodetector (APD) Die (2012).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Schematic device structure for the InGaAsP/InAlAs SAGCM APD. (b) The simulated 300 K EC and EV band edge line-up and the corresponding E-field profile along the device at −16.5 V. Upper panel: enlarged view of the smooth DGSL band grading.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) 300K PL spectra for the p+ InGaAs contact and the p InGaAsP absorber (after etching away the p+ InGaAs and InAlAs layers). (b) XRD (004) rocking curves for the APD wafer before and after etching, respectively.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 RT photo and dark reverse I–V curves and the corresponding gain factors for 20 μm diameter APDs with (w) and without (w/o) a grading layer.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Bias-dependent spectral responsivities at 300 K and (b) temperature-dependent spectral responsivities at −25 V for a 200 μm diameter APD. The spectrum for the PIN detector at zero bias is also shown as the unity gain reference.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Temperature-dependent reverse bias Id-V and the 77 K Ip-V curves for a 20 μm mesa. (b) Arrhenius plot of Id at a reverse bias of −20 V. The fitted Ea at T>200 K is indicated. (c) The V B as a function of temperature. The line is a linear fitting.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Measured F(M) versus M curves for this APD. F(M) of InGaAs/InP [28] and InGaAs/InAlAs [27] APDs with the same multiplier width of 500 nm are plotted for comparison. The lines are theoretical curves in local-field noise theory [29] with keff from 0 to 0.5.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 A comparison of the linear performance parameters between several mainstream commercial APDs that can be operated at 1064 nm and this work. M max -maximum M, JD-dark current density.

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