Abstract

Interferometric particle imaging (IPI) is a robust and popular technique for measuring particle size and velocity. A method based on a template matching algorithm and an auto-correlation method is proposed to simultaneously extract the location and the separation of doublet images of a particle from an IPI focused image. The position coordinate (x,y) of the particle can be determined with high accuracy, as evaluated by using a serial particle mask. Furthermore, the method can be employed to achieve sub-pixel spacing extraction when combined with Gaussian interpolation. The algorithm is tested using synthetic and experimental data. The results suggest that the method presented here is promising for its application to a high-density particle field, in accurately measuring both the particle size and its location.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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  3. S. Shen, M. Jia, T. Wang, Q. Lu, and K. Sun, “Measurement of the particles sizes of a flash boiling spray using an improved extended glare point velocimetry and sizing,” Exp. Fluids 57(4), 1–16 (2016).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. H. Shen, S. Coëtmellec, G. Gréhan, and M. Brunel, “Interferometric laser imaging for droplet sizing revisited: elaboration of transfer matrix models for the description of complete systems,” Appl. Opt. 51(22), 5357–5368 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  22. Q. Lu, T. Chen, T. Lu, X. Wang, and Y. Zhang, “Particle sizing by Interferometric particle imaging with two lights illumination,” Chin. J. Lasers 42(12), 1208006 (2015).
    [Crossref]

2017 (1)

Y. Wu, H. Li, M. Brunel, J. Chen, G. Gréhan, and L. Mädler, “Phase interferometric particle imaging for simultaneous measurements of evaporating micron-sized droplet and nanoscale size changes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(4), 1324–1347 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (4)

J. J. Kielar, P. Lemaitre, C. Gobin, Y. Wu, E. Porcheron, S. Coetmellec, G. Gréhan, and M. Brunel, “Simultaneous interferometric in-focus and out-of-focus imaging of ice crystals,” Opt. Commun. 372, 185–195 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Shen, M. Jia, T. Wang, Q. Lu, and K. Sun, “Measurement of the particles sizes of a flash boiling spray using an improved extended glare point velocimetry and sizing,” Exp. Fluids 57(4), 1–16 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Yang, T. Wang, M. Jia, S. Shen, and Z. Yao, “An experimental study on microscopic characteristics of flash boiling spray with extended glare point velocimetry and sizing,” At. Sprays 26(5), 463–482 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. Qieni, H. Kan, G. Baozhen, and W. Xiang, “High-accuracy simultaneous measurement of particle size and location using interferometric out-of-focus imaging,” Opt. Express 24(15), 16530–16543 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (3)

Q. Lu, T. Chen, T. Lu, X. Wang, and Y. Zhang, “Particle sizing by Interferometric particle imaging with two lights illumination,” Chin. J. Lasers 42(12), 1208006 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Bocanegra Evans, N. Dam, D. van der Voort, G. Bertens, and W. van de Water, “Measuring droplet size distributions from overlapping interferometric particle images,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 86(2), 023709 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Lemaitre, M. Brunel, A. Rondeau, E. Porcheron, and G. Gréhan, “Quasi real-time analysis of mixed-phase clouds using interferometric out-of-focus imaging: development of an algorithm to assess liquid and ice water content,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 26, 125403 (2015).

2014 (1)

S. Sahu, Y. Hardalupas, and A. M. K. P. Taylor, “Simultaneous droplet and vapour-phase measurements in an evaporative spray by combined ILIDS and PLIF techniques,” Exp. Fluids 55(2), 1673 (2014).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

2011 (4)

C. Lacour, D. Durox, S. Ducruix, and M. Massot, “Interaction of a polydisperse spray with vortices,” Exp. Fluids 51(2), 295–311 (2011).
[Crossref]

G. Lacagnina, S. Grizzi, M. Falchi, F. D. Felice, and G. P. Romano, “Simultaneous size and velocity measurements of cavitating microbubbles using interferometric laser imaging,” Exp. Fluids 50(4), 1153–1167 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. Tropea, “Optical particle characterization in flows,” Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. 43(1), 399–426 (2011).
[Crossref]

R. E. H. Miles, A. E. Carrithers, and J. P. Reid, “Novel optical techniques for measurements of light extinction, scattering and absorption by single aerosol particles,” Laser Photonics Rev. 5(4), 534–552 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

Y. Hardalupas, S. Sahu, A. M. K. P. Taylor, and K. Zarogoulidis, “Simultaneous planar measurement of droplet velocity and size with gas phase velocities in a spray by combined ILIDS and PIV Techniques,” Exp. Fluids 49(2), 417–434 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

C. F. Hess and D. L’ Esperance, “Droplet imaging velocimeter and sizer: a two-dimensional technique to measure droplet size,” Exp. Fluids 47(1), 171–182 (2009).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

Y. Zama, M. Kawahashi, and H. Hirahara, “Simultaneous measurement method of size and 3D velocity components of droplets in a spray field illuminated with a thin laser-light sheet,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 16(10), 1977–1986 (2005).
[Crossref]

S. Dehaeck, J. P. A. J. V. Beeck, and M. L. Riethmuller, “Extended glare point velocimetry and sizing for bubbly flows,” Exp. Fluids 39(2), 407–419 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

Y. Zama, M. Kawahashi, and H. Hirahara, “Simultaneous measurement of droplet size and three-components of velocity in spray,” Opt. Rev. 11(6), 358–364 (2004).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

1986 (1)

G. Konig, K. Anders, and A. Frohn, “A new light-scattering technique to measurement the diameter of periodically generated moving droplets,” J. Aerosol Sci. 17(2), 157–167 (1986).
[Crossref]

Anders, K.

G. Konig, K. Anders, and A. Frohn, “A new light-scattering technique to measurement the diameter of periodically generated moving droplets,” J. Aerosol Sci. 17(2), 157–167 (1986).
[Crossref]

Baozhen, G.

Beeck, J. P. A. J. V.

S. Dehaeck, J. P. A. J. V. Beeck, and M. L. Riethmuller, “Extended glare point velocimetry and sizing for bubbly flows,” Exp. Fluids 39(2), 407–419 (2005).
[Crossref]

Bertens, G.

H. Bocanegra Evans, N. Dam, D. van der Voort, G. Bertens, and W. van de Water, “Measuring droplet size distributions from overlapping interferometric particle images,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 86(2), 023709 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bocanegra Evans, H.

H. Bocanegra Evans, N. Dam, D. van der Voort, G. Bertens, and W. van de Water, “Measuring droplet size distributions from overlapping interferometric particle images,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 86(2), 023709 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brunel, M.

Y. Wu, H. Li, M. Brunel, J. Chen, G. Gréhan, and L. Mädler, “Phase interferometric particle imaging for simultaneous measurements of evaporating micron-sized droplet and nanoscale size changes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(4), 1324–1347 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. J. Kielar, P. Lemaitre, C. Gobin, Y. Wu, E. Porcheron, S. Coetmellec, G. Gréhan, and M. Brunel, “Simultaneous interferometric in-focus and out-of-focus imaging of ice crystals,” Opt. Commun. 372, 185–195 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. Lemaitre, M. Brunel, A. Rondeau, E. Porcheron, and G. Gréhan, “Quasi real-time analysis of mixed-phase clouds using interferometric out-of-focus imaging: development of an algorithm to assess liquid and ice water content,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 26, 125403 (2015).

H. Shen, S. Coëtmellec, G. Gréhan, and M. Brunel, “Interferometric laser imaging for droplet sizing revisited: elaboration of transfer matrix models for the description of complete systems,” Appl. Opt. 51(22), 5357–5368 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Carrithers, A. E.

R. E. H. Miles, A. E. Carrithers, and J. P. Reid, “Novel optical techniques for measurements of light extinction, scattering and absorption by single aerosol particles,” Laser Photonics Rev. 5(4), 534–552 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chen, J.

Y. Wu, H. Li, M. Brunel, J. Chen, G. Gréhan, and L. Mädler, “Phase interferometric particle imaging for simultaneous measurements of evaporating micron-sized droplet and nanoscale size changes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(4), 1324–1347 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chen, T.

Q. Lu, T. Chen, T. Lu, X. Wang, and Y. Zhang, “Particle sizing by Interferometric particle imaging with two lights illumination,” Chin. J. Lasers 42(12), 1208006 (2015).
[Crossref]

Coetmellec, S.

J. J. Kielar, P. Lemaitre, C. Gobin, Y. Wu, E. Porcheron, S. Coetmellec, G. Gréhan, and M. Brunel, “Simultaneous interferometric in-focus and out-of-focus imaging of ice crystals,” Opt. Commun. 372, 185–195 (2016).
[Crossref]

Coëtmellec, S.

Dam, N.

H. Bocanegra Evans, N. Dam, D. van der Voort, G. Bertens, and W. van de Water, “Measuring droplet size distributions from overlapping interferometric particle images,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 86(2), 023709 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dehaeck, S.

S. Dehaeck, J. P. A. J. V. Beeck, and M. L. Riethmuller, “Extended glare point velocimetry and sizing for bubbly flows,” Exp. Fluids 39(2), 407–419 (2005).
[Crossref]

Ducruix, S.

C. Lacour, D. Durox, S. Ducruix, and M. Massot, “Interaction of a polydisperse spray with vortices,” Exp. Fluids 51(2), 295–311 (2011).
[Crossref]

Durox, D.

C. Lacour, D. Durox, S. Ducruix, and M. Massot, “Interaction of a polydisperse spray with vortices,” Exp. Fluids 51(2), 295–311 (2011).
[Crossref]

Falchi, M.

G. Lacagnina, S. Grizzi, M. Falchi, F. D. Felice, and G. P. Romano, “Simultaneous size and velocity measurements of cavitating microbubbles using interferometric laser imaging,” Exp. Fluids 50(4), 1153–1167 (2011).
[Crossref]

Felice, F. D.

G. Lacagnina, S. Grizzi, M. Falchi, F. D. Felice, and G. P. Romano, “Simultaneous size and velocity measurements of cavitating microbubbles using interferometric laser imaging,” Exp. Fluids 50(4), 1153–1167 (2011).
[Crossref]

Frohn, A.

G. Konig, K. Anders, and A. Frohn, “A new light-scattering technique to measurement the diameter of periodically generated moving droplets,” J. Aerosol Sci. 17(2), 157–167 (1986).
[Crossref]

Gobin, C.

J. J. Kielar, P. Lemaitre, C. Gobin, Y. Wu, E. Porcheron, S. Coetmellec, G. Gréhan, and M. Brunel, “Simultaneous interferometric in-focus and out-of-focus imaging of ice crystals,” Opt. Commun. 372, 185–195 (2016).
[Crossref]

Gréhan, G.

Y. Wu, H. Li, M. Brunel, J. Chen, G. Gréhan, and L. Mädler, “Phase interferometric particle imaging for simultaneous measurements of evaporating micron-sized droplet and nanoscale size changes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(4), 1324–1347 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. J. Kielar, P. Lemaitre, C. Gobin, Y. Wu, E. Porcheron, S. Coetmellec, G. Gréhan, and M. Brunel, “Simultaneous interferometric in-focus and out-of-focus imaging of ice crystals,” Opt. Commun. 372, 185–195 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. Lemaitre, M. Brunel, A. Rondeau, E. Porcheron, and G. Gréhan, “Quasi real-time analysis of mixed-phase clouds using interferometric out-of-focus imaging: development of an algorithm to assess liquid and ice water content,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 26, 125403 (2015).

H. Shen, S. Coëtmellec, G. Gréhan, and M. Brunel, “Interferometric laser imaging for droplet sizing revisited: elaboration of transfer matrix models for the description of complete systems,” Appl. Opt. 51(22), 5357–5368 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grizzi, S.

G. Lacagnina, S. Grizzi, M. Falchi, F. D. Felice, and G. P. Romano, “Simultaneous size and velocity measurements of cavitating microbubbles using interferometric laser imaging,” Exp. Fluids 50(4), 1153–1167 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hardalupas, Y.

S. Sahu, Y. Hardalupas, and A. M. K. P. Taylor, “Simultaneous droplet and vapour-phase measurements in an evaporative spray by combined ILIDS and PLIF techniques,” Exp. Fluids 55(2), 1673 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Hardalupas, S. Sahu, A. M. K. P. Taylor, and K. Zarogoulidis, “Simultaneous planar measurement of droplet velocity and size with gas phase velocities in a spray by combined ILIDS and PIV Techniques,” Exp. Fluids 49(2), 417–434 (2010).
[Crossref]

Hess, C. F.

C. F. Hess and D. L’ Esperance, “Droplet imaging velocimeter and sizer: a two-dimensional technique to measure droplet size,” Exp. Fluids 47(1), 171–182 (2009).
[Crossref]

Hirahara, H.

Y. Zama, M. Kawahashi, and H. Hirahara, “Simultaneous measurement method of size and 3D velocity components of droplets in a spray field illuminated with a thin laser-light sheet,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 16(10), 1977–1986 (2005).
[Crossref]

Y. Zama, M. Kawahashi, and H. Hirahara, “Simultaneous measurement of droplet size and three-components of velocity in spray,” Opt. Rev. 11(6), 358–364 (2004).
[Crossref]

Jia, M.

S. Yang, T. Wang, M. Jia, S. Shen, and Z. Yao, “An experimental study on microscopic characteristics of flash boiling spray with extended glare point velocimetry and sizing,” At. Sprays 26(5), 463–482 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Shen, M. Jia, T. Wang, Q. Lu, and K. Sun, “Measurement of the particles sizes of a flash boiling spray using an improved extended glare point velocimetry and sizing,” Exp. Fluids 57(4), 1–16 (2016).
[Crossref]

Kan, H.

Kawahashi, M.

Y. Zama, M. Kawahashi, and H. Hirahara, “Simultaneous measurement method of size and 3D velocity components of droplets in a spray field illuminated with a thin laser-light sheet,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 16(10), 1977–1986 (2005).
[Crossref]

Y. Zama, M. Kawahashi, and H. Hirahara, “Simultaneous measurement of droplet size and three-components of velocity in spray,” Opt. Rev. 11(6), 358–364 (2004).
[Crossref]

Kielar, J. J.

J. J. Kielar, P. Lemaitre, C. Gobin, Y. Wu, E. Porcheron, S. Coetmellec, G. Gréhan, and M. Brunel, “Simultaneous interferometric in-focus and out-of-focus imaging of ice crystals,” Opt. Commun. 372, 185–195 (2016).
[Crossref]

Konig, G.

G. Konig, K. Anders, and A. Frohn, “A new light-scattering technique to measurement the diameter of periodically generated moving droplets,” J. Aerosol Sci. 17(2), 157–167 (1986).
[Crossref]

L’ Esperance, D.

C. F. Hess and D. L’ Esperance, “Droplet imaging velocimeter and sizer: a two-dimensional technique to measure droplet size,” Exp. Fluids 47(1), 171–182 (2009).
[Crossref]

Lacagnina, G.

G. Lacagnina, S. Grizzi, M. Falchi, F. D. Felice, and G. P. Romano, “Simultaneous size and velocity measurements of cavitating microbubbles using interferometric laser imaging,” Exp. Fluids 50(4), 1153–1167 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lacour, C.

C. Lacour, D. Durox, S. Ducruix, and M. Massot, “Interaction of a polydisperse spray with vortices,” Exp. Fluids 51(2), 295–311 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lemaitre, P.

J. J. Kielar, P. Lemaitre, C. Gobin, Y. Wu, E. Porcheron, S. Coetmellec, G. Gréhan, and M. Brunel, “Simultaneous interferometric in-focus and out-of-focus imaging of ice crystals,” Opt. Commun. 372, 185–195 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. Lemaitre, M. Brunel, A. Rondeau, E. Porcheron, and G. Gréhan, “Quasi real-time analysis of mixed-phase clouds using interferometric out-of-focus imaging: development of an algorithm to assess liquid and ice water content,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 26, 125403 (2015).

Li, H.

Y. Wu, H. Li, M. Brunel, J. Chen, G. Gréhan, and L. Mädler, “Phase interferometric particle imaging for simultaneous measurements of evaporating micron-sized droplet and nanoscale size changes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(4), 1324–1347 (2017).
[Crossref]

Lu, Q.

S. Shen, M. Jia, T. Wang, Q. Lu, and K. Sun, “Measurement of the particles sizes of a flash boiling spray using an improved extended glare point velocimetry and sizing,” Exp. Fluids 57(4), 1–16 (2016).
[Crossref]

Q. Lu, T. Chen, T. Lu, X. Wang, and Y. Zhang, “Particle sizing by Interferometric particle imaging with two lights illumination,” Chin. J. Lasers 42(12), 1208006 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lu, T.

Q. Lu, T. Chen, T. Lu, X. Wang, and Y. Zhang, “Particle sizing by Interferometric particle imaging with two lights illumination,” Chin. J. Lasers 42(12), 1208006 (2015).
[Crossref]

Mädler, L.

Y. Wu, H. Li, M. Brunel, J. Chen, G. Gréhan, and L. Mädler, “Phase interferometric particle imaging for simultaneous measurements of evaporating micron-sized droplet and nanoscale size changes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(4), 1324–1347 (2017).
[Crossref]

Massot, M.

C. Lacour, D. Durox, S. Ducruix, and M. Massot, “Interaction of a polydisperse spray with vortices,” Exp. Fluids 51(2), 295–311 (2011).
[Crossref]

Miles, R. E. H.

R. E. H. Miles, A. E. Carrithers, and J. P. Reid, “Novel optical techniques for measurements of light extinction, scattering and absorption by single aerosol particles,” Laser Photonics Rev. 5(4), 534–552 (2011).
[Crossref]

Porcheron, E.

J. J. Kielar, P. Lemaitre, C. Gobin, Y. Wu, E. Porcheron, S. Coetmellec, G. Gréhan, and M. Brunel, “Simultaneous interferometric in-focus and out-of-focus imaging of ice crystals,” Opt. Commun. 372, 185–195 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. Lemaitre, M. Brunel, A. Rondeau, E. Porcheron, and G. Gréhan, “Quasi real-time analysis of mixed-phase clouds using interferometric out-of-focus imaging: development of an algorithm to assess liquid and ice water content,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 26, 125403 (2015).

Qieni, L.

Reid, J. P.

R. E. H. Miles, A. E. Carrithers, and J. P. Reid, “Novel optical techniques for measurements of light extinction, scattering and absorption by single aerosol particles,” Laser Photonics Rev. 5(4), 534–552 (2011).
[Crossref]

Riethmuller, M. L.

S. Dehaeck, J. P. A. J. V. Beeck, and M. L. Riethmuller, “Extended glare point velocimetry and sizing for bubbly flows,” Exp. Fluids 39(2), 407–419 (2005).
[Crossref]

Romano, G. P.

G. Lacagnina, S. Grizzi, M. Falchi, F. D. Felice, and G. P. Romano, “Simultaneous size and velocity measurements of cavitating microbubbles using interferometric laser imaging,” Exp. Fluids 50(4), 1153–1167 (2011).
[Crossref]

Rondeau, A.

P. Lemaitre, M. Brunel, A. Rondeau, E. Porcheron, and G. Gréhan, “Quasi real-time analysis of mixed-phase clouds using interferometric out-of-focus imaging: development of an algorithm to assess liquid and ice water content,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 26, 125403 (2015).

Sahu, S.

S. Sahu, Y. Hardalupas, and A. M. K. P. Taylor, “Simultaneous droplet and vapour-phase measurements in an evaporative spray by combined ILIDS and PLIF techniques,” Exp. Fluids 55(2), 1673 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Hardalupas, S. Sahu, A. M. K. P. Taylor, and K. Zarogoulidis, “Simultaneous planar measurement of droplet velocity and size with gas phase velocities in a spray by combined ILIDS and PIV Techniques,” Exp. Fluids 49(2), 417–434 (2010).
[Crossref]

Shen, H.

Shen, S.

S. Yang, T. Wang, M. Jia, S. Shen, and Z. Yao, “An experimental study on microscopic characteristics of flash boiling spray with extended glare point velocimetry and sizing,” At. Sprays 26(5), 463–482 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Shen, M. Jia, T. Wang, Q. Lu, and K. Sun, “Measurement of the particles sizes of a flash boiling spray using an improved extended glare point velocimetry and sizing,” Exp. Fluids 57(4), 1–16 (2016).
[Crossref]

Sun, K.

S. Shen, M. Jia, T. Wang, Q. Lu, and K. Sun, “Measurement of the particles sizes of a flash boiling spray using an improved extended glare point velocimetry and sizing,” Exp. Fluids 57(4), 1–16 (2016).
[Crossref]

Taylor, A. M. K. P.

S. Sahu, Y. Hardalupas, and A. M. K. P. Taylor, “Simultaneous droplet and vapour-phase measurements in an evaporative spray by combined ILIDS and PLIF techniques,” Exp. Fluids 55(2), 1673 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Hardalupas, S. Sahu, A. M. K. P. Taylor, and K. Zarogoulidis, “Simultaneous planar measurement of droplet velocity and size with gas phase velocities in a spray by combined ILIDS and PIV Techniques,” Exp. Fluids 49(2), 417–434 (2010).
[Crossref]

Tropea, C.

C. Tropea, “Optical particle characterization in flows,” Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. 43(1), 399–426 (2011).
[Crossref]

van de Hulst, H. C.

van de Water, W.

H. Bocanegra Evans, N. Dam, D. van der Voort, G. Bertens, and W. van de Water, “Measuring droplet size distributions from overlapping interferometric particle images,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 86(2), 023709 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

van der Voort, D.

H. Bocanegra Evans, N. Dam, D. van der Voort, G. Bertens, and W. van de Water, “Measuring droplet size distributions from overlapping interferometric particle images,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 86(2), 023709 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, R. T.

Wang, T.

S. Yang, T. Wang, M. Jia, S. Shen, and Z. Yao, “An experimental study on microscopic characteristics of flash boiling spray with extended glare point velocimetry and sizing,” At. Sprays 26(5), 463–482 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Shen, M. Jia, T. Wang, Q. Lu, and K. Sun, “Measurement of the particles sizes of a flash boiling spray using an improved extended glare point velocimetry and sizing,” Exp. Fluids 57(4), 1–16 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wang, X.

Q. Lu, T. Chen, T. Lu, X. Wang, and Y. Zhang, “Particle sizing by Interferometric particle imaging with two lights illumination,” Chin. J. Lasers 42(12), 1208006 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wu, Y.

Y. Wu, H. Li, M. Brunel, J. Chen, G. Gréhan, and L. Mädler, “Phase interferometric particle imaging for simultaneous measurements of evaporating micron-sized droplet and nanoscale size changes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(4), 1324–1347 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. J. Kielar, P. Lemaitre, C. Gobin, Y. Wu, E. Porcheron, S. Coetmellec, G. Gréhan, and M. Brunel, “Simultaneous interferometric in-focus and out-of-focus imaging of ice crystals,” Opt. Commun. 372, 185–195 (2016).
[Crossref]

Xiang, W.

Yang, S.

S. Yang, T. Wang, M. Jia, S. Shen, and Z. Yao, “An experimental study on microscopic characteristics of flash boiling spray with extended glare point velocimetry and sizing,” At. Sprays 26(5), 463–482 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yao, Z.

S. Yang, T. Wang, M. Jia, S. Shen, and Z. Yao, “An experimental study on microscopic characteristics of flash boiling spray with extended glare point velocimetry and sizing,” At. Sprays 26(5), 463–482 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zama, Y.

Y. Zama, M. Kawahashi, and H. Hirahara, “Simultaneous measurement method of size and 3D velocity components of droplets in a spray field illuminated with a thin laser-light sheet,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 16(10), 1977–1986 (2005).
[Crossref]

Y. Zama, M. Kawahashi, and H. Hirahara, “Simultaneous measurement of droplet size and three-components of velocity in spray,” Opt. Rev. 11(6), 358–364 (2004).
[Crossref]

Zarogoulidis, K.

Y. Hardalupas, S. Sahu, A. M. K. P. Taylor, and K. Zarogoulidis, “Simultaneous planar measurement of droplet velocity and size with gas phase velocities in a spray by combined ILIDS and PIV Techniques,” Exp. Fluids 49(2), 417–434 (2010).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Y.

Q. Lu, T. Chen, T. Lu, X. Wang, and Y. Zhang, “Particle sizing by Interferometric particle imaging with two lights illumination,” Chin. J. Lasers 42(12), 1208006 (2015).
[Crossref]

Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. (1)

C. Tropea, “Optical particle characterization in flows,” Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. 43(1), 399–426 (2011).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

Y. Wu, H. Li, M. Brunel, J. Chen, G. Gréhan, and L. Mädler, “Phase interferometric particle imaging for simultaneous measurements of evaporating micron-sized droplet and nanoscale size changes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(4), 1324–1347 (2017).
[Crossref]

At. Sprays (1)

S. Yang, T. Wang, M. Jia, S. Shen, and Z. Yao, “An experimental study on microscopic characteristics of flash boiling spray with extended glare point velocimetry and sizing,” At. Sprays 26(5), 463–482 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chin. J. Lasers (1)

Q. Lu, T. Chen, T. Lu, X. Wang, and Y. Zhang, “Particle sizing by Interferometric particle imaging with two lights illumination,” Chin. J. Lasers 42(12), 1208006 (2015).
[Crossref]

Exp. Fluids (7)

G. Lacagnina, S. Grizzi, M. Falchi, F. D. Felice, and G. P. Romano, “Simultaneous size and velocity measurements of cavitating microbubbles using interferometric laser imaging,” Exp. Fluids 50(4), 1153–1167 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. Lacour, D. Durox, S. Ducruix, and M. Massot, “Interaction of a polydisperse spray with vortices,” Exp. Fluids 51(2), 295–311 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Shen, M. Jia, T. Wang, Q. Lu, and K. Sun, “Measurement of the particles sizes of a flash boiling spray using an improved extended glare point velocimetry and sizing,” Exp. Fluids 57(4), 1–16 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. F. Hess and D. L’ Esperance, “Droplet imaging velocimeter and sizer: a two-dimensional technique to measure droplet size,” Exp. Fluids 47(1), 171–182 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. Sahu, Y. Hardalupas, and A. M. K. P. Taylor, “Simultaneous droplet and vapour-phase measurements in an evaporative spray by combined ILIDS and PLIF techniques,” Exp. Fluids 55(2), 1673 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Hardalupas, S. Sahu, A. M. K. P. Taylor, and K. Zarogoulidis, “Simultaneous planar measurement of droplet velocity and size with gas phase velocities in a spray by combined ILIDS and PIV Techniques,” Exp. Fluids 49(2), 417–434 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. Dehaeck, J. P. A. J. V. Beeck, and M. L. Riethmuller, “Extended glare point velocimetry and sizing for bubbly flows,” Exp. Fluids 39(2), 407–419 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Aerosol Sci. (1)

G. Konig, K. Anders, and A. Frohn, “A new light-scattering technique to measurement the diameter of periodically generated moving droplets,” J. Aerosol Sci. 17(2), 157–167 (1986).
[Crossref]

Laser Photonics Rev. (1)

R. E. H. Miles, A. E. Carrithers, and J. P. Reid, “Novel optical techniques for measurements of light extinction, scattering and absorption by single aerosol particles,” Laser Photonics Rev. 5(4), 534–552 (2011).
[Crossref]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (2)

P. Lemaitre, M. Brunel, A. Rondeau, E. Porcheron, and G. Gréhan, “Quasi real-time analysis of mixed-phase clouds using interferometric out-of-focus imaging: development of an algorithm to assess liquid and ice water content,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 26, 125403 (2015).

Y. Zama, M. Kawahashi, and H. Hirahara, “Simultaneous measurement method of size and 3D velocity components of droplets in a spray field illuminated with a thin laser-light sheet,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 16(10), 1977–1986 (2005).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (1)

J. J. Kielar, P. Lemaitre, C. Gobin, Y. Wu, E. Porcheron, S. Coetmellec, G. Gréhan, and M. Brunel, “Simultaneous interferometric in-focus and out-of-focus imaging of ice crystals,” Opt. Commun. 372, 185–195 (2016).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Rev. (1)

Y. Zama, M. Kawahashi, and H. Hirahara, “Simultaneous measurement of droplet size and three-components of velocity in spray,” Opt. Rev. 11(6), 358–364 (2004).
[Crossref]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

H. Bocanegra Evans, N. Dam, D. van der Voort, G. Bertens, and W. van de Water, “Measuring droplet size distributions from overlapping interferometric particle images,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 86(2), 023709 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (1)

H. C. V. D. Hulst and V. Twersky, Light scattering by small particles (Dover Publications, 1981).

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic of IPI of (a) typical and (b) extended set-ups.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Flowchart of IPI focused image processing.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Simulation results of a glare-point image locating: (a) a glare-point image with the separation of 8 pixels; (b) a series of mask template with the separation of 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 11 and 12 pixels from top to bottom, respectively; (c)1D distribution of correlation value; and (d) the results of the center detection.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Simulation results of glare-point images center detecting: (a) glare-point images; (b) the results of the center detection.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Simulation results of the glare point separation estimation: (a) glare point image; (b) auto-correlation value of (a); (c)first-order auto-correlation value and Gaussian interpolation.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Error curve: (a) RMSE and (b) MAE.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Experimental setup for particle locating.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 (a) A simulated glare-point images; (b) the image of (a); (c) the result of the center location for different particle counts.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Results of center location of standard particles: the images record (top row) and the corresponding positioning results (bottom row), the diameter of (a), (d) 14.9 μm; (b), (e) 25.0 μm, and (c), (f) 51.0 μm.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 The locating results of standard particles: (a) a synthesized image; (b) the result of the center detection of (a); and (c) the extracted center coordinates (x, y) of Fig. 8(d), 8(e), 8(f) and 9(b).
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 Results of particle size measurement of 25.0 μm: (a) distribution of auto-correlation intensity; (b) fine peak detection and spacing estimation; (c) particle size distribution and peak particle diameter.
Fig. 12
Fig. 12 Measured versus the nominal values of peak particle diameter.

Equations (5)

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d= 2Δl M [ cos θ 2 +sin{ tan 1 ( sin θ 2 cos θ 2 1 m ) } ] 1 ,
d= 2Δl M ( cos θ 2 + msin (θ/ 2) m 2 2mcos (θ/ 2) +1 ) 1 ,
Δl=Mdsin( θ 2 ),
d= 2 Δl M ,
I(x,y)P(x,y)= I * (u,v)P(u+x,v+y) dudv,

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