Abstract

An Er-doped mode-locked fiber laser with a saturable absorber based on single mode - graded index multimode - single mode fiber (SMF-GIMF-SMF) with inner micro-cavity is demonstrated. The modulation depth of the saturable absorber was measured to be 1.9% when the SMF-GIMF-SMF structure is bent to a certain state. Such a simple saturable absorber enables the mode-locking operation in a ring Er-doped fiber laser and ultrafast pulses with pulse energy of 0.026 nJ and pulse width of 528 fs at the fundamental repetition rate of 14.34 MHz can be generated. In addition, the harmonic mode-locking operation can also be achieved.

© 2018 Optical Society of America

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References

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2017 (1)

2016 (3)

2015 (4)

2014 (5)

2013 (3)

2012 (3)

2011 (1)

P. Aschieri, J. Garnier, C. Michel, V. Doya, and A. Picozzi, “Condensation and thermalization of classsical optical waves in a waveguide,” Phys. Rev. A 83(3), 033838 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

K. F. Mak, C. Lee, J. Hone, J. Shan, and T. F. Heinz, “Atomically thin MoS2: a new direct-gap semiconductor,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(13), 136805 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (6)

1997 (1)

L. Nelson, D. Jones, K. Tamura, H. Haus, and E. Ippen, “Ultrashort-pulse fiber ring lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 65(2), 277–294 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

U. Keller, K. Weingarten, F. Kartner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Honninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (sesam’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

1973 (1)

B. K. Garside and T. K. Lim, “Laser mode locking using saturable absorbers,” J. Appl. Phys. 44(5), 2335–2342 (1973).
[Crossref]

Abramski, K. M.

Amezcua-Correa, R.

Ancona, A.

Aschieri, P.

P. Aschieri, J. Garnier, C. Michel, V. Doya, and A. Picozzi, “Condensation and thermalization of classsical optical waves in a waveguide,” Phys. Rev. A 83(3), 033838 (2011).
[Crossref]

Aus der Au, J.

U. Keller, K. Weingarten, F. Kartner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Honninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (sesam’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[Crossref]

Bao, Q. L.

Barthélémy, A.

K. Krupa, A. Tonello, A. Barthélémy, V. Couderc, B. M. Shalaby, A. Bendahmane, G. Millot, and S. Wabnitz, “Observation of geometric parametric instability induced by the periodic spatial self-imaging of multimode waves,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116(18), 183901 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bedoya, A. C.

Benabid, F.

Bendahmane, A.

K. Krupa, A. Tonello, A. Barthélémy, V. Couderc, B. M. Shalaby, A. Bendahmane, G. Millot, and S. Wabnitz, “Observation of geometric parametric instability induced by the periodic spatial self-imaging of multimode waves,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116(18), 183901 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Braun, B.

U. Keller, K. Weingarten, F. Kartner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Honninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (sesam’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[Crossref]

Büttner, T. F. S.

Cao, S.

Chai, Y.

Chang, C. S.

Chang, C. Y.

Chen, H. R.

Chen, T.

Chow, K. K.

Christodoulides, D. N.

Corwin, K. L.

Couderc, V.

K. Krupa, A. Tonello, A. Barthélémy, V. Couderc, B. M. Shalaby, A. Bendahmane, G. Millot, and S. Wabnitz, “Observation of geometric parametric instability induced by the periodic spatial self-imaging of multimode waves,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116(18), 183901 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Couny, F.

Doran, N. J.

Döring, S.

Dou, Z.

Doya, V.

P. Aschieri, J. Garnier, C. Michel, V. Doya, and A. Picozzi, “Condensation and thermalization of classsical optical waves in a waveguide,” Phys. Rev. A 83(3), 033838 (2011).
[Crossref]

Du, J.

Eggleton, B. J.

Fang, Q.

Fang, X.

Fang, Z.

Fermann, M. E.

M. E. Fermann and I. Hartl, “Ultrafast fiber laser technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(1), 191–206 (2009).
[Crossref]

Fluck, R.

U. Keller, K. Weingarten, F. Kartner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Honninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (sesam’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[Crossref]

Fu, S.

Garnier, J.

P. Aschieri, J. Garnier, C. Michel, V. Doya, and A. Picozzi, “Condensation and thermalization of classsical optical waves in a waveguide,” Phys. Rev. A 83(3), 033838 (2011).
[Crossref]

Garside, B. K.

B. K. Garside and T. K. Lim, “Laser mode locking using saturable absorbers,” J. Appl. Phys. 44(5), 2335–2342 (1973).
[Crossref]

Gong, Y.

Grodecki, K.

Hartl, I.

M. E. Fermann and I. Hartl, “Ultrafast fiber laser technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(1), 191–206 (2009).
[Crossref]

Haus, H.

L. Nelson, D. Jones, K. Tamura, H. Haus, and E. Ippen, “Ultrashort-pulse fiber ring lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 65(2), 277–294 (1997).
[Crossref]

Heinz, T. F.

K. F. Mak, C. Lee, J. Hone, J. Shan, and T. F. Heinz, “Atomically thin MoS2: a new direct-gap semiconductor,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(13), 136805 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hirooka, T.

Hone, J.

K. F. Mak, C. Lee, J. Hone, J. Shan, and T. F. Heinz, “Atomically thin MoS2: a new direct-gap semiconductor,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(13), 136805 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Honninger, C.

U. Keller, K. Weingarten, F. Kartner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Honninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (sesam’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[Crossref]

Hsieh, W. F.

Hudson, D. D.

Ippen, E.

L. Nelson, D. Jones, K. Tamura, H. Haus, and E. Ippen, “Ultrashort-pulse fiber ring lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 65(2), 277–294 (1997).
[Crossref]

Jankiewicz, Z.

Jauregui, C.

Jeon, J. W.

Jin, S.

Jones, D.

L. Nelson, D. Jones, K. Tamura, H. Haus, and E. Ippen, “Ultrashort-pulse fiber ring lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 65(2), 277–294 (1997).
[Crossref]

Jung, I.

U. Keller, K. Weingarten, F. Kartner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Honninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (sesam’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[Crossref]

Kartner, F.

U. Keller, K. Weingarten, F. Kartner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Honninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (sesam’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[Crossref]

Keller, U.

U. Keller, K. Weingarten, F. Kartner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Honninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (sesam’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[Crossref]

Knabe, K.

Knight, J. C.

Kopf, D.

U. Keller, K. Weingarten, F. Kartner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Honninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (sesam’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[Crossref]

Krupa, K.

K. Krupa, A. Tonello, A. Barthélémy, V. Couderc, B. M. Shalaby, A. Bendahmane, G. Millot, and S. Wabnitz, “Observation of geometric parametric instability induced by the periodic spatial self-imaging of multimode waves,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116(18), 183901 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, C.

K. F. Mak, C. Lee, J. Hone, J. Shan, and T. F. Heinz, “Atomically thin MoS2: a new direct-gap semiconductor,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(13), 136805 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, J. H.

Lee, J. S.

Li, L.

Liao, C.

Light, P. S.

Lim, J.

Lim, T. K.

B. K. Garside and T. K. Lim, “Laser mode locking using saturable absorbers,” J. Appl. Phys. 44(5), 2335–2342 (1973).
[Crossref]

Limpert, J.

Lin, C.

Lin, K. H.

Lin, X.

Liu, H.

Liu, J.

Liu, M.

Liu, Z.

Loh, K. P.

Long, H.

Lu, S. B.

Luo, A. P.

Luo, Z. C.

Mafi, A.

Mägi, E. C.

Mak, K. F.

K. F. Mak, C. Lee, J. Hone, J. Shan, and T. F. Heinz, “Atomically thin MoS2: a new direct-gap semiconductor,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(13), 136805 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Matuschek, N.

U. Keller, K. Weingarten, F. Kartner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Honninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (sesam’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[Crossref]

Michel, C.

P. Aschieri, J. Garnier, C. Michel, V. Doya, and A. Picozzi, “Condensation and thermalization of classsical optical waves in a waveguide,” Phys. Rev. A 83(3), 033838 (2011).
[Crossref]

Millot, G.

K. Krupa, A. Tonello, A. Barthélémy, V. Couderc, B. M. Shalaby, A. Bendahmane, G. Millot, and S. Wabnitz, “Observation of geometric parametric instability induced by the periodic spatial self-imaging of multimode waves,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116(18), 183901 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nakazawa, M.

Nazemosadat, E.

Neely, W.

Nelson, L.

L. Nelson, D. Jones, K. Tamura, H. Haus, and E. Ippen, “Ultrashort-pulse fiber ring lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 65(2), 277–294 (1997).
[Crossref]

Nicholson, J. W.

Nolte, S.

Norwood, R. A.

Paletko, P.

Pasternak, I.

Peyghambarian, N.

Picozzi, A.

P. Aschieri, J. Garnier, C. Michel, V. Doya, and A. Picozzi, “Condensation and thermalization of classsical optical waves in a waveguide,” Phys. Rev. A 83(3), 033838 (2011).
[Crossref]

Renninger, W. H.

W. H. Renninger and F. W. Wise, “Optical solitons in graded-index multimode fibres,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1719 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Röser, F.

Shalaby, B. M.

K. Krupa, A. Tonello, A. Barthélémy, V. Couderc, B. M. Shalaby, A. Bendahmane, G. Millot, and S. Wabnitz, “Observation of geometric parametric instability induced by the periodic spatial self-imaging of multimode waves,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116(18), 183901 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shan, J.

K. F. Mak, C. Lee, J. Hone, J. Shan, and T. F. Heinz, “Atomically thin MoS2: a new direct-gap semiconductor,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(13), 136805 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sheng, Q.

Shi, G.

Shi, W.

Shum, P. P.

Smith, N. J.

Sobon, G.

Song, Y.

Sotor, J.

Strupinski, W.

Tamura, K.

L. Nelson, D. Jones, K. Tamura, H. Haus, and E. Ippen, “Ultrashort-pulse fiber ring lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 65(2), 277–294 (1997).
[Crossref]

Tang, C. Y.

Tang, D. Y.

Tang, M.

Tang, R.

Tao, L.

Taunay, T.

Tian, J.

Tian, X.

Tillman, K. A.

Tokuhira, K.

Tonello, A.

K. Krupa, A. Tonello, A. Barthélémy, V. Couderc, B. M. Shalaby, A. Bendahmane, G. Millot, and S. Wabnitz, “Observation of geometric parametric instability induced by the periodic spatial self-imaging of multimode waves,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116(18), 183901 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tsai, C. Y.

Tsang, Y. H.

Tünnermann, A.

Wabnitz, S.

K. Krupa, A. Tonello, A. Barthélémy, V. Couderc, B. M. Shalaby, A. Bendahmane, G. Millot, and S. Wabnitz, “Observation of geometric parametric instability induced by the periodic spatial self-imaging of multimode waves,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116(18), 183901 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, D. N.

Wang, F. Z.

Wang, Y.

Wang, Z.

Washburn, B. R.

Weingarten, K.

U. Keller, K. Weingarten, F. Kartner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Honninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (sesam’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[Crossref]

Wen, S. C.

Wise, F. W.

Wright, L. G.

Xu, B.

Xu, W. C.

Yamashita, S.

Yang, F.

Yao, J.

Yoshida, M.

Yu, Z.

Zeng, L. H.

Zhang, H.

Zhang, L.

Zhang, T.

Zhao, C.

Zhao, C. J.

Zhao, L. M.

Zheng, J.

Zhu, X.

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

L. Nelson, D. Jones, K. Tamura, H. Haus, and E. Ippen, “Ultrashort-pulse fiber ring lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 65(2), 277–294 (1997).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (2)

U. Keller, K. Weingarten, F. Kartner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Honninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (sesam’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[Crossref]

M. E. Fermann and I. Hartl, “Ultrafast fiber laser technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(1), 191–206 (2009).
[Crossref]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) and (b) Schmatic diagram of the device fabrication; (c) The microscope images of device sample; (d) The schematic diagram of SMF-GIMF-SMF structure.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a), (b), (c) and (d) Measured transmission curves with different bending degrees of SA; (e) Measured transmission cure, spectrum and corresponding fitting curve.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Experimental setup of fiber laser. LD: laser diode; WDM: wavelength division multiplexer; EDF: Er-doped fiber; PI-ISO: polarization-independent isolator; PC: polarization controller; SA: saturable absorber; OC: optical coupler.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Mode-locking pulse measurements: (a) Laser spectrum. (b) Autocorrelation trace of output pulses. (c) Oscilloscope trace and (d) RF spectrum measure around the fundamental repetition rate of 14.34 MHz. Inset: RF spectrum over a frequency range of 0-300 kHz.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) The output power of the fiber laser versus pump power. (b) Typical pulse train of the HML.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Long term stability test results over 10 hours period.

Equations (2)

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T( I )=1α×exp( I I sat ) α ns
N= γ*P*τ 2 | β 2 | =1.06

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