Abstract

The authors present an experimental investigation of radio frequency modulation on pulsed terahertz quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) emitting around 4.3 THz. The QCL chip used in this work is based on a resonant phonon design which is able to generate a 1.2 W peak power at 10 K from a 400-µm-wide and 4-mm-long laser with a single plasmon waveguide. To enhance the radio frequency modulation efficiency and significantly broaden the terahertz spectra, the QCLs are also processed into a double-metal waveguide geometry with a Silicon lens out-coupler to improve the far-field beam quality. The measured beam patterns of the double-metal QCL show a record low divergence of 2.6° in vertical direction and 2.4° in horizontal direction. Finally we perform the inter-mode beat note and terahertz spectra measurements for both single plasmon and double-metal QCLs working in pulsed mode. Since the double-metal waveguide is more suitable for microwave signal transmission, the radio frequency modulation shows stronger effects on the spectral broadening for the double-metal QCL. Although we are not able to achieve comb operation in this work for the pulsed lasers due to the large phase noise, the homogeneous spectral broadening resulted from the radio frequency modulation can be potentially used for spectroscopic applications.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2017 (1)

W. J. Wan, H. Li, T. Zhou, and J. C. Cao, “Homogeneous spectral spanning of terahertz semiconductor lasers with radio frequency modulation,” Sci. Rep. 7, 44109 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (7)

2015 (5)

2014 (1)

G. Villares, A. Hugi, S. Blaser, and J. Faist, “Dual-comb spectroscopy based on quantum-cascade-laser frequency combs,” Nat. Commun. 5, 5192 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (1)

G. Y. Xu, R. Colombelli, S. P. Khanna, A. Belarouci, X. Letartre, L. H. Li, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Efficient power extraction in surface-emitting semiconductor lasers using graded photonic heterostructures,” Nat. Commun. 3, 952 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

H. Li, Simeon Katz, Gerhard Boehm, and Markus-Christian Amann, “Broad gain bandwidth injectorless quantum-cascade lasers with a step well design,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(13), 131113 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (3)

Y. Yao, X. J. Wang, J. Y. Fan, and C. F. Gmachl, “High performance “continuum-to-continuum” quantum cascade lasers with a broad gain bandwidth of over 400 cm−1,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(8), 081115 (2010).
[Crossref]

P. Gellie, S. Barbieri, J. F. Lampin, P. Filloux, C. Manquest, C. Sirtori, I. Sagnes, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, H. Beere, and D. Ritchie, “Injection-locking of terahertz quantum cascade lasers up to 35GHz using RF amplitude modulation,” Opt. Express 18(20), 20799 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Maineult, L. Ding, P. Gellie, P. Filloux, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, T. Akalin, J. F. Lampin, I. Sagnes, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Microwave modulation of terahertz quantum cascade lasers: a transmission-line approach,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(2), 021108 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

M. I. Amanti, M. Fischer, G. Scalari, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Low-divergence single-mode terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Nat. Photonics 3(10), 586 (2009).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

S. Barbieri, W. Maineult, S. S. Dhillon, C. Sirtori, J. Alton, N. Breuil, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “13 GHz direct modulation of terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(14), 143510 (2007).
[Crossref]

A. W. M. Lee, Q. Qin, S. Kumar, B. S. Williams, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “High-power and high-temperature THz quantum-cascade lasers based on lens-coupled metal-metal waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 32(19), 2840 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “High-power terahertz quantum-cascade lasers,” Electron. Lett. 42(2), 89 (2006).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417(6885), 156 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

M. Teshima, K. Sato, and M. Koga, “Experimental investigation of injection locking of fundamental and subharmonic frequency-modulated active mode-locked laser diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34(9), 1588 (1998).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum Cascade Laser,” Science 264(5158), 553 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Abdelsalam, D. G.

Y. D. Hsieh, S. Nakamura, D. G. Abdelsalam, T. Minamikawa, Y. Mizutani, H. Yamamoto, T. Iwata, F. Hindle, and T. Yasui, “Dynamic terahertz spectroscopy of gas molecules mixed with unwanted aerosol under atmospheric pressure using fibre-based asynchronous-optical-sampling terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Sci. Rep. 6, 28114 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Akalin, T.

W. Maineult, L. Ding, P. Gellie, P. Filloux, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, T. Akalin, J. F. Lampin, I. Sagnes, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Microwave modulation of terahertz quantum cascade lasers: a transmission-line approach,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(2), 021108 (2010).
[Crossref]

Alton, J.

S. Barbieri, W. Maineult, S. S. Dhillon, C. Sirtori, J. Alton, N. Breuil, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “13 GHz direct modulation of terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(14), 143510 (2007).
[Crossref]

Amann, Markus-Christian

H. Li, Simeon Katz, Gerhard Boehm, and Markus-Christian Amann, “Broad gain bandwidth injectorless quantum-cascade lasers with a step well design,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(13), 131113 (2011).
[Crossref]

Amanti, M. I.

M. I. Amanti, M. Fischer, G. Scalari, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Low-divergence single-mode terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Nat. Photonics 3(10), 586 (2009).
[Crossref]

Apfel, M.

Barbieri, S.

H. Li, P. Laffaille, D. Gacemi, M. Apfel, C. Sirtori, J. Leonardon, G. Santarelli, M. Rösch, G. Scalari, M. Beck, J. Faist, W. Hänsel, R. Holzwarth, and S. Barbieri, “Dynamics of ultra-broadband terahertz quantum cascade lasers for comb operation,” Opt. Express 23(26), 33270 (2015).
[Crossref]

W. Maineult, L. Ding, P. Gellie, P. Filloux, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, T. Akalin, J. F. Lampin, I. Sagnes, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Microwave modulation of terahertz quantum cascade lasers: a transmission-line approach,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(2), 021108 (2010).
[Crossref]

P. Gellie, S. Barbieri, J. F. Lampin, P. Filloux, C. Manquest, C. Sirtori, I. Sagnes, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, H. Beere, and D. Ritchie, “Injection-locking of terahertz quantum cascade lasers up to 35GHz using RF amplitude modulation,” Opt. Express 18(20), 20799 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Barbieri, W. Maineult, S. S. Dhillon, C. Sirtori, J. Alton, N. Breuil, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “13 GHz direct modulation of terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(14), 143510 (2007).
[Crossref]

Beck, M.

B. Hinkov, A. Hugi, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Rf-modulation of mid-infrared distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Express 24(4), 3294 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Li, P. Laffaille, D. Gacemi, M. Apfel, C. Sirtori, J. Leonardon, G. Santarelli, M. Rösch, G. Scalari, M. Beck, J. Faist, W. Hänsel, R. Holzwarth, and S. Barbieri, “Dynamics of ultra-broadband terahertz quantum cascade lasers for comb operation,” Opt. Express 23(26), 33270 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Rösch, G. Scalari, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Octave-spanning semiconductor laser,” Nat. Photonics 9(1), 42 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. Villares, J. Wolf, D. Kazakov, M. J. Süess, A. Hugi, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “On-chip dual-comb based on quantum cascade laser frequency combs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 251104 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. I. Amanti, M. Fischer, G. Scalari, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Low-divergence single-mode terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Nat. Photonics 3(10), 586 (2009).
[Crossref]

Beere, H.

Beere, H. E.

G. Y. Xu, R. Colombelli, S. P. Khanna, A. Belarouci, X. Letartre, L. H. Li, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Efficient power extraction in surface-emitting semiconductor lasers using graded photonic heterostructures,” Nat. Commun. 3, 952 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Maineult, L. Ding, P. Gellie, P. Filloux, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, T. Akalin, J. F. Lampin, I. Sagnes, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Microwave modulation of terahertz quantum cascade lasers: a transmission-line approach,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(2), 021108 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. Barbieri, W. Maineult, S. S. Dhillon, C. Sirtori, J. Alton, N. Breuil, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “13 GHz direct modulation of terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(14), 143510 (2007).
[Crossref]

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417(6885), 156 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Belarouci, A.

G. Y. Xu, R. Colombelli, S. P. Khanna, A. Belarouci, X. Letartre, L. H. Li, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Efficient power extraction in surface-emitting semiconductor lasers using graded photonic heterostructures,” Nat. Commun. 3, 952 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Beltram, F.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417(6885), 156 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Blaser, S.

G. Villares, A. Hugi, S. Blaser, and J. Faist, “Dual-comb spectroscopy based on quantum-cascade-laser frequency combs,” Nat. Commun. 5, 5192 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boehm, Gerhard

H. Li, Simeon Katz, Gerhard Boehm, and Markus-Christian Amann, “Broad gain bandwidth injectorless quantum-cascade lasers with a step well design,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(13), 131113 (2011).
[Crossref]

Breuil, N.

S. Barbieri, W. Maineult, S. S. Dhillon, C. Sirtori, J. Alton, N. Breuil, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “13 GHz direct modulation of terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(14), 143510 (2007).
[Crossref]

Burghoff, D.

Cao, J. C.

W. J. Wan, H. Li, T. Zhou, and J. C. Cao, “Homogeneous spectral spanning of terahertz semiconductor lasers with radio frequency modulation,” Sci. Rep. 7, 44109 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Capasso, F.

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum Cascade Laser,” Science 264(5158), 553 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, D. G.

Chen, L.

Cho, A. Y.

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum Cascade Laser,” Science 264(5158), 553 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Colombelli, R.

G. Y. Xu, R. Colombelli, S. P. Khanna, A. Belarouci, X. Letartre, L. H. Li, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Efficient power extraction in surface-emitting semiconductor lasers using graded photonic heterostructures,” Nat. Commun. 3, 952 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Davies, A. G.

L. H. Li, J. X. Zhu, L. Chen, A. G. Davies, and E. H. Linfield, “The MBE growth and optimization of high performance terahertz frequency quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Express 23(3), 2720 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Y. Xu, R. Colombelli, S. P. Khanna, A. Belarouci, X. Letartre, L. H. Li, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Efficient power extraction in surface-emitting semiconductor lasers using graded photonic heterostructures,” Nat. Commun. 3, 952 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Gellie, S. Barbieri, J. F. Lampin, P. Filloux, C. Manquest, C. Sirtori, I. Sagnes, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, H. Beere, and D. Ritchie, “Injection-locking of terahertz quantum cascade lasers up to 35GHz using RF amplitude modulation,” Opt. Express 18(20), 20799 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417(6885), 156 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Delfyett, P.

Dhillon, S. S.

S. Barbieri, W. Maineult, S. S. Dhillon, C. Sirtori, J. Alton, N. Breuil, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “13 GHz direct modulation of terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(14), 143510 (2007).
[Crossref]

Ding, L.

W. Maineult, L. Ding, P. Gellie, P. Filloux, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, T. Akalin, J. F. Lampin, I. Sagnes, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Microwave modulation of terahertz quantum cascade lasers: a transmission-line approach,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(2), 021108 (2010).
[Crossref]

Faist, J.

B. Hinkov, A. Hugi, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Rf-modulation of mid-infrared distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Express 24(4), 3294 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Li, P. Laffaille, D. Gacemi, M. Apfel, C. Sirtori, J. Leonardon, G. Santarelli, M. Rösch, G. Scalari, M. Beck, J. Faist, W. Hänsel, R. Holzwarth, and S. Barbieri, “Dynamics of ultra-broadband terahertz quantum cascade lasers for comb operation,” Opt. Express 23(26), 33270 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Rösch, G. Scalari, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Octave-spanning semiconductor laser,” Nat. Photonics 9(1), 42 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. Villares, J. Wolf, D. Kazakov, M. J. Süess, A. Hugi, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “On-chip dual-comb based on quantum cascade laser frequency combs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 251104 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. Villares, A. Hugi, S. Blaser, and J. Faist, “Dual-comb spectroscopy based on quantum-cascade-laser frequency combs,” Nat. Commun. 5, 5192 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. I. Amanti, M. Fischer, G. Scalari, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Low-divergence single-mode terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Nat. Photonics 3(10), 586 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum Cascade Laser,” Science 264(5158), 553 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fan, J. Y.

Y. Yao, X. J. Wang, J. Y. Fan, and C. F. Gmachl, “High performance “continuum-to-continuum” quantum cascade lasers with a broad gain bandwidth of over 400 cm−1,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(8), 081115 (2010).
[Crossref]

Filloux, P.

P. Gellie, S. Barbieri, J. F. Lampin, P. Filloux, C. Manquest, C. Sirtori, I. Sagnes, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, H. Beere, and D. Ritchie, “Injection-locking of terahertz quantum cascade lasers up to 35GHz using RF amplitude modulation,” Opt. Express 18(20), 20799 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Maineult, L. Ding, P. Gellie, P. Filloux, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, T. Akalin, J. F. Lampin, I. Sagnes, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Microwave modulation of terahertz quantum cascade lasers: a transmission-line approach,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(2), 021108 (2010).
[Crossref]

Fischer, M.

M. I. Amanti, M. Fischer, G. Scalari, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Low-divergence single-mode terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Nat. Photonics 3(10), 586 (2009).
[Crossref]

Gacemi, D.

Gao, J. R.

Gellie, P.

W. Maineult, L. Ding, P. Gellie, P. Filloux, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, T. Akalin, J. F. Lampin, I. Sagnes, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Microwave modulation of terahertz quantum cascade lasers: a transmission-line approach,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(2), 021108 (2010).
[Crossref]

P. Gellie, S. Barbieri, J. F. Lampin, P. Filloux, C. Manquest, C. Sirtori, I. Sagnes, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, H. Beere, and D. Ritchie, “Injection-locking of terahertz quantum cascade lasers up to 35GHz using RF amplitude modulation,” Opt. Express 18(20), 20799 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gmachl, C. F.

Y. Yao, X. J. Wang, J. Y. Fan, and C. F. Gmachl, “High performance “continuum-to-continuum” quantum cascade lasers with a broad gain bandwidth of over 400 cm−1,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(8), 081115 (2010).
[Crossref]

Hänsel, W.

Hayton, D. J.

Hindle, F.

Y. D. Hsieh, S. Nakamura, D. G. Abdelsalam, T. Minamikawa, Y. Mizutani, H. Yamamoto, T. Iwata, F. Hindle, and T. Yasui, “Dynamic terahertz spectroscopy of gas molecules mixed with unwanted aerosol under atmospheric pressure using fibre-based asynchronous-optical-sampling terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Sci. Rep. 6, 28114 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hinkov, B.

Holzwarth, R.

Hsieh, Y. D.

Y. D. Hsieh, S. Nakamura, D. G. Abdelsalam, T. Minamikawa, Y. Mizutani, H. Yamamoto, T. Iwata, F. Hindle, and T. Yasui, “Dynamic terahertz spectroscopy of gas molecules mixed with unwanted aerosol under atmospheric pressure using fibre-based asynchronous-optical-sampling terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Sci. Rep. 6, 28114 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hu, Q.

Hugi, A.

B. Hinkov, A. Hugi, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Rf-modulation of mid-infrared distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Express 24(4), 3294 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Villares, J. Wolf, D. Kazakov, M. J. Süess, A. Hugi, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “On-chip dual-comb based on quantum cascade laser frequency combs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 251104 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. Villares, A. Hugi, S. Blaser, and J. Faist, “Dual-comb spectroscopy based on quantum-cascade-laser frequency combs,” Nat. Commun. 5, 5192 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hutchinson, A. L.

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum Cascade Laser,” Science 264(5158), 553 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Iotti, R. C.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417(6885), 156 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Itoh, T.

Iwata, T.

Y. D. Hsieh, S. Nakamura, D. G. Abdelsalam, T. Minamikawa, Y. Mizutani, H. Yamamoto, T. Iwata, F. Hindle, and T. Yasui, “Dynamic terahertz spectroscopy of gas molecules mixed with unwanted aerosol under atmospheric pressure using fibre-based asynchronous-optical-sampling terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Sci. Rep. 6, 28114 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Katz, Simeon

H. Li, Simeon Katz, Gerhard Boehm, and Markus-Christian Amann, “Broad gain bandwidth injectorless quantum-cascade lasers with a step well design,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(13), 131113 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kazakov, D.

G. Villares, J. Wolf, D. Kazakov, M. J. Süess, A. Hugi, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “On-chip dual-comb based on quantum cascade laser frequency combs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 251104 (2015).
[Crossref]

Khanal, S.

Khanna, S. P.

G. Y. Xu, R. Colombelli, S. P. Khanna, A. Belarouci, X. Letartre, L. H. Li, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Efficient power extraction in surface-emitting semiconductor lasers using graded photonic heterostructures,” Nat. Commun. 3, 952 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Gellie, S. Barbieri, J. F. Lampin, P. Filloux, C. Manquest, C. Sirtori, I. Sagnes, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, H. Beere, and D. Ritchie, “Injection-locking of terahertz quantum cascade lasers up to 35GHz using RF amplitude modulation,” Opt. Express 18(20), 20799 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Koga, M.

M. Teshima, K. Sato, and M. Koga, “Experimental investigation of injection locking of fundamental and subharmonic frequency-modulated active mode-locked laser diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34(9), 1588 (1998).
[Crossref]

Köhler, R.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417(6885), 156 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kumar, S.

Laffaille, P.

Lampin, J. F.

W. Maineult, L. Ding, P. Gellie, P. Filloux, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, T. Akalin, J. F. Lampin, I. Sagnes, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Microwave modulation of terahertz quantum cascade lasers: a transmission-line approach,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(2), 021108 (2010).
[Crossref]

P. Gellie, S. Barbieri, J. F. Lampin, P. Filloux, C. Manquest, C. Sirtori, I. Sagnes, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, H. Beere, and D. Ritchie, “Injection-locking of terahertz quantum cascade lasers up to 35GHz using RF amplitude modulation,” Opt. Express 18(20), 20799 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, A. W. M.

Leonardon, J.

Letartre, X.

G. Y. Xu, R. Colombelli, S. P. Khanna, A. Belarouci, X. Letartre, L. H. Li, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Efficient power extraction in surface-emitting semiconductor lasers using graded photonic heterostructures,” Nat. Commun. 3, 952 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, H.

W. J. Wan, H. Li, T. Zhou, and J. C. Cao, “Homogeneous spectral spanning of terahertz semiconductor lasers with radio frequency modulation,” Sci. Rep. 7, 44109 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Li, P. Laffaille, D. Gacemi, M. Apfel, C. Sirtori, J. Leonardon, G. Santarelli, M. Rösch, G. Scalari, M. Beck, J. Faist, W. Hänsel, R. Holzwarth, and S. Barbieri, “Dynamics of ultra-broadband terahertz quantum cascade lasers for comb operation,” Opt. Express 23(26), 33270 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Li, Simeon Katz, Gerhard Boehm, and Markus-Christian Amann, “Broad gain bandwidth injectorless quantum-cascade lasers with a step well design,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(13), 131113 (2011).
[Crossref]

Li, L. H.

L. H. Li, J. X. Zhu, L. Chen, A. G. Davies, and E. H. Linfield, “The MBE growth and optimization of high performance terahertz frequency quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Express 23(3), 2720 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Y. Xu, R. Colombelli, S. P. Khanna, A. Belarouci, X. Letartre, L. H. Li, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Efficient power extraction in surface-emitting semiconductor lasers using graded photonic heterostructures,” Nat. Commun. 3, 952 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Linfield, E. H.

L. H. Li, J. X. Zhu, L. Chen, A. G. Davies, and E. H. Linfield, “The MBE growth and optimization of high performance terahertz frequency quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Express 23(3), 2720 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Y. Xu, R. Colombelli, S. P. Khanna, A. Belarouci, X. Letartre, L. H. Li, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Efficient power extraction in surface-emitting semiconductor lasers using graded photonic heterostructures,” Nat. Commun. 3, 952 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Gellie, S. Barbieri, J. F. Lampin, P. Filloux, C. Manquest, C. Sirtori, I. Sagnes, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, H. Beere, and D. Ritchie, “Injection-locking of terahertz quantum cascade lasers up to 35GHz using RF amplitude modulation,” Opt. Express 18(20), 20799 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417(6885), 156 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Maineult, W.

W. Maineult, L. Ding, P. Gellie, P. Filloux, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, T. Akalin, J. F. Lampin, I. Sagnes, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Microwave modulation of terahertz quantum cascade lasers: a transmission-line approach,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(2), 021108 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. Barbieri, W. Maineult, S. S. Dhillon, C. Sirtori, J. Alton, N. Breuil, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “13 GHz direct modulation of terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(14), 143510 (2007).
[Crossref]

Manquest, C.

Minamikawa, T.

Y. D. Hsieh, S. Nakamura, D. G. Abdelsalam, T. Minamikawa, Y. Mizutani, H. Yamamoto, T. Iwata, F. Hindle, and T. Yasui, “Dynamic terahertz spectroscopy of gas molecules mixed with unwanted aerosol under atmospheric pressure using fibre-based asynchronous-optical-sampling terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Sci. Rep. 6, 28114 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mizutani, Y.

Y. D. Hsieh, S. Nakamura, D. G. Abdelsalam, T. Minamikawa, Y. Mizutani, H. Yamamoto, T. Iwata, F. Hindle, and T. Yasui, “Dynamic terahertz spectroscopy of gas molecules mixed with unwanted aerosol under atmospheric pressure using fibre-based asynchronous-optical-sampling terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Sci. Rep. 6, 28114 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nakamura, S.

Y. D. Hsieh, S. Nakamura, D. G. Abdelsalam, T. Minamikawa, Y. Mizutani, H. Yamamoto, T. Iwata, F. Hindle, and T. Yasui, “Dynamic terahertz spectroscopy of gas molecules mixed with unwanted aerosol under atmospheric pressure using fibre-based asynchronous-optical-sampling terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Sci. Rep. 6, 28114 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Neu, J.

Qin, Q.

Rahm, M.

Reno, J. L.

Ritchie, D.

Ritchie, D. A.

G. Y. Xu, R. Colombelli, S. P. Khanna, A. Belarouci, X. Letartre, L. H. Li, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Efficient power extraction in surface-emitting semiconductor lasers using graded photonic heterostructures,” Nat. Commun. 3, 952 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Maineult, L. Ding, P. Gellie, P. Filloux, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, T. Akalin, J. F. Lampin, I. Sagnes, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Microwave modulation of terahertz quantum cascade lasers: a transmission-line approach,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(2), 021108 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. Barbieri, W. Maineult, S. S. Dhillon, C. Sirtori, J. Alton, N. Breuil, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “13 GHz direct modulation of terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(14), 143510 (2007).
[Crossref]

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417(6885), 156 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rösch, M.

Rossi, F.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417(6885), 156 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sagnes, I.

P. Gellie, S. Barbieri, J. F. Lampin, P. Filloux, C. Manquest, C. Sirtori, I. Sagnes, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, H. Beere, and D. Ritchie, “Injection-locking of terahertz quantum cascade lasers up to 35GHz using RF amplitude modulation,” Opt. Express 18(20), 20799 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Maineult, L. Ding, P. Gellie, P. Filloux, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, T. Akalin, J. F. Lampin, I. Sagnes, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Microwave modulation of terahertz quantum cascade lasers: a transmission-line approach,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(2), 021108 (2010).
[Crossref]

Santarelli, G.

Sarailou, E.

Sato, K.

M. Teshima, K. Sato, and M. Koga, “Experimental investigation of injection locking of fundamental and subharmonic frequency-modulated active mode-locked laser diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34(9), 1588 (1998).
[Crossref]

Scalari, G.

M. Rösch, G. Scalari, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Octave-spanning semiconductor laser,” Nat. Photonics 9(1), 42 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Li, P. Laffaille, D. Gacemi, M. Apfel, C. Sirtori, J. Leonardon, G. Santarelli, M. Rösch, G. Scalari, M. Beck, J. Faist, W. Hänsel, R. Holzwarth, and S. Barbieri, “Dynamics of ultra-broadband terahertz quantum cascade lasers for comb operation,” Opt. Express 23(26), 33270 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. I. Amanti, M. Fischer, G. Scalari, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Low-divergence single-mode terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Nat. Photonics 3(10), 586 (2009).
[Crossref]

Sirtori, C.

H. Li, P. Laffaille, D. Gacemi, M. Apfel, C. Sirtori, J. Leonardon, G. Santarelli, M. Rösch, G. Scalari, M. Beck, J. Faist, W. Hänsel, R. Holzwarth, and S. Barbieri, “Dynamics of ultra-broadband terahertz quantum cascade lasers for comb operation,” Opt. Express 23(26), 33270 (2015).
[Crossref]

W. Maineult, L. Ding, P. Gellie, P. Filloux, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, T. Akalin, J. F. Lampin, I. Sagnes, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Microwave modulation of terahertz quantum cascade lasers: a transmission-line approach,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(2), 021108 (2010).
[Crossref]

P. Gellie, S. Barbieri, J. F. Lampin, P. Filloux, C. Manquest, C. Sirtori, I. Sagnes, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, H. Beere, and D. Ritchie, “Injection-locking of terahertz quantum cascade lasers up to 35GHz using RF amplitude modulation,” Opt. Express 18(20), 20799 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Barbieri, W. Maineult, S. S. Dhillon, C. Sirtori, J. Alton, N. Breuil, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “13 GHz direct modulation of terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(14), 143510 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum Cascade Laser,” Science 264(5158), 553 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sivco, D. L.

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum Cascade Laser,” Science 264(5158), 553 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Süess, M. J.

G. Villares, J. Wolf, D. Kazakov, M. J. Süess, A. Hugi, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “On-chip dual-comb based on quantum cascade laser frequency combs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 251104 (2015).
[Crossref]

Teshima, M.

M. Teshima, K. Sato, and M. Koga, “Experimental investigation of injection locking of fundamental and subharmonic frequency-modulated active mode-locked laser diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34(9), 1588 (1998).
[Crossref]

Tredicucci, A.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417(6885), 156 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Villares, G.

G. Villares, J. Wolf, D. Kazakov, M. J. Süess, A. Hugi, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “On-chip dual-comb based on quantum cascade laser frequency combs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 251104 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. Villares, A. Hugi, S. Blaser, and J. Faist, “Dual-comb spectroscopy based on quantum-cascade-laser frequency combs,” Nat. Commun. 5, 5192 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wan, W. J.

W. J. Wan, H. Li, T. Zhou, and J. C. Cao, “Homogeneous spectral spanning of terahertz semiconductor lasers with radio frequency modulation,” Sci. Rep. 7, 44109 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, X. J.

Y. Yao, X. J. Wang, J. Y. Fan, and C. F. Gmachl, “High performance “continuum-to-continuum” quantum cascade lasers with a broad gain bandwidth of over 400 cm−1,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(8), 081115 (2010).
[Crossref]

Williams, B. S.

Wolf, J.

G. Villares, J. Wolf, D. Kazakov, M. J. Süess, A. Hugi, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “On-chip dual-comb based on quantum cascade laser frequency combs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 251104 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wu, C.

Xu, G. Y.

G. Y. Xu, R. Colombelli, S. P. Khanna, A. Belarouci, X. Letartre, L. H. Li, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Efficient power extraction in surface-emitting semiconductor lasers using graded photonic heterostructures,” Nat. Commun. 3, 952 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, L. Y.

Yamamoto, H.

Y. D. Hsieh, S. Nakamura, D. G. Abdelsalam, T. Minamikawa, Y. Mizutani, H. Yamamoto, T. Iwata, F. Hindle, and T. Yasui, “Dynamic terahertz spectroscopy of gas molecules mixed with unwanted aerosol under atmospheric pressure using fibre-based asynchronous-optical-sampling terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Sci. Rep. 6, 28114 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, Y.

Yao, Y.

Y. Yao, X. J. Wang, J. Y. Fan, and C. F. Gmachl, “High performance “continuum-to-continuum” quantum cascade lasers with a broad gain bandwidth of over 400 cm−1,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(8), 081115 (2010).
[Crossref]

Yasui, T.

Y. D. Hsieh, S. Nakamura, D. G. Abdelsalam, T. Minamikawa, Y. Mizutani, H. Yamamoto, T. Iwata, F. Hindle, and T. Yasui, “Dynamic terahertz spectroscopy of gas molecules mixed with unwanted aerosol under atmospheric pressure using fibre-based asynchronous-optical-sampling terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Sci. Rep. 6, 28114 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhou, T.

W. J. Wan, H. Li, T. Zhou, and J. C. Cao, “Homogeneous spectral spanning of terahertz semiconductor lasers with radio frequency modulation,” Sci. Rep. 7, 44109 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhu, J. X.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

Y. Yao, X. J. Wang, J. Y. Fan, and C. F. Gmachl, “High performance “continuum-to-continuum” quantum cascade lasers with a broad gain bandwidth of over 400 cm−1,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(8), 081115 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. Li, Simeon Katz, Gerhard Boehm, and Markus-Christian Amann, “Broad gain bandwidth injectorless quantum-cascade lasers with a step well design,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(13), 131113 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Barbieri, W. Maineult, S. S. Dhillon, C. Sirtori, J. Alton, N. Breuil, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “13 GHz direct modulation of terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(14), 143510 (2007).
[Crossref]

W. Maineult, L. Ding, P. Gellie, P. Filloux, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, T. Akalin, J. F. Lampin, I. Sagnes, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Microwave modulation of terahertz quantum cascade lasers: a transmission-line approach,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(2), 021108 (2010).
[Crossref]

G. Villares, J. Wolf, D. Kazakov, M. J. Süess, A. Hugi, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “On-chip dual-comb based on quantum cascade laser frequency combs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 251104 (2015).
[Crossref]

Electron. Lett. (1)

B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “High-power terahertz quantum-cascade lasers,” Electron. Lett. 42(2), 89 (2006).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. Teshima, K. Sato, and M. Koga, “Experimental investigation of injection locking of fundamental and subharmonic frequency-modulated active mode-locked laser diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34(9), 1588 (1998).
[Crossref]

Nat. Commun. (2)

G. Villares, A. Hugi, S. Blaser, and J. Faist, “Dual-comb spectroscopy based on quantum-cascade-laser frequency combs,” Nat. Commun. 5, 5192 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Y. Xu, R. Colombelli, S. P. Khanna, A. Belarouci, X. Letartre, L. H. Li, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Efficient power extraction in surface-emitting semiconductor lasers using graded photonic heterostructures,” Nat. Commun. 3, 952 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (2)

M. I. Amanti, M. Fischer, G. Scalari, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Low-divergence single-mode terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Nat. Photonics 3(10), 586 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Rösch, G. Scalari, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Octave-spanning semiconductor laser,” Nat. Photonics 9(1), 42 (2015).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417(6885), 156 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (6)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Optica (2)

Sci. Rep. (2)

Y. D. Hsieh, S. Nakamura, D. G. Abdelsalam, T. Minamikawa, Y. Mizutani, H. Yamamoto, T. Iwata, F. Hindle, and T. Yasui, “Dynamic terahertz spectroscopy of gas molecules mixed with unwanted aerosol under atmospheric pressure using fibre-based asynchronous-optical-sampling terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Sci. Rep. 6, 28114 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. J. Wan, H. Li, T. Zhou, and J. C. Cao, “Homogeneous spectral spanning of terahertz semiconductor lasers with radio frequency modulation,” Sci. Rep. 7, 44109 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Science (1)

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum Cascade Laser,” Science 264(5158), 553 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Science Advances (1)

D. Burghoff, Y. Yang, and Q. Hu, “Computational multiheterodyne spectroscopy,” Science Advances 2, e1601227 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Measured LIV characteristics of single plasmon [(a) and (b)] and double-metal (c) terahertz QCLs with different device dimensions in pulsed mode (2 kHz repetition rate and 5 µs pulse width) at different heat-sink temperatures ranging from 10 K to 120 K.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Schematic of the double-metal terahertz QCL with a Silicon lens coupler. Measured far-field patterns of a 6-mm long double-metal laser at drive current of 4 A (b), 5 A (c), 7 A (d), 8 A (e), and 9 A (f). For the far-field measurement, a Golay-cell detector with a small pinhole mounted in front of the detection element is used. The Golay-cell is placed 10-cm away from the laser emitting facet and moves in the vertical and horizontal directions on a 10-cm-radius sphere during the far-field measurement. To satisfy the slow response of the detector, we apply additional slow modulation of 10 Hz onto the terahertz laser for the lock-in detection. The measurement is performed when the laser is temperature-stabilized at 10 K.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Inter-mode beat note spectra in free running (a), microwave spectra under RF modulation (b), and terahertz emission spectra (c) of the 6-mm long single plasmon terahertz QCL measured at different drive currents from 4 to 8 A. In (a), the black curves are single-shot traces and the gray ones are the Max-Hold traces measured with a time duration of 2 minutes. The laser is working in free-running mode (without RF modulation). In (b), for the sake of clear comparison, the cental frequency around 6.2 GHz is subtracted in each panel. In (c), the black and red curves correspond to the spectra without and with RF modulation, respectively. The resolution used for the measurement is 3 GHz. All the data are recorded at a heat sink temperature of 10 K.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Inter-mode beat note spectra (a), microwave spectra under RF modulation (b), and terahertz emission spectra (c) of the 6-mm long double-metal terahertz QCL with a Silicon lens coupler measured at different drive currents from 3 to 9 A. In (a), the black curves are single-shot traces and the gray ones are the Max-Hold traces measured with a time duration of 2 minutes. The laser is working in free-running mode (without RF modulation). In (b), the cental frequency around 6.2 GHz is subtracted in each panel. In (c), the black and red curves correspond to the spectra without and with RF modulation, respectively. All the data are recorded at a heat sink temperature of 10 K.

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