Abstract

An optical refractive index sensor used for underway seawater salinity monitoring is proposed. Due to the empirical relation to salinity, refractive index measurement provides an alternative solution to obtain salinity of seawater. We developed a compact refractive index sensor based on total internal reflection (TIR) method. Through the repeatability and stability experiment and temperature correction, the performance of the sensor has been demonstrated experimentally. To evaluate the applicability of the sensor under real turbid sea conditions, field performance of the TIR sensor has been tested on an oceanographic cruise in the eastern of Yangtze Estuary in July 2017. The underway monitoring results show good correlation with the results provided by commercial CTD profiler.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2017 (1)

2016 (1)

G. Morales-Luna, H. Contreras-Tello, A. García-Valenzuela, and R. G. Barrera, “Experimental Test of Reflectivity Formulas for Turbid Colloids: Beyond the Fresnel Reflection Amplitudes,” J. Phys. Chem. B 120(3), 583–595 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (3)

2014 (3)

H. Contrerastello, R. Márquezislas, O. Vázquezestrada, C. Sánchezpérez, and A. Garcíavalenzuela, “Understanding the performance of Abbe-type refractometers with optically absorbing fluids,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 25(7), 075201 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. H. Liu, S. L. Yang, Q. Zhu, and J. Zhang, “Controls on suspended sediment concentration profiles in the shallow and turbid Yangtze Estuary,” Cont. Shelf Res. 90, 96–108 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. Röttgers, D. McKee, and C. Utschig, “Temperature and salinity correction coefficients for light absorption by water in the visible to infrared spectral region,” Opt. Express 22(21), 25093–25108 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (3)

Z. Qiu, “A simple optical model to estimate suspended particulate matter in Yellow River Estuary,” Opt. Express 21(23), 27891–27904 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Hou, P. Grosso, J.-L. de Bougrenet de la Tocnaye, and M. Le Menn, “Principle and implementations of a refracto-nephelo-turbidimeter for seawater measurements,” Opt. Eng. 52(4), 044402 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Ye, M. Xia, H. Liu, W. Li, W. Guo, C. Xiong, and K. Yang, “Expanding the measurement range of a critical-angle refractometer through Fourier analysis,” EPL 104(2), 20001 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (4)

B. Hou, “Turbidimeter based on a refractometer using a charge-coupled device,” Opt. Eng. 51(2), 160–168 (2012).
[Crossref]

W. Guo, M. Xia, W. Li, J. Dai, X. Zhang, and K. Yang, “A local curve-fitting method for the complex refractive index measurement of turbid media,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 23(4), 47001–47004 (2012).
[Crossref]

L. Li, L. Xia, Y. Wuang, Y. Ran, C. Yang, and D. Liu, “Novel NCF-FBG Interferometer for Simultaneous Measurement of Refractive Index and Temperature,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(24), 2268–2271 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. J. Mcdougall, D. R. Jackett, F. J. Millero, R. Pawlowicz, and P. M. Barker, “A global algorithm for estimating Absolute Salinity,” Ocean Sci. Discussions 8(6), 1123–1134 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

M. L. Menn, J. L. de Bougrenet de la Tocnaye, P. Grosso, L. Delauney, C. Podeur, P. Brault, and O. Guillerme, “Advances in measuring ocean salinity with an optical sensor,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 22(11), 115202 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (3)

W. R. Calhoun, H. Maeta, A. Combs, L. M. Bali, and S. Bali, “Measurement of the refractive index of highly turbid media,” Opt. Lett. 35(8), 1224–1226 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. P. Grosso, D. Malardé, M. L. Menn, and Z. Y. Wu, “Refractometer Resolution Limits For Measuring Seawater Refractive Index,” Opt. Eng. 49(10), 84 (2010).
[Crossref]

P. Grosso, M. L. Menn, and Z. Y. Wu, Malard, andD. Eacute, “Practical versus absolute salinity measurements: New advances in high performance seawater salinity sensors,” Deep Sea Res. Part I Oceanogr. Res. Pap. 57(1), 151–156 (2010).
[Crossref]

P. Grosso, M. L. Menn, and Z. Y. Wu, Malard, andD. Eacute, “Practical versus absolute salinity measurements: New advances in high performance seawater salinity sensors,” Deep Sea Res. Part I Oceanogr. Res. Pap. 57(1), 151–156 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

D. Malardé, Z. Y. Wu, P. Grosso, J. L. de Bougrenet de la Tocnaye, and M. Lemenn, “High-resolution and compact refractometer for salinity measurements,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 20(1), 015204 (2009).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

N. Díazherrera, O. Esteban, M. C. Navarrete, M. Lehaitre, and A. Gonzálezcano, “In situ salinity measurements in seawater with a fibre-optic probe,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 17(8), 2227–2232 (2006).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

2002 (1)

Y. Zhao and Y. Liao, “Novel optical fiber sensor for simultaneous measurement of temperature and salinity,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 86(1), 63–67 (2002).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

1995 (2)

G. H. Meeten and A. N. North, “Refractive index measurement of absorbing and turbid fluids by reflection near the critical angle,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 6(2), 214–221 (1995).
[Crossref]

X. Quan and E. S. Fry, “Empirical equation for the index of refraction of seawater,” Appl. Opt. 34(18), 3477–3480 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

R. C. Millard and G. Seaver, “An index of refraction algorithm for seawater over temperature, pressure, salinity, density, and wavelength,” Deep-Sea Res. A, Oceanogr. Res. Pap. 37(12), 1909–1926 (1990).
[Crossref]

1989 (1)

H. Minato, Y. Kakui, A. Nishimoto, and M. Nanjo, “Remote refractive index difference meter for salinity sensor,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 38(2), 608–612 (1989).
[Crossref]

1977 (1)

G. T. Mcneil, “Metrical Fundamentals of Underwater Lens System,” Opt. Eng. 16(2), 1079–1095 (1977).
[Crossref]

Artlett, C. P.

Bali, L. M.

Bali, S.

Barker, P. M.

T. J. Mcdougall, D. R. Jackett, F. J. Millero, R. Pawlowicz, and P. M. Barker, “A global algorithm for estimating Absolute Salinity,” Ocean Sci. Discussions 8(6), 1123–1134 (2012).
[Crossref]

Barrera, R. G.

G. Morales-Luna, H. Contreras-Tello, A. García-Valenzuela, and R. G. Barrera, “Experimental Test of Reflectivity Formulas for Turbid Colloids: Beyond the Fresnel Reflection Amplitudes,” J. Phys. Chem. B 120(3), 583–595 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brault, P.

M. L. Menn, J. L. de Bougrenet de la Tocnaye, P. Grosso, L. Delauney, C. Podeur, P. Brault, and O. Guillerme, “Advances in measuring ocean salinity with an optical sensor,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 22(11), 115202 (2011).
[Crossref]

Calhoun, W. R.

Combs, A.

Contrerastello, H.

H. Contrerastello, R. Márquezislas, O. Vázquezestrada, C. Sánchezpérez, and A. Garcíavalenzuela, “Understanding the performance of Abbe-type refractometers with optically absorbing fluids,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 25(7), 075201 (2014).
[Crossref]

Contreras-Tello, H.

G. Morales-Luna, H. Contreras-Tello, A. García-Valenzuela, and R. G. Barrera, “Experimental Test of Reflectivity Formulas for Turbid Colloids: Beyond the Fresnel Reflection Amplitudes,” J. Phys. Chem. B 120(3), 583–595 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dai, J.

J. Ye, K. Yang, H. Liu, J. Dai, W. Guo, W. Li, and M. Xia, “Expand the measurement range of a critical angle refractometer by a centroid method for transparent fluids,” Opt. Laser Technol. 65, 175–179 (2015).
[Crossref]

W. Guo, M. Xia, W. Li, J. Dai, X. Zhang, and K. Yang, “A local curve-fitting method for the complex refractive index measurement of turbid media,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 23(4), 47001–47004 (2012).
[Crossref]

de Bougrenet de la Tocnaye, J. L.

M. L. Menn, J. L. de Bougrenet de la Tocnaye, P. Grosso, L. Delauney, C. Podeur, P. Brault, and O. Guillerme, “Advances in measuring ocean salinity with an optical sensor,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 22(11), 115202 (2011).
[Crossref]

D. Malardé, Z. Y. Wu, P. Grosso, J. L. de Bougrenet de la Tocnaye, and M. Lemenn, “High-resolution and compact refractometer for salinity measurements,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 20(1), 015204 (2009).
[Crossref]

de Bougrenet de la Tocnaye, J.-L.

B. Hou, P. Grosso, J.-L. de Bougrenet de la Tocnaye, and M. Le Menn, “Principle and implementations of a refracto-nephelo-turbidimeter for seawater measurements,” Opt. Eng. 52(4), 044402 (2013).
[Crossref]

Delauney, L.

M. L. Menn, J. L. de Bougrenet de la Tocnaye, P. Grosso, L. Delauney, C. Podeur, P. Brault, and O. Guillerme, “Advances in measuring ocean salinity with an optical sensor,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 22(11), 115202 (2011).
[Crossref]

Díazherrera, N.

N. Díazherrera, O. Esteban, M. C. Navarrete, M. Lehaitre, and A. Gonzálezcano, “In situ salinity measurements in seawater with a fibre-optic probe,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 17(8), 2227–2232 (2006).
[Crossref]

Eacute, D.

P. Grosso, M. L. Menn, and Z. Y. Wu, Malard, andD. Eacute, “Practical versus absolute salinity measurements: New advances in high performance seawater salinity sensors,” Deep Sea Res. Part I Oceanogr. Res. Pap. 57(1), 151–156 (2010).
[Crossref]

Esteban, O.

N. Díazherrera, O. Esteban, M. C. Navarrete, M. Lehaitre, and A. Gonzálezcano, “In situ salinity measurements in seawater with a fibre-optic probe,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 17(8), 2227–2232 (2006).
[Crossref]

Fry, E. S.

Garcíavalenzuela, A.

H. Contrerastello, R. Márquezislas, O. Vázquezestrada, C. Sánchezpérez, and A. Garcíavalenzuela, “Understanding the performance of Abbe-type refractometers with optically absorbing fluids,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 25(7), 075201 (2014).
[Crossref]

García-Valenzuela, A.

G. Morales-Luna, H. Contreras-Tello, A. García-Valenzuela, and R. G. Barrera, “Experimental Test of Reflectivity Formulas for Turbid Colloids: Beyond the Fresnel Reflection Amplitudes,” J. Phys. Chem. B 120(3), 583–595 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. García-Valenzuela, G. E. Sandoval-Romero, and C. Sánchez-Pérez, “High-resolution optical angle sensors: approaching the diffraction limit to the sensitivity,” Appl. Opt. 43(22), 4311–4321 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gonzálezcano, A.

N. Díazherrera, O. Esteban, M. C. Navarrete, M. Lehaitre, and A. Gonzálezcano, “In situ salinity measurements in seawater with a fibre-optic probe,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 17(8), 2227–2232 (2006).
[Crossref]

Grosso, A. P.

A. P. Grosso, D. Malardé, M. L. Menn, and Z. Y. Wu, “Refractometer Resolution Limits For Measuring Seawater Refractive Index,” Opt. Eng. 49(10), 84 (2010).
[Crossref]

Grosso, P.

B. Hou, P. Grosso, J.-L. de Bougrenet de la Tocnaye, and M. Le Menn, “Principle and implementations of a refracto-nephelo-turbidimeter for seawater measurements,” Opt. Eng. 52(4), 044402 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. L. Menn, J. L. de Bougrenet de la Tocnaye, P. Grosso, L. Delauney, C. Podeur, P. Brault, and O. Guillerme, “Advances in measuring ocean salinity with an optical sensor,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 22(11), 115202 (2011).
[Crossref]

P. Grosso, M. L. Menn, and Z. Y. Wu, Malard, andD. Eacute, “Practical versus absolute salinity measurements: New advances in high performance seawater salinity sensors,” Deep Sea Res. Part I Oceanogr. Res. Pap. 57(1), 151–156 (2010).
[Crossref]

D. Malardé, Z. Y. Wu, P. Grosso, J. L. de Bougrenet de la Tocnaye, and M. Lemenn, “High-resolution and compact refractometer for salinity measurements,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 20(1), 015204 (2009).
[Crossref]

Guillerme, O.

M. L. Menn, J. L. de Bougrenet de la Tocnaye, P. Grosso, L. Delauney, C. Podeur, P. Brault, and O. Guillerme, “Advances in measuring ocean salinity with an optical sensor,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 22(11), 115202 (2011).
[Crossref]

Guo, W.

J. Ye, K. Yang, H. Liu, J. Dai, W. Guo, W. Li, and M. Xia, “Expand the measurement range of a critical angle refractometer by a centroid method for transparent fluids,” Opt. Laser Technol. 65, 175–179 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Liu, J. Ye, K. Yang, M. Xia, W. Guo, and W. Li, “Real part of refractive index measurement approach for absorbing liquid,” Appl. Opt. 54(19), 6046–6052 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Ye, M. Xia, H. Liu, W. Li, W. Guo, C. Xiong, and K. Yang, “Expanding the measurement range of a critical-angle refractometer through Fourier analysis,” EPL 104(2), 20001 (2013).
[Crossref]

W. Guo, M. Xia, W. Li, J. Dai, X. Zhang, and K. Yang, “A local curve-fitting method for the complex refractive index measurement of turbid media,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 23(4), 47001–47004 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hou, B.

B. Hou, P. Grosso, J.-L. de Bougrenet de la Tocnaye, and M. Le Menn, “Principle and implementations of a refracto-nephelo-turbidimeter for seawater measurements,” Opt. Eng. 52(4), 044402 (2013).
[Crossref]

B. Hou, “Turbidimeter based on a refractometer using a charge-coupled device,” Opt. Eng. 51(2), 160–168 (2012).
[Crossref]

Huang, P. S.

Jackett, D. R.

T. J. Mcdougall, D. R. Jackett, F. J. Millero, R. Pawlowicz, and P. M. Barker, “A global algorithm for estimating Absolute Salinity,” Ocean Sci. Discussions 8(6), 1123–1134 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kakui, Y.

H. Minato, Y. Kakui, A. Nishimoto, and M. Nanjo, “Remote refractive index difference meter for salinity sensor,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 38(2), 608–612 (1989).
[Crossref]

Le Menn, M.

B. Hou, P. Grosso, J.-L. de Bougrenet de la Tocnaye, and M. Le Menn, “Principle and implementations of a refracto-nephelo-turbidimeter for seawater measurements,” Opt. Eng. 52(4), 044402 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lehaitre, M.

N. Díazherrera, O. Esteban, M. C. Navarrete, M. Lehaitre, and A. Gonzálezcano, “In situ salinity measurements in seawater with a fibre-optic probe,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 17(8), 2227–2232 (2006).
[Crossref]

Lemenn, M.

D. Malardé, Z. Y. Wu, P. Grosso, J. L. de Bougrenet de la Tocnaye, and M. Lemenn, “High-resolution and compact refractometer for salinity measurements,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 20(1), 015204 (2009).
[Crossref]

Li, L.

L. Li, L. Xia, Y. Wuang, Y. Ran, C. Yang, and D. Liu, “Novel NCF-FBG Interferometer for Simultaneous Measurement of Refractive Index and Temperature,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(24), 2268–2271 (2012).
[Crossref]

Li, W.

J. Ye, K. Yang, H. Liu, J. Dai, W. Guo, W. Li, and M. Xia, “Expand the measurement range of a critical angle refractometer by a centroid method for transparent fluids,” Opt. Laser Technol. 65, 175–179 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Liu, J. Ye, K. Yang, M. Xia, W. Guo, and W. Li, “Real part of refractive index measurement approach for absorbing liquid,” Appl. Opt. 54(19), 6046–6052 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Ye, M. Xia, H. Liu, W. Li, W. Guo, C. Xiong, and K. Yang, “Expanding the measurement range of a critical-angle refractometer through Fourier analysis,” EPL 104(2), 20001 (2013).
[Crossref]

W. Guo, M. Xia, W. Li, J. Dai, X. Zhang, and K. Yang, “A local curve-fitting method for the complex refractive index measurement of turbid media,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 23(4), 47001–47004 (2012).
[Crossref]

Liao, Y.

Y. Zhao and Y. Liao, “Novel optical fiber sensor for simultaneous measurement of temperature and salinity,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 86(1), 63–67 (2002).
[Crossref]

Liu, D.

L. Li, L. Xia, Y. Wuang, Y. Ran, C. Yang, and D. Liu, “Novel NCF-FBG Interferometer for Simultaneous Measurement of Refractive Index and Temperature,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(24), 2268–2271 (2012).
[Crossref]

Liu, H.

J. Ye, K. Yang, H. Liu, J. Dai, W. Guo, W. Li, and M. Xia, “Expand the measurement range of a critical angle refractometer by a centroid method for transparent fluids,” Opt. Laser Technol. 65, 175–179 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Liu, J. Ye, K. Yang, M. Xia, W. Guo, and W. Li, “Real part of refractive index measurement approach for absorbing liquid,” Appl. Opt. 54(19), 6046–6052 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Ye, M. Xia, H. Liu, W. Li, W. Guo, C. Xiong, and K. Yang, “Expanding the measurement range of a critical-angle refractometer through Fourier analysis,” EPL 104(2), 20001 (2013).
[Crossref]

Liu, J. H.

J. H. Liu, S. L. Yang, Q. Zhu, and J. Zhang, “Controls on suspended sediment concentration profiles in the shallow and turbid Yangtze Estuary,” Cont. Shelf Res. 90, 96–108 (2014).
[Crossref]

Maeta, H.

Malardé, D.

A. P. Grosso, D. Malardé, M. L. Menn, and Z. Y. Wu, “Refractometer Resolution Limits For Measuring Seawater Refractive Index,” Opt. Eng. 49(10), 84 (2010).
[Crossref]

D. Malardé, Z. Y. Wu, P. Grosso, J. L. de Bougrenet de la Tocnaye, and M. Lemenn, “High-resolution and compact refractometer for salinity measurements,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 20(1), 015204 (2009).
[Crossref]

Márquezislas, R.

H. Contrerastello, R. Márquezislas, O. Vázquezestrada, C. Sánchezpérez, and A. Garcíavalenzuela, “Understanding the performance of Abbe-type refractometers with optically absorbing fluids,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 25(7), 075201 (2014).
[Crossref]

Mcdougall, T. J.

T. J. Mcdougall, D. R. Jackett, F. J. Millero, R. Pawlowicz, and P. M. Barker, “A global algorithm for estimating Absolute Salinity,” Ocean Sci. Discussions 8(6), 1123–1134 (2012).
[Crossref]

McKee, D.

Mcneil, G. T.

G. T. Mcneil, “Metrical Fundamentals of Underwater Lens System,” Opt. Eng. 16(2), 1079–1095 (1977).
[Crossref]

Meeten, G. H.

G. H. Meeten and A. N. North, “Refractive index measurement of absorbing and turbid fluids by reflection near the critical angle,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 6(2), 214–221 (1995).
[Crossref]

Menn, M. L.

M. L. Menn, J. L. de Bougrenet de la Tocnaye, P. Grosso, L. Delauney, C. Podeur, P. Brault, and O. Guillerme, “Advances in measuring ocean salinity with an optical sensor,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 22(11), 115202 (2011).
[Crossref]

P. Grosso, M. L. Menn, and Z. Y. Wu, Malard, andD. Eacute, “Practical versus absolute salinity measurements: New advances in high performance seawater salinity sensors,” Deep Sea Res. Part I Oceanogr. Res. Pap. 57(1), 151–156 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. P. Grosso, D. Malardé, M. L. Menn, and Z. Y. Wu, “Refractometer Resolution Limits For Measuring Seawater Refractive Index,” Opt. Eng. 49(10), 84 (2010).
[Crossref]

Millard, R. C.

R. C. Millard and G. Seaver, “An index of refraction algorithm for seawater over temperature, pressure, salinity, density, and wavelength,” Deep-Sea Res. A, Oceanogr. Res. Pap. 37(12), 1909–1926 (1990).
[Crossref]

Millero, F. J.

T. J. Mcdougall, D. R. Jackett, F. J. Millero, R. Pawlowicz, and P. M. Barker, “A global algorithm for estimating Absolute Salinity,” Ocean Sci. Discussions 8(6), 1123–1134 (2012).
[Crossref]

Minato, H.

H. Minato, Y. Kakui, A. Nishimoto, and M. Nanjo, “Remote refractive index difference meter for salinity sensor,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 38(2), 608–612 (1989).
[Crossref]

Morales-Luna, G.

G. Morales-Luna, H. Contreras-Tello, A. García-Valenzuela, and R. G. Barrera, “Experimental Test of Reflectivity Formulas for Turbid Colloids: Beyond the Fresnel Reflection Amplitudes,” J. Phys. Chem. B 120(3), 583–595 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nanjo, M.

H. Minato, Y. Kakui, A. Nishimoto, and M. Nanjo, “Remote refractive index difference meter for salinity sensor,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 38(2), 608–612 (1989).
[Crossref]

Navarrete, M. C.

N. Díazherrera, O. Esteban, M. C. Navarrete, M. Lehaitre, and A. Gonzálezcano, “In situ salinity measurements in seawater with a fibre-optic probe,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 17(8), 2227–2232 (2006).
[Crossref]

Ni, J.

Nishimoto, A.

H. Minato, Y. Kakui, A. Nishimoto, and M. Nanjo, “Remote refractive index difference meter for salinity sensor,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 38(2), 608–612 (1989).
[Crossref]

North, A. N.

G. H. Meeten and A. N. North, “Refractive index measurement of absorbing and turbid fluids by reflection near the critical angle,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 6(2), 214–221 (1995).
[Crossref]

Pask, H. M.

Pawlowicz, R.

T. J. Mcdougall, D. R. Jackett, F. J. Millero, R. Pawlowicz, and P. M. Barker, “A global algorithm for estimating Absolute Salinity,” Ocean Sci. Discussions 8(6), 1123–1134 (2012).
[Crossref]

Peña-Gomar, M.

Podeur, C.

M. L. Menn, J. L. de Bougrenet de la Tocnaye, P. Grosso, L. Delauney, C. Podeur, P. Brault, and O. Guillerme, “Advances in measuring ocean salinity with an optical sensor,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 22(11), 115202 (2011).
[Crossref]

Qiu, Z.

Quan, X.

Ran, Y.

L. Li, L. Xia, Y. Wuang, Y. Ran, C. Yang, and D. Liu, “Novel NCF-FBG Interferometer for Simultaneous Measurement of Refractive Index and Temperature,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(24), 2268–2271 (2012).
[Crossref]

Röttgers, R.

Sánchezpérez, C.

H. Contrerastello, R. Márquezislas, O. Vázquezestrada, C. Sánchezpérez, and A. Garcíavalenzuela, “Understanding the performance of Abbe-type refractometers with optically absorbing fluids,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 25(7), 075201 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sánchez-Pérez, C.

Sandoval-Romero, G. E.

Seaver, G.

R. C. Millard and G. Seaver, “An index of refraction algorithm for seawater over temperature, pressure, salinity, density, and wavelength,” Deep-Sea Res. A, Oceanogr. Res. Pap. 37(12), 1909–1926 (1990).
[Crossref]

Sobral, H.

Utschig, C.

Vázquezestrada, O.

H. Contrerastello, R. Márquezislas, O. Vázquezestrada, C. Sánchezpérez, and A. Garcíavalenzuela, “Understanding the performance of Abbe-type refractometers with optically absorbing fluids,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 25(7), 075201 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wu, Z. Y.

A. P. Grosso, D. Malardé, M. L. Menn, and Z. Y. Wu, “Refractometer Resolution Limits For Measuring Seawater Refractive Index,” Opt. Eng. 49(10), 84 (2010).
[Crossref]

P. Grosso, M. L. Menn, and Z. Y. Wu, Malard, andD. Eacute, “Practical versus absolute salinity measurements: New advances in high performance seawater salinity sensors,” Deep Sea Res. Part I Oceanogr. Res. Pap. 57(1), 151–156 (2010).
[Crossref]

D. Malardé, Z. Y. Wu, P. Grosso, J. L. de Bougrenet de la Tocnaye, and M. Lemenn, “High-resolution and compact refractometer for salinity measurements,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 20(1), 015204 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wuang, Y.

L. Li, L. Xia, Y. Wuang, Y. Ran, C. Yang, and D. Liu, “Novel NCF-FBG Interferometer for Simultaneous Measurement of Refractive Index and Temperature,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(24), 2268–2271 (2012).
[Crossref]

Xia, L.

L. Li, L. Xia, Y. Wuang, Y. Ran, C. Yang, and D. Liu, “Novel NCF-FBG Interferometer for Simultaneous Measurement of Refractive Index and Temperature,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(24), 2268–2271 (2012).
[Crossref]

Xia, M.

J. Ye, K. Yang, H. Liu, J. Dai, W. Guo, W. Li, and M. Xia, “Expand the measurement range of a critical angle refractometer by a centroid method for transparent fluids,” Opt. Laser Technol. 65, 175–179 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Liu, J. Ye, K. Yang, M. Xia, W. Guo, and W. Li, “Real part of refractive index measurement approach for absorbing liquid,” Appl. Opt. 54(19), 6046–6052 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Ye, M. Xia, H. Liu, W. Li, W. Guo, C. Xiong, and K. Yang, “Expanding the measurement range of a critical-angle refractometer through Fourier analysis,” EPL 104(2), 20001 (2013).
[Crossref]

W. Guo, M. Xia, W. Li, J. Dai, X. Zhang, and K. Yang, “A local curve-fitting method for the complex refractive index measurement of turbid media,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 23(4), 47001–47004 (2012).
[Crossref]

Xiong, C.

J. Ye, M. Xia, H. Liu, W. Li, W. Guo, C. Xiong, and K. Yang, “Expanding the measurement range of a critical-angle refractometer through Fourier analysis,” EPL 104(2), 20001 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yang, C.

L. Li, L. Xia, Y. Wuang, Y. Ran, C. Yang, and D. Liu, “Novel NCF-FBG Interferometer for Simultaneous Measurement of Refractive Index and Temperature,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(24), 2268–2271 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yang, K.

H. Liu, J. Ye, K. Yang, M. Xia, W. Guo, and W. Li, “Real part of refractive index measurement approach for absorbing liquid,” Appl. Opt. 54(19), 6046–6052 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Ye, K. Yang, H. Liu, J. Dai, W. Guo, W. Li, and M. Xia, “Expand the measurement range of a critical angle refractometer by a centroid method for transparent fluids,” Opt. Laser Technol. 65, 175–179 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Ye, M. Xia, H. Liu, W. Li, W. Guo, C. Xiong, and K. Yang, “Expanding the measurement range of a critical-angle refractometer through Fourier analysis,” EPL 104(2), 20001 (2013).
[Crossref]

W. Guo, M. Xia, W. Li, J. Dai, X. Zhang, and K. Yang, “A local curve-fitting method for the complex refractive index measurement of turbid media,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 23(4), 47001–47004 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yang, S. L.

J. H. Liu, S. L. Yang, Q. Zhu, and J. Zhang, “Controls on suspended sediment concentration profiles in the shallow and turbid Yangtze Estuary,” Cont. Shelf Res. 90, 96–108 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ye, J.

J. Ye, K. Yang, H. Liu, J. Dai, W. Guo, W. Li, and M. Xia, “Expand the measurement range of a critical angle refractometer by a centroid method for transparent fluids,” Opt. Laser Technol. 65, 175–179 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Liu, J. Ye, K. Yang, M. Xia, W. Guo, and W. Li, “Real part of refractive index measurement approach for absorbing liquid,” Appl. Opt. 54(19), 6046–6052 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Ye, M. Xia, H. Liu, W. Li, W. Guo, C. Xiong, and K. Yang, “Expanding the measurement range of a critical-angle refractometer through Fourier analysis,” EPL 104(2), 20001 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhang, J.

J. H. Liu, S. L. Yang, Q. Zhu, and J. Zhang, “Controls on suspended sediment concentration profiles in the shallow and turbid Yangtze Estuary,” Cont. Shelf Res. 90, 96–108 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X.

W. Guo, M. Xia, W. Li, J. Dai, X. Zhang, and K. Yang, “A local curve-fitting method for the complex refractive index measurement of turbid media,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 23(4), 47001–47004 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhao, Y.

Y. Zhao and Y. Liao, “Novel optical fiber sensor for simultaneous measurement of temperature and salinity,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 86(1), 63–67 (2002).
[Crossref]

Zhu, Q.

J. H. Liu, S. L. Yang, Q. Zhu, and J. Zhang, “Controls on suspended sediment concentration profiles in the shallow and turbid Yangtze Estuary,” Cont. Shelf Res. 90, 96–108 (2014).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (5)

Cont. Shelf Res. (1)

J. H. Liu, S. L. Yang, Q. Zhu, and J. Zhang, “Controls on suspended sediment concentration profiles in the shallow and turbid Yangtze Estuary,” Cont. Shelf Res. 90, 96–108 (2014).
[Crossref]

Deep Sea Res. Part I Oceanogr. Res. Pap. (1)

P. Grosso, M. L. Menn, and Z. Y. Wu, Malard, andD. Eacute, “Practical versus absolute salinity measurements: New advances in high performance seawater salinity sensors,” Deep Sea Res. Part I Oceanogr. Res. Pap. 57(1), 151–156 (2010).
[Crossref]

Deep-Sea Res. A, Oceanogr. Res. Pap. (1)

R. C. Millard and G. Seaver, “An index of refraction algorithm for seawater over temperature, pressure, salinity, density, and wavelength,” Deep-Sea Res. A, Oceanogr. Res. Pap. 37(12), 1909–1926 (1990).
[Crossref]

EPL (1)

J. Ye, M. Xia, H. Liu, W. Li, W. Guo, C. Xiong, and K. Yang, “Expanding the measurement range of a critical-angle refractometer through Fourier analysis,” EPL 104(2), 20001 (2013).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

L. Li, L. Xia, Y. Wuang, Y. Ran, C. Yang, and D. Liu, “Novel NCF-FBG Interferometer for Simultaneous Measurement of Refractive Index and Temperature,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(24), 2268–2271 (2012).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. (1)

H. Minato, Y. Kakui, A. Nishimoto, and M. Nanjo, “Remote refractive index difference meter for salinity sensor,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 38(2), 608–612 (1989).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. Chem. B (1)

G. Morales-Luna, H. Contreras-Tello, A. García-Valenzuela, and R. G. Barrera, “Experimental Test of Reflectivity Formulas for Turbid Colloids: Beyond the Fresnel Reflection Amplitudes,” J. Phys. Chem. B 120(3), 583–595 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (6)

W. Guo, M. Xia, W. Li, J. Dai, X. Zhang, and K. Yang, “A local curve-fitting method for the complex refractive index measurement of turbid media,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 23(4), 47001–47004 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. H. Meeten and A. N. North, “Refractive index measurement of absorbing and turbid fluids by reflection near the critical angle,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 6(2), 214–221 (1995).
[Crossref]

H. Contrerastello, R. Márquezislas, O. Vázquezestrada, C. Sánchezpérez, and A. Garcíavalenzuela, “Understanding the performance of Abbe-type refractometers with optically absorbing fluids,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 25(7), 075201 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Malardé, Z. Y. Wu, P. Grosso, J. L. de Bougrenet de la Tocnaye, and M. Lemenn, “High-resolution and compact refractometer for salinity measurements,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 20(1), 015204 (2009).
[Crossref]

N. Díazherrera, O. Esteban, M. C. Navarrete, M. Lehaitre, and A. Gonzálezcano, “In situ salinity measurements in seawater with a fibre-optic probe,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 17(8), 2227–2232 (2006).
[Crossref]

M. L. Menn, J. L. de Bougrenet de la Tocnaye, P. Grosso, L. Delauney, C. Podeur, P. Brault, and O. Guillerme, “Advances in measuring ocean salinity with an optical sensor,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 22(11), 115202 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ocean Sci. Discussions (1)

T. J. Mcdougall, D. R. Jackett, F. J. Millero, R. Pawlowicz, and P. M. Barker, “A global algorithm for estimating Absolute Salinity,” Ocean Sci. Discussions 8(6), 1123–1134 (2012).
[Crossref]

Opt. Eng. (4)

A. P. Grosso, D. Malardé, M. L. Menn, and Z. Y. Wu, “Refractometer Resolution Limits For Measuring Seawater Refractive Index,” Opt. Eng. 49(10), 84 (2010).
[Crossref]

G. T. Mcneil, “Metrical Fundamentals of Underwater Lens System,” Opt. Eng. 16(2), 1079–1095 (1977).
[Crossref]

B. Hou, “Turbidimeter based on a refractometer using a charge-coupled device,” Opt. Eng. 51(2), 160–168 (2012).
[Crossref]

B. Hou, P. Grosso, J.-L. de Bougrenet de la Tocnaye, and M. Le Menn, “Principle and implementations of a refracto-nephelo-turbidimeter for seawater measurements,” Opt. Eng. 52(4), 044402 (2013).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Laser Technol. (1)

J. Ye, K. Yang, H. Liu, J. Dai, W. Guo, W. Li, and M. Xia, “Expand the measurement range of a critical angle refractometer by a centroid method for transparent fluids,” Opt. Laser Technol. 65, 175–179 (2015).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Sens. Actuators B Chem. (1)

Y. Zhao and Y. Liao, “Novel optical fiber sensor for simultaneous measurement of temperature and salinity,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 86(1), 63–67 (2002).
[Crossref]

Other (2)

P. Ioc, “Th international thermodynamic equation of seawater-2010: Calculation and use of thermodynamic properties,” Ioc Paris (2010).

“CTD profilers”, http://www.seabird.com/products/profilers.htm .

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Theoretical variations in refractive index versus: (a) salinity for different temperature, (b) temperature for different salinities.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Optical structure of the TIR sensor.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Calibration curve: through calibration of 12 sets of data, a fitting curve with determination coefficient of 0.9975 is obtained.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Repeatability results
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Measuring results of the TIR sensor together with the temperature variation during the whole 10.5 hours. (b) Stability experiment results
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Temperature variation experiment results
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 (a) Photograph of settled environment of the TIR sensor. (b) Picture of the TIR sensor and CTD profiler.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Map of the Yangtze Estuary area, the point and the line shows the path of the underway monitoring experiment.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Measuring data of four typical paths during the cruise
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 Underway monitoring result of the Sea surface salinity in Yangtze Estuary Sea: (a) TIR sensor results, (b) CTD profiler results

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Repeatability analysis results

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

n( S,T,λ )= n 0 +( n 1 + n 2 T+ n 3 T 2 )S+ n 4 T 2 + n 5 + n 6 S+ n 7 T λ + n 8 λ 2 + n 9 λ 3
n sample = n glass sinα
d n liquid dT = n glass cosθ dθ dT + d n glass dT sinθ
n c = n 0 +α×( T T 0 )

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