Abstract

We propose a broadband tunable metamaterial absorber with near-unity absorption in the terahertz regime based on a target-patterned graphene sheet. Due to gradient diameter modulation of the graphene sheet and circular symmetry of the unit cell, broadband and polarization-independent properties are achieved in the absorber. A full-wave numerical simulation is performed, and the results show that the absorber’s bandwidth of 90% terahertz absorption reaches 1.57 THz with a central frequency of 1.83 THz under normal incidence. At oblique incidence, the broadband absorption of the absorber remains more than 75% over a wide incidence angles up to 60°for the transverse electric (TE) mode and 75°for the transverse magnetic (TM) mode. Furthermore, tunable property is implemented and the peak absorption of the absorber can be tuned from 19% to near 100% by changing the Fermi energy of the graphene sheet from 0 to 0.9 eV via electrostatic doping. The absorber is scalable to the infrared and visible frequencies, which could be used as tunable sensors, filters and photovoltaic devices.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  36. S. He and T. Chen, “Broadband THz absorbers with graphene-based anisotropic metamaterial films,” IEEE Trans. THz Sci. Technol. 3(6), 757–763 (2013).
  37. C. F. Chen, C. H. Park, B. W. Boudouris, J. Horng, B. Geng, C. Girit, A. Zettl, M. F. Crommie, R. A. Segalman, S. G. Louie, and F. Wang, “Controlling inelastic light scattering quantum pathways in graphene,” Nature 471(7340), 617–620 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2018 (4)

2017 (10)

M. Chen, L. Singh, N. Xu, R. Singh, W. Zhang, and L. Xie, “Terahertz sensing of highly absorptive water-methanol mixtures with multiple resonances in metamaterials,” Opt. Express 25(13), 14089–14097 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. I. Stantchev, D. B. Phillips, P. Hobson, S. M. Hornett, M. J. Padgett, and E. Hendry, “Compressed sensing with near-field THz radiation,” Optica 4(8), 989–992 (2017).
[Crossref]

D. Yi, X. C. Wei, and Y. L. Xu, “Tunable Microwave Absorber Based on Patterned Graphene,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 65(8), 2819–2826 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. L. Tsakmakidis, O. Hess, R. W. Boyd, and X. Zhang, “Ultraslow waves on the nanoscale,” Science 358, 5196 (2017).

N. Jiménez, V. Romero-García, V. Pagneux, and J. P. Groby, “Rainbow-trapping absorbers: Broadband, perfect and asymmetric sound absorption by subwavelength panels for transmission problems,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 13595 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Zhang, Y. Li, Y. Cao, Y. Liu, and H. Zhang, “Graphene induced tunable and polarization-insensitive broadband metamaterial absorber,” Opt. Commun. 382, 281–287 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Fardoost, F. G. Vanani, and R. Safian, “Design of a multilayer graphene-based ultrawideband terahertz absorber,” IEEE Trans. NanoTechnol. 16(1), 68–74 (2017).

Y. Pang, J. Wang, Q. Cheng, S. Xia, X. Y. Zhou, Z. Xu, T. J. Cui, and S. Qu, “Thermally tunable water-substrate broadband metamaterial absorbers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(10), 104103 (2017).
[Crossref]

E. S. Torabi, A. Fallahi, and A. Yahaghi, “Evolutionary Optimization of Graphene-Metal Metasurfaces for Tunable Broadband Terahertz Absorption,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 65(3), 1464–1467 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Zhang, C. Huang, M. Pu, J. Song, Z. Zhao, X. Wu, and X. Luo, “Dual-band wide-angle metamaterial perfect absorber based on the combination of localized surface plasmon resonance and Helmholtz resonance,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 5652 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (7)

X. Liu, C. Lan, B. Li, Q. Zhao, and J. Zhou, “Dual band metamaterial perfect absorber based on artificial dielectric “molecules”,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 28906 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. X. Wang, G. Z. Wang, and L. L. Wang, “Design of a novel dual-band terahertz metamaterial absorber,” Plasmonics 11(2), 523–530 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. N. Tran, V. H. Nguyen, B. H. Nguyen, and D. L. Vu, “Light trapping and plasmonic enhancement in silicon, dye-sensitized and titania solar cells,” Adv. Nat. Sci.: Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 7, 013001 (2016).

B. Mulla and C. Sabah, “Multiband metamaterial absorber design based on plasmonic resonances for solar energy harvesting,” Plasmonics 11(5), 1313–1321 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. He, P. Gao, and W. Shi, “A further comparison of graphene and thin metal layers for plasmonics,” Nanoscale 8(19), 10388–10397 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Yao, F. Ling, J. Yue, C. Luo, J. Ji, and J. Yao, “Dual-band tunable perfect metamaterial absorber in the THz range,” Opt. Express 24(2), 1518–1527 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Guo, Y. Liu, and T. Han, “Ultra-broadband infrared metasurface absorber,” Opt. Express 24(18), 20586–20592 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (3)

M. Faraji, M. K. Moravvej-Farshi, and L. Yousefi, “Tunable THz perfect absorber using graphene-based metamaterials,” Opt. Commun. 355, 352–355 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Liu, H. Chen, and T. J. Cui, “A broadband terahertz absorber using multi-layer stacked bars,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(15), 151601 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. He, “Tunable terahertz graphene metamaterials,” Carbon 82, 229–237 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

J. Zhu, Z. Ma, W. Sun, F. Ding, Q. He, L. Zhou, and Y. Ma, “Ultra-broadband terahertz metamaterial absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(2), 021102 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Low and P. Avouris, “Graphene plasmonics for terahertz to mid-infrared applications,” ACS Nano 8(2), 1086–1101 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (2)

S. He and T. Chen, “Broadband THz absorbers with graphene-based anisotropic metamaterial films,” IEEE Trans. THz Sci. Technol. 3(6), 757–763 (2013).

L. Huang and H. T. Chen, “A brief review on terahertz metamaterial perfect absorbers,” THz Sci. Technol. 6(1), 26–39 (2013).

2012 (4)

A. N. Grigorenko, M. Polini, and K. S. Novoselov, “Graphene plasmonics,” Nat. Photonics 6(11), 749–758 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Chen, M. Badioli, P. Alonso-González, S. Thongrattanasiri, F. Huth, J. Osmond, M. Spasenović, A. Centeno, A. Pesquera, P. Godignon, A. Z. Elorza, N. Camara, F. J. García de Abajo, R. Hillenbrand, and F. H. Koppens, “Optical nano-imaging of gate-tunable graphene plasmons,” Nature 487(7405), 77–81 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Cui, K. H. Fung, J. Xu, H. Ma, Y. Jin, S. He, and N. X. Fang, “Ultrabroadband light absorption by a sawtooth anisotropic metamaterial slab,” Nano Lett. 12(3), 1443–1447 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. T. Chen, “Interference theory of metamaterial perfect absorbers,” Opt. Express 20(7), 7165–7172 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (3)

C. F. Chen, C. H. Park, B. W. Boudouris, J. Horng, B. Geng, C. Girit, A. Zettl, M. F. Crommie, R. A. Segalman, S. G. Louie, and F. Wang, “Controlling inelastic light scattering quantum pathways in graphene,” Nature 471(7340), 617–620 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Graphene plasmonics for tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(10), 630–634 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Vakil and N. Engheta, “Transformation optics using graphene,” Science 332(6035), 1291–1294 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

N. Liu, L. Langguth, T. Weiss, J. Kästel, M. Fleischhauer, T. Pfau, and H. Giessen, “Plasmonic analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency at the Drude damping limit,” Nat. Mater. 8(9), 758–762 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(20), 207402 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alonso-González, P.

J. Chen, M. Badioli, P. Alonso-González, S. Thongrattanasiri, F. Huth, J. Osmond, M. Spasenović, A. Centeno, A. Pesquera, P. Godignon, A. Z. Elorza, N. Camara, F. J. García de Abajo, R. Hillenbrand, and F. H. Koppens, “Optical nano-imaging of gate-tunable graphene plasmons,” Nature 487(7405), 77–81 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Atwater, H. A.

S. Kim, M. S. Jang, V. W. Brar, K. W. Mauser, L. Kim, and H. A. Atwater, “Electronically tunable perfect absorption in graphene,” Nano Lett. 18(2), 971–979 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Avouris, P.

T. Low and P. Avouris, “Graphene plasmonics for terahertz to mid-infrared applications,” ACS Nano 8(2), 1086–1101 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Badioli, M.

J. Chen, M. Badioli, P. Alonso-González, S. Thongrattanasiri, F. Huth, J. Osmond, M. Spasenović, A. Centeno, A. Pesquera, P. Godignon, A. Z. Elorza, N. Camara, F. J. García de Abajo, R. Hillenbrand, and F. H. Koppens, “Optical nano-imaging of gate-tunable graphene plasmons,” Nature 487(7405), 77–81 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bechtel, H. A.

L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Graphene plasmonics for tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(10), 630–634 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boudouris, B. W.

C. F. Chen, C. H. Park, B. W. Boudouris, J. Horng, B. Geng, C. Girit, A. Zettl, M. F. Crommie, R. A. Segalman, S. G. Louie, and F. Wang, “Controlling inelastic light scattering quantum pathways in graphene,” Nature 471(7340), 617–620 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boyd, R. W.

K. L. Tsakmakidis, O. Hess, R. W. Boyd, and X. Zhang, “Ultraslow waves on the nanoscale,” Science 358, 5196 (2017).

Brar, V. W.

S. Kim, M. S. Jang, V. W. Brar, K. W. Mauser, L. Kim, and H. A. Atwater, “Electronically tunable perfect absorption in graphene,” Nano Lett. 18(2), 971–979 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Camara, N.

J. Chen, M. Badioli, P. Alonso-González, S. Thongrattanasiri, F. Huth, J. Osmond, M. Spasenović, A. Centeno, A. Pesquera, P. Godignon, A. Z. Elorza, N. Camara, F. J. García de Abajo, R. Hillenbrand, and F. H. Koppens, “Optical nano-imaging of gate-tunable graphene plasmons,” Nature 487(7405), 77–81 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cao, Y.

Y. Zhang, Y. Li, Y. Cao, Y. Liu, and H. Zhang, “Graphene induced tunable and polarization-insensitive broadband metamaterial absorber,” Opt. Commun. 382, 281–287 (2017).
[Crossref]

Centeno, A.

J. Chen, M. Badioli, P. Alonso-González, S. Thongrattanasiri, F. Huth, J. Osmond, M. Spasenović, A. Centeno, A. Pesquera, P. Godignon, A. Z. Elorza, N. Camara, F. J. García de Abajo, R. Hillenbrand, and F. H. Koppens, “Optical nano-imaging of gate-tunable graphene plasmons,” Nature 487(7405), 77–81 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, C. F.

C. F. Chen, C. H. Park, B. W. Boudouris, J. Horng, B. Geng, C. Girit, A. Zettl, M. F. Crommie, R. A. Segalman, S. G. Louie, and F. Wang, “Controlling inelastic light scattering quantum pathways in graphene,” Nature 471(7340), 617–620 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, H.

S. Liu, H. Chen, and T. J. Cui, “A broadband terahertz absorber using multi-layer stacked bars,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(15), 151601 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chen, H. T.

L. Huang and H. T. Chen, “A brief review on terahertz metamaterial perfect absorbers,” THz Sci. Technol. 6(1), 26–39 (2013).

H. T. Chen, “Interference theory of metamaterial perfect absorbers,” Opt. Express 20(7), 7165–7172 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, J.

J. Chen, M. Badioli, P. Alonso-González, S. Thongrattanasiri, F. Huth, J. Osmond, M. Spasenović, A. Centeno, A. Pesquera, P. Godignon, A. Z. Elorza, N. Camara, F. J. García de Abajo, R. Hillenbrand, and F. H. Koppens, “Optical nano-imaging of gate-tunable graphene plasmons,” Nature 487(7405), 77–81 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, M.

Chen, T.

S. He and T. Chen, “Broadband THz absorbers with graphene-based anisotropic metamaterial films,” IEEE Trans. THz Sci. Technol. 3(6), 757–763 (2013).

Cheng, Q.

Y. Pang, J. Wang, Q. Cheng, S. Xia, X. Y. Zhou, Z. Xu, T. J. Cui, and S. Qu, “Thermally tunable water-substrate broadband metamaterial absorbers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(10), 104103 (2017).
[Crossref]

Crommie, M. F.

C. F. Chen, C. H. Park, B. W. Boudouris, J. Horng, B. Geng, C. Girit, A. Zettl, M. F. Crommie, R. A. Segalman, S. G. Louie, and F. Wang, “Controlling inelastic light scattering quantum pathways in graphene,” Nature 471(7340), 617–620 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cui, T. J.

Y. Pang, J. Wang, Q. Cheng, S. Xia, X. Y. Zhou, Z. Xu, T. J. Cui, and S. Qu, “Thermally tunable water-substrate broadband metamaterial absorbers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(10), 104103 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Liu, H. Chen, and T. J. Cui, “A broadband terahertz absorber using multi-layer stacked bars,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(15), 151601 (2015).
[Crossref]

Cui, Y.

Y. Cui, K. H. Fung, J. Xu, H. Ma, Y. Jin, S. He, and N. X. Fang, “Ultrabroadband light absorption by a sawtooth anisotropic metamaterial slab,” Nano Lett. 12(3), 1443–1447 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ding, F.

J. Zhu, Z. Ma, W. Sun, F. Ding, Q. He, L. Zhou, and Y. Ma, “Ultra-broadband terahertz metamaterial absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(2), 021102 (2014).
[Crossref]

Dong, J.

Elorza, A. Z.

J. Chen, M. Badioli, P. Alonso-González, S. Thongrattanasiri, F. Huth, J. Osmond, M. Spasenović, A. Centeno, A. Pesquera, P. Godignon, A. Z. Elorza, N. Camara, F. J. García de Abajo, R. Hillenbrand, and F. H. Koppens, “Optical nano-imaging of gate-tunable graphene plasmons,” Nature 487(7405), 77–81 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Engheta, N.

A. Vakil and N. Engheta, “Transformation optics using graphene,” Science 332(6035), 1291–1294 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fallahi, A.

E. S. Torabi, A. Fallahi, and A. Yahaghi, “Evolutionary Optimization of Graphene-Metal Metasurfaces for Tunable Broadband Terahertz Absorption,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 65(3), 1464–1467 (2017).
[Crossref]

Fang, N. X.

Y. Cui, K. H. Fung, J. Xu, H. Ma, Y. Jin, S. He, and N. X. Fang, “Ultrabroadband light absorption by a sawtooth anisotropic metamaterial slab,” Nano Lett. 12(3), 1443–1447 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Faraji, M.

M. Faraji, M. K. Moravvej-Farshi, and L. Yousefi, “Tunable THz perfect absorber using graphene-based metamaterials,” Opt. Commun. 355, 352–355 (2015).
[Crossref]

Fardoost, A.

A. Fardoost, F. G. Vanani, and R. Safian, “Design of a multilayer graphene-based ultrawideband terahertz absorber,” IEEE Trans. NanoTechnol. 16(1), 68–74 (2017).

Fleischhauer, M.

N. Liu, L. Langguth, T. Weiss, J. Kästel, M. Fleischhauer, T. Pfau, and H. Giessen, “Plasmonic analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency at the Drude damping limit,” Nat. Mater. 8(9), 758–762 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fung, K. H.

Y. Cui, K. H. Fung, J. Xu, H. Ma, Y. Jin, S. He, and N. X. Fang, “Ultrabroadband light absorption by a sawtooth anisotropic metamaterial slab,” Nano Lett. 12(3), 1443–1447 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gao, P.

X. He, P. Gao, and W. Shi, “A further comparison of graphene and thin metal layers for plasmonics,” Nanoscale 8(19), 10388–10397 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

García de Abajo, F. J.

J. Chen, M. Badioli, P. Alonso-González, S. Thongrattanasiri, F. Huth, J. Osmond, M. Spasenović, A. Centeno, A. Pesquera, P. Godignon, A. Z. Elorza, N. Camara, F. J. García de Abajo, R. Hillenbrand, and F. H. Koppens, “Optical nano-imaging of gate-tunable graphene plasmons,” Nature 487(7405), 77–81 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Geng, B.

L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Graphene plasmonics for tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(10), 630–634 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. F. Chen, C. H. Park, B. W. Boudouris, J. Horng, B. Geng, C. Girit, A. Zettl, M. F. Crommie, R. A. Segalman, S. G. Louie, and F. Wang, “Controlling inelastic light scattering quantum pathways in graphene,” Nature 471(7340), 617–620 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Giessen, H.

N. Liu, L. Langguth, T. Weiss, J. Kästel, M. Fleischhauer, T. Pfau, and H. Giessen, “Plasmonic analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency at the Drude damping limit,” Nat. Mater. 8(9), 758–762 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Girit, C.

L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Graphene plasmonics for tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(10), 630–634 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. F. Chen, C. H. Park, B. W. Boudouris, J. Horng, B. Geng, C. Girit, A. Zettl, M. F. Crommie, R. A. Segalman, S. G. Louie, and F. Wang, “Controlling inelastic light scattering quantum pathways in graphene,” Nature 471(7340), 617–620 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Godignon, P.

J. Chen, M. Badioli, P. Alonso-González, S. Thongrattanasiri, F. Huth, J. Osmond, M. Spasenović, A. Centeno, A. Pesquera, P. Godignon, A. Z. Elorza, N. Camara, F. J. García de Abajo, R. Hillenbrand, and F. H. Koppens, “Optical nano-imaging of gate-tunable graphene plasmons,” Nature 487(7405), 77–81 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grigorenko, A. N.

A. N. Grigorenko, M. Polini, and K. S. Novoselov, “Graphene plasmonics,” Nat. Photonics 6(11), 749–758 (2012).
[Crossref]

Groby, J. P.

N. Jiménez, V. Romero-García, V. Pagneux, and J. P. Groby, “Rainbow-trapping absorbers: Broadband, perfect and asymmetric sound absorption by subwavelength panels for transmission problems,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 13595 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guo, W.

Han, T.

Hao, Z.

L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Graphene plasmonics for tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(10), 630–634 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

He, Q.

J. Zhu, Z. Ma, W. Sun, F. Ding, Q. He, L. Zhou, and Y. Ma, “Ultra-broadband terahertz metamaterial absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(2), 021102 (2014).
[Crossref]

He, S.

S. He and T. Chen, “Broadband THz absorbers with graphene-based anisotropic metamaterial films,” IEEE Trans. THz Sci. Technol. 3(6), 757–763 (2013).

Y. Cui, K. H. Fung, J. Xu, H. Ma, Y. Jin, S. He, and N. X. Fang, “Ultrabroadband light absorption by a sawtooth anisotropic metamaterial slab,” Nano Lett. 12(3), 1443–1447 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

He, X.

Hendry, E.

Hess, O.

K. L. Tsakmakidis, O. Hess, R. W. Boyd, and X. Zhang, “Ultraslow waves on the nanoscale,” Science 358, 5196 (2017).

Hillenbrand, R.

J. Chen, M. Badioli, P. Alonso-González, S. Thongrattanasiri, F. Huth, J. Osmond, M. Spasenović, A. Centeno, A. Pesquera, P. Godignon, A. Z. Elorza, N. Camara, F. J. García de Abajo, R. Hillenbrand, and F. H. Koppens, “Optical nano-imaging of gate-tunable graphene plasmons,” Nature 487(7405), 77–81 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hobson, P.

Hornett, S. M.

Horng, J.

L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Graphene plasmonics for tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(10), 630–634 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. F. Chen, C. H. Park, B. W. Boudouris, J. Horng, B. Geng, C. Girit, A. Zettl, M. F. Crommie, R. A. Segalman, S. G. Louie, and F. Wang, “Controlling inelastic light scattering quantum pathways in graphene,” Nature 471(7340), 617–620 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, C.

C. Zhang, C. Huang, M. Pu, J. Song, Z. Zhao, X. Wu, and X. Luo, “Dual-band wide-angle metamaterial perfect absorber based on the combination of localized surface plasmon resonance and Helmholtz resonance,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 5652 (2017).
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L. Huang and H. T. Chen, “A brief review on terahertz metamaterial perfect absorbers,” THz Sci. Technol. 6(1), 26–39 (2013).

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J. Chen, M. Badioli, P. Alonso-González, S. Thongrattanasiri, F. Huth, J. Osmond, M. Spasenović, A. Centeno, A. Pesquera, P. Godignon, A. Z. Elorza, N. Camara, F. J. García de Abajo, R. Hillenbrand, and F. H. Koppens, “Optical nano-imaging of gate-tunable graphene plasmons,” Nature 487(7405), 77–81 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jang, M. S.

S. Kim, M. S. Jang, V. W. Brar, K. W. Mauser, L. Kim, and H. A. Atwater, “Electronically tunable perfect absorption in graphene,” Nano Lett. 18(2), 971–979 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ji, J.

Jiang, Y. N.

Jiménez, N.

N. Jiménez, V. Romero-García, V. Pagneux, and J. P. Groby, “Rainbow-trapping absorbers: Broadband, perfect and asymmetric sound absorption by subwavelength panels for transmission problems,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 13595 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jin, Y.

Y. Cui, K. H. Fung, J. Xu, H. Ma, Y. Jin, S. He, and N. X. Fang, “Ultrabroadband light absorption by a sawtooth anisotropic metamaterial slab,” Nano Lett. 12(3), 1443–1447 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ju, L.

L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Graphene plasmonics for tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(10), 630–634 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kästel, J.

N. Liu, L. Langguth, T. Weiss, J. Kästel, M. Fleischhauer, T. Pfau, and H. Giessen, “Plasmonic analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency at the Drude damping limit,” Nat. Mater. 8(9), 758–762 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, L.

S. Kim, M. S. Jang, V. W. Brar, K. W. Mauser, L. Kim, and H. A. Atwater, “Electronically tunable perfect absorption in graphene,” Nano Lett. 18(2), 971–979 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, S.

S. Kim, M. S. Jang, V. W. Brar, K. W. Mauser, L. Kim, and H. A. Atwater, “Electronically tunable perfect absorption in graphene,” Nano Lett. 18(2), 971–979 (2018).
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Koppens, F. H.

J. Chen, M. Badioli, P. Alonso-González, S. Thongrattanasiri, F. Huth, J. Osmond, M. Spasenović, A. Centeno, A. Pesquera, P. Godignon, A. Z. Elorza, N. Camara, F. J. García de Abajo, R. Hillenbrand, and F. H. Koppens, “Optical nano-imaging of gate-tunable graphene plasmons,” Nature 487(7405), 77–81 (2012).
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X. Liu, C. Lan, B. Li, Q. Zhao, and J. Zhou, “Dual band metamaterial perfect absorber based on artificial dielectric “molecules”,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 28906 (2016).
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Landy, N. I.

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(20), 207402 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Langguth, L.

N. Liu, L. Langguth, T. Weiss, J. Kästel, M. Fleischhauer, T. Pfau, and H. Giessen, “Plasmonic analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency at the Drude damping limit,” Nat. Mater. 8(9), 758–762 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, B.

X. Liu, C. Lan, B. Li, Q. Zhao, and J. Zhou, “Dual band metamaterial perfect absorber based on artificial dielectric “molecules”,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 28906 (2016).
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Y. Zhang, Y. Li, Y. Cao, Y. Liu, and H. Zhang, “Graphene induced tunable and polarization-insensitive broadband metamaterial absorber,” Opt. Commun. 382, 281–287 (2017).
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L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Graphene plasmonics for tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(10), 630–634 (2011).
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Lin, F.

Ling, F.

Liu, F.

Liu, N.

N. Liu, L. Langguth, T. Weiss, J. Kästel, M. Fleischhauer, T. Pfau, and H. Giessen, “Plasmonic analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency at the Drude damping limit,” Nat. Mater. 8(9), 758–762 (2009).
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S. Liu, H. Chen, and T. J. Cui, “A broadband terahertz absorber using multi-layer stacked bars,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(15), 151601 (2015).
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Liu, X.

X. Liu, C. Lan, B. Li, Q. Zhao, and J. Zhou, “Dual band metamaterial perfect absorber based on artificial dielectric “molecules”,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 28906 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, Y.

Y. Zhang, Y. Li, Y. Cao, Y. Liu, and H. Zhang, “Graphene induced tunable and polarization-insensitive broadband metamaterial absorber,” Opt. Commun. 382, 281–287 (2017).
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W. Guo, Y. Liu, and T. Han, “Ultra-broadband infrared metasurface absorber,” Opt. Express 24(18), 20586–20592 (2016).
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Louie, S. G.

C. F. Chen, C. H. Park, B. W. Boudouris, J. Horng, B. Geng, C. Girit, A. Zettl, M. F. Crommie, R. A. Segalman, S. G. Louie, and F. Wang, “Controlling inelastic light scattering quantum pathways in graphene,” Nature 471(7340), 617–620 (2011).
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T. Low and P. Avouris, “Graphene plasmonics for terahertz to mid-infrared applications,” ACS Nano 8(2), 1086–1101 (2014).
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Luo, C.

Luo, X.

C. Zhang, C. Huang, M. Pu, J. Song, Z. Zhao, X. Wu, and X. Luo, “Dual-band wide-angle metamaterial perfect absorber based on the combination of localized surface plasmon resonance and Helmholtz resonance,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 5652 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ma, H.

Y. Cui, K. H. Fung, J. Xu, H. Ma, Y. Jin, S. He, and N. X. Fang, “Ultrabroadband light absorption by a sawtooth anisotropic metamaterial slab,” Nano Lett. 12(3), 1443–1447 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ma, Y.

J. Zhu, Z. Ma, W. Sun, F. Ding, Q. He, L. Zhou, and Y. Ma, “Ultra-broadband terahertz metamaterial absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(2), 021102 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ma, Z.

J. Zhu, Z. Ma, W. Sun, F. Ding, Q. He, L. Zhou, and Y. Ma, “Ultra-broadband terahertz metamaterial absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(2), 021102 (2014).
[Crossref]

Martin, M.

L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Graphene plasmonics for tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(10), 630–634 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mauser, K. W.

S. Kim, M. S. Jang, V. W. Brar, K. W. Mauser, L. Kim, and H. A. Atwater, “Electronically tunable perfect absorption in graphene,” Nano Lett. 18(2), 971–979 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mock, J. J.

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(20), 207402 (2008).
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Moravvej-Farshi, M. K.

M. Faraji, M. K. Moravvej-Farshi, and L. Yousefi, “Tunable THz perfect absorber using graphene-based metamaterials,” Opt. Commun. 355, 352–355 (2015).
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Mulla, B.

B. Mulla and C. Sabah, “Multiband metamaterial absorber design based on plasmonic resonances for solar energy harvesting,” Plasmonics 11(5), 1313–1321 (2016).
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Nguyen, B. H.

H. N. Tran, V. H. Nguyen, B. H. Nguyen, and D. L. Vu, “Light trapping and plasmonic enhancement in silicon, dye-sensitized and titania solar cells,” Adv. Nat. Sci.: Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 7, 013001 (2016).

Nguyen, V. H.

H. N. Tran, V. H. Nguyen, B. H. Nguyen, and D. L. Vu, “Light trapping and plasmonic enhancement in silicon, dye-sensitized and titania solar cells,” Adv. Nat. Sci.: Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 7, 013001 (2016).

Novoselov, K. S.

A. N. Grigorenko, M. Polini, and K. S. Novoselov, “Graphene plasmonics,” Nat. Photonics 6(11), 749–758 (2012).
[Crossref]

Osmond, J.

J. Chen, M. Badioli, P. Alonso-González, S. Thongrattanasiri, F. Huth, J. Osmond, M. Spasenović, A. Centeno, A. Pesquera, P. Godignon, A. Z. Elorza, N. Camara, F. J. García de Abajo, R. Hillenbrand, and F. H. Koppens, “Optical nano-imaging of gate-tunable graphene plasmons,” Nature 487(7405), 77–81 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Padgett, M. J.

Padilla, W. J.

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(20), 207402 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pagneux, V.

N. Jiménez, V. Romero-García, V. Pagneux, and J. P. Groby, “Rainbow-trapping absorbers: Broadband, perfect and asymmetric sound absorption by subwavelength panels for transmission problems,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 13595 (2017).
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Pang, Y.

Y. Pang, J. Wang, Q. Cheng, S. Xia, X. Y. Zhou, Z. Xu, T. J. Cui, and S. Qu, “Thermally tunable water-substrate broadband metamaterial absorbers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(10), 104103 (2017).
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Park, C. H.

C. F. Chen, C. H. Park, B. W. Boudouris, J. Horng, B. Geng, C. Girit, A. Zettl, M. F. Crommie, R. A. Segalman, S. G. Louie, and F. Wang, “Controlling inelastic light scattering quantum pathways in graphene,” Nature 471(7340), 617–620 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pesquera, A.

J. Chen, M. Badioli, P. Alonso-González, S. Thongrattanasiri, F. Huth, J. Osmond, M. Spasenović, A. Centeno, A. Pesquera, P. Godignon, A. Z. Elorza, N. Camara, F. J. García de Abajo, R. Hillenbrand, and F. H. Koppens, “Optical nano-imaging of gate-tunable graphene plasmons,” Nature 487(7405), 77–81 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pfau, T.

N. Liu, L. Langguth, T. Weiss, J. Kästel, M. Fleischhauer, T. Pfau, and H. Giessen, “Plasmonic analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency at the Drude damping limit,” Nat. Mater. 8(9), 758–762 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phillips, D. B.

Polini, M.

A. N. Grigorenko, M. Polini, and K. S. Novoselov, “Graphene plasmonics,” Nat. Photonics 6(11), 749–758 (2012).
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Pu, M.

C. Zhang, C. Huang, M. Pu, J. Song, Z. Zhao, X. Wu, and X. Luo, “Dual-band wide-angle metamaterial perfect absorber based on the combination of localized surface plasmon resonance and Helmholtz resonance,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 5652 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Qu, S.

Y. Pang, J. Wang, Q. Cheng, S. Xia, X. Y. Zhou, Z. Xu, T. J. Cui, and S. Qu, “Thermally tunable water-substrate broadband metamaterial absorbers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(10), 104103 (2017).
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Romero-García, V.

N. Jiménez, V. Romero-García, V. Pagneux, and J. P. Groby, “Rainbow-trapping absorbers: Broadband, perfect and asymmetric sound absorption by subwavelength panels for transmission problems,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 13595 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sabah, C.

B. Mulla and C. Sabah, “Multiband metamaterial absorber design based on plasmonic resonances for solar energy harvesting,” Plasmonics 11(5), 1313–1321 (2016).
[Crossref]

Safian, R.

A. Fardoost, F. G. Vanani, and R. Safian, “Design of a multilayer graphene-based ultrawideband terahertz absorber,” IEEE Trans. NanoTechnol. 16(1), 68–74 (2017).

Sajuyigbe, S.

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(20), 207402 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Segalman, R. A.

C. F. Chen, C. H. Park, B. W. Boudouris, J. Horng, B. Geng, C. Girit, A. Zettl, M. F. Crommie, R. A. Segalman, S. G. Louie, and F. Wang, “Controlling inelastic light scattering quantum pathways in graphene,” Nature 471(7340), 617–620 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shen, Y. R.

L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Graphene plasmonics for tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(10), 630–634 (2011).
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Shi, C.

Shi, W.

X. He, F. Liu, F. Lin, and W. Shi, “Graphene patterns supported terahertz tunable plasmon induced transparency,” Opt. Express 26(8), 9931–9944 (2018).
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X. He, P. Gao, and W. Shi, “A further comparison of graphene and thin metal layers for plasmonics,” Nanoscale 8(19), 10388–10397 (2016).
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Singh, L.

Singh, R.

Smith, D. R.

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(20), 207402 (2008).
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Song, J.

C. Zhang, C. Huang, M. Pu, J. Song, Z. Zhao, X. Wu, and X. Luo, “Dual-band wide-angle metamaterial perfect absorber based on the combination of localized surface plasmon resonance and Helmholtz resonance,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 5652 (2017).
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Spasenovic, M.

J. Chen, M. Badioli, P. Alonso-González, S. Thongrattanasiri, F. Huth, J. Osmond, M. Spasenović, A. Centeno, A. Pesquera, P. Godignon, A. Z. Elorza, N. Camara, F. J. García de Abajo, R. Hillenbrand, and F. H. Koppens, “Optical nano-imaging of gate-tunable graphene plasmons,” Nature 487(7405), 77–81 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stantchev, R. I.

Sun, W.

J. Zhu, Z. Ma, W. Sun, F. Ding, Q. He, L. Zhou, and Y. Ma, “Ultra-broadband terahertz metamaterial absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(2), 021102 (2014).
[Crossref]

Tang, M. C.

Thongrattanasiri, S.

J. Chen, M. Badioli, P. Alonso-González, S. Thongrattanasiri, F. Huth, J. Osmond, M. Spasenović, A. Centeno, A. Pesquera, P. Godignon, A. Z. Elorza, N. Camara, F. J. García de Abajo, R. Hillenbrand, and F. H. Koppens, “Optical nano-imaging of gate-tunable graphene plasmons,” Nature 487(7405), 77–81 (2012).
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E. S. Torabi, A. Fallahi, and A. Yahaghi, “Evolutionary Optimization of Graphene-Metal Metasurfaces for Tunable Broadband Terahertz Absorption,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 65(3), 1464–1467 (2017).
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Tran, H. N.

H. N. Tran, V. H. Nguyen, B. H. Nguyen, and D. L. Vu, “Light trapping and plasmonic enhancement in silicon, dye-sensitized and titania solar cells,” Adv. Nat. Sci.: Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 7, 013001 (2016).

Tsakmakidis, K. L.

K. L. Tsakmakidis, O. Hess, R. W. Boyd, and X. Zhang, “Ultraslow waves on the nanoscale,” Science 358, 5196 (2017).

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A. Vakil and N. Engheta, “Transformation optics using graphene,” Science 332(6035), 1291–1294 (2011).
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A. Fardoost, F. G. Vanani, and R. Safian, “Design of a multilayer graphene-based ultrawideband terahertz absorber,” IEEE Trans. NanoTechnol. 16(1), 68–74 (2017).

Vu, D. L.

H. N. Tran, V. H. Nguyen, B. H. Nguyen, and D. L. Vu, “Light trapping and plasmonic enhancement in silicon, dye-sensitized and titania solar cells,” Adv. Nat. Sci.: Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 7, 013001 (2016).

Wang, B. X.

B. X. Wang, G. Z. Wang, and L. L. Wang, “Design of a novel dual-band terahertz metamaterial absorber,” Plasmonics 11(2), 523–530 (2016).
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C. F. Chen, C. H. Park, B. W. Boudouris, J. Horng, B. Geng, C. Girit, A. Zettl, M. F. Crommie, R. A. Segalman, S. G. Louie, and F. Wang, “Controlling inelastic light scattering quantum pathways in graphene,” Nature 471(7340), 617–620 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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D. Yi, X. C. Wei, and Y. L. Xu, “Tunable Microwave Absorber Based on Patterned Graphene,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 65(8), 2819–2826 (2017).
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C. Zhang, C. Huang, M. Pu, J. Song, Z. Zhao, X. Wu, and X. Luo, “Dual-band wide-angle metamaterial perfect absorber based on the combination of localized surface plasmon resonance and Helmholtz resonance,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 5652 (2017).
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D. Yi, X. C. Wei, and Y. L. Xu, “Tunable Microwave Absorber Based on Patterned Graphene,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 65(8), 2819–2826 (2017).
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Y. Pang, J. Wang, Q. Cheng, S. Xia, X. Y. Zhou, Z. Xu, T. J. Cui, and S. Qu, “Thermally tunable water-substrate broadband metamaterial absorbers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(10), 104103 (2017).
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J. Zhu, Z. Ma, W. Sun, F. Ding, Q. He, L. Zhou, and Y. Ma, “Ultra-broadband terahertz metamaterial absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(2), 021102 (2014).
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IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. (1)

D. Yi, X. C. Wei, and Y. L. Xu, “Tunable Microwave Absorber Based on Patterned Graphene,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 65(8), 2819–2826 (2017).
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L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Graphene plasmonics for tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(10), 630–634 (2011).
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X. Liu, C. Lan, B. Li, Q. Zhao, and J. Zhou, “Dual band metamaterial perfect absorber based on artificial dielectric “molecules”,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 28906 (2016).
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C. Zhang, C. Huang, M. Pu, J. Song, Z. Zhao, X. Wu, and X. Luo, “Dual-band wide-angle metamaterial perfect absorber based on the combination of localized surface plasmon resonance and Helmholtz resonance,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 5652 (2017).
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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Proposed broadband metamaterial absorber with a target-patterned graphene layer. (a) Schematic of the proposed broadband tunable metamaterial absorber. (b) Top view of the unit cell, (c) Perspective view of the unit cell. The geometry parameters of the proposed structure are set as (unit: μm): p=75,h=27,R=23, R 11 =24, R 12 =35,g=1,n=0.2.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Simulated absorption spectra of the absorber under normal incidence when the chemical potential of graphene is set to be μ c =0.7eV.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Absorption spectra of the absorber under different thickness of TOPAS dielectric spacer.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Electric field distribution of the proposed absorber at 0.2, 0.8, 1.6, and 2.2 THz, (a) for the TE mode, and (b) the TM mode, when under normal incidence with the chemical potential of graphene μ c =0.7eV.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Surface current distribution of the proposed absorber at 0.2, 0.8, 1.6, and 2.2 THz, (a) on the front layer; and (b) the back ground layer, when under normal incidence with the chemical potential of graphene μ c =0.7eV.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Simulated absorption spectra of the absorber for different polarization angles from 0° to 90° with step width 10° under normal incidence.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Absorption contour map of the absorber as a function of incidence angles and frequency under oblique incident angels from 0°to 80°with the step width 10°,(a) for the TE mode, and (b) for the TM mode. where μ c =0.7eV.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Absorption spectra of the absorber with different Fermi energy of graphene sheet from 0 to 0.9 eV.

Equations (1)

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σ intra (ω, μ c ,Γ,Τ)= j e 2 π 2 (ωj2Γ) 0 ( f d (ξ, μ c ,Τ) ξ f d (ξ, μ c ,Τ) ξ ) ξdξ,

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