Abstract

Lens-free holographic microscopy offers sub-micron resolution over an ultra-large field-of-view >20 mm2, making it suitable for bio-sensing applications that require the detection of small targets at low concentrations. Various pixel super-resolution techniques have been shown to enhance resolution and boost signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) by combining multiple partially-redundant low-resolution frames. However, it has been unclear which technique performs best for small-target sensing. Here, we quantitatively compare SNR and resolution in experiments using no regularization, cardinal-neighbor regularization, and a novel implementation of sparsity-promoting regularization that uses analytically-calculated gradients from Bayer-pattern image sensors. We find that sparsity-promoting regularization enhances the SNR by ~8 dB compared to the other methods when imaging micron-scale beads with surface coverages up to ~4%.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

Full Article  |  PDF Article

Corrections

19 September 2018: Typographical corrections were made to the body text.


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References

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2018 (1)

2017 (3)

2016 (7)

J. Su, “Reply to “Comment on ‘Label-free single exosome detection using frequency-locked microtoroid optical resonators,’”,” ACS Photonics 3(4), 718 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Su, A. F. Goldberg, and B. M. Stoltz, “Label-free detection of single nanoparticles and biological molecules using microtoroid optical resonators,” Light Sci. Appl. 5(1), e16001 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Ozcan and E. McLeod, “Lensless imaging and sensing,” Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. 18(1), 77–102 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Mehrotra, “Biosensors and their applications - A review,” J. Oral Biol. Craniofac. Res. 6(2), 153–159 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Rivenson, Y. Wu, H. Wang, Y. Zhang, A. Feizi, and A. Ozcan, “Sparsity-based multi-height phase recovery in holographic microscopy,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 37862 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Song, C. Leon Swisher, H. Im, S. Jeong, D. Pathania, Y. Iwamoto, M. Pivovarov, R. Weissleder, and H. Lee, “Sparsity-based pixel super resolution for lens-free digital in-line holography,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 24681 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. McLeod and A. Ozcan, “Unconventional methods of imaging: computational microscopy and compact implementations,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 79(7), 076001 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (2)

Z. Göröcs, E. McLeod, and A. Ozcan, “Enhanced light collection in fluorescence microscopy using self-assembled micro-reflectors,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 10999 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. McLeod, T. U. Dincer, M. Veli, Y. N. Ertas, C. Nguyen, W. Luo, A. Greenbaum, A. Feizi, and A. Ozcan, “High-throughput and label-free single nanoparticle sizing based on time-resolved on-chip microscopy,” ACS Nano 9(3), 3265–3273 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (5)

J. Musayev, C. Altiner, Y. Adiguzel, H. Kulah, S. Eminoglu, and T. Akin, “Capturing and detection of MCF-7 breast cancer cells with a CMOS image sensor,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 215, 105–114 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Saeki, M. Hosokawa, T. K. Lim, M. Harada, T. Matsunaga, and T. Tanaka, “Digital cell counting device integrated with a single-cell array,” PLoS One 9(2), e89011 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Wei, W. Luo, S. Chiang, T. Kappel, C. Mejia, D. Tseng, R. Y. L. Chan, E. Yan, H. Qi, F. Shabbir, H. Ozkan, S. Feng, and A. Ozcan, “Imaging and sizing of single DNA molecules on a mobile phone,” ACS Nano 8(12), 12725–12733 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. McLeod, C. Nguyen, P. Huang, W. Luo, M. Veli, and A. Ozcan, “Tunable vapor-condensed nanolenses,” ACS Nano 8(7), 7340–7349 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. McLeod and A. Ozcan, “Nano-imaging enabled via self-assembly,” Nano Today 9(5), 560–573 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (8)

Y. Hennequin, C. P. Allier, E. McLeod, O. Mudanyali, D. Migliozzi, A. Ozcan, and J.-M. Dinten, “Optical detection and sizing of single nanoparticles using continuous wetting films,” ACS Nano 7(9), 7601–7609 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. McLeod, W. Luo, O. Mudanyali, A. Greenbaum, and A. Ozcan, “Toward giga-pixel nanoscopy on a chip: a computational wide-field look at the nano-scale without the use of lenses,” Lab Chip 13(11), 2028–2035 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Mudanyali, E. McLeod, W. Luo, A. Greenbaum, A. F. Coskun, Y. Hennequin, C. P. Allier, and A. Ozcan, “Wide-field optical detection of nanoparticles using on-chip microscopy and self-assembled nanolenses,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 247–254 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. R. Monroe, G. G. Daaboul, A. Tuysuzoglu, C. A. Lopez, F. F. Little, and M. S. Unlü, “Single nanoparticle detection for multiplexed protein diagnostics with attomolar sensitivity in serum and unprocessed whole blood,” Anal. Chem. 85(7), 3698–3706 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Colle, D. Vercruysse, S. Peeters, C. Liu, T. Stakenborg, L. Lagae, and J. Del-Favero, “Lens-free imaging of magnetic particles in DNA assays,” Lab Chip 13(21), 4257–4262 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. P. Reddington, J. T. Trueb, D. S. Freedman, A. Tuysuzoglu, G. G. Daaboul, C. A. Lopez, W. C. Karl, J. H. Connor, H. Fawcett, and M. S. Ünlu, “An interferometric reflectance imaging sensor for point of care viral diagnostics,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 60(12), 3276–3283 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Wei, E. McLeod, H. Qi, Z. Wan, R. Sun, and A. Ozcan, “On-chip cytometry using plasmonic nanoparticle enhanced lensfree holography,” Sci. Rep. 3(1), 1699 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Rivenson, A. Stern, and B. Javidi, “Overview of compressive sensing techniques applied in holography [Invited],” Appl. Opt. 52(1), A423–A432 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (1)

2011 (4)

Y. Rivenson, A. Stern, and J. Rosen, “Compressive multiple view projection incoherent holography,” Opt. Express 19(7), 6109–6118 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Mudanyali, W. Bishara, and A. Ozcan, “Lensfree super-resolution holographic microscopy using wetting films on a chip,” Opt. Express 19(18), 17378–17389 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Bourquin, J. Reboud, R. Wilson, Y. Zhang, and J. M. Cooper, “Integrated immunoassay using tuneable surface acoustic waves and lensfree detection,” Lab Chip 11(16), 2725–2730 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Bishara, U. Sikora, O. Mudanyali, T.-W. Su, O. Yaglidere, S. Luckhart, and A. Ozcan, “Holographic pixel super-resolution in portable lensless on-chip microscopy using a fiber-optic array,” Lab Chip 11(7), 1276–1279 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (11)

S. O. Isikman, I. Sencan, O. Mudanyali, W. Bishara, C. Oztoprak, and A. Ozcan, “Color and monochrome lensless on-chip imaging of Caenorhabditis elegans over a wide field-of-view,” Lab Chip 10(9), 1109–1112 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Elad, M. A. T. Figueiredo, and Y. Ma, “On the role of sparse and redundant representations in image processing,” Proc. IEEE 98(6), 972–982 (2010).
[Crossref]

O. Mudanyali, D. Tseng, C. Oh, S. O. Isikman, I. Sencan, W. Bishara, C. Oztoprak, S. Seo, B. Khademhosseini, and A. Ozcan, “Compact, light-weight and cost-effective microscope based on lensless incoherent holography for telemedicine applications,” Lab Chip 10(11), 1417–1428 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Stybayeva, O. Mudanyali, S. Seo, J. Silangcruz, M. Macal, E. Ramanculov, S. Dandekar, A. Erlinger, A. Ozcan, and A. Revzin, “Lensfree holographic imaging of antibody microarrays for high-throughput detection of leukocyte numbers and function,” Anal. Chem. 82(9), 3736–3744 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. G. Daaboul, A. Yurt, X. Zhang, G. M. Hwang, B. B. Goldberg, and M. S. Ünlü, “High-throughput detection and sizing of individual low-index nanoparticles and viruses for pathogen identification,” Nano Lett. 10(11), 4727–4731 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Tanaka, Y. Sunaga, K. Hatakeyama, and T. Matsunaga, “Single-cell detection using a thin film transistor photosensor with micro-partitions,” Lab Chip 10(24), 3348–3354 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Mudanyali, C. Oztoprak, D. Tseng, A. Erlinger, and A. Ozcan, “Detection of waterborne parasites using field-portable and cost-effective lensfree microscopy,” Lab Chip 10(18), 2419–2423 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Rivenson, A. Stern, and B. Javidi, “Compressive Fresnel holography,” J. Disp. Technol. 6(10), 506–509 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. F. Coskun, I. Sencan, T.-W. Su, and A. Ozcan, “Lensless wide-field fluorescent imaging on a chip using compressive decoding of sparse objects,” Opt. Express 18(10), 10510–10523 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Bishara, T.-W. Su, A. F. Coskun, and A. Ozcan, “Lensfree on-chip microscopy over a wide field-of-view using pixel super-resolution,” Opt. Express 18(11), 11181–11191 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. P. Allier, G. Hiernard, V. Poher, and J. M. Dinten, “Bacteria detection with thin wetting film lensless imaging,” Biomed. Opt. Express 1(3), 762–770 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

2008 (1)

E. J. Candes and M. B. Wakin, “An introduction to compressive sampling,” IEEE Signal Process. Mag. 25(2), 21–30 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

R. G. Baraniuk, “Compressive sensing [lecture notes],” IEEE Signal Process. Mag. 24(4), 118–121 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (3)

E. J. Candes and T. Tao, “Near-optimal signal recovery from random projections: universal encoding strategies?” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 52(12), 5406–5425 (2006).
[Crossref]

E. J. Candes, J. Romberg, and T. Tao, “Robust uncertainty principles: exact signal reconstruction from highly incomplete frequency information,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 52(2), 489–509 (2006).
[Crossref]

D. L. Donoho, “Compressed sensing,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 52(4), 1289–1306 (2006).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

2003 (1)

S. C. Park, M. K. Park, and M. G. Kang, “Super-resolution image reconstruction: a technical overview,” IEEE Signal Process. Mag. 20(3), 21–36 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

L. D. Mello and L. T. Kubota, “Review of the use of biosensors as analytical tools in the food and drink industries,” Food Chem. 77(2), 237–256 (2002).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

R. Hardie, K. Barnard, J. Bognar, E. Armstrong, and E. Watson, “High-resolution image reconstruction from a sequence of rotated and translated frames and its application to an infrared imaging system,” Opt. Eng. 37(1), 247–261 (1998).
[Crossref]

Adiguzel, Y.

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O. Mudanyali, E. McLeod, W. Luo, A. Greenbaum, A. F. Coskun, Y. Hennequin, C. P. Allier, and A. Ozcan, “Wide-field optical detection of nanoparticles using on-chip microscopy and self-assembled nanolenses,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 247–254 (2013).
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W. Bishara, U. Sikora, O. Mudanyali, T.-W. Su, O. Yaglidere, S. Luckhart, and A. Ozcan, “Holographic pixel super-resolution in portable lensless on-chip microscopy using a fiber-optic array,” Lab Chip 11(7), 1276–1279 (2011).
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O. Mudanyali, D. Tseng, C. Oh, S. O. Isikman, I. Sencan, W. Bishara, C. Oztoprak, S. Seo, B. Khademhosseini, and A. Ozcan, “Compact, light-weight and cost-effective microscope based on lensless incoherent holography for telemedicine applications,” Lab Chip 10(11), 1417–1428 (2010).
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W. Bishara, T.-W. Su, A. F. Coskun, and A. Ozcan, “Lensfree on-chip microscopy over a wide field-of-view using pixel super-resolution,” Opt. Express 18(11), 11181–11191 (2010).
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S. O. Isikman, I. Sencan, O. Mudanyali, W. Bishara, C. Oztoprak, and A. Ozcan, “Color and monochrome lensless on-chip imaging of Caenorhabditis elegans over a wide field-of-view,” Lab Chip 10(9), 1109–1112 (2010).
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Bognar, J.

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Y. Bourquin, J. Reboud, R. Wilson, Y. Zhang, and J. M. Cooper, “Integrated immunoassay using tuneable surface acoustic waves and lensfree detection,” Lab Chip 11(16), 2725–2730 (2011).
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M. R. Monroe, G. G. Daaboul, A. Tuysuzoglu, C. A. Lopez, F. F. Little, and M. S. Unlü, “Single nanoparticle detection for multiplexed protein diagnostics with attomolar sensitivity in serum and unprocessed whole blood,” Anal. Chem. 85(7), 3698–3706 (2013).
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A. Ray, M. U. Daloglu, J. Ho, A. Torres, E. Mcleod, and A. Ozcan, “Computational sensing of herpes simplex virus using a cost-effective on-chip microscope,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 4856 (2017).
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G. Stybayeva, O. Mudanyali, S. Seo, J. Silangcruz, M. Macal, E. Ramanculov, S. Dandekar, A. Erlinger, A. Ozcan, and A. Revzin, “Lensfree holographic imaging of antibody microarrays for high-throughput detection of leukocyte numbers and function,” Anal. Chem. 82(9), 3736–3744 (2010).
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F. Colle, D. Vercruysse, S. Peeters, C. Liu, T. Stakenborg, L. Lagae, and J. Del-Favero, “Lens-free imaging of magnetic particles in DNA assays,” Lab Chip 13(21), 4257–4262 (2013).
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Dincer, T. U.

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Dinten, J.-M.

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G. Stybayeva, O. Mudanyali, S. Seo, J. Silangcruz, M. Macal, E. Ramanculov, S. Dandekar, A. Erlinger, A. Ozcan, and A. Revzin, “Lensfree holographic imaging of antibody microarrays for high-throughput detection of leukocyte numbers and function,” Anal. Chem. 82(9), 3736–3744 (2010).
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O. Mudanyali, C. Oztoprak, D. Tseng, A. Erlinger, and A. Ozcan, “Detection of waterborne parasites using field-portable and cost-effective lensfree microscopy,” Lab Chip 10(18), 2419–2423 (2010).
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Fawcett, H.

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Y. Rivenson, Y. Wu, H. Wang, Y. Zhang, A. Feizi, and A. Ozcan, “Sparsity-based multi-height phase recovery in holographic microscopy,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 37862 (2016).
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Figueiredo, M. A. T.

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Z. Göröcs, E. McLeod, and A. Ozcan, “Enhanced light collection in fluorescence microscopy using self-assembled micro-reflectors,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 10999 (2015).
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E. McLeod, T. U. Dincer, M. Veli, Y. N. Ertas, C. Nguyen, W. Luo, A. Greenbaum, A. Feizi, and A. Ozcan, “High-throughput and label-free single nanoparticle sizing based on time-resolved on-chip microscopy,” ACS Nano 9(3), 3265–3273 (2015).
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O. Mudanyali, E. McLeod, W. Luo, A. Greenbaum, A. F. Coskun, Y. Hennequin, C. P. Allier, and A. Ozcan, “Wide-field optical detection of nanoparticles using on-chip microscopy and self-assembled nanolenses,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 247–254 (2013).
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E. McLeod, W. Luo, O. Mudanyali, A. Greenbaum, and A. Ozcan, “Toward giga-pixel nanoscopy on a chip: a computational wide-field look at the nano-scale without the use of lenses,” Lab Chip 13(11), 2028–2035 (2013).
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Harada, M.

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R. Hardie, K. Barnard, J. Bognar, E. Armstrong, and E. Watson, “High-resolution image reconstruction from a sequence of rotated and translated frames and its application to an infrared imaging system,” Opt. Eng. 37(1), 247–261 (1998).
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T. Tanaka, Y. Sunaga, K. Hatakeyama, and T. Matsunaga, “Single-cell detection using a thin film transistor photosensor with micro-partitions,” Lab Chip 10(24), 3348–3354 (2010).
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Y. Hennequin, C. P. Allier, E. McLeod, O. Mudanyali, D. Migliozzi, A. Ozcan, and J.-M. Dinten, “Optical detection and sizing of single nanoparticles using continuous wetting films,” ACS Nano 7(9), 7601–7609 (2013).
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O. Mudanyali, E. McLeod, W. Luo, A. Greenbaum, A. F. Coskun, Y. Hennequin, C. P. Allier, and A. Ozcan, “Wide-field optical detection of nanoparticles using on-chip microscopy and self-assembled nanolenses,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 247–254 (2013).
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Hiernard, G.

Ho, J.

A. Ray, M. U. Daloglu, J. Ho, A. Torres, E. Mcleod, and A. Ozcan, “Computational sensing of herpes simplex virus using a cost-effective on-chip microscope,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 4856 (2017).
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Horisaki, R.

Hosokawa, M.

T. Saeki, M. Hosokawa, T. K. Lim, M. Harada, T. Matsunaga, and T. Tanaka, “Digital cell counting device integrated with a single-cell array,” PLoS One 9(2), e89011 (2014).
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E. McLeod, C. Nguyen, P. Huang, W. Luo, M. Veli, and A. Ozcan, “Tunable vapor-condensed nanolenses,” ACS Nano 8(7), 7340–7349 (2014).
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Hwang, G. M.

G. G. Daaboul, A. Yurt, X. Zhang, G. M. Hwang, B. B. Goldberg, and M. S. Ünlü, “High-throughput detection and sizing of individual low-index nanoparticles and viruses for pathogen identification,” Nano Lett. 10(11), 4727–4731 (2010).
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J. Song, C. Leon Swisher, H. Im, S. Jeong, D. Pathania, Y. Iwamoto, M. Pivovarov, R. Weissleder, and H. Lee, “Sparsity-based pixel super resolution for lens-free digital in-line holography,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 24681 (2016).
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[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Mudanyali, D. Tseng, C. Oh, S. O. Isikman, I. Sencan, W. Bishara, C. Oztoprak, S. Seo, B. Khademhosseini, and A. Ozcan, “Compact, light-weight and cost-effective microscope based on lensless incoherent holography for telemedicine applications,” Lab Chip 10(11), 1417–1428 (2010).
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J. Song, C. Leon Swisher, H. Im, S. Jeong, D. Pathania, Y. Iwamoto, M. Pivovarov, R. Weissleder, and H. Lee, “Sparsity-based pixel super resolution for lens-free digital in-line holography,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 24681 (2016).
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Jeong, S.

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[Crossref] [PubMed]

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A. P. Reddington, J. T. Trueb, D. S. Freedman, A. Tuysuzoglu, G. G. Daaboul, C. A. Lopez, W. C. Karl, J. H. Connor, H. Fawcett, and M. S. Ünlu, “An interferometric reflectance imaging sensor for point of care viral diagnostics,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 60(12), 3276–3283 (2013).
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Khademhosseini, B.

O. Mudanyali, D. Tseng, C. Oh, S. O. Isikman, I. Sencan, W. Bishara, C. Oztoprak, S. Seo, B. Khademhosseini, and A. Ozcan, “Compact, light-weight and cost-effective microscope based on lensless incoherent holography for telemedicine applications,” Lab Chip 10(11), 1417–1428 (2010).
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J. Musayev, C. Altiner, Y. Adiguzel, H. Kulah, S. Eminoglu, and T. Akin, “Capturing and detection of MCF-7 breast cancer cells with a CMOS image sensor,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 215, 105–114 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lagae, L.

F. Colle, D. Vercruysse, S. Peeters, C. Liu, T. Stakenborg, L. Lagae, and J. Del-Favero, “Lens-free imaging of magnetic particles in DNA assays,” Lab Chip 13(21), 4257–4262 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, H.

J. Song, C. Leon Swisher, H. Im, S. Jeong, D. Pathania, Y. Iwamoto, M. Pivovarov, R. Weissleder, and H. Lee, “Sparsity-based pixel super resolution for lens-free digital in-line holography,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 24681 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Leon Swisher, C.

J. Song, C. Leon Swisher, H. Im, S. Jeong, D. Pathania, Y. Iwamoto, M. Pivovarov, R. Weissleder, and H. Lee, “Sparsity-based pixel super resolution for lens-free digital in-line holography,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 24681 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lim, S.

Lim, T. K.

T. Saeki, M. Hosokawa, T. K. Lim, M. Harada, T. Matsunaga, and T. Tanaka, “Digital cell counting device integrated with a single-cell array,” PLoS One 9(2), e89011 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Little, F. F.

M. R. Monroe, G. G. Daaboul, A. Tuysuzoglu, C. A. Lopez, F. F. Little, and M. S. Unlü, “Single nanoparticle detection for multiplexed protein diagnostics with attomolar sensitivity in serum and unprocessed whole blood,” Anal. Chem. 85(7), 3698–3706 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, C.

F. Colle, D. Vercruysse, S. Peeters, C. Liu, T. Stakenborg, L. Lagae, and J. Del-Favero, “Lens-free imaging of magnetic particles in DNA assays,” Lab Chip 13(21), 4257–4262 (2013).
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Lopez, C. A.

M. R. Monroe, G. G. Daaboul, A. Tuysuzoglu, C. A. Lopez, F. F. Little, and M. S. Unlü, “Single nanoparticle detection for multiplexed protein diagnostics with attomolar sensitivity in serum and unprocessed whole blood,” Anal. Chem. 85(7), 3698–3706 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. P. Reddington, J. T. Trueb, D. S. Freedman, A. Tuysuzoglu, G. G. Daaboul, C. A. Lopez, W. C. Karl, J. H. Connor, H. Fawcett, and M. S. Ünlu, “An interferometric reflectance imaging sensor for point of care viral diagnostics,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 60(12), 3276–3283 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lorenz, D.

Luckhart, S.

W. Bishara, U. Sikora, O. Mudanyali, T.-W. Su, O. Yaglidere, S. Luckhart, and A. Ozcan, “Holographic pixel super-resolution in portable lensless on-chip microscopy using a fiber-optic array,” Lab Chip 11(7), 1276–1279 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Luo, W.

E. McLeod, T. U. Dincer, M. Veli, Y. N. Ertas, C. Nguyen, W. Luo, A. Greenbaum, A. Feizi, and A. Ozcan, “High-throughput and label-free single nanoparticle sizing based on time-resolved on-chip microscopy,” ACS Nano 9(3), 3265–3273 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Wei, W. Luo, S. Chiang, T. Kappel, C. Mejia, D. Tseng, R. Y. L. Chan, E. Yan, H. Qi, F. Shabbir, H. Ozkan, S. Feng, and A. Ozcan, “Imaging and sizing of single DNA molecules on a mobile phone,” ACS Nano 8(12), 12725–12733 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. McLeod, C. Nguyen, P. Huang, W. Luo, M. Veli, and A. Ozcan, “Tunable vapor-condensed nanolenses,” ACS Nano 8(7), 7340–7349 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. McLeod, W. Luo, O. Mudanyali, A. Greenbaum, and A. Ozcan, “Toward giga-pixel nanoscopy on a chip: a computational wide-field look at the nano-scale without the use of lenses,” Lab Chip 13(11), 2028–2035 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Mudanyali, E. McLeod, W. Luo, A. Greenbaum, A. F. Coskun, Y. Hennequin, C. P. Allier, and A. Ozcan, “Wide-field optical detection of nanoparticles using on-chip microscopy and self-assembled nanolenses,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 247–254 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ma, Y.

M. Elad, M. A. T. Figueiredo, and Y. Ma, “On the role of sparse and redundant representations in image processing,” Proc. IEEE 98(6), 972–982 (2010).
[Crossref]

Macal, M.

G. Stybayeva, O. Mudanyali, S. Seo, J. Silangcruz, M. Macal, E. Ramanculov, S. Dandekar, A. Erlinger, A. Ozcan, and A. Revzin, “Lensfree holographic imaging of antibody microarrays for high-throughput detection of leukocyte numbers and function,” Anal. Chem. 82(9), 3736–3744 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Marié, J.-L.

Marks, D. L.

Matsunaga, T.

T. Saeki, M. Hosokawa, T. K. Lim, M. Harada, T. Matsunaga, and T. Tanaka, “Digital cell counting device integrated with a single-cell array,” PLoS One 9(2), e89011 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Tanaka, Y. Sunaga, K. Hatakeyama, and T. Matsunaga, “Single-cell detection using a thin film transistor photosensor with micro-partitions,” Lab Chip 10(24), 3348–3354 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mcleod, E.

A. Ray, M. U. Daloglu, J. Ho, A. Torres, E. Mcleod, and A. Ozcan, “Computational sensing of herpes simplex virus using a cost-effective on-chip microscope,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 4856 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Ozcan and E. McLeod, “Lensless imaging and sensing,” Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. 18(1), 77–102 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. McLeod and A. Ozcan, “Unconventional methods of imaging: computational microscopy and compact implementations,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 79(7), 076001 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Göröcs, E. McLeod, and A. Ozcan, “Enhanced light collection in fluorescence microscopy using self-assembled micro-reflectors,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 10999 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. McLeod, T. U. Dincer, M. Veli, Y. N. Ertas, C. Nguyen, W. Luo, A. Greenbaum, A. Feizi, and A. Ozcan, “High-throughput and label-free single nanoparticle sizing based on time-resolved on-chip microscopy,” ACS Nano 9(3), 3265–3273 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. McLeod, C. Nguyen, P. Huang, W. Luo, M. Veli, and A. Ozcan, “Tunable vapor-condensed nanolenses,” ACS Nano 8(7), 7340–7349 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. McLeod and A. Ozcan, “Nano-imaging enabled via self-assembly,” Nano Today 9(5), 560–573 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. McLeod, W. Luo, O. Mudanyali, A. Greenbaum, and A. Ozcan, “Toward giga-pixel nanoscopy on a chip: a computational wide-field look at the nano-scale without the use of lenses,” Lab Chip 13(11), 2028–2035 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Mudanyali, E. McLeod, W. Luo, A. Greenbaum, A. F. Coskun, Y. Hennequin, C. P. Allier, and A. Ozcan, “Wide-field optical detection of nanoparticles using on-chip microscopy and self-assembled nanolenses,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 247–254 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Wei, E. McLeod, H. Qi, Z. Wan, R. Sun, and A. Ozcan, “On-chip cytometry using plasmonic nanoparticle enhanced lensfree holography,” Sci. Rep. 3(1), 1699 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Hennequin, C. P. Allier, E. McLeod, O. Mudanyali, D. Migliozzi, A. Ozcan, and J.-M. Dinten, “Optical detection and sizing of single nanoparticles using continuous wetting films,” ACS Nano 7(9), 7601–7609 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Méès, L.

Mehrotra, P.

P. Mehrotra, “Biosensors and their applications - A review,” J. Oral Biol. Craniofac. Res. 6(2), 153–159 (2016).
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Q. Wei, W. Luo, S. Chiang, T. Kappel, C. Mejia, D. Tseng, R. Y. L. Chan, E. Yan, H. Qi, F. Shabbir, H. Ozkan, S. Feng, and A. Ozcan, “Imaging and sizing of single DNA molecules on a mobile phone,” ACS Nano 8(12), 12725–12733 (2014).
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L. D. Mello and L. T. Kubota, “Review of the use of biosensors as analytical tools in the food and drink industries,” Food Chem. 77(2), 237–256 (2002).
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Migliozzi, D.

Y. Hennequin, C. P. Allier, E. McLeod, O. Mudanyali, D. Migliozzi, A. Ozcan, and J.-M. Dinten, “Optical detection and sizing of single nanoparticles using continuous wetting films,” ACS Nano 7(9), 7601–7609 (2013).
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Momey, F.

Monroe, M. R.

M. R. Monroe, G. G. Daaboul, A. Tuysuzoglu, C. A. Lopez, F. F. Little, and M. S. Unlü, “Single nanoparticle detection for multiplexed protein diagnostics with attomolar sensitivity in serum and unprocessed whole blood,” Anal. Chem. 85(7), 3698–3706 (2013).
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Mudanyali, O.

O. Mudanyali, E. McLeod, W. Luo, A. Greenbaum, A. F. Coskun, Y. Hennequin, C. P. Allier, and A. Ozcan, “Wide-field optical detection of nanoparticles using on-chip microscopy and self-assembled nanolenses,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 247–254 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Hennequin, C. P. Allier, E. McLeod, O. Mudanyali, D. Migliozzi, A. Ozcan, and J.-M. Dinten, “Optical detection and sizing of single nanoparticles using continuous wetting films,” ACS Nano 7(9), 7601–7609 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. McLeod, W. Luo, O. Mudanyali, A. Greenbaum, and A. Ozcan, “Toward giga-pixel nanoscopy on a chip: a computational wide-field look at the nano-scale without the use of lenses,” Lab Chip 13(11), 2028–2035 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Mudanyali, W. Bishara, and A. Ozcan, “Lensfree super-resolution holographic microscopy using wetting films on a chip,” Opt. Express 19(18), 17378–17389 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Bishara, U. Sikora, O. Mudanyali, T.-W. Su, O. Yaglidere, S. Luckhart, and A. Ozcan, “Holographic pixel super-resolution in portable lensless on-chip microscopy using a fiber-optic array,” Lab Chip 11(7), 1276–1279 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Mudanyali, C. Oztoprak, D. Tseng, A. Erlinger, and A. Ozcan, “Detection of waterborne parasites using field-portable and cost-effective lensfree microscopy,” Lab Chip 10(18), 2419–2423 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Mudanyali, D. Tseng, C. Oh, S. O. Isikman, I. Sencan, W. Bishara, C. Oztoprak, S. Seo, B. Khademhosseini, and A. Ozcan, “Compact, light-weight and cost-effective microscope based on lensless incoherent holography for telemedicine applications,” Lab Chip 10(11), 1417–1428 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Stybayeva, O. Mudanyali, S. Seo, J. Silangcruz, M. Macal, E. Ramanculov, S. Dandekar, A. Erlinger, A. Ozcan, and A. Revzin, “Lensfree holographic imaging of antibody microarrays for high-throughput detection of leukocyte numbers and function,” Anal. Chem. 82(9), 3736–3744 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. O. Isikman, I. Sencan, O. Mudanyali, W. Bishara, C. Oztoprak, and A. Ozcan, “Color and monochrome lensless on-chip imaging of Caenorhabditis elegans over a wide field-of-view,” Lab Chip 10(9), 1109–1112 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Musayev, J.

J. Musayev, C. Altiner, Y. Adiguzel, H. Kulah, S. Eminoglu, and T. Akin, “Capturing and detection of MCF-7 breast cancer cells with a CMOS image sensor,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 215, 105–114 (2014).
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E. McLeod, T. U. Dincer, M. Veli, Y. N. Ertas, C. Nguyen, W. Luo, A. Greenbaum, A. Feizi, and A. Ozcan, “High-throughput and label-free single nanoparticle sizing based on time-resolved on-chip microscopy,” ACS Nano 9(3), 3265–3273 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. McLeod, C. Nguyen, P. Huang, W. Luo, M. Veli, and A. Ozcan, “Tunable vapor-condensed nanolenses,” ACS Nano 8(7), 7340–7349 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Oh, C.

O. Mudanyali, D. Tseng, C. Oh, S. O. Isikman, I. Sencan, W. Bishara, C. Oztoprak, S. Seo, B. Khademhosseini, and A. Ozcan, “Compact, light-weight and cost-effective microscope based on lensless incoherent holography for telemedicine applications,” Lab Chip 10(11), 1417–1428 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ottevaere, H.

Ozcan, A.

A. Ray, M. U. Daloglu, J. Ho, A. Torres, E. Mcleod, and A. Ozcan, “Computational sensing of herpes simplex virus using a cost-effective on-chip microscope,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 4856 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Ozcan and E. McLeod, “Lensless imaging and sensing,” Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. 18(1), 77–102 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Rivenson, Y. Wu, H. Wang, Y. Zhang, A. Feizi, and A. Ozcan, “Sparsity-based multi-height phase recovery in holographic microscopy,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 37862 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. McLeod and A. Ozcan, “Unconventional methods of imaging: computational microscopy and compact implementations,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 79(7), 076001 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Göröcs, E. McLeod, and A. Ozcan, “Enhanced light collection in fluorescence microscopy using self-assembled micro-reflectors,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 10999 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. McLeod, T. U. Dincer, M. Veli, Y. N. Ertas, C. Nguyen, W. Luo, A. Greenbaum, A. Feizi, and A. Ozcan, “High-throughput and label-free single nanoparticle sizing based on time-resolved on-chip microscopy,” ACS Nano 9(3), 3265–3273 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Wei, W. Luo, S. Chiang, T. Kappel, C. Mejia, D. Tseng, R. Y. L. Chan, E. Yan, H. Qi, F. Shabbir, H. Ozkan, S. Feng, and A. Ozcan, “Imaging and sizing of single DNA molecules on a mobile phone,” ACS Nano 8(12), 12725–12733 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. McLeod and A. Ozcan, “Nano-imaging enabled via self-assembly,” Nano Today 9(5), 560–573 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. McLeod, C. Nguyen, P. Huang, W. Luo, M. Veli, and A. Ozcan, “Tunable vapor-condensed nanolenses,” ACS Nano 8(7), 7340–7349 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. McLeod, W. Luo, O. Mudanyali, A. Greenbaum, and A. Ozcan, “Toward giga-pixel nanoscopy on a chip: a computational wide-field look at the nano-scale without the use of lenses,” Lab Chip 13(11), 2028–2035 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Wei, E. McLeod, H. Qi, Z. Wan, R. Sun, and A. Ozcan, “On-chip cytometry using plasmonic nanoparticle enhanced lensfree holography,” Sci. Rep. 3(1), 1699 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Hennequin, C. P. Allier, E. McLeod, O. Mudanyali, D. Migliozzi, A. Ozcan, and J.-M. Dinten, “Optical detection and sizing of single nanoparticles using continuous wetting films,” ACS Nano 7(9), 7601–7609 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Mudanyali, E. McLeod, W. Luo, A. Greenbaum, A. F. Coskun, Y. Hennequin, C. P. Allier, and A. Ozcan, “Wide-field optical detection of nanoparticles using on-chip microscopy and self-assembled nanolenses,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 247–254 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Bishara, U. Sikora, O. Mudanyali, T.-W. Su, O. Yaglidere, S. Luckhart, and A. Ozcan, “Holographic pixel super-resolution in portable lensless on-chip microscopy using a fiber-optic array,” Lab Chip 11(7), 1276–1279 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Mudanyali, W. Bishara, and A. Ozcan, “Lensfree super-resolution holographic microscopy using wetting films on a chip,” Opt. Express 19(18), 17378–17389 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Bishara, T.-W. Su, A. F. Coskun, and A. Ozcan, “Lensfree on-chip microscopy over a wide field-of-view using pixel super-resolution,” Opt. Express 18(11), 11181–11191 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. F. Coskun, I. Sencan, T.-W. Su, and A. Ozcan, “Lensless wide-field fluorescent imaging on a chip using compressive decoding of sparse objects,” Opt. Express 18(10), 10510–10523 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. O. Isikman, I. Sencan, O. Mudanyali, W. Bishara, C. Oztoprak, and A. Ozcan, “Color and monochrome lensless on-chip imaging of Caenorhabditis elegans over a wide field-of-view,” Lab Chip 10(9), 1109–1112 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Mudanyali, C. Oztoprak, D. Tseng, A. Erlinger, and A. Ozcan, “Detection of waterborne parasites using field-portable and cost-effective lensfree microscopy,” Lab Chip 10(18), 2419–2423 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Mudanyali, D. Tseng, C. Oh, S. O. Isikman, I. Sencan, W. Bishara, C. Oztoprak, S. Seo, B. Khademhosseini, and A. Ozcan, “Compact, light-weight and cost-effective microscope based on lensless incoherent holography for telemedicine applications,” Lab Chip 10(11), 1417–1428 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Stybayeva, O. Mudanyali, S. Seo, J. Silangcruz, M. Macal, E. Ramanculov, S. Dandekar, A. Erlinger, A. Ozcan, and A. Revzin, “Lensfree holographic imaging of antibody microarrays for high-throughput detection of leukocyte numbers and function,” Anal. Chem. 82(9), 3736–3744 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ozkan, H.

Q. Wei, W. Luo, S. Chiang, T. Kappel, C. Mejia, D. Tseng, R. Y. L. Chan, E. Yan, H. Qi, F. Shabbir, H. Ozkan, S. Feng, and A. Ozcan, “Imaging and sizing of single DNA molecules on a mobile phone,” ACS Nano 8(12), 12725–12733 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Oztoprak, C.

O. Mudanyali, D. Tseng, C. Oh, S. O. Isikman, I. Sencan, W. Bishara, C. Oztoprak, S. Seo, B. Khademhosseini, and A. Ozcan, “Compact, light-weight and cost-effective microscope based on lensless incoherent holography for telemedicine applications,” Lab Chip 10(11), 1417–1428 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Mudanyali, C. Oztoprak, D. Tseng, A. Erlinger, and A. Ozcan, “Detection of waterborne parasites using field-portable and cost-effective lensfree microscopy,” Lab Chip 10(18), 2419–2423 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. O. Isikman, I. Sencan, O. Mudanyali, W. Bishara, C. Oztoprak, and A. Ozcan, “Color and monochrome lensless on-chip imaging of Caenorhabditis elegans over a wide field-of-view,” Lab Chip 10(9), 1109–1112 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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S. C. Park, M. K. Park, and M. G. Kang, “Super-resolution image reconstruction: a technical overview,” IEEE Signal Process. Mag. 20(3), 21–36 (2003).
[Crossref]

Park, S. C.

S. C. Park, M. K. Park, and M. G. Kang, “Super-resolution image reconstruction: a technical overview,” IEEE Signal Process. Mag. 20(3), 21–36 (2003).
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Pathania, D.

J. Song, C. Leon Swisher, H. Im, S. Jeong, D. Pathania, Y. Iwamoto, M. Pivovarov, R. Weissleder, and H. Lee, “Sparsity-based pixel super resolution for lens-free digital in-line holography,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 24681 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Peeters, S.

F. Colle, D. Vercruysse, S. Peeters, C. Liu, T. Stakenborg, L. Lagae, and J. Del-Favero, “Lens-free imaging of magnetic particles in DNA assays,” Lab Chip 13(21), 4257–4262 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pinston, F.

Pivovarov, M.

J. Song, C. Leon Swisher, H. Im, S. Jeong, D. Pathania, Y. Iwamoto, M. Pivovarov, R. Weissleder, and H. Lee, “Sparsity-based pixel super resolution for lens-free digital in-line holography,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 24681 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Poher, V.

Qi, H.

Q. Wei, W. Luo, S. Chiang, T. Kappel, C. Mejia, D. Tseng, R. Y. L. Chan, E. Yan, H. Qi, F. Shabbir, H. Ozkan, S. Feng, and A. Ozcan, “Imaging and sizing of single DNA molecules on a mobile phone,” ACS Nano 8(12), 12725–12733 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Wei, E. McLeod, H. Qi, Z. Wan, R. Sun, and A. Ozcan, “On-chip cytometry using plasmonic nanoparticle enhanced lensfree holography,” Sci. Rep. 3(1), 1699 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ramanculov, E.

G. Stybayeva, O. Mudanyali, S. Seo, J. Silangcruz, M. Macal, E. Ramanculov, S. Dandekar, A. Erlinger, A. Ozcan, and A. Revzin, “Lensfree holographic imaging of antibody microarrays for high-throughput detection of leukocyte numbers and function,” Anal. Chem. 82(9), 3736–3744 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ray, A.

A. Ray, M. U. Daloglu, J. Ho, A. Torres, E. Mcleod, and A. Ozcan, “Computational sensing of herpes simplex virus using a cost-effective on-chip microscope,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 4856 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Reboud, J.

Y. Bourquin, J. Reboud, R. Wilson, Y. Zhang, and J. M. Cooper, “Integrated immunoassay using tuneable surface acoustic waves and lensfree detection,” Lab Chip 11(16), 2725–2730 (2011).
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Reddington, A. P.

A. P. Reddington, J. T. Trueb, D. S. Freedman, A. Tuysuzoglu, G. G. Daaboul, C. A. Lopez, W. C. Karl, J. H. Connor, H. Fawcett, and M. S. Ünlu, “An interferometric reflectance imaging sensor for point of care viral diagnostics,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 60(12), 3276–3283 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Revzin, A.

G. Stybayeva, O. Mudanyali, S. Seo, J. Silangcruz, M. Macal, E. Ramanculov, S. Dandekar, A. Erlinger, A. Ozcan, and A. Revzin, “Lensfree holographic imaging of antibody microarrays for high-throughput detection of leukocyte numbers and function,” Anal. Chem. 82(9), 3736–3744 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rivenson, Y.

Romberg, J.

E. J. Candes, J. Romberg, and T. Tao, “Robust uncertainty principles: exact signal reconstruction from highly incomplete frequency information,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 52(2), 489–509 (2006).
[Crossref]

Rosen, J.

Rot, A.

Saeki, T.

T. Saeki, M. Hosokawa, T. K. Lim, M. Harada, T. Matsunaga, and T. Tanaka, “Digital cell counting device integrated with a single-cell array,” PLoS One 9(2), e89011 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schelkens, P.

Schretter, C.

Sencan, I.

S. O. Isikman, I. Sencan, O. Mudanyali, W. Bishara, C. Oztoprak, and A. Ozcan, “Color and monochrome lensless on-chip imaging of Caenorhabditis elegans over a wide field-of-view,” Lab Chip 10(9), 1109–1112 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. F. Coskun, I. Sencan, T.-W. Su, and A. Ozcan, “Lensless wide-field fluorescent imaging on a chip using compressive decoding of sparse objects,” Opt. Express 18(10), 10510–10523 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Mudanyali, D. Tseng, C. Oh, S. O. Isikman, I. Sencan, W. Bishara, C. Oztoprak, S. Seo, B. Khademhosseini, and A. Ozcan, “Compact, light-weight and cost-effective microscope based on lensless incoherent holography for telemedicine applications,” Lab Chip 10(11), 1417–1428 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Seo, S.

O. Mudanyali, D. Tseng, C. Oh, S. O. Isikman, I. Sencan, W. Bishara, C. Oztoprak, S. Seo, B. Khademhosseini, and A. Ozcan, “Compact, light-weight and cost-effective microscope based on lensless incoherent holography for telemedicine applications,” Lab Chip 10(11), 1417–1428 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Stybayeva, O. Mudanyali, S. Seo, J. Silangcruz, M. Macal, E. Ramanculov, S. Dandekar, A. Erlinger, A. Ozcan, and A. Revzin, “Lensfree holographic imaging of antibody microarrays for high-throughput detection of leukocyte numbers and function,” Anal. Chem. 82(9), 3736–3744 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shabbir, F.

Q. Wei, W. Luo, S. Chiang, T. Kappel, C. Mejia, D. Tseng, R. Y. L. Chan, E. Yan, H. Qi, F. Shabbir, H. Ozkan, S. Feng, and A. Ozcan, “Imaging and sizing of single DNA molecules on a mobile phone,” ACS Nano 8(12), 12725–12733 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sikora, U.

W. Bishara, U. Sikora, O. Mudanyali, T.-W. Su, O. Yaglidere, S. Luckhart, and A. Ozcan, “Holographic pixel super-resolution in portable lensless on-chip microscopy using a fiber-optic array,” Lab Chip 11(7), 1276–1279 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Silangcruz, J.

G. Stybayeva, O. Mudanyali, S. Seo, J. Silangcruz, M. Macal, E. Ramanculov, S. Dandekar, A. Erlinger, A. Ozcan, and A. Revzin, “Lensfree holographic imaging of antibody microarrays for high-throughput detection of leukocyte numbers and function,” Anal. Chem. 82(9), 3736–3744 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Song, J.

J. Song, C. Leon Swisher, H. Im, S. Jeong, D. Pathania, Y. Iwamoto, M. Pivovarov, R. Weissleder, and H. Lee, “Sparsity-based pixel super resolution for lens-free digital in-line holography,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 24681 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sotthivirat, S.

Stakenborg, T.

F. Colle, D. Vercruysse, S. Peeters, C. Liu, T. Stakenborg, L. Lagae, and J. Del-Favero, “Lens-free imaging of magnetic particles in DNA assays,” Lab Chip 13(21), 4257–4262 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stern, A.

Stoltz, B. M.

J. Su, A. F. Goldberg, and B. M. Stoltz, “Label-free detection of single nanoparticles and biological molecules using microtoroid optical resonators,” Light Sci. Appl. 5(1), e16001 (2016).
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G. Stybayeva, O. Mudanyali, S. Seo, J. Silangcruz, M. Macal, E. Ramanculov, S. Dandekar, A. Erlinger, A. Ozcan, and A. Revzin, “Lensfree holographic imaging of antibody microarrays for high-throughput detection of leukocyte numbers and function,” Anal. Chem. 82(9), 3736–3744 (2010).
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J. Su, A. F. Goldberg, and B. M. Stoltz, “Label-free detection of single nanoparticles and biological molecules using microtoroid optical resonators,” Light Sci. Appl. 5(1), e16001 (2016).
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J. Su, “Reply to “Comment on ‘Label-free single exosome detection using frequency-locked microtoroid optical resonators,’”,” ACS Photonics 3(4), 718 (2016).
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Su, T.-W.

Sun, R.

Q. Wei, E. McLeod, H. Qi, Z. Wan, R. Sun, and A. Ozcan, “On-chip cytometry using plasmonic nanoparticle enhanced lensfree holography,” Sci. Rep. 3(1), 1699 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sunaga, Y.

T. Tanaka, Y. Sunaga, K. Hatakeyama, and T. Matsunaga, “Single-cell detection using a thin film transistor photosensor with micro-partitions,” Lab Chip 10(24), 3348–3354 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tanaka, T.

T. Saeki, M. Hosokawa, T. K. Lim, M. Harada, T. Matsunaga, and T. Tanaka, “Digital cell counting device integrated with a single-cell array,” PLoS One 9(2), e89011 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Tanaka, Y. Sunaga, K. Hatakeyama, and T. Matsunaga, “Single-cell detection using a thin film transistor photosensor with micro-partitions,” Lab Chip 10(24), 3348–3354 (2010).
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Tao, T.

E. J. Candes and T. Tao, “Near-optimal signal recovery from random projections: universal encoding strategies?” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 52(12), 5406–5425 (2006).
[Crossref]

E. J. Candes, J. Romberg, and T. Tao, “Robust uncertainty principles: exact signal reconstruction from highly incomplete frequency information,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 52(2), 489–509 (2006).
[Crossref]

Thiebaut, E.

Thiébaut, E.

Torres, A.

A. Ray, M. U. Daloglu, J. Ho, A. Torres, E. Mcleod, and A. Ozcan, “Computational sensing of herpes simplex virus using a cost-effective on-chip microscope,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 4856 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Trede, D.

Trueb, J. T.

A. P. Reddington, J. T. Trueb, D. S. Freedman, A. Tuysuzoglu, G. G. Daaboul, C. A. Lopez, W. C. Karl, J. H. Connor, H. Fawcett, and M. S. Ünlu, “An interferometric reflectance imaging sensor for point of care viral diagnostics,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 60(12), 3276–3283 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tseng, D.

Q. Wei, W. Luo, S. Chiang, T. Kappel, C. Mejia, D. Tseng, R. Y. L. Chan, E. Yan, H. Qi, F. Shabbir, H. Ozkan, S. Feng, and A. Ozcan, “Imaging and sizing of single DNA molecules on a mobile phone,” ACS Nano 8(12), 12725–12733 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Mudanyali, C. Oztoprak, D. Tseng, A. Erlinger, and A. Ozcan, “Detection of waterborne parasites using field-portable and cost-effective lensfree microscopy,” Lab Chip 10(18), 2419–2423 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Mudanyali, D. Tseng, C. Oh, S. O. Isikman, I. Sencan, W. Bishara, C. Oztoprak, S. Seo, B. Khademhosseini, and A. Ozcan, “Compact, light-weight and cost-effective microscope based on lensless incoherent holography for telemedicine applications,” Lab Chip 10(11), 1417–1428 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tuysuzoglu, A.

M. R. Monroe, G. G. Daaboul, A. Tuysuzoglu, C. A. Lopez, F. F. Little, and M. S. Unlü, “Single nanoparticle detection for multiplexed protein diagnostics with attomolar sensitivity in serum and unprocessed whole blood,” Anal. Chem. 85(7), 3698–3706 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. P. Reddington, J. T. Trueb, D. S. Freedman, A. Tuysuzoglu, G. G. Daaboul, C. A. Lopez, W. C. Karl, J. H. Connor, H. Fawcett, and M. S. Ünlu, “An interferometric reflectance imaging sensor for point of care viral diagnostics,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 60(12), 3276–3283 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Unlü, M. S.

M. R. Monroe, G. G. Daaboul, A. Tuysuzoglu, C. A. Lopez, F. F. Little, and M. S. Unlü, “Single nanoparticle detection for multiplexed protein diagnostics with attomolar sensitivity in serum and unprocessed whole blood,” Anal. Chem. 85(7), 3698–3706 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ünlu, M. S.

A. P. Reddington, J. T. Trueb, D. S. Freedman, A. Tuysuzoglu, G. G. Daaboul, C. A. Lopez, W. C. Karl, J. H. Connor, H. Fawcett, and M. S. Ünlu, “An interferometric reflectance imaging sensor for point of care viral diagnostics,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 60(12), 3276–3283 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ünlü, M. S.

G. G. Daaboul, A. Yurt, X. Zhang, G. M. Hwang, B. B. Goldberg, and M. S. Ünlü, “High-throughput detection and sizing of individual low-index nanoparticles and viruses for pathogen identification,” Nano Lett. 10(11), 4727–4731 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Veli, M.

E. McLeod, T. U. Dincer, M. Veli, Y. N. Ertas, C. Nguyen, W. Luo, A. Greenbaum, A. Feizi, and A. Ozcan, “High-throughput and label-free single nanoparticle sizing based on time-resolved on-chip microscopy,” ACS Nano 9(3), 3265–3273 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. McLeod, C. Nguyen, P. Huang, W. Luo, M. Veli, and A. Ozcan, “Tunable vapor-condensed nanolenses,” ACS Nano 8(7), 7340–7349 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vercruysse, D.

F. Colle, D. Vercruysse, S. Peeters, C. Liu, T. Stakenborg, L. Lagae, and J. Del-Favero, “Lens-free imaging of magnetic particles in DNA assays,” Lab Chip 13(21), 4257–4262 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Verrier, N.

Wakin, M. B.

E. J. Candes and M. B. Wakin, “An introduction to compressive sampling,” IEEE Signal Process. Mag. 25(2), 21–30 (2008).
[Crossref]

Wan, Z.

Q. Wei, E. McLeod, H. Qi, Z. Wan, R. Sun, and A. Ozcan, “On-chip cytometry using plasmonic nanoparticle enhanced lensfree holography,” Sci. Rep. 3(1), 1699 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, H.

Y. Rivenson, Y. Wu, H. Wang, Y. Zhang, A. Feizi, and A. Ozcan, “Sparsity-based multi-height phase recovery in holographic microscopy,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 37862 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Watson, E.

R. Hardie, K. Barnard, J. Bognar, E. Armstrong, and E. Watson, “High-resolution image reconstruction from a sequence of rotated and translated frames and its application to an infrared imaging system,” Opt. Eng. 37(1), 247–261 (1998).
[Crossref]

Wei, Q.

Q. Wei, W. Luo, S. Chiang, T. Kappel, C. Mejia, D. Tseng, R. Y. L. Chan, E. Yan, H. Qi, F. Shabbir, H. Ozkan, S. Feng, and A. Ozcan, “Imaging and sizing of single DNA molecules on a mobile phone,” ACS Nano 8(12), 12725–12733 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Wei, E. McLeod, H. Qi, Z. Wan, R. Sun, and A. Ozcan, “On-chip cytometry using plasmonic nanoparticle enhanced lensfree holography,” Sci. Rep. 3(1), 1699 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Weissleder, R.

J. Song, C. Leon Swisher, H. Im, S. Jeong, D. Pathania, Y. Iwamoto, M. Pivovarov, R. Weissleder, and H. Lee, “Sparsity-based pixel super resolution for lens-free digital in-line holography,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 24681 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wilson, R.

Y. Bourquin, J. Reboud, R. Wilson, Y. Zhang, and J. M. Cooper, “Integrated immunoassay using tuneable surface acoustic waves and lensfree detection,” Lab Chip 11(16), 2725–2730 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, Y.

Y. Rivenson, Y. Wu, H. Wang, Y. Zhang, A. Feizi, and A. Ozcan, “Sparsity-based multi-height phase recovery in holographic microscopy,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 37862 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yaglidere, O.

W. Bishara, U. Sikora, O. Mudanyali, T.-W. Su, O. Yaglidere, S. Luckhart, and A. Ozcan, “Holographic pixel super-resolution in portable lensless on-chip microscopy using a fiber-optic array,” Lab Chip 11(7), 1276–1279 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yan, E.

Q. Wei, W. Luo, S. Chiang, T. Kappel, C. Mejia, D. Tseng, R. Y. L. Chan, E. Yan, H. Qi, F. Shabbir, H. Ozkan, S. Feng, and A. Ozcan, “Imaging and sizing of single DNA molecules on a mobile phone,” ACS Nano 8(12), 12725–12733 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yan, H.

Yurt, A.

G. G. Daaboul, A. Yurt, X. Zhang, G. M. Hwang, B. B. Goldberg, and M. S. Ünlü, “High-throughput detection and sizing of individual low-index nanoparticles and viruses for pathogen identification,” Nano Lett. 10(11), 4727–4731 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

G. G. Daaboul, A. Yurt, X. Zhang, G. M. Hwang, B. B. Goldberg, and M. S. Ünlü, “High-throughput detection and sizing of individual low-index nanoparticles and viruses for pathogen identification,” Nano Lett. 10(11), 4727–4731 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, Y.

Y. Rivenson, Y. Wu, H. Wang, Y. Zhang, A. Feizi, and A. Ozcan, “Sparsity-based multi-height phase recovery in holographic microscopy,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 37862 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Bourquin, J. Reboud, R. Wilson, Y. Zhang, and J. M. Cooper, “Integrated immunoassay using tuneable surface acoustic waves and lensfree detection,” Lab Chip 11(16), 2725–2730 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

ACS Nano (4)

E. McLeod, T. U. Dincer, M. Veli, Y. N. Ertas, C. Nguyen, W. Luo, A. Greenbaum, A. Feizi, and A. Ozcan, “High-throughput and label-free single nanoparticle sizing based on time-resolved on-chip microscopy,” ACS Nano 9(3), 3265–3273 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Wei, W. Luo, S. Chiang, T. Kappel, C. Mejia, D. Tseng, R. Y. L. Chan, E. Yan, H. Qi, F. Shabbir, H. Ozkan, S. Feng, and A. Ozcan, “Imaging and sizing of single DNA molecules on a mobile phone,” ACS Nano 8(12), 12725–12733 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Hennequin, C. P. Allier, E. McLeod, O. Mudanyali, D. Migliozzi, A. Ozcan, and J.-M. Dinten, “Optical detection and sizing of single nanoparticles using continuous wetting films,” ACS Nano 7(9), 7601–7609 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. McLeod, C. Nguyen, P. Huang, W. Luo, M. Veli, and A. Ozcan, “Tunable vapor-condensed nanolenses,” ACS Nano 8(7), 7340–7349 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

ACS Photonics (1)

J. Su, “Reply to “Comment on ‘Label-free single exosome detection using frequency-locked microtoroid optical resonators,’”,” ACS Photonics 3(4), 718 (2016).
[Crossref]

Anal. Chem. (2)

M. R. Monroe, G. G. Daaboul, A. Tuysuzoglu, C. A. Lopez, F. F. Little, and M. S. Unlü, “Single nanoparticle detection for multiplexed protein diagnostics with attomolar sensitivity in serum and unprocessed whole blood,” Anal. Chem. 85(7), 3698–3706 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Stybayeva, O. Mudanyali, S. Seo, J. Silangcruz, M. Macal, E. Ramanculov, S. Dandekar, A. Erlinger, A. Ozcan, and A. Revzin, “Lensfree holographic imaging of antibody microarrays for high-throughput detection of leukocyte numbers and function,” Anal. Chem. 82(9), 3736–3744 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. (1)

A. Ozcan and E. McLeod, “Lensless imaging and sensing,” Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. 18(1), 77–102 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Biomed. Opt. Express (1)

Food Chem. (1)

L. D. Mello and L. T. Kubota, “Review of the use of biosensors as analytical tools in the food and drink industries,” Food Chem. 77(2), 237–256 (2002).
[Crossref]

IEEE Signal Process. Mag. (3)

S. C. Park, M. K. Park, and M. G. Kang, “Super-resolution image reconstruction: a technical overview,” IEEE Signal Process. Mag. 20(3), 21–36 (2003).
[Crossref]

R. G. Baraniuk, “Compressive sensing [lecture notes],” IEEE Signal Process. Mag. 24(4), 118–121 (2007).
[Crossref]

E. J. Candes and M. B. Wakin, “An introduction to compressive sampling,” IEEE Signal Process. Mag. 25(2), 21–30 (2008).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. (1)

A. P. Reddington, J. T. Trueb, D. S. Freedman, A. Tuysuzoglu, G. G. Daaboul, C. A. Lopez, W. C. Karl, J. H. Connor, H. Fawcett, and M. S. Ünlu, “An interferometric reflectance imaging sensor for point of care viral diagnostics,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 60(12), 3276–3283 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory (3)

D. L. Donoho, “Compressed sensing,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 52(4), 1289–1306 (2006).
[Crossref]

E. J. Candes and T. Tao, “Near-optimal signal recovery from random projections: universal encoding strategies?” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 52(12), 5406–5425 (2006).
[Crossref]

E. J. Candes, J. Romberg, and T. Tao, “Robust uncertainty principles: exact signal reconstruction from highly incomplete frequency information,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 52(2), 489–509 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Disp. Technol. (1)

Y. Rivenson, A. Stern, and B. Javidi, “Compressive Fresnel holography,” J. Disp. Technol. 6(10), 506–509 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Oral Biol. Craniofac. Res. (1)

P. Mehrotra, “Biosensors and their applications - A review,” J. Oral Biol. Craniofac. Res. 6(2), 153–159 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lab Chip (8)

O. Mudanyali, C. Oztoprak, D. Tseng, A. Erlinger, and A. Ozcan, “Detection of waterborne parasites using field-portable and cost-effective lensfree microscopy,” Lab Chip 10(18), 2419–2423 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Tanaka, Y. Sunaga, K. Hatakeyama, and T. Matsunaga, “Single-cell detection using a thin film transistor photosensor with micro-partitions,” Lab Chip 10(24), 3348–3354 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Colle, D. Vercruysse, S. Peeters, C. Liu, T. Stakenborg, L. Lagae, and J. Del-Favero, “Lens-free imaging of magnetic particles in DNA assays,” Lab Chip 13(21), 4257–4262 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Bourquin, J. Reboud, R. Wilson, Y. Zhang, and J. M. Cooper, “Integrated immunoassay using tuneable surface acoustic waves and lensfree detection,” Lab Chip 11(16), 2725–2730 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. McLeod, W. Luo, O. Mudanyali, A. Greenbaum, and A. Ozcan, “Toward giga-pixel nanoscopy on a chip: a computational wide-field look at the nano-scale without the use of lenses,” Lab Chip 13(11), 2028–2035 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Mudanyali, D. Tseng, C. Oh, S. O. Isikman, I. Sencan, W. Bishara, C. Oztoprak, S. Seo, B. Khademhosseini, and A. Ozcan, “Compact, light-weight and cost-effective microscope based on lensless incoherent holography for telemedicine applications,” Lab Chip 10(11), 1417–1428 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Bishara, U. Sikora, O. Mudanyali, T.-W. Su, O. Yaglidere, S. Luckhart, and A. Ozcan, “Holographic pixel super-resolution in portable lensless on-chip microscopy using a fiber-optic array,” Lab Chip 11(7), 1276–1279 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. O. Isikman, I. Sencan, O. Mudanyali, W. Bishara, C. Oztoprak, and A. Ozcan, “Color and monochrome lensless on-chip imaging of Caenorhabditis elegans over a wide field-of-view,” Lab Chip 10(9), 1109–1112 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Light Sci. Appl. (1)

J. Su, A. F. Goldberg, and B. M. Stoltz, “Label-free detection of single nanoparticles and biological molecules using microtoroid optical resonators,” Light Sci. Appl. 5(1), e16001 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nano Lett. (1)

G. G. Daaboul, A. Yurt, X. Zhang, G. M. Hwang, B. B. Goldberg, and M. S. Ünlü, “High-throughput detection and sizing of individual low-index nanoparticles and viruses for pathogen identification,” Nano Lett. 10(11), 4727–4731 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nano Today (1)

E. McLeod and A. Ozcan, “Nano-imaging enabled via self-assembly,” Nano Today 9(5), 560–573 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

O. Mudanyali, E. McLeod, W. Luo, A. Greenbaum, A. F. Coskun, Y. Hennequin, C. P. Allier, and A. Ozcan, “Wide-field optical detection of nanoparticles using on-chip microscopy and self-assembled nanolenses,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 247–254 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Eng. (1)

R. Hardie, K. Barnard, J. Bognar, E. Armstrong, and E. Watson, “High-resolution image reconstruction from a sequence of rotated and translated frames and its application to an infrared imaging system,” Opt. Eng. 37(1), 247–261 (1998).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (7)

Opt. Lett. (2)

PLoS One (1)

T. Saeki, M. Hosokawa, T. K. Lim, M. Harada, T. Matsunaga, and T. Tanaka, “Digital cell counting device integrated with a single-cell array,” PLoS One 9(2), e89011 (2014).
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Proc. IEEE (1)

M. Elad, M. A. T. Figueiredo, and Y. Ma, “On the role of sparse and redundant representations in image processing,” Proc. IEEE 98(6), 972–982 (2010).
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Rep. Prog. Phys. (1)

E. McLeod and A. Ozcan, “Unconventional methods of imaging: computational microscopy and compact implementations,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 79(7), 076001 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sci. Rep. (5)

J. Song, C. Leon Swisher, H. Im, S. Jeong, D. Pathania, Y. Iwamoto, M. Pivovarov, R. Weissleder, and H. Lee, “Sparsity-based pixel super resolution for lens-free digital in-line holography,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 24681 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Rivenson, Y. Wu, H. Wang, Y. Zhang, A. Feizi, and A. Ozcan, “Sparsity-based multi-height phase recovery in holographic microscopy,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 37862 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Göröcs, E. McLeod, and A. Ozcan, “Enhanced light collection in fluorescence microscopy using self-assembled micro-reflectors,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 10999 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Wei, E. McLeod, H. Qi, Z. Wan, R. Sun, and A. Ozcan, “On-chip cytometry using plasmonic nanoparticle enhanced lensfree holography,” Sci. Rep. 3(1), 1699 (2013).
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A. Ray, M. U. Daloglu, J. Ho, A. Torres, E. Mcleod, and A. Ozcan, “Computational sensing of herpes simplex virus using a cost-effective on-chip microscope,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 4856 (2017).
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J. Musayev, C. Altiner, Y. Adiguzel, H. Kulah, S. Eminoglu, and T. Akin, “Capturing and detection of MCF-7 breast cancer cells with a CMOS image sensor,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 215, 105–114 (2014).
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S. Boyd and L. Vandenberghe, Convex Optimization (Cambridge University, 2004).

Z. Xiong, I. Engle, J. Garan, J. E. Melzer, and E. McLeod, “Optimized computational imaging methods for small-target sensing in lens-free holographic microscopy,” in Optical Diagnostics and Sensing XVIII: Toward Point-of-Care Diagnostics (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2018), Vol. 10501, p. 105010E.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 LFHM schematic. A 4x4 LED array is used to sequentially illuminate a sample from slightly different angles and a bandpass filter is inserted between the LED array and the sample to improve the temporal coherence of the system. A sample is inserted ~30 cm above the LED array and d800 µm below the CMOS sensor.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Flowchart of the regularized PSR process for synthesizing and reconstructing a HR hologram from multiple LR hologram frames.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Effect of regularization on average peak SNR (APSNR). APSNR is independent of κ for no regularization (None). The sample concentrations for the three different bead sizes are (a) 0.33% for the 5-µm beads, (b) 0.1% for the 2-µm beads, and (c) 1% for the 1-µm beads. Error bars (and gray band) are equal to +/− one standard deviation in PSNR for all beads measured in each sample. Since APSNR is shown in logarithmic scale, a few error bars in (c) extend beyond the plot.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Reconstructed SNR images of sparse samples using different regularization methods. From left to right, the four columns correspond to a conventional microscope image, holographic reconstruction with no regularization, the CN method, and the Sp method. Each reconstruction was generated using its corresponding optimum regularization weight κ , and the images are linearly scaled such that the minimum value in each image is zero and the maximum value is one. The three rows correspond to (a) a 0.33% 5-µm diameter PS microsphere sample with reconstruction distance d = 802 µm, (b) a 0.1% 2-µm diameter PS microsphere sample with reconstruction distance d = 781 µm, and (c) a 1% 1-µm diameter PS microsphere sample with reconstruction distance d = 701 µm. All scale bars are 25 µm.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Regularization methods and resolution. (a-d) resolution performance of different regularization methods compared to an image captured by a conventional 100X objective for a 1951 USAF resolution target. The patterned nature of the background noise stems from the Bayer pattern on the image sensor, (e) impact of regularization weight on resolution using no regularization, CN, and Sp methods with a 1951 USAF resolution target. Horizonal elements and vertical elements are characterized separately. Resolution is determined visually so a possible deviation of one element should be considered. Resolution does not depend on κ for the None method.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Effect of sample concentration on APSNR performance for 5-µm diameter microspheres. The regularization methods used are (a) the CN method and (b) the Sp method.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Reconstructed SNR images of moderately sparse samples of 5-µm beads using different regularization methods. The reconstructions are shown using the regularization weight that results in optimum APSNR for that sample. The images are normalized based on their corresponding minimum and maximum values so that they range from 0 to 1. The four rows correspond to varying microsphere concentrations. All scale bars are 25 µm.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Recommended reconstruction methods for different sample types.

Equations (26)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

  z ^ = arg min z   C ( z ) ,
  C None ( z )= 1 2 m=1 pM ( s m r=1 N w m,r z r ) 2 ,
C C N ( z ) = C N o n e ( z ) + κ 2 u = 1 N ( v = 1 N α u , v z v ) 2 ,
  α u , v = { 1 1 4 0       for u = v , for d i s t ( z u , z v ) = 1 otherwise , ,
C S p ( z ) = C N o n e ( z ) + κ | P ( z ; - d ) | B 2 l 1 = C N o n e ( z ) + κ u = 1 N | | P u ( z ; - d ) | B 2 | ,
z ^ k n + 1 = z ^ k n ε n g k ( z ^ n ) ,
g k ( z ^ n ) = C ( z ^ n ) z k .
E i m g ( x , y ) = P ( z ^ ; d ) = F 2 D 1 { F 2 D { z ^ (x,y) }H(ξ,η;d) }.
H ( ξ , η ; d ) = { e i 2 π d n r 2 λ 2 ξ 2 η 2 0 f o r   ( ξ 2 + η 2 ) < n r 2 λ 2 , f o r   ( ξ 2 + η 2 ) n r 2 λ 2 ,
  P S N R = 20 log 10 [ | E i m g | t a r g e t m a x     /     k = 1 N ( | E i m g , k | | E i m g ¯ | ) 2 N 1 ] .
( 0 1 / 4 0 1 / 4 1 1 / 4 0 1 / 4 0 ) .
h ( z ) = | P ( z ; d ) | B 2 ,
| P u ( z ; d ) | = [ P u ( z ; d ) P u * ( z ; d ) ] 1 / 2 ,
B 2 = m o d e { | P ( z ; d ) | } .
P ( z ; d ) = F 2 D 1 { F 2 D { z } H ( ξ , η ; d ) } ,
g k ( z ) = C S p ( z ) z k =     C N o n e ( z ) z k + κ u = 1 N | h u ( z ) | z k .
[ F 2 D 1 { V ( x , y ) } ( ξ , η ) ] * = F 2 D { V * ( x , y ) } ( ξ , η ) .
[ F 2 D 1 { U ( ξ , η ) } ( x , y ) ] * = F 2 D 1 { U * ( ξ , η ) } ( x , y ) .
F 2 D 1 { U ( ξ , η ) } ( x , y ) = F 2 D 1 { U ( ξ , η ) } ( x , y ) .
P * ( z ; d ) = [ F 2D 1 { z }H( ξ,η;d ) ] * = F 2 D 1 { F 2 D { z } ( ξ , η ) H ( ξ , η ; d ) } ( x , y ) = P ( z ; d ) .
| P u ( z ; d ) | = [ P u ( z ; d ) P u ( z ; d ) ] 1 / 2 .
| h u ( z ) | z k = s i g n ( h u ( z ) ) h u ( z ) z k = s i g n ( h u ( z ) ) z k [ | P u ( z ; d ) | B 2 ] = s i g n ( h u ( z ) ) [ P u ( z ; d ) P u ( z ; d ) z k + P u ( z ; d ) P u ( z ; d ) z k ] 2 [ P u ( z ; d ) P u ( z ; d ) ] 1 2 .
P u ( z ; d ) z k = z k [ F 2 D 1 { F 2 D { z } H ( ξ , η ; d ) } ] ( x u , y u ) = a = 1 N b = 1 N δ k b   e i 2 π ( x b ξ a + y b η a ) H ( ξ a , η a ; d )   e i 2 π ( x u ξ a + y u η a ) = a = 1 N e i 2 π ( x k ξ a + y k η a )   H ( ξ a , η a ; d )   e i 2 π ( x u ξ a + y u η a ) = F 2 D 1 { H ( ξ , η ; d ) } ( x u x k , y u y k ) ,
P u ( z ; ± d ) z k = F 2 D 1 { H ( ξ , η ; ± d ) } ( x k x u , y k y u ) .
κ u = 1 N | h u ( z ) | z k = κ u = 1 N s i g n ( h u ( z ) ) 2 [ P u ( z ; d ) P u ( z ; d ) ] 1 2 [ P u (z;d) F 2D 1 { H( ξ,η;d ) } ( x k x u , y k y u ) + P u (z;d) F 2D 1 { H( ξ,η;d ) } ( x k x u , y k y u ) ] = κ 2 [ u=1 N sign( h u (z) ) | P u (z;d) | P u (z;d) F 2D 1 { H( ξ,η;d ) } ( x k x u , y k y u ) + u=1 N sign( h u (z) ) | P u (z;d) | P u (z;d) F 2D 1 { H( ξ,η;d ) } ( x k x u , y k y u ) ] = κ 2 [ sign( h(z) )exp( iarg( P(z;d) ) )** F 2D 1 { H( ξ,η;d ) } +sign( h(z) )exp( iarg( P(z;d) ) )** F 2D 1 { H( ξ,η;d ) } ],
k u=1 N | h u (z) | z k = κ 2 F 2D 1 { F 2D { sign( h(z) )exp( iarg( P(z;d) ) ) }H( ξ,η;d ) + F 2D 1 { sign( h(z) )exp( iarg( P(z;d) ) ) }H( ξ,η;d ) }.

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