Abstract

Directional beaming of electromagnetic waves passing through a subwavelength aperture has attracted considerable interests in photonics, but the traditional approach of utilizing gratings to directionally couple surface waves (SWs) to a desired far-field direction faces the low-efficiency issue owing to high-order diffractions. Here we experimentally demonstrate that directional beaming of light can be realized with very high efficiencies, in which two specifically designed metasurfaces (MTSs) are placed at two sides of the aperture to serve as SW to propagating-wave meta-couplers. Different from the grating couplers, the well-designed phase-gradient meta-couplers can freely select the desired diffraction orders by suppressing the undesired diffraction orders. We design and fabricate MTSs with different phase gradients, and perform both far-field and near-field measurements to verify the predicted high-efficiency on/off-axis directional beaming effects. Experimental results are in good agreement with full wave simulations and theoretical analyses.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. L.-B. Yu, D.-Z. Lin, Y.-C. Chen, Y.-C. Chang, K.-T. Huang, J.-W. Liaw, J.-T. Yeh, J.-M. Liu, C.-S. Yeh, and C.-K. Lee, “Physical origin of directional beaming emitted from a subwavelength slit,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 71(4), 041405 (2005).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. A. Degiron and T. Ebbesen, “Analysis of the transmission process through single apertures surrounded by periodic corrugations,” Opt. Express 12(16), 3694–3700 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Theory of highly directional emission from a single subwavelength aperture surrounded by surface corrugations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(16), 167401 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. J.-M. Yi, A. Cuche, E. Devaux, C. Genet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Beaming visible light with a plasmonic aperture antenna,” ACS Photonics 1(4), 365–370 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. S. S. Akarca-Biyikli, I. Bulu, and E. Ozbay, “Enhanced transmission of microwave radiation in one-dimensional metallic gratings with subwavelength aperture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(7), 1098–1100 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  8. S. Cakmakyapan, H. Caglayan, A. E. Serebryannikov, and E. Ozbay, “Experimental validation of strong directional selectivity in nonsymmetric metallic gratings with a subwavelength slit,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(5), 051103 (2011).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  24. F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, N. Yu, R. Blanchard, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Aberration-free ultrathin flat lenses and axicons at telecom wavelengths based on plasmonic metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(9), 4932–4936 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  25. P. Genevet, N. Yu, F. Aieta, J. Lin, M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, M. O. Scully, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Ultra-thin plasmonic optical vortex plate based on phase discontinuities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(1), 013101 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  26. B. Walther, C. Helgert, C. Rockstuhl, F. Setzpfandt, F. Eilenberger, E. B. Kley, F. Lederer, A. Tünnermann, and T. Pertsch, “Spatial and spectral light shaping with metamaterials,” Adv. Mater. 24(47), 6300–6304 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  27. X. Ni, Z. J. Wong, M. Mrejen, Y. Wang, and X. Zhang, “An ultrathin invisibility skin cloak for visible light,” Science 349(6254), 1310–1314 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  28. Y. Yang, L. Jing, B. Zheng, R. Hao, W. Yin, E. Li, C. M. Soukoulis, and H. Chen, “Full-polarization 3D metasurface cloak with preserved amplitude and phase,” Adv. Mater. 28(32), 6866–6871 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
  30. O. Wolf, S. Campione, A. Benz, A. P. Ravikumar, S. Liu, T. S. Luk, E. A. Kadlec, E. A. Shaner, J. F. Klem, M. B. Sinclair, and I. Brener, “Phased-array sources based on nonlinear metamaterial nanocavities,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 7667 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  31. T. J. Cui, M. Q. Qi, X. Wan, J. Zhao, and Q. Cheng, “Coding metamaterials, digital metamaterials and programmable metamaterials,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(10), e218 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  32. B. Xie, K. Tang, H. Cheng, Z. Liu, S. Chen, and J. Tian, “Coding acoustic metasurfaces,” Adv. Mater. 29(6), 163507 (2017).
    [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  34. S. Sun, Q. He, S. Xiao, Q. Xu, X. Li, and L. Zhou, “Gradient-index meta-surfaces as a bridge linking propagating waves and surface waves,” Nat. Mater. 11(5), 426–431 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  35. L. Huang, X. Chen, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Helicity dependent directional surface plasmon polariton excitation using a metasurface with interfacial phase discontinuity,” Light Sci. Appl. 2(3), e70 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  36. W. Sun, Q. He, S. Sun, and L. Zhou, “High-efficiency surface plasmon meta-couplers: concept and microwave-regime realizations,” Light Sci. Appl. 5(1), e16003 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  37. H. Zhu, X. Yin, L. Chen, and X. Li, “Directional beaming of light from a subwavelength metal slit with phase-gradient metasurfaces,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 12098 (2017).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  38. M. Decker, I. Staude, M. Falkner, J. Dominguez, D. N. Neshev, I. Brener, T. Pertsch, and Y. S. Kivshar, “High-efficiency dielectric Huygens’ surfaces,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(6), 813–820 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  39. C. Pfeiffer, N. K. Emani, A. M. Shaltout, A. Boltasseva, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Grbic, “Efficient light bending with isotropic metamaterial Huygens’ surfaces,” Nano Lett. 14(5), 2491–2497 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  40. O. Luukkonen, C. Simovski, G. Granet, G. Goussetis, D. Lioubtchenko, A. V. Raisanen, and S. A. Tretyakov, “Simple and accurate analytical model of planar grids and high-impedance surfaces comprising metal strips or patches,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 56(6), 1624–1632 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  41. J. Jiang, H. Wu, L. Jiang, and X. Li, “Genetic optimization of double subwavelength metal slits surrounded by surface dielectric gratings for directional beaming manipulation,” Opt. Commun. 285(8), 2201–2206 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  42. J. Tetienne, R. Blanchard, N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, J. A. Fan, T. Edamura, S. Furuta, M. Yamanishi, and F. Capasso, “Dipolar modeling and experimental demonstration of multi-beam plasmonic collimators,” New J. Phys. 13(5), 053057 (2011).
    [Crossref]

2017 (3)

X. Song, N. Wang, M. Yan, C. Lin, J. Förstner, and W. Yang, “Direction-tunable enhanced emission from a subwavelength metallic double-nanoslit structure,” Opt. Express 25(12), 13207–13214 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Xie, K. Tang, H. Cheng, Z. Liu, S. Chen, and J. Tian, “Coding acoustic metasurfaces,” Adv. Mater. 29(6), 163507 (2017).
[PubMed]

H. Zhu, X. Yin, L. Chen, and X. Li, “Directional beaming of light from a subwavelength metal slit with phase-gradient metasurfaces,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 12098 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (2)

Y. Yang, L. Jing, B. Zheng, R. Hao, W. Yin, E. Li, C. M. Soukoulis, and H. Chen, “Full-polarization 3D metasurface cloak with preserved amplitude and phase,” Adv. Mater. 28(32), 6866–6871 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Sun, Q. He, S. Sun, and L. Zhou, “High-efficiency surface plasmon meta-couplers: concept and microwave-regime realizations,” Light Sci. Appl. 5(1), e16003 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (6)

X. Ni, Z. J. Wong, M. Mrejen, Y. Wang, and X. Zhang, “An ultrathin invisibility skin cloak for visible light,” Science 349(6254), 1310–1314 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Segal, S. Keren-Zur, N. Hendler, and T. Ellenbogen, “Controlling light with metamaterial-based nonlinear photonic crystals,” Nat. Photonics 9(3), 180–184 (2015).
[Crossref]

O. Wolf, S. Campione, A. Benz, A. P. Ravikumar, S. Liu, T. S. Luk, E. A. Kadlec, E. A. Shaner, J. F. Klem, M. B. Sinclair, and I. Brener, “Phased-array sources based on nonlinear metamaterial nanocavities,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 7667 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Li, E. Palacios, S. Butun, and K. Aydin, “Visible-frequency metasurfaces for broadband anomalous reflection and high-efficiency spectrum splitting,” Nano Lett. 15(3), 1615–1621 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Liu, Z. Li, Z. Liu, J. Li, H. Cheng, P. Yu, W. Liu, C. Tang, C. Gu, J. Li, S. Chen, and J. Tian, “High-performance broadband circularly polarized beam deflector by mirror effect of multinanorod metasurfaces,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 25(34), 5428–5434 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Decker, I. Staude, M. Falkner, J. Dominguez, D. N. Neshev, I. Brener, T. Pertsch, and Y. S. Kivshar, “High-efficiency dielectric Huygens’ surfaces,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(6), 813–820 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (3)

C. Pfeiffer, N. K. Emani, A. M. Shaltout, A. Boltasseva, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Grbic, “Efficient light bending with isotropic metamaterial Huygens’ surfaces,” Nano Lett. 14(5), 2491–2497 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. J. Cui, M. Q. Qi, X. Wan, J. Zhao, and Q. Cheng, “Coding metamaterials, digital metamaterials and programmable metamaterials,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(10), e218 (2014).
[Crossref]

J.-M. Yi, A. Cuche, E. Devaux, C. Genet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Beaming visible light with a plasmonic aperture antenna,” ACS Photonics 1(4), 365–370 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (1)

L. Huang, X. Chen, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Helicity dependent directional surface plasmon polariton excitation using a metasurface with interfacial phase discontinuity,” Light Sci. Appl. 2(3), e70 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (8)

J. Jiang, H. Wu, L. Jiang, and X. Li, “Genetic optimization of double subwavelength metal slits surrounded by surface dielectric gratings for directional beaming manipulation,” Opt. Commun. 285(8), 2201–2206 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Sun, K.-Y. Yang, C.-M. Wang, T.-K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W.-T. Kung, G.-Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband anomalous reflection by gradient meta-surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6223–6229 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Kang, T. Feng, H.-T. Wang, and J. Li, “Wave front engineering from an array of thin aperture antennas,” Opt. Express 20(14), 15882–15890 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, N. Yu, R. Blanchard, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Aberration-free ultrathin flat lenses and axicons at telecom wavelengths based on plasmonic metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(9), 4932–4936 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Genevet, N. Yu, F. Aieta, J. Lin, M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, M. O. Scully, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Ultra-thin plasmonic optical vortex plate based on phase discontinuities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(1), 013101 (2012).
[Crossref]

B. Walther, C. Helgert, C. Rockstuhl, F. Setzpfandt, F. Eilenberger, E. B. Kley, F. Lederer, A. Tünnermann, and T. Pertsch, “Spatial and spectral light shaping with metamaterials,” Adv. Mater. 24(47), 6300–6304 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Larouche and D. R. Smith, “Reconciliation of generalized refraction with diffraction theory,” Opt. Lett. 37(12), 2391–2393 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Sun, Q. He, S. Xiao, Q. Xu, X. Li, and L. Zhou, “Gradient-index meta-surfaces as a bridge linking propagating waves and surface waves,” Nat. Mater. 11(5), 426–431 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (6)

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Cakmakyapan, H. Caglayan, A. E. Serebryannikov, and E. Ozbay, “Experimental validation of strong directional selectivity in nonsymmetric metallic gratings with a subwavelength slit,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(5), 051103 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Carretero-Palacios, O. Mahboub, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, S. G. Rodrigo, C. Genet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Mechanisms for extraordinary optical transmission through bull’s eye structures,” Opt. Express 19(11), 10429–10442 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Yuan, J. Liu, J. He, and J. Yao, “Directional terahertz beams realized by depth-modulated metallic surface grating structures,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 28(11), 2674–2679 (2011).
[Crossref]

F. Hao, R. Wang, and J. Wang, “A design methodology for directional beaming control by metal slit–grooves structure,” J. Opt. 13(1), 015002 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Tetienne, R. Blanchard, N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, J. A. Fan, T. Edamura, S. Furuta, M. Yamanishi, and F. Capasso, “Dipolar modeling and experimental demonstration of multi-beam plasmonic collimators,” New J. Phys. 13(5), 053057 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

2009 (2)

H. Kim, J. Park, and B. Lee, “Tunable directional beaming from subwavelength metal slits with metal-dielectric composite surface gratings,” Opt. Lett. 34(17), 2569–2571 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Caglayan, I. Bulu, and E. Ozbay, “Observation of off-axis directional beaming via subwavelength asymmetric metallic gratings,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 42(4), 045105 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (3)

S. Kim, Y. Lim, H. Kim, J. Park, and B. Lee, “Optical beam focusing by a single subwavelength metal slit surrounded by chirped dielectric surface gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(1), 013103 (2008).
[Crossref]

Y. Liu, H. Shi, C. Wang, C. Du, and X. Luo, “Multiple directional beaming effect of metallic subwavelength slit surrounded by periodically corrugated grooves,” Opt. Express 16(7), 4487–4493 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Luukkonen, C. Simovski, G. Granet, G. Goussetis, D. Lioubtchenko, A. V. Raisanen, and S. A. Tretyakov, “Simple and accurate analytical model of planar grids and high-impedance surfaces comprising metal strips or patches,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 56(6), 1624–1632 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

S. Kim, H. Kim, Y. Lim, and B. Lee, “Off-axis directional beaming of optical field diffracted by a single subwavelength metal slit with asymmetric dielectric surface gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(5), 051113 (2007).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

L.-B. Yu, D.-Z. Lin, Y.-C. Chen, Y.-C. Chang, K.-T. Huang, J.-W. Liaw, J.-T. Yeh, J.-M. Liu, C.-S. Yeh, and C.-K. Lee, “Physical origin of directional beaming emitted from a subwavelength slit,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 71(4), 041405 (2005).
[Crossref]

S. S. Akarca-Biyikli, I. Bulu, and E. Ozbay, “Resonant excitation of surface plasmons in one-dimensional metallic grating structures at microwave frequencies,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 7(2), S159–S164 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

S. S. Akarca-Biyikli, I. Bulu, and E. Ozbay, “Enhanced transmission of microwave radiation in one-dimensional metallic gratings with subwavelength aperture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(7), 1098–1100 (2004).
[Crossref]

A. Degiron and T. Ebbesen, “Analysis of the transmission process through single apertures surrounded by periodic corrugations,” Opt. Express 12(16), 3694–3700 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Theory of highly directional emission from a single subwavelength aperture surrounded by surface corrugations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(16), 167401 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture,” Science 297(5582), 820–822 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aieta, F.

F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, N. Yu, R. Blanchard, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Aberration-free ultrathin flat lenses and axicons at telecom wavelengths based on plasmonic metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(9), 4932–4936 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Genevet, N. Yu, F. Aieta, J. Lin, M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, M. O. Scully, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Ultra-thin plasmonic optical vortex plate based on phase discontinuities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(1), 013101 (2012).
[Crossref]

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Akarca-Biyikli, S. S.

S. S. Akarca-Biyikli, I. Bulu, and E. Ozbay, “Resonant excitation of surface plasmons in one-dimensional metallic grating structures at microwave frequencies,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 7(2), S159–S164 (2005).
[Crossref]

S. S. Akarca-Biyikli, I. Bulu, and E. Ozbay, “Enhanced transmission of microwave radiation in one-dimensional metallic gratings with subwavelength aperture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(7), 1098–1100 (2004).
[Crossref]

Aydin, K.

Z. Li, E. Palacios, S. Butun, and K. Aydin, “Visible-frequency metasurfaces for broadband anomalous reflection and high-efficiency spectrum splitting,” Nano Lett. 15(3), 1615–1621 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bai, B.

L. Huang, X. Chen, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Helicity dependent directional surface plasmon polariton excitation using a metasurface with interfacial phase discontinuity,” Light Sci. Appl. 2(3), e70 (2013).
[Crossref]

Benz, A.

O. Wolf, S. Campione, A. Benz, A. P. Ravikumar, S. Liu, T. S. Luk, E. A. Kadlec, E. A. Shaner, J. F. Klem, M. B. Sinclair, and I. Brener, “Phased-array sources based on nonlinear metamaterial nanocavities,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 7667 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Blanchard, R.

P. Genevet, N. Yu, F. Aieta, J. Lin, M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, M. O. Scully, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Ultra-thin plasmonic optical vortex plate based on phase discontinuities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(1), 013101 (2012).
[Crossref]

F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, N. Yu, R. Blanchard, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Aberration-free ultrathin flat lenses and axicons at telecom wavelengths based on plasmonic metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(9), 4932–4936 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Tetienne, R. Blanchard, N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, J. A. Fan, T. Edamura, S. Furuta, M. Yamanishi, and F. Capasso, “Dipolar modeling and experimental demonstration of multi-beam plasmonic collimators,” New J. Phys. 13(5), 053057 (2011).
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C. Pfeiffer, N. K. Emani, A. M. Shaltout, A. Boltasseva, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Grbic, “Efficient light bending with isotropic metamaterial Huygens’ surfaces,” Nano Lett. 14(5), 2491–2497 (2014).
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M. Decker, I. Staude, M. Falkner, J. Dominguez, D. N. Neshev, I. Brener, T. Pertsch, and Y. S. Kivshar, “High-efficiency dielectric Huygens’ surfaces,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(6), 813–820 (2015).
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Z. Li, E. Palacios, S. Butun, and K. Aydin, “Visible-frequency metasurfaces for broadband anomalous reflection and high-efficiency spectrum splitting,” Nano Lett. 15(3), 1615–1621 (2015).
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H. Caglayan, I. Bulu, and E. Ozbay, “Observation of off-axis directional beaming via subwavelength asymmetric metallic gratings,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 42(4), 045105 (2009).
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S. Cakmakyapan, H. Caglayan, A. E. Serebryannikov, and E. Ozbay, “Experimental validation of strong directional selectivity in nonsymmetric metallic gratings with a subwavelength slit,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(5), 051103 (2011).
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O. Wolf, S. Campione, A. Benz, A. P. Ravikumar, S. Liu, T. S. Luk, E. A. Kadlec, E. A. Shaner, J. F. Klem, M. B. Sinclair, and I. Brener, “Phased-array sources based on nonlinear metamaterial nanocavities,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 7667 (2015).
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P. Genevet, N. Yu, F. Aieta, J. Lin, M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, M. O. Scully, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Ultra-thin plasmonic optical vortex plate based on phase discontinuities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(1), 013101 (2012).
[Crossref]

F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, N. Yu, R. Blanchard, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Aberration-free ultrathin flat lenses and axicons at telecom wavelengths based on plasmonic metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(9), 4932–4936 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
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J. Tetienne, R. Blanchard, N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, J. A. Fan, T. Edamura, S. Furuta, M. Yamanishi, and F. Capasso, “Dipolar modeling and experimental demonstration of multi-beam plasmonic collimators,” New J. Phys. 13(5), 053057 (2011).
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H. Zhu, X. Yin, L. Chen, and X. Li, “Directional beaming of light from a subwavelength metal slit with phase-gradient metasurfaces,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 12098 (2017).
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B. Xie, K. Tang, H. Cheng, Z. Liu, S. Chen, and J. Tian, “Coding acoustic metasurfaces,” Adv. Mater. 29(6), 163507 (2017).
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S. Sun, K.-Y. Yang, C.-M. Wang, T.-K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W.-T. Kung, G.-Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband anomalous reflection by gradient meta-surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6223–6229 (2012).
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Chen, X.

L. Huang, X. Chen, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Helicity dependent directional surface plasmon polariton excitation using a metasurface with interfacial phase discontinuity,” Light Sci. Appl. 2(3), e70 (2013).
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L.-B. Yu, D.-Z. Lin, Y.-C. Chen, Y.-C. Chang, K.-T. Huang, J.-W. Liaw, J.-T. Yeh, J.-M. Liu, C.-S. Yeh, and C.-K. Lee, “Physical origin of directional beaming emitted from a subwavelength slit,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 71(4), 041405 (2005).
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B. Xie, K. Tang, H. Cheng, Z. Liu, S. Chen, and J. Tian, “Coding acoustic metasurfaces,” Adv. Mater. 29(6), 163507 (2017).
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Z. Liu, Z. Li, Z. Liu, J. Li, H. Cheng, P. Yu, W. Liu, C. Tang, C. Gu, J. Li, S. Chen, and J. Tian, “High-performance broadband circularly polarized beam deflector by mirror effect of multinanorod metasurfaces,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 25(34), 5428–5434 (2015).
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T. J. Cui, M. Q. Qi, X. Wan, J. Zhao, and Q. Cheng, “Coding metamaterials, digital metamaterials and programmable metamaterials,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(10), e218 (2014).
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J.-M. Yi, A. Cuche, E. Devaux, C. Genet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Beaming visible light with a plasmonic aperture antenna,” ACS Photonics 1(4), 365–370 (2014).
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Cui, T. J.

T. J. Cui, M. Q. Qi, X. Wan, J. Zhao, and Q. Cheng, “Coding metamaterials, digital metamaterials and programmable metamaterials,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(10), e218 (2014).
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M. Decker, I. Staude, M. Falkner, J. Dominguez, D. N. Neshev, I. Brener, T. Pertsch, and Y. S. Kivshar, “High-efficiency dielectric Huygens’ surfaces,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(6), 813–820 (2015).
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A. Degiron and T. Ebbesen, “Analysis of the transmission process through single apertures surrounded by periodic corrugations,” Opt. Express 12(16), 3694–3700 (2004).
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L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Theory of highly directional emission from a single subwavelength aperture surrounded by surface corrugations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(16), 167401 (2003).
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H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture,” Science 297(5582), 820–822 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Devaux, E.

J.-M. Yi, A. Cuche, E. Devaux, C. Genet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Beaming visible light with a plasmonic aperture antenna,” ACS Photonics 1(4), 365–370 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture,” Science 297(5582), 820–822 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dominguez, J.

M. Decker, I. Staude, M. Falkner, J. Dominguez, D. N. Neshev, I. Brener, T. Pertsch, and Y. S. Kivshar, “High-efficiency dielectric Huygens’ surfaces,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(6), 813–820 (2015).
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Du, C.

Ebbesen, T.

Ebbesen, T. W.

J.-M. Yi, A. Cuche, E. Devaux, C. Genet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Beaming visible light with a plasmonic aperture antenna,” ACS Photonics 1(4), 365–370 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Carretero-Palacios, O. Mahboub, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, S. G. Rodrigo, C. Genet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Mechanisms for extraordinary optical transmission through bull’s eye structures,” Opt. Express 19(11), 10429–10442 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Theory of highly directional emission from a single subwavelength aperture surrounded by surface corrugations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(16), 167401 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture,” Science 297(5582), 820–822 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Edamura, T.

J. Tetienne, R. Blanchard, N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, J. A. Fan, T. Edamura, S. Furuta, M. Yamanishi, and F. Capasso, “Dipolar modeling and experimental demonstration of multi-beam plasmonic collimators,” New J. Phys. 13(5), 053057 (2011).
[Crossref]

Eilenberger, F.

B. Walther, C. Helgert, C. Rockstuhl, F. Setzpfandt, F. Eilenberger, E. B. Kley, F. Lederer, A. Tünnermann, and T. Pertsch, “Spatial and spectral light shaping with metamaterials,” Adv. Mater. 24(47), 6300–6304 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ellenbogen, T.

N. Segal, S. Keren-Zur, N. Hendler, and T. Ellenbogen, “Controlling light with metamaterial-based nonlinear photonic crystals,” Nat. Photonics 9(3), 180–184 (2015).
[Crossref]

Emani, N. K.

C. Pfeiffer, N. K. Emani, A. M. Shaltout, A. Boltasseva, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Grbic, “Efficient light bending with isotropic metamaterial Huygens’ surfaces,” Nano Lett. 14(5), 2491–2497 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Falkner, M.

M. Decker, I. Staude, M. Falkner, J. Dominguez, D. N. Neshev, I. Brener, T. Pertsch, and Y. S. Kivshar, “High-efficiency dielectric Huygens’ surfaces,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(6), 813–820 (2015).
[Crossref]

Fan, J. A.

J. Tetienne, R. Blanchard, N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, J. A. Fan, T. Edamura, S. Furuta, M. Yamanishi, and F. Capasso, “Dipolar modeling and experimental demonstration of multi-beam plasmonic collimators,” New J. Phys. 13(5), 053057 (2011).
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Feng, T.

Förstner, J.

Furuta, S.

J. Tetienne, R. Blanchard, N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, J. A. Fan, T. Edamura, S. Furuta, M. Yamanishi, and F. Capasso, “Dipolar modeling and experimental demonstration of multi-beam plasmonic collimators,” New J. Phys. 13(5), 053057 (2011).
[Crossref]

Gaburro, Z.

P. Genevet, N. Yu, F. Aieta, J. Lin, M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, M. O. Scully, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Ultra-thin plasmonic optical vortex plate based on phase discontinuities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(1), 013101 (2012).
[Crossref]

F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, N. Yu, R. Blanchard, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Aberration-free ultrathin flat lenses and axicons at telecom wavelengths based on plasmonic metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(9), 4932–4936 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Garcia-Vidal, F. J.

S. Carretero-Palacios, O. Mahboub, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, S. G. Rodrigo, C. Genet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Mechanisms for extraordinary optical transmission through bull’s eye structures,” Opt. Express 19(11), 10429–10442 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture,” Science 297(5582), 820–822 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

García-Vidal, F. J.

L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Theory of highly directional emission from a single subwavelength aperture surrounded by surface corrugations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(16), 167401 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Genet, C.

Genevet, P.

P. Genevet, N. Yu, F. Aieta, J. Lin, M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, M. O. Scully, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Ultra-thin plasmonic optical vortex plate based on phase discontinuities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(1), 013101 (2012).
[Crossref]

F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, N. Yu, R. Blanchard, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Aberration-free ultrathin flat lenses and axicons at telecom wavelengths based on plasmonic metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(9), 4932–4936 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Tetienne, R. Blanchard, N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, J. A. Fan, T. Edamura, S. Furuta, M. Yamanishi, and F. Capasso, “Dipolar modeling and experimental demonstration of multi-beam plasmonic collimators,” New J. Phys. 13(5), 053057 (2011).
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O. Luukkonen, C. Simovski, G. Granet, G. Goussetis, D. Lioubtchenko, A. V. Raisanen, and S. A. Tretyakov, “Simple and accurate analytical model of planar grids and high-impedance surfaces comprising metal strips or patches,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 56(6), 1624–1632 (2008).
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Grbic, A.

C. Pfeiffer, N. K. Emani, A. M. Shaltout, A. Boltasseva, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Grbic, “Efficient light bending with isotropic metamaterial Huygens’ surfaces,” Nano Lett. 14(5), 2491–2497 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gu, C.

Z. Liu, Z. Li, Z. Liu, J. Li, H. Cheng, P. Yu, W. Liu, C. Tang, C. Gu, J. Li, S. Chen, and J. Tian, “High-performance broadband circularly polarized beam deflector by mirror effect of multinanorod metasurfaces,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 25(34), 5428–5434 (2015).
[Crossref]

Guo, G.-Y.

S. Sun, K.-Y. Yang, C.-M. Wang, T.-K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W.-T. Kung, G.-Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband anomalous reflection by gradient meta-surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6223–6229 (2012).
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F. Hao, R. Wang, and J. Wang, “A design methodology for directional beaming control by metal slit–grooves structure,” J. Opt. 13(1), 015002 (2011).
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Hao, R.

Y. Yang, L. Jing, B. Zheng, R. Hao, W. Yin, E. Li, C. M. Soukoulis, and H. Chen, “Full-polarization 3D metasurface cloak with preserved amplitude and phase,” Adv. Mater. 28(32), 6866–6871 (2016).
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He, J.

He, Q.

W. Sun, Q. He, S. Sun, and L. Zhou, “High-efficiency surface plasmon meta-couplers: concept and microwave-regime realizations,” Light Sci. Appl. 5(1), e16003 (2016).
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S. Sun, Q. He, S. Xiao, Q. Xu, X. Li, and L. Zhou, “Gradient-index meta-surfaces as a bridge linking propagating waves and surface waves,” Nat. Mater. 11(5), 426–431 (2012).
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S. Sun, K.-Y. Yang, C.-M. Wang, T.-K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W.-T. Kung, G.-Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband anomalous reflection by gradient meta-surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6223–6229 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Helgert, C.

B. Walther, C. Helgert, C. Rockstuhl, F. Setzpfandt, F. Eilenberger, E. B. Kley, F. Lederer, A. Tünnermann, and T. Pertsch, “Spatial and spectral light shaping with metamaterials,” Adv. Mater. 24(47), 6300–6304 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hendler, N.

N. Segal, S. Keren-Zur, N. Hendler, and T. Ellenbogen, “Controlling light with metamaterial-based nonlinear photonic crystals,” Nat. Photonics 9(3), 180–184 (2015).
[Crossref]

Huang, K.-T.

L.-B. Yu, D.-Z. Lin, Y.-C. Chen, Y.-C. Chang, K.-T. Huang, J.-W. Liaw, J.-T. Yeh, J.-M. Liu, C.-S. Yeh, and C.-K. Lee, “Physical origin of directional beaming emitted from a subwavelength slit,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 71(4), 041405 (2005).
[Crossref]

Huang, L.

L. Huang, X. Chen, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Helicity dependent directional surface plasmon polariton excitation using a metasurface with interfacial phase discontinuity,” Light Sci. Appl. 2(3), e70 (2013).
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J. Jiang, H. Wu, L. Jiang, and X. Li, “Genetic optimization of double subwavelength metal slits surrounded by surface dielectric gratings for directional beaming manipulation,” Opt. Commun. 285(8), 2201–2206 (2012).
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Jiang, L.

J. Jiang, H. Wu, L. Jiang, and X. Li, “Genetic optimization of double subwavelength metal slits surrounded by surface dielectric gratings for directional beaming manipulation,” Opt. Commun. 285(8), 2201–2206 (2012).
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Jin, G.

L. Huang, X. Chen, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Helicity dependent directional surface plasmon polariton excitation using a metasurface with interfacial phase discontinuity,” Light Sci. Appl. 2(3), e70 (2013).
[Crossref]

Jing, L.

Y. Yang, L. Jing, B. Zheng, R. Hao, W. Yin, E. Li, C. M. Soukoulis, and H. Chen, “Full-polarization 3D metasurface cloak with preserved amplitude and phase,” Adv. Mater. 28(32), 6866–6871 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Juan, T.-K.

S. Sun, K.-Y. Yang, C.-M. Wang, T.-K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W.-T. Kung, G.-Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband anomalous reflection by gradient meta-surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6223–6229 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kadlec, E. A.

O. Wolf, S. Campione, A. Benz, A. P. Ravikumar, S. Liu, T. S. Luk, E. A. Kadlec, E. A. Shaner, J. F. Klem, M. B. Sinclair, and I. Brener, “Phased-array sources based on nonlinear metamaterial nanocavities,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 7667 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kang, G.

Kang, M.

Kats, M. A.

F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, N. Yu, R. Blanchard, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Aberration-free ultrathin flat lenses and axicons at telecom wavelengths based on plasmonic metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(9), 4932–4936 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Genevet, N. Yu, F. Aieta, J. Lin, M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, M. O. Scully, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Ultra-thin plasmonic optical vortex plate based on phase discontinuities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(1), 013101 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Tetienne, R. Blanchard, N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, J. A. Fan, T. Edamura, S. Furuta, M. Yamanishi, and F. Capasso, “Dipolar modeling and experimental demonstration of multi-beam plasmonic collimators,” New J. Phys. 13(5), 053057 (2011).
[Crossref]

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Keren-Zur, S.

N. Segal, S. Keren-Zur, N. Hendler, and T. Ellenbogen, “Controlling light with metamaterial-based nonlinear photonic crystals,” Nat. Photonics 9(3), 180–184 (2015).
[Crossref]

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H. Kim, J. Park, and B. Lee, “Tunable directional beaming from subwavelength metal slits with metal-dielectric composite surface gratings,” Opt. Lett. 34(17), 2569–2571 (2009).
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S. Kim, Y. Lim, H. Kim, J. Park, and B. Lee, “Optical beam focusing by a single subwavelength metal slit surrounded by chirped dielectric surface gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(1), 013103 (2008).
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S. Kim, H. Kim, Y. Lim, and B. Lee, “Off-axis directional beaming of optical field diffracted by a single subwavelength metal slit with asymmetric dielectric surface gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(5), 051113 (2007).
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Kim, K.

Kim, S.

S. Kim, Y. Lim, H. Kim, J. Park, and B. Lee, “Optical beam focusing by a single subwavelength metal slit surrounded by chirped dielectric surface gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(1), 013103 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. Kim, H. Kim, Y. Lim, and B. Lee, “Off-axis directional beaming of optical field diffracted by a single subwavelength metal slit with asymmetric dielectric surface gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(5), 051113 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kivshar, Y. S.

M. Decker, I. Staude, M. Falkner, J. Dominguez, D. N. Neshev, I. Brener, T. Pertsch, and Y. S. Kivshar, “High-efficiency dielectric Huygens’ surfaces,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(6), 813–820 (2015).
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H. Kim, J. Park, and B. Lee, “Tunable directional beaming from subwavelength metal slits with metal-dielectric composite surface gratings,” Opt. Lett. 34(17), 2569–2571 (2009).
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[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wolf, O.

O. Wolf, S. Campione, A. Benz, A. P. Ravikumar, S. Liu, T. S. Luk, E. A. Kadlec, E. A. Shaner, J. F. Klem, M. B. Sinclair, and I. Brener, “Phased-array sources based on nonlinear metamaterial nanocavities,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 7667 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wong, Z. J.

X. Ni, Z. J. Wong, M. Mrejen, Y. Wang, and X. Zhang, “An ultrathin invisibility skin cloak for visible light,” Science 349(6254), 1310–1314 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, H.

J. Jiang, H. Wu, L. Jiang, and X. Li, “Genetic optimization of double subwavelength metal slits surrounded by surface dielectric gratings for directional beaming manipulation,” Opt. Commun. 285(8), 2201–2206 (2012).
[Crossref]

Xiao, S.

S. Sun, Q. He, S. Xiao, Q. Xu, X. Li, and L. Zhou, “Gradient-index meta-surfaces as a bridge linking propagating waves and surface waves,” Nat. Mater. 11(5), 426–431 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Sun, K.-Y. Yang, C.-M. Wang, T.-K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W.-T. Kung, G.-Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband anomalous reflection by gradient meta-surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6223–6229 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xie, B.

B. Xie, K. Tang, H. Cheng, Z. Liu, S. Chen, and J. Tian, “Coding acoustic metasurfaces,” Adv. Mater. 29(6), 163507 (2017).
[PubMed]

Xu, Q.

S. Sun, Q. He, S. Xiao, Q. Xu, X. Li, and L. Zhou, “Gradient-index meta-surfaces as a bridge linking propagating waves and surface waves,” Nat. Mater. 11(5), 426–431 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yamanishi, M.

J. Tetienne, R. Blanchard, N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, J. A. Fan, T. Edamura, S. Furuta, M. Yamanishi, and F. Capasso, “Dipolar modeling and experimental demonstration of multi-beam plasmonic collimators,” New J. Phys. 13(5), 053057 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yan, M.

Yang, K.-Y.

S. Sun, K.-Y. Yang, C.-M. Wang, T.-K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W.-T. Kung, G.-Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband anomalous reflection by gradient meta-surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6223–6229 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, W.

Yang, Y.

Y. Yang, L. Jing, B. Zheng, R. Hao, W. Yin, E. Li, C. M. Soukoulis, and H. Chen, “Full-polarization 3D metasurface cloak with preserved amplitude and phase,” Adv. Mater. 28(32), 6866–6871 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yao, J.

Yeh, C.-S.

L.-B. Yu, D.-Z. Lin, Y.-C. Chen, Y.-C. Chang, K.-T. Huang, J.-W. Liaw, J.-T. Yeh, J.-M. Liu, C.-S. Yeh, and C.-K. Lee, “Physical origin of directional beaming emitted from a subwavelength slit,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 71(4), 041405 (2005).
[Crossref]

Yeh, J.-T.

L.-B. Yu, D.-Z. Lin, Y.-C. Chen, Y.-C. Chang, K.-T. Huang, J.-W. Liaw, J.-T. Yeh, J.-M. Liu, C.-S. Yeh, and C.-K. Lee, “Physical origin of directional beaming emitted from a subwavelength slit,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 71(4), 041405 (2005).
[Crossref]

Yi, J.-M.

J.-M. Yi, A. Cuche, E. Devaux, C. Genet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Beaming visible light with a plasmonic aperture antenna,” ACS Photonics 1(4), 365–370 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yin, W.

Y. Yang, L. Jing, B. Zheng, R. Hao, W. Yin, E. Li, C. M. Soukoulis, and H. Chen, “Full-polarization 3D metasurface cloak with preserved amplitude and phase,” Adv. Mater. 28(32), 6866–6871 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yin, X.

H. Zhu, X. Yin, L. Chen, and X. Li, “Directional beaming of light from a subwavelength metal slit with phase-gradient metasurfaces,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 12098 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, D.-H.

Yu, L.-B.

L.-B. Yu, D.-Z. Lin, Y.-C. Chen, Y.-C. Chang, K.-T. Huang, J.-W. Liaw, J.-T. Yeh, J.-M. Liu, C.-S. Yeh, and C.-K. Lee, “Physical origin of directional beaming emitted from a subwavelength slit,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 71(4), 041405 (2005).
[Crossref]

Yu, N.

F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, N. Yu, R. Blanchard, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Aberration-free ultrathin flat lenses and axicons at telecom wavelengths based on plasmonic metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(9), 4932–4936 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Genevet, N. Yu, F. Aieta, J. Lin, M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, M. O. Scully, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Ultra-thin plasmonic optical vortex plate based on phase discontinuities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(1), 013101 (2012).
[Crossref]

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Tetienne, R. Blanchard, N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, J. A. Fan, T. Edamura, S. Furuta, M. Yamanishi, and F. Capasso, “Dipolar modeling and experimental demonstration of multi-beam plasmonic collimators,” New J. Phys. 13(5), 053057 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yu, P.

Z. Liu, Z. Li, Z. Liu, J. Li, H. Cheng, P. Yu, W. Liu, C. Tang, C. Gu, J. Li, S. Chen, and J. Tian, “High-performance broadband circularly polarized beam deflector by mirror effect of multinanorod metasurfaces,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 25(34), 5428–5434 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yuan, Y.

Zentgraf, T.

L. Huang, X. Chen, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Helicity dependent directional surface plasmon polariton excitation using a metasurface with interfacial phase discontinuity,” Light Sci. Appl. 2(3), e70 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhang, S.

L. Huang, X. Chen, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Helicity dependent directional surface plasmon polariton excitation using a metasurface with interfacial phase discontinuity,” Light Sci. Appl. 2(3), e70 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X.

X. Ni, Z. J. Wong, M. Mrejen, Y. Wang, and X. Zhang, “An ultrathin invisibility skin cloak for visible light,” Science 349(6254), 1310–1314 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, J.

T. J. Cui, M. Q. Qi, X. Wan, J. Zhao, and Q. Cheng, “Coding metamaterials, digital metamaterials and programmable metamaterials,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(10), e218 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zheng, B.

Y. Yang, L. Jing, B. Zheng, R. Hao, W. Yin, E. Li, C. M. Soukoulis, and H. Chen, “Full-polarization 3D metasurface cloak with preserved amplitude and phase,” Adv. Mater. 28(32), 6866–6871 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhou, L.

W. Sun, Q. He, S. Sun, and L. Zhou, “High-efficiency surface plasmon meta-couplers: concept and microwave-regime realizations,” Light Sci. Appl. 5(1), e16003 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Sun, Q. He, S. Xiao, Q. Xu, X. Li, and L. Zhou, “Gradient-index meta-surfaces as a bridge linking propagating waves and surface waves,” Nat. Mater. 11(5), 426–431 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Sun, K.-Y. Yang, C.-M. Wang, T.-K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W.-T. Kung, G.-Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband anomalous reflection by gradient meta-surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6223–6229 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhu, H.

H. Zhu, X. Yin, L. Chen, and X. Li, “Directional beaming of light from a subwavelength metal slit with phase-gradient metasurfaces,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 12098 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

ACS Photonics (1)

J.-M. Yi, A. Cuche, E. Devaux, C. Genet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Beaming visible light with a plasmonic aperture antenna,” ACS Photonics 1(4), 365–370 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

Z. Liu, Z. Li, Z. Liu, J. Li, H. Cheng, P. Yu, W. Liu, C. Tang, C. Gu, J. Li, S. Chen, and J. Tian, “High-performance broadband circularly polarized beam deflector by mirror effect of multinanorod metasurfaces,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 25(34), 5428–5434 (2015).
[Crossref]

Adv. Mater. (3)

B. Walther, C. Helgert, C. Rockstuhl, F. Setzpfandt, F. Eilenberger, E. B. Kley, F. Lederer, A. Tünnermann, and T. Pertsch, “Spatial and spectral light shaping with metamaterials,” Adv. Mater. 24(47), 6300–6304 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Yang, L. Jing, B. Zheng, R. Hao, W. Yin, E. Li, C. M. Soukoulis, and H. Chen, “Full-polarization 3D metasurface cloak with preserved amplitude and phase,” Adv. Mater. 28(32), 6866–6871 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Xie, K. Tang, H. Cheng, Z. Liu, S. Chen, and J. Tian, “Coding acoustic metasurfaces,” Adv. Mater. 29(6), 163507 (2017).
[PubMed]

Adv. Opt. Mater. (1)

M. Decker, I. Staude, M. Falkner, J. Dominguez, D. N. Neshev, I. Brener, T. Pertsch, and Y. S. Kivshar, “High-efficiency dielectric Huygens’ surfaces,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(6), 813–820 (2015).
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Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

P. Genevet, N. Yu, F. Aieta, J. Lin, M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, M. O. Scully, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Ultra-thin plasmonic optical vortex plate based on phase discontinuities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(1), 013101 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Kim, Y. Lim, H. Kim, J. Park, and B. Lee, “Optical beam focusing by a single subwavelength metal slit surrounded by chirped dielectric surface gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(1), 013103 (2008).
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S. S. Akarca-Biyikli, I. Bulu, and E. Ozbay, “Enhanced transmission of microwave radiation in one-dimensional metallic gratings with subwavelength aperture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(7), 1098–1100 (2004).
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S. Cakmakyapan, H. Caglayan, A. E. Serebryannikov, and E. Ozbay, “Experimental validation of strong directional selectivity in nonsymmetric metallic gratings with a subwavelength slit,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(5), 051103 (2011).
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S. Kim, H. Kim, Y. Lim, and B. Lee, “Off-axis directional beaming of optical field diffracted by a single subwavelength metal slit with asymmetric dielectric surface gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(5), 051113 (2007).
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IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. (1)

O. Luukkonen, C. Simovski, G. Granet, G. Goussetis, D. Lioubtchenko, A. V. Raisanen, and S. A. Tretyakov, “Simple and accurate analytical model of planar grids and high-impedance surfaces comprising metal strips or patches,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 56(6), 1624–1632 (2008).
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J. Opt. (1)

F. Hao, R. Wang, and J. Wang, “A design methodology for directional beaming control by metal slit–grooves structure,” J. Opt. 13(1), 015002 (2011).
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J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

S. S. Akarca-Biyikli, I. Bulu, and E. Ozbay, “Resonant excitation of surface plasmons in one-dimensional metallic grating structures at microwave frequencies,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 7(2), S159–S164 (2005).
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J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. (1)

H. Caglayan, I. Bulu, and E. Ozbay, “Observation of off-axis directional beaming via subwavelength asymmetric metallic gratings,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 42(4), 045105 (2009).
[Crossref]

Light Sci. Appl. (3)

L. Huang, X. Chen, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Helicity dependent directional surface plasmon polariton excitation using a metasurface with interfacial phase discontinuity,” Light Sci. Appl. 2(3), e70 (2013).
[Crossref]

W. Sun, Q. He, S. Sun, and L. Zhou, “High-efficiency surface plasmon meta-couplers: concept and microwave-regime realizations,” Light Sci. Appl. 5(1), e16003 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. J. Cui, M. Q. Qi, X. Wan, J. Zhao, and Q. Cheng, “Coding metamaterials, digital metamaterials and programmable metamaterials,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(10), e218 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nano Lett. (4)

C. Pfeiffer, N. K. Emani, A. M. Shaltout, A. Boltasseva, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Grbic, “Efficient light bending with isotropic metamaterial Huygens’ surfaces,” Nano Lett. 14(5), 2491–2497 (2014).
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Z. Li, E. Palacios, S. Butun, and K. Aydin, “Visible-frequency metasurfaces for broadband anomalous reflection and high-efficiency spectrum splitting,” Nano Lett. 15(3), 1615–1621 (2015).
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S. Sun, K.-Y. Yang, C.-M. Wang, T.-K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W.-T. Kung, G.-Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband anomalous reflection by gradient meta-surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6223–6229 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, N. Yu, R. Blanchard, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Aberration-free ultrathin flat lenses and axicons at telecom wavelengths based on plasmonic metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(9), 4932–4936 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Commun. (1)

O. Wolf, S. Campione, A. Benz, A. P. Ravikumar, S. Liu, T. S. Luk, E. A. Kadlec, E. A. Shaner, J. F. Klem, M. B. Sinclair, and I. Brener, “Phased-array sources based on nonlinear metamaterial nanocavities,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 7667 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater. (1)

S. Sun, Q. He, S. Xiao, Q. Xu, X. Li, and L. Zhou, “Gradient-index meta-surfaces as a bridge linking propagating waves and surface waves,” Nat. Mater. 11(5), 426–431 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

N. Segal, S. Keren-Zur, N. Hendler, and T. Ellenbogen, “Controlling light with metamaterial-based nonlinear photonic crystals,” Nat. Photonics 9(3), 180–184 (2015).
[Crossref]

New J. Phys. (1)

J. Tetienne, R. Blanchard, N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, J. A. Fan, T. Edamura, S. Furuta, M. Yamanishi, and F. Capasso, “Dipolar modeling and experimental demonstration of multi-beam plasmonic collimators,” New J. Phys. 13(5), 053057 (2011).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (1)

J. Jiang, H. Wu, L. Jiang, and X. Li, “Genetic optimization of double subwavelength metal slits surrounded by surface dielectric gratings for directional beaming manipulation,” Opt. Commun. 285(8), 2201–2206 (2012).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. (1)

L.-B. Yu, D.-Z. Lin, Y.-C. Chen, Y.-C. Chang, K.-T. Huang, J.-W. Liaw, J.-T. Yeh, J.-M. Liu, C.-S. Yeh, and C.-K. Lee, “Physical origin of directional beaming emitted from a subwavelength slit,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 71(4), 041405 (2005).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Theory of highly directional emission from a single subwavelength aperture surrounded by surface corrugations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(16), 167401 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sci. Rep. (1)

H. Zhu, X. Yin, L. Chen, and X. Li, “Directional beaming of light from a subwavelength metal slit with phase-gradient metasurfaces,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 12098 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Science (3)

X. Ni, Z. J. Wong, M. Mrejen, Y. Wang, and X. Zhang, “An ultrathin invisibility skin cloak for visible light,” Science 349(6254), 1310–1314 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture,” Science 297(5582), 820–822 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Schematic of a SW mode converted into radiation wave by a metallic grating. The grating period, depth and the width of air gap are denoted as p, h and a, respectively. (b) The radiation angle diffracted versus the ratio of the grating period and the wavelength in the air. (c) The normalized far-field intensity distributions as a function of the spatial angle when the SW (kswk0) propagate toward the grating with h = 0.14λ, p = 2.4λ and a = 0.11λ. Here the metal is treated as perfect electrical conductivity in the microwave regime. The numbers in (b-c) represent the diffraction orders.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) A supercell of the MTSs contains several subunits, each of which is comprised of a metal strip (yellow) and a metal plate separated by a dielectric spacer (light green). The lattice constant along x direction is denoted as Lx, the period of the subunit and width of the strip along x direction is represented by px and wx, respectively, the thickness of the dielectric spacer, and the metal strip is denoted as d1, d2, respectively. Lx = npx, with n indicating number of strips in a supercell. (b) Transmission line model for the subunit structures described by lumped impedances. (c) Dispersion relation curves for the MTSs A-E. (d) The dependence of the total power reflectance on the incident angles with x-polarized EMWs at 7.5 GHz illuminating the MTSs A-E. In the simulations, d1, d2 for different MTSs are fixed at 1.8 and 0.018 mm, respectively, while the other structural parameters are given in Table 1. Cu and FR4 are selected as the metal layer and dielectric spacer, respectively. The conductivity of copper is σ = 5 × 107 (Ωm)−1 and the relative permittivity of FR4 is εr = 4.3 + 0.025i in the frequency range considered. The five-pointed stars denote the retrieved angles from the transmission-line model. (e, f) Simulated Ez field pattern on x-z plane when x-polarized EWs illuminate MTS A with the incident angle of 0° and −20°, respectively. All the simulations are conducted by a commercial software Lumerical finite difference time domain (FDTD) Solutions.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Schematic of the directional beaming configurations: (a) MTS A is symmetrically arranged around the subwavelength aperture, and (b, c) MTS C (E) and B (D) are asymmetrically placed on the left- (C, E) and right (B, D) sides of the subwavelength aperture, respectively.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a-c) The simulated field intensity distributions of |E|2 at 7.5 GHz when the first [Fig. 3(a)], second [Fig. 3(b)], and third [Fig. 3(c)] directional beaming configurations are illuminated from the bottom of the subwavelength aperture (4 mm width), respectively. In the simulations, 10, 8, 12, 6, and 14 supercells of MTS A, B, C, D, and E, respectively, are used. The other structural parameters of the MTSs are the same as those used in Fig. 2. (d-f) The zoom-in Ez field pattern corresponding to (a-c), respectively, in the regions on the right side of the aperture.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) The schematic of the samples for on-axis directional beaming. The sizes for all the three fabricated samples are 700 mm × 600 mm. (b, c) The experimental setup for the far-field measurement and NF scanning experiment, respectively. (d-f) The simulated (blue lines) and measured (red stars) far-field intensity profiles as a function of the spatial angle for the three samples, respectively.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 The simulated (a-c) and measured (d-f) field intensity distributions of |E|2 at 7.5 GHz, for the three samples, respectively.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 (a-b) Short- (A) and long-period (B) gratings are placed on the left and right side of the metallic aperture, respectively. (c) Short- (A) and long-period (B) gratings are simultaneously arranged on both sides of the aperture. (d) The far-field intensity profiles as a function of the spatial angle at 7.5 GHz for (a-c). The structural parameters for grating A(B) is set with h = 5.80 (5.80) mm, p = 72.75 (25.11) mm, a = 4.40 (4.40) mm. (e-f) A metal aperture is surrounded by MTS E on the left side and by MTS D on the right side, respectively. (g) MTS E and by MTS D are simultaneously arranged on both sides of the aperture. (h) The far-field intensity profiles as a function of the spatial angle at 7.5 GHz for (e-g).
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Normalized far-field intensity as a function of the frequency and the spatial angle: (a-c) FDTD simulations and (d-f) experimental measurements for the three cases. (g, h) The simulated field intensity distributions of |E|2 for the first beaming structure (Fig. 3a) at 7 GHz and 8.5GHz, respectively. The white dashed lines represent the positions of the receiving horn antenna. (i) The simulated (dots) and linearly fitted (solid lines) phase distributions within a supercell of metasurface A at different frequencies. (j,k) Schematics of the radiation direction of the EWs diffracted by the MTSs at 7 GHz and 8.5 GHz, respectively.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Structural parameters for the five supercells

Equations (6)

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k x = k 0 sin θ i + m 2 π / L x
Z i n x = j ω μ 0 tan ( β d 1 ) β cos 2 ( θ 2 ) 1 2 k e f f α tan ( β d 1 ) β cos 2 ( θ 2 )
Z 0 1 + ( Z in x ) 1 = 0
Z i n x ¯ = 1 n i = 0 n ( Z i n x ) i
k 0 sin θ r k i sin θ i = d φ / d x
{ d φ L / d x k s w L = k 0 sin θ L (left) k s w R d φ R / d x = k 0 sin θ R (right)

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