Abstract

We investigated the effect of phosphor deposition methods on the correlated color temperature (CCT), luminous flux and thermal characteristics of packaged white light-emitting diodes (WLEDs) for use in mobile display products. For both the samples, the CCT decreased with increasing viewing angle. Phosphor sedimentation samples displayed much better angular color uniformity than phosphor dispersion samples. The phosphor sedimentation sample had higher luminous flux and luminous efficacy at 20 mA than the phosphor dispersion sample. The phosphor sedimentation sample displayed much better high-temperature/humidity (85 °C/85%) reliability and lower package temperatures compared with the phosphor dispersion sample.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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  4. Y. Ma, R. Hu, X. Yu, W. Shu, and X. Luo, “A modified bidirectional thermal resistance model for junction and phosphor temperature estimation in phosphor-converted light-emitting diodes,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transf. 106, 1–6 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  5. X. Pan, D. Hou, M. Zhou, H. Lai, H. Ming, and X. Ye, “HF-Free Preparation, High Thermal and Color Stability of Mn4+ Activated K2TiF6 Red Phosphors for White Light-Emitting Diodes,” ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol. 7(1), R3006–R3011 (2018).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  7. C. Zeng, H. Liu, Y. Hu, L. Liao, and L. Mei, “Color-tunable properties and energy transfer in Ba3GdNa(PO4)3F:Eu2+, Tb3+ phosphor pumped for n -UV w-LEDs,” Opt. Laser Technol. 74, 6–10 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  8. C. Sommer, J. R. Krenn, P. Hartmann, P. Pachler, M. Schweighart, S. Tasch, and F. P. Wenzl, “The Effect of the Phosphor Particle Sizes on the Angular Homogeneity of Phosphor-Converted High-Power White LED Light Sources,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1181–1188 (2009).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  11. N. Narendran, Y. Gu, J. P. Freyssinier-Nova, and Y. Zhu, “Extracting phosphor‐scattered photons to improve white LED efficiency,” Phys. Status Solidi 202(6), 60–62 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  12. T. Cheng, X. Yu, Y. Ma, B. Xie, Q. Chen, R. Hu, and X. Luo, “Angular Color Uniformity Enhancement of White LEDs by Lens Wetting Phosphor Coating,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(14), 1589–1592 (2016).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  16. J. H. Yum, S. Y. Seo, S. Lee, and Y. E. Sung, “Comparison of Y3Al5O12:Ce0.05 phosphor coating methods for white-light-emitting diode on gallium nitride,” Proc. SPIE 4445, 60–69 (2001).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  25. R. Hu, X. Luo, H. Feng, and S. Liu, “Effect of phosphor settling on the optical performance of phosphor-converted white light-emitting diode,” J. Lumin. 132(5), 1252–1256 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  26. H. Zheng, J. Ma, and X. Luo, “Conformal Phosphor Distribution for White Lighting Emitting Diode Packaging by Conventional Dispensing Coating Method With Structure Control,” IEEE Trans. Compon. Packaging Manuf. Technol. 3(3), 417–421 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  27. H.-C. Kuo, C.-W. Hung, H.-C. Chen, K.-J. Chen, C.-H. Wang, C.-W. Sher, C.-C. Yeh, C.-C. Lin, C.-H. Chen, and Y.-J. Cheng, “Patterned structure of remote phosphor for phosphor-converted white LEDs,” Opt. Express 19(S4Suppl 4), A930–A936 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  28. Q. Meng, H. Rao, Q. Zhang, K. Zhang, W. Zheng, and T. Li, “Optimized Self-Adaptive Phosphor Coating Structure of White LEDs by Conventional Dispensing Method,” IEEE Trans. Compon. Packaging Manuf. Technol. 7(12), 1965–1968 (2017).
    [Crossref]
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  30. R. Hu, X. Luo, and S. Liu, “Study on the Optical Properties of Conformal Coating Light-Emitting Diode by Monte Carlo Simulation,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(22), 1673–1675 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  31. C.-H. Huang, K.-J. Chen, M.-T. Tsai, M.-H. Shih, C.-W. Sun, W.-I. Lee, C.-C. Lin, and H. C. Kuo, “High-efficiency and low assembly dependent chip-scale package for white light-emitting diodes,” J. Photon. for Energy 5(1), 057606 (2015).
    [Crossref]

2018 (1)

X. Pan, D. Hou, M. Zhou, H. Lai, H. Ming, and X. Ye, “HF-Free Preparation, High Thermal and Color Stability of Mn4+ Activated K2TiF6 Red Phosphors for White Light-Emitting Diodes,” ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol. 7(1), R3006–R3011 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (3)

Y. Ma, R. Hu, X. Yu, W. Shu, and X. Luo, “A modified bidirectional thermal resistance model for junction and phosphor temperature estimation in phosphor-converted light-emitting diodes,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transf. 106, 1–6 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. Yu, W. Shu, R. Hu, B. Xie, Y. Ma, and X. Luo, “Dynamic Phosphor Sedimentation Effect on the Optical Performance of White LEDs,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(14), 1195–1198 (2017).
[Crossref]

Q. Meng, H. Rao, Q. Zhang, K. Zhang, W. Zheng, and T. Li, “Optimized Self-Adaptive Phosphor Coating Structure of White LEDs by Conventional Dispensing Method,” IEEE Trans. Compon. Packaging Manuf. Technol. 7(12), 1965–1968 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (2)

T. Cheng, X. Yu, Y. Ma, B. Xie, Q. Chen, R. Hu, and X. Luo, “Angular Color Uniformity Enhancement of White LEDs by Lens Wetting Phosphor Coating,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(14), 1589–1592 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. Luo, R. Hu, S. Liu, and K. Wang, “Heat and fluid flow in high power LED packaging and applications,” Pror. Energy Combust. Sci. 56, 1–32 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (4)

M. H. Tong, Y. J. Liang, P. Yan, Q. Wang, and G. G. Li, “Synthesis and luminescence properties of a bluish-green emitting phosphor Ba3(PO4)2: Ce3+, Tb3+,” Opt. Laser Technol. 75, 221–228 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Zeng, H. Liu, Y. Hu, L. Liao, and L. Mei, “Color-tunable properties and energy transfer in Ba3GdNa(PO4)3F:Eu2+, Tb3+ phosphor pumped for n -UV w-LEDs,” Opt. Laser Technol. 74, 6–10 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. J. Yu, B. Xie, Q. Chen, Y. P. Ma, R. K. Wu, and X. B. Luo, “Thermal remote phosphor coating for phosphor-converted white-light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Trans. Compon. Packaging Manuf. Technol. 5(9), 1253–1257 (2015).
[Crossref]

C.-H. Huang, K.-J. Chen, M.-T. Tsai, M.-H. Shih, C.-W. Sun, W.-I. Lee, C.-C. Lin, and H. C. Kuo, “High-efficiency and low assembly dependent chip-scale package for white light-emitting diodes,” J. Photon. for Energy 5(1), 057606 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

Y. Wang, H. Zheng, R. Hu, and X. Luo, “Modeling on phosphor sedimentation phenomenon during curing process of high power LED packaging,” J. Solid State Lighting 1(1), 2 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

K.-J. Chen, H.-C. Chen, C.-C. Lin, C.-H. Wang, C.-C. Yeh, H.-H. Tsai, S.-H. Chien, M.-H. Shih, and H.-C. Kuo, “An Investigation of the Optical Analysis in White Light-Emitting Diodes with Conformal and Remote Phosphor Structure,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(11), 915–920 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. Hu, Y. Wang, Y. Zou, X. Chen, S. Liu, and X. Luo, “Study on phosphor sedimentation effect in white light-emitting diode packages by modeling multi-layer phosphors with the modified Kubelka-Munk theory,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(6), 063108 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Zheng, J. Ma, and X. Luo, “Conformal Phosphor Distribution for White Lighting Emitting Diode Packaging by Conventional Dispensing Coating Method With Structure Control,” IEEE Trans. Compon. Packaging Manuf. Technol. 3(3), 417–421 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

H. Zheng, X. Luo, R. Hu, B. Cao, X. Fu, Y. Wang, and S. Liu, “Conformal phosphor coating using capillary microchannel for controlling color deviation of phosphor-converted white light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 20(5), 5092–5098 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Hu, X. Luo, H. Feng, and S. Liu, “Effect of phosphor settling on the optical performance of phosphor-converted white light-emitting diode,” J. Lumin. 132(5), 1252–1256 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

Y. Shuai, Y. He, N. T. Tran, and F. G. Shi, “Angular CCT Uniformity of Phosphor Converted White LEDs: Effects of Phosphor Materials and Packaging Structures,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(3), 137–139 (2011).
[Crossref]

R. Hu, X. Luo, and S. Liu, “Study on the Optical Properties of Conformal Coating Light-Emitting Diode by Monte Carlo Simulation,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(22), 1673–1675 (2011).
[Crossref]

H.-C. Kuo, C.-W. Hung, H.-C. Chen, K.-J. Chen, C.-H. Wang, C.-W. Sher, C.-C. Yeh, C.-C. Lin, C.-H. Chen, and Y.-J. Cheng, “Patterned structure of remote phosphor for phosphor-converted white LEDs,” Opt. Express 19(S4Suppl 4), A930–A936 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (3)

2009 (1)

C. Sommer, J. R. Krenn, P. Hartmann, P. Pachler, M. Schweighart, S. Tasch, and F. P. Wenzl, “The Effect of the Phosphor Particle Sizes on the Angular Homogeneity of Phosphor-Converted High-Power White LED Light Sources,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1181–1188 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

Z. Y. Liu, S. Liu, K. Wang, and X. B. Luo, “Optical Analysis of Color Distribution in White LEDs With Various Packaging Methods,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20(24), 2027–2029 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting,” J. Disp. Technol. 3(2), 160–175 (2007).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

N. Narendran, Y. Gu, J. P. Freyssinier-Nova, and Y. Zhu, “Extracting phosphor‐scattered photons to improve white LED efficiency,” Phys. Status Solidi 202(6), 60–62 (2005).
[Crossref]

H. Luo, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Analysis of high-power packages for phosphor-based white-light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(24), 243505 (2005).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

J. H. Yum, S. Y. Seo, S. Lee, and Y. E. Sung, “Comparison of Y3Al5O12:Ce0.05 phosphor coating methods for white-light-emitting diode on gallium nitride,” Proc. SPIE 4445, 60–69 (2001).
[Crossref]

Cao, B.

Chen, C.-H.

Chen, H.-C.

K.-J. Chen, H.-C. Chen, C.-C. Lin, C.-H. Wang, C.-C. Yeh, H.-H. Tsai, S.-H. Chien, M.-H. Shih, and H.-C. Kuo, “An Investigation of the Optical Analysis in White Light-Emitting Diodes with Conformal and Remote Phosphor Structure,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(11), 915–920 (2013).
[Crossref]

H.-C. Kuo, C.-W. Hung, H.-C. Chen, K.-J. Chen, C.-H. Wang, C.-W. Sher, C.-C. Yeh, C.-C. Lin, C.-H. Chen, and Y.-J. Cheng, “Patterned structure of remote phosphor for phosphor-converted white LEDs,” Opt. Express 19(S4Suppl 4), A930–A936 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, J. C.

M. T. Lin, S. P. Ying, M. Y. Lin, K. Y. Tai, S. C. Tai, C. H. Liu, J. C. Chen, and C. C. Sun, “Ring Remote Phosphor Structure for Phosphor-Converted White LEDs,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(8), 574–576 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chen, K.-J.

C.-H. Huang, K.-J. Chen, M.-T. Tsai, M.-H. Shih, C.-W. Sun, W.-I. Lee, C.-C. Lin, and H. C. Kuo, “High-efficiency and low assembly dependent chip-scale package for white light-emitting diodes,” J. Photon. for Energy 5(1), 057606 (2015).
[Crossref]

K.-J. Chen, H.-C. Chen, C.-C. Lin, C.-H. Wang, C.-C. Yeh, H.-H. Tsai, S.-H. Chien, M.-H. Shih, and H.-C. Kuo, “An Investigation of the Optical Analysis in White Light-Emitting Diodes with Conformal and Remote Phosphor Structure,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(11), 915–920 (2013).
[Crossref]

H.-C. Kuo, C.-W. Hung, H.-C. Chen, K.-J. Chen, C.-H. Wang, C.-W. Sher, C.-C. Yeh, C.-C. Lin, C.-H. Chen, and Y.-J. Cheng, “Patterned structure of remote phosphor for phosphor-converted white LEDs,” Opt. Express 19(S4Suppl 4), A930–A936 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, Q.

T. Cheng, X. Yu, Y. Ma, B. Xie, Q. Chen, R. Hu, and X. Luo, “Angular Color Uniformity Enhancement of White LEDs by Lens Wetting Phosphor Coating,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(14), 1589–1592 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. J. Yu, B. Xie, Q. Chen, Y. P. Ma, R. K. Wu, and X. B. Luo, “Thermal remote phosphor coating for phosphor-converted white-light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Trans. Compon. Packaging Manuf. Technol. 5(9), 1253–1257 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chen, X.

R. Hu, Y. Wang, Y. Zou, X. Chen, S. Liu, and X. Luo, “Study on phosphor sedimentation effect in white light-emitting diode packages by modeling multi-layer phosphors with the modified Kubelka-Munk theory,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(6), 063108 (2013).
[Crossref]

Cheng, T.

T. Cheng, X. Yu, Y. Ma, B. Xie, Q. Chen, R. Hu, and X. Luo, “Angular Color Uniformity Enhancement of White LEDs by Lens Wetting Phosphor Coating,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(14), 1589–1592 (2016).
[Crossref]

Cheng, Y.-J.

Chien, S.-H.

K.-J. Chen, H.-C. Chen, C.-C. Lin, C.-H. Wang, C.-C. Yeh, H.-H. Tsai, S.-H. Chien, M.-H. Shih, and H.-C. Kuo, “An Investigation of the Optical Analysis in White Light-Emitting Diodes with Conformal and Remote Phosphor Structure,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(11), 915–920 (2013).
[Crossref]

Cho, J.

H. Luo, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Analysis of high-power packages for phosphor-based white-light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(24), 243505 (2005).
[Crossref]

Craford, M. G.

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting,” J. Disp. Technol. 3(2), 160–175 (2007).
[Crossref]

Feng, H.

R. Hu, X. Luo, H. Feng, and S. Liu, “Effect of phosphor settling on the optical performance of phosphor-converted white light-emitting diode,” J. Lumin. 132(5), 1252–1256 (2012).
[Crossref]

Freyssinier-Nova, J. P.

N. Narendran, Y. Gu, J. P. Freyssinier-Nova, and Y. Zhu, “Extracting phosphor‐scattered photons to improve white LED efficiency,” Phys. Status Solidi 202(6), 60–62 (2005).
[Crossref]

Fu, X.

Gu, Y.

N. Narendran, Y. Gu, J. P. Freyssinier-Nova, and Y. Zhu, “Extracting phosphor‐scattered photons to improve white LED efficiency,” Phys. Status Solidi 202(6), 60–62 (2005).
[Crossref]

Harbers, G.

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting,” J. Disp. Technol. 3(2), 160–175 (2007).
[Crossref]

Hartmann, P.

C. Sommer, J. R. Krenn, P. Hartmann, P. Pachler, M. Schweighart, S. Tasch, and F. P. Wenzl, “The Effect of the Phosphor Particle Sizes on the Angular Homogeneity of Phosphor-Converted High-Power White LED Light Sources,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1181–1188 (2009).
[Crossref]

He, Y.

Y. Shuai, Y. He, N. T. Tran, and F. G. Shi, “Angular CCT Uniformity of Phosphor Converted White LEDs: Effects of Phosphor Materials and Packaging Structures,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(3), 137–139 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hou, D.

X. Pan, D. Hou, M. Zhou, H. Lai, H. Ming, and X. Ye, “HF-Free Preparation, High Thermal and Color Stability of Mn4+ Activated K2TiF6 Red Phosphors for White Light-Emitting Diodes,” ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol. 7(1), R3006–R3011 (2018).
[Crossref]

Hu, R.

Y. Ma, R. Hu, X. Yu, W. Shu, and X. Luo, “A modified bidirectional thermal resistance model for junction and phosphor temperature estimation in phosphor-converted light-emitting diodes,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transf. 106, 1–6 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. Yu, W. Shu, R. Hu, B. Xie, Y. Ma, and X. Luo, “Dynamic Phosphor Sedimentation Effect on the Optical Performance of White LEDs,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(14), 1195–1198 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. Cheng, X. Yu, Y. Ma, B. Xie, Q. Chen, R. Hu, and X. Luo, “Angular Color Uniformity Enhancement of White LEDs by Lens Wetting Phosphor Coating,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(14), 1589–1592 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. Luo, R. Hu, S. Liu, and K. Wang, “Heat and fluid flow in high power LED packaging and applications,” Pror. Energy Combust. Sci. 56, 1–32 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Wang, H. Zheng, R. Hu, and X. Luo, “Modeling on phosphor sedimentation phenomenon during curing process of high power LED packaging,” J. Solid State Lighting 1(1), 2 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. Hu, Y. Wang, Y. Zou, X. Chen, S. Liu, and X. Luo, “Study on phosphor sedimentation effect in white light-emitting diode packages by modeling multi-layer phosphors with the modified Kubelka-Munk theory,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(6), 063108 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. Hu, X. Luo, H. Feng, and S. Liu, “Effect of phosphor settling on the optical performance of phosphor-converted white light-emitting diode,” J. Lumin. 132(5), 1252–1256 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. Zheng, X. Luo, R. Hu, B. Cao, X. Fu, Y. Wang, and S. Liu, “Conformal phosphor coating using capillary microchannel for controlling color deviation of phosphor-converted white light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 20(5), 5092–5098 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Hu, X. Luo, and S. Liu, “Study on the Optical Properties of Conformal Coating Light-Emitting Diode by Monte Carlo Simulation,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(22), 1673–1675 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hu, Y.

C. Zeng, H. Liu, Y. Hu, L. Liao, and L. Mei, “Color-tunable properties and energy transfer in Ba3GdNa(PO4)3F:Eu2+, Tb3+ phosphor pumped for n -UV w-LEDs,” Opt. Laser Technol. 74, 6–10 (2015).
[Crossref]

Huang, C.-H.

C.-H. Huang, K.-J. Chen, M.-T. Tsai, M.-H. Shih, C.-W. Sun, W.-I. Lee, C.-C. Lin, and H. C. Kuo, “High-efficiency and low assembly dependent chip-scale package for white light-emitting diodes,” J. Photon. for Energy 5(1), 057606 (2015).
[Crossref]

Huang, H. T.

Huang, Y. P.

Hung, C.-W.

Kim, J. K.

H. Luo, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Analysis of high-power packages for phosphor-based white-light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(24), 243505 (2005).
[Crossref]

Krames, M. R.

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting,” J. Disp. Technol. 3(2), 160–175 (2007).
[Crossref]

Krenn, J. R.

C. Sommer, J. R. Krenn, P. Hartmann, P. Pachler, M. Schweighart, S. Tasch, and F. P. Wenzl, “The Effect of the Phosphor Particle Sizes on the Angular Homogeneity of Phosphor-Converted High-Power White LED Light Sources,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1181–1188 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kuo, H. C.

C.-H. Huang, K.-J. Chen, M.-T. Tsai, M.-H. Shih, C.-W. Sun, W.-I. Lee, C.-C. Lin, and H. C. Kuo, “High-efficiency and low assembly dependent chip-scale package for white light-emitting diodes,” J. Photon. for Energy 5(1), 057606 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kuo, H.-C.

K.-J. Chen, H.-C. Chen, C.-C. Lin, C.-H. Wang, C.-C. Yeh, H.-H. Tsai, S.-H. Chien, M.-H. Shih, and H.-C. Kuo, “An Investigation of the Optical Analysis in White Light-Emitting Diodes with Conformal and Remote Phosphor Structure,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(11), 915–920 (2013).
[Crossref]

H.-C. Kuo, C.-W. Hung, H.-C. Chen, K.-J. Chen, C.-H. Wang, C.-W. Sher, C.-C. Yeh, C.-C. Lin, C.-H. Chen, and Y.-J. Cheng, “Patterned structure of remote phosphor for phosphor-converted white LEDs,” Opt. Express 19(S4Suppl 4), A930–A936 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lai, H.

X. Pan, D. Hou, M. Zhou, H. Lai, H. Ming, and X. Ye, “HF-Free Preparation, High Thermal and Color Stability of Mn4+ Activated K2TiF6 Red Phosphors for White Light-Emitting Diodes,” ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol. 7(1), R3006–R3011 (2018).
[Crossref]

Lee, S.

J. H. Yum, S. Y. Seo, S. Lee, and Y. E. Sung, “Comparison of Y3Al5O12:Ce0.05 phosphor coating methods for white-light-emitting diode on gallium nitride,” Proc. SPIE 4445, 60–69 (2001).
[Crossref]

Lee, W.-I.

C.-H. Huang, K.-J. Chen, M.-T. Tsai, M.-H. Shih, C.-W. Sun, W.-I. Lee, C.-C. Lin, and H. C. Kuo, “High-efficiency and low assembly dependent chip-scale package for white light-emitting diodes,” J. Photon. for Energy 5(1), 057606 (2015).
[Crossref]

Li, G. G.

M. H. Tong, Y. J. Liang, P. Yan, Q. Wang, and G. G. Li, “Synthesis and luminescence properties of a bluish-green emitting phosphor Ba3(PO4)2: Ce3+, Tb3+,” Opt. Laser Technol. 75, 221–228 (2015).
[Crossref]

Li, T.

Q. Meng, H. Rao, Q. Zhang, K. Zhang, W. Zheng, and T. Li, “Optimized Self-Adaptive Phosphor Coating Structure of White LEDs by Conventional Dispensing Method,” IEEE Trans. Compon. Packaging Manuf. Technol. 7(12), 1965–1968 (2017).
[Crossref]

Liang, Y. J.

M. H. Tong, Y. J. Liang, P. Yan, Q. Wang, and G. G. Li, “Synthesis and luminescence properties of a bluish-green emitting phosphor Ba3(PO4)2: Ce3+, Tb3+,” Opt. Laser Technol. 75, 221–228 (2015).
[Crossref]

Liao, L.

C. Zeng, H. Liu, Y. Hu, L. Liao, and L. Mei, “Color-tunable properties and energy transfer in Ba3GdNa(PO4)3F:Eu2+, Tb3+ phosphor pumped for n -UV w-LEDs,” Opt. Laser Technol. 74, 6–10 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lin, C.-C.

C.-H. Huang, K.-J. Chen, M.-T. Tsai, M.-H. Shih, C.-W. Sun, W.-I. Lee, C.-C. Lin, and H. C. Kuo, “High-efficiency and low assembly dependent chip-scale package for white light-emitting diodes,” J. Photon. for Energy 5(1), 057606 (2015).
[Crossref]

K.-J. Chen, H.-C. Chen, C.-C. Lin, C.-H. Wang, C.-C. Yeh, H.-H. Tsai, S.-H. Chien, M.-H. Shih, and H.-C. Kuo, “An Investigation of the Optical Analysis in White Light-Emitting Diodes with Conformal and Remote Phosphor Structure,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(11), 915–920 (2013).
[Crossref]

H.-C. Kuo, C.-W. Hung, H.-C. Chen, K.-J. Chen, C.-H. Wang, C.-W. Sher, C.-C. Yeh, C.-C. Lin, C.-H. Chen, and Y.-J. Cheng, “Patterned structure of remote phosphor for phosphor-converted white LEDs,” Opt. Express 19(S4Suppl 4), A930–A936 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lin, M. T.

M. T. Lin, S. P. Ying, M. Y. Lin, K. Y. Tai, S. C. Tai, C. H. Liu, J. C. Chen, and C. C. Sun, “Ring Remote Phosphor Structure for Phosphor-Converted White LEDs,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(8), 574–576 (2010).
[Crossref]

Lin, M. Y.

M. T. Lin, S. P. Ying, M. Y. Lin, K. Y. Tai, S. C. Tai, C. H. Liu, J. C. Chen, and C. C. Sun, “Ring Remote Phosphor Structure for Phosphor-Converted White LEDs,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(8), 574–576 (2010).
[Crossref]

Liu, C. H.

M. T. Lin, S. P. Ying, M. Y. Lin, K. Y. Tai, S. C. Tai, C. H. Liu, J. C. Chen, and C. C. Sun, “Ring Remote Phosphor Structure for Phosphor-Converted White LEDs,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(8), 574–576 (2010).
[Crossref]

Liu, H.

C. Zeng, H. Liu, Y. Hu, L. Liao, and L. Mei, “Color-tunable properties and energy transfer in Ba3GdNa(PO4)3F:Eu2+, Tb3+ phosphor pumped for n -UV w-LEDs,” Opt. Laser Technol. 74, 6–10 (2015).
[Crossref]

Liu, S.

X. Luo, R. Hu, S. Liu, and K. Wang, “Heat and fluid flow in high power LED packaging and applications,” Pror. Energy Combust. Sci. 56, 1–32 (2016).
[Crossref]

R. Hu, Y. Wang, Y. Zou, X. Chen, S. Liu, and X. Luo, “Study on phosphor sedimentation effect in white light-emitting diode packages by modeling multi-layer phosphors with the modified Kubelka-Munk theory,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(6), 063108 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. Hu, X. Luo, H. Feng, and S. Liu, “Effect of phosphor settling on the optical performance of phosphor-converted white light-emitting diode,” J. Lumin. 132(5), 1252–1256 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. Zheng, X. Luo, R. Hu, B. Cao, X. Fu, Y. Wang, and S. Liu, “Conformal phosphor coating using capillary microchannel for controlling color deviation of phosphor-converted white light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 20(5), 5092–5098 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Hu, X. Luo, and S. Liu, “Study on the Optical Properties of Conformal Coating Light-Emitting Diode by Monte Carlo Simulation,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(22), 1673–1675 (2011).
[Crossref]

Z. Y. Liu, S. Liu, K. Wang, and X. B. Luo, “Optical Analysis of Color Distribution in White LEDs With Various Packaging Methods,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20(24), 2027–2029 (2008).
[Crossref]

Liu, Z. Y.

Z. Y. Liu, S. Liu, K. Wang, and X. B. Luo, “Optical Analysis of Color Distribution in White LEDs With Various Packaging Methods,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20(24), 2027–2029 (2008).
[Crossref]

Luo, H.

H. Luo, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Analysis of high-power packages for phosphor-based white-light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(24), 243505 (2005).
[Crossref]

Luo, X.

X. Yu, W. Shu, R. Hu, B. Xie, Y. Ma, and X. Luo, “Dynamic Phosphor Sedimentation Effect on the Optical Performance of White LEDs,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(14), 1195–1198 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Ma, R. Hu, X. Yu, W. Shu, and X. Luo, “A modified bidirectional thermal resistance model for junction and phosphor temperature estimation in phosphor-converted light-emitting diodes,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transf. 106, 1–6 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. Luo, R. Hu, S. Liu, and K. Wang, “Heat and fluid flow in high power LED packaging and applications,” Pror. Energy Combust. Sci. 56, 1–32 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. Cheng, X. Yu, Y. Ma, B. Xie, Q. Chen, R. Hu, and X. Luo, “Angular Color Uniformity Enhancement of White LEDs by Lens Wetting Phosphor Coating,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(14), 1589–1592 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Wang, H. Zheng, R. Hu, and X. Luo, “Modeling on phosphor sedimentation phenomenon during curing process of high power LED packaging,” J. Solid State Lighting 1(1), 2 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. Hu, Y. Wang, Y. Zou, X. Chen, S. Liu, and X. Luo, “Study on phosphor sedimentation effect in white light-emitting diode packages by modeling multi-layer phosphors with the modified Kubelka-Munk theory,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(6), 063108 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Zheng, J. Ma, and X. Luo, “Conformal Phosphor Distribution for White Lighting Emitting Diode Packaging by Conventional Dispensing Coating Method With Structure Control,” IEEE Trans. Compon. Packaging Manuf. Technol. 3(3), 417–421 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. Hu, X. Luo, H. Feng, and S. Liu, “Effect of phosphor settling on the optical performance of phosphor-converted white light-emitting diode,” J. Lumin. 132(5), 1252–1256 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. Zheng, X. Luo, R. Hu, B. Cao, X. Fu, Y. Wang, and S. Liu, “Conformal phosphor coating using capillary microchannel for controlling color deviation of phosphor-converted white light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 20(5), 5092–5098 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Hu, X. Luo, and S. Liu, “Study on the Optical Properties of Conformal Coating Light-Emitting Diode by Monte Carlo Simulation,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(22), 1673–1675 (2011).
[Crossref]

Luo, X. B.

X. J. Yu, B. Xie, Q. Chen, Y. P. Ma, R. K. Wu, and X. B. Luo, “Thermal remote phosphor coating for phosphor-converted white-light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Trans. Compon. Packaging Manuf. Technol. 5(9), 1253–1257 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z. Y. Liu, S. Liu, K. Wang, and X. B. Luo, “Optical Analysis of Color Distribution in White LEDs With Various Packaging Methods,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20(24), 2027–2029 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ma, J.

H. Zheng, J. Ma, and X. Luo, “Conformal Phosphor Distribution for White Lighting Emitting Diode Packaging by Conventional Dispensing Coating Method With Structure Control,” IEEE Trans. Compon. Packaging Manuf. Technol. 3(3), 417–421 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ma, Y.

X. Yu, W. Shu, R. Hu, B. Xie, Y. Ma, and X. Luo, “Dynamic Phosphor Sedimentation Effect on the Optical Performance of White LEDs,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(14), 1195–1198 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Ma, R. Hu, X. Yu, W. Shu, and X. Luo, “A modified bidirectional thermal resistance model for junction and phosphor temperature estimation in phosphor-converted light-emitting diodes,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transf. 106, 1–6 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. Cheng, X. Yu, Y. Ma, B. Xie, Q. Chen, R. Hu, and X. Luo, “Angular Color Uniformity Enhancement of White LEDs by Lens Wetting Phosphor Coating,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(14), 1589–1592 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ma, Y. P.

X. J. Yu, B. Xie, Q. Chen, Y. P. Ma, R. K. Wu, and X. B. Luo, “Thermal remote phosphor coating for phosphor-converted white-light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Trans. Compon. Packaging Manuf. Technol. 5(9), 1253–1257 (2015).
[Crossref]

Mei, L.

C. Zeng, H. Liu, Y. Hu, L. Liao, and L. Mei, “Color-tunable properties and energy transfer in Ba3GdNa(PO4)3F:Eu2+, Tb3+ phosphor pumped for n -UV w-LEDs,” Opt. Laser Technol. 74, 6–10 (2015).
[Crossref]

Meng, Q.

Q. Meng, H. Rao, Q. Zhang, K. Zhang, W. Zheng, and T. Li, “Optimized Self-Adaptive Phosphor Coating Structure of White LEDs by Conventional Dispensing Method,” IEEE Trans. Compon. Packaging Manuf. Technol. 7(12), 1965–1968 (2017).
[Crossref]

Ming, H.

X. Pan, D. Hou, M. Zhou, H. Lai, H. Ming, and X. Ye, “HF-Free Preparation, High Thermal and Color Stability of Mn4+ Activated K2TiF6 Red Phosphors for White Light-Emitting Diodes,” ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol. 7(1), R3006–R3011 (2018).
[Crossref]

Mueller, G. O.

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting,” J. Disp. Technol. 3(2), 160–175 (2007).
[Crossref]

Mueller-Mach, R.

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting,” J. Disp. Technol. 3(2), 160–175 (2007).
[Crossref]

Narendran, N.

N. Narendran, Y. Gu, J. P. Freyssinier-Nova, and Y. Zhu, “Extracting phosphor‐scattered photons to improve white LED efficiency,” Phys. Status Solidi 202(6), 60–62 (2005).
[Crossref]

Pachler, P.

C. Sommer, J. R. Krenn, P. Hartmann, P. Pachler, M. Schweighart, S. Tasch, and F. P. Wenzl, “The Effect of the Phosphor Particle Sizes on the Angular Homogeneity of Phosphor-Converted High-Power White LED Light Sources,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1181–1188 (2009).
[Crossref]

Pan, X.

X. Pan, D. Hou, M. Zhou, H. Lai, H. Ming, and X. Ye, “HF-Free Preparation, High Thermal and Color Stability of Mn4+ Activated K2TiF6 Red Phosphors for White Light-Emitting Diodes,” ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol. 7(1), R3006–R3011 (2018).
[Crossref]

Park, Y.

H. Luo, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Analysis of high-power packages for phosphor-based white-light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(24), 243505 (2005).
[Crossref]

Rao, H.

Q. Meng, H. Rao, Q. Zhang, K. Zhang, W. Zheng, and T. Li, “Optimized Self-Adaptive Phosphor Coating Structure of White LEDs by Conventional Dispensing Method,” IEEE Trans. Compon. Packaging Manuf. Technol. 7(12), 1965–1968 (2017).
[Crossref]

Schubert, E. F.

H. Luo, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Analysis of high-power packages for phosphor-based white-light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(24), 243505 (2005).
[Crossref]

Schweighart, M.

C. Sommer, J. R. Krenn, P. Hartmann, P. Pachler, M. Schweighart, S. Tasch, and F. P. Wenzl, “The Effect of the Phosphor Particle Sizes on the Angular Homogeneity of Phosphor-Converted High-Power White LED Light Sources,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1181–1188 (2009).
[Crossref]

Seo, S. Y.

J. H. Yum, S. Y. Seo, S. Lee, and Y. E. Sung, “Comparison of Y3Al5O12:Ce0.05 phosphor coating methods for white-light-emitting diode on gallium nitride,” Proc. SPIE 4445, 60–69 (2001).
[Crossref]

Shchekin, O. B.

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting,” J. Disp. Technol. 3(2), 160–175 (2007).
[Crossref]

Sher, C.-W.

Shi, F. G.

Y. Shuai, Y. He, N. T. Tran, and F. G. Shi, “Angular CCT Uniformity of Phosphor Converted White LEDs: Effects of Phosphor Materials and Packaging Structures,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(3), 137–139 (2011).
[Crossref]

Shih, M.-H.

C.-H. Huang, K.-J. Chen, M.-T. Tsai, M.-H. Shih, C.-W. Sun, W.-I. Lee, C.-C. Lin, and H. C. Kuo, “High-efficiency and low assembly dependent chip-scale package for white light-emitting diodes,” J. Photon. for Energy 5(1), 057606 (2015).
[Crossref]

K.-J. Chen, H.-C. Chen, C.-C. Lin, C.-H. Wang, C.-C. Yeh, H.-H. Tsai, S.-H. Chien, M.-H. Shih, and H.-C. Kuo, “An Investigation of the Optical Analysis in White Light-Emitting Diodes with Conformal and Remote Phosphor Structure,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(11), 915–920 (2013).
[Crossref]

Shu, W.

Y. Ma, R. Hu, X. Yu, W. Shu, and X. Luo, “A modified bidirectional thermal resistance model for junction and phosphor temperature estimation in phosphor-converted light-emitting diodes,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transf. 106, 1–6 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. Yu, W. Shu, R. Hu, B. Xie, Y. Ma, and X. Luo, “Dynamic Phosphor Sedimentation Effect on the Optical Performance of White LEDs,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(14), 1195–1198 (2017).
[Crossref]

Shuai, Y.

Y. Shuai, Y. He, N. T. Tran, and F. G. Shi, “Angular CCT Uniformity of Phosphor Converted White LEDs: Effects of Phosphor Materials and Packaging Structures,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(3), 137–139 (2011).
[Crossref]

Sommer, C.

C. Sommer, J. R. Krenn, P. Hartmann, P. Pachler, M. Schweighart, S. Tasch, and F. P. Wenzl, “The Effect of the Phosphor Particle Sizes on the Angular Homogeneity of Phosphor-Converted High-Power White LED Light Sources,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1181–1188 (2009).
[Crossref]

Sone, C.

H. Luo, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Analysis of high-power packages for phosphor-based white-light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(24), 243505 (2005).
[Crossref]

Sun, C. C.

M. T. Lin, S. P. Ying, M. Y. Lin, K. Y. Tai, S. C. Tai, C. H. Liu, J. C. Chen, and C. C. Sun, “Ring Remote Phosphor Structure for Phosphor-Converted White LEDs,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(8), 574–576 (2010).
[Crossref]

Sun, C.-W.

C.-H. Huang, K.-J. Chen, M.-T. Tsai, M.-H. Shih, C.-W. Sun, W.-I. Lee, C.-C. Lin, and H. C. Kuo, “High-efficiency and low assembly dependent chip-scale package for white light-emitting diodes,” J. Photon. for Energy 5(1), 057606 (2015).
[Crossref]

Sung, Y. E.

J. H. Yum, S. Y. Seo, S. Lee, and Y. E. Sung, “Comparison of Y3Al5O12:Ce0.05 phosphor coating methods for white-light-emitting diode on gallium nitride,” Proc. SPIE 4445, 60–69 (2001).
[Crossref]

Tai, K. Y.

M. T. Lin, S. P. Ying, M. Y. Lin, K. Y. Tai, S. C. Tai, C. H. Liu, J. C. Chen, and C. C. Sun, “Ring Remote Phosphor Structure for Phosphor-Converted White LEDs,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(8), 574–576 (2010).
[Crossref]

Tai, S. C.

M. T. Lin, S. P. Ying, M. Y. Lin, K. Y. Tai, S. C. Tai, C. H. Liu, J. C. Chen, and C. C. Sun, “Ring Remote Phosphor Structure for Phosphor-Converted White LEDs,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(8), 574–576 (2010).
[Crossref]

Tasch, S.

C. Sommer, J. R. Krenn, P. Hartmann, P. Pachler, M. Schweighart, S. Tasch, and F. P. Wenzl, “The Effect of the Phosphor Particle Sizes on the Angular Homogeneity of Phosphor-Converted High-Power White LED Light Sources,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1181–1188 (2009).
[Crossref]

Tong, M. H.

M. H. Tong, Y. J. Liang, P. Yan, Q. Wang, and G. G. Li, “Synthesis and luminescence properties of a bluish-green emitting phosphor Ba3(PO4)2: Ce3+, Tb3+,” Opt. Laser Technol. 75, 221–228 (2015).
[Crossref]

Tran, N. T.

Y. Shuai, Y. He, N. T. Tran, and F. G. Shi, “Angular CCT Uniformity of Phosphor Converted White LEDs: Effects of Phosphor Materials and Packaging Structures,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(3), 137–139 (2011).
[Crossref]

Tsai, C. C.

Tsai, H.-H.

K.-J. Chen, H.-C. Chen, C.-C. Lin, C.-H. Wang, C.-C. Yeh, H.-H. Tsai, S.-H. Chien, M.-H. Shih, and H.-C. Kuo, “An Investigation of the Optical Analysis in White Light-Emitting Diodes with Conformal and Remote Phosphor Structure,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(11), 915–920 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tsai, M.-T.

C.-H. Huang, K.-J. Chen, M.-T. Tsai, M.-H. Shih, C.-W. Sun, W.-I. Lee, C.-C. Lin, and H. C. Kuo, “High-efficiency and low assembly dependent chip-scale package for white light-emitting diodes,” J. Photon. for Energy 5(1), 057606 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wang, C.-H.

K.-J. Chen, H.-C. Chen, C.-C. Lin, C.-H. Wang, C.-C. Yeh, H.-H. Tsai, S.-H. Chien, M.-H. Shih, and H.-C. Kuo, “An Investigation of the Optical Analysis in White Light-Emitting Diodes with Conformal and Remote Phosphor Structure,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(11), 915–920 (2013).
[Crossref]

H.-C. Kuo, C.-W. Hung, H.-C. Chen, K.-J. Chen, C.-H. Wang, C.-W. Sher, C.-C. Yeh, C.-C. Lin, C.-H. Chen, and Y.-J. Cheng, “Patterned structure of remote phosphor for phosphor-converted white LEDs,” Opt. Express 19(S4Suppl 4), A930–A936 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, K.

X. Luo, R. Hu, S. Liu, and K. Wang, “Heat and fluid flow in high power LED packaging and applications,” Pror. Energy Combust. Sci. 56, 1–32 (2016).
[Crossref]

Z. Y. Liu, S. Liu, K. Wang, and X. B. Luo, “Optical Analysis of Color Distribution in White LEDs With Various Packaging Methods,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20(24), 2027–2029 (2008).
[Crossref]

Wang, Q.

M. H. Tong, Y. J. Liang, P. Yan, Q. Wang, and G. G. Li, “Synthesis and luminescence properties of a bluish-green emitting phosphor Ba3(PO4)2: Ce3+, Tb3+,” Opt. Laser Technol. 75, 221–228 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y.

Y. Wang, H. Zheng, R. Hu, and X. Luo, “Modeling on phosphor sedimentation phenomenon during curing process of high power LED packaging,” J. Solid State Lighting 1(1), 2 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. Hu, Y. Wang, Y. Zou, X. Chen, S. Liu, and X. Luo, “Study on phosphor sedimentation effect in white light-emitting diode packages by modeling multi-layer phosphors with the modified Kubelka-Munk theory,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(6), 063108 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Zheng, X. Luo, R. Hu, B. Cao, X. Fu, Y. Wang, and S. Liu, “Conformal phosphor coating using capillary microchannel for controlling color deviation of phosphor-converted white light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 20(5), 5092–5098 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wenzl, F. P.

C. Sommer, J. R. Krenn, P. Hartmann, P. Pachler, M. Schweighart, S. Tasch, and F. P. Wenzl, “The Effect of the Phosphor Particle Sizes on the Angular Homogeneity of Phosphor-Converted High-Power White LED Light Sources,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1181–1188 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wu, R. K.

X. J. Yu, B. Xie, Q. Chen, Y. P. Ma, R. K. Wu, and X. B. Luo, “Thermal remote phosphor coating for phosphor-converted white-light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Trans. Compon. Packaging Manuf. Technol. 5(9), 1253–1257 (2015).
[Crossref]

Xie, B.

X. Yu, W. Shu, R. Hu, B. Xie, Y. Ma, and X. Luo, “Dynamic Phosphor Sedimentation Effect on the Optical Performance of White LEDs,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(14), 1195–1198 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. Cheng, X. Yu, Y. Ma, B. Xie, Q. Chen, R. Hu, and X. Luo, “Angular Color Uniformity Enhancement of White LEDs by Lens Wetting Phosphor Coating,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(14), 1589–1592 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. J. Yu, B. Xie, Q. Chen, Y. P. Ma, R. K. Wu, and X. B. Luo, “Thermal remote phosphor coating for phosphor-converted white-light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Trans. Compon. Packaging Manuf. Technol. 5(9), 1253–1257 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yan, P.

M. H. Tong, Y. J. Liang, P. Yan, Q. Wang, and G. G. Li, “Synthesis and luminescence properties of a bluish-green emitting phosphor Ba3(PO4)2: Ce3+, Tb3+,” Opt. Laser Technol. 75, 221–228 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ye, X.

X. Pan, D. Hou, M. Zhou, H. Lai, H. Ming, and X. Ye, “HF-Free Preparation, High Thermal and Color Stability of Mn4+ Activated K2TiF6 Red Phosphors for White Light-Emitting Diodes,” ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol. 7(1), R3006–R3011 (2018).
[Crossref]

Yeh, C.-C.

K.-J. Chen, H.-C. Chen, C.-C. Lin, C.-H. Wang, C.-C. Yeh, H.-H. Tsai, S.-H. Chien, M.-H. Shih, and H.-C. Kuo, “An Investigation of the Optical Analysis in White Light-Emitting Diodes with Conformal and Remote Phosphor Structure,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(11), 915–920 (2013).
[Crossref]

H.-C. Kuo, C.-W. Hung, H.-C. Chen, K.-J. Chen, C.-H. Wang, C.-W. Sher, C.-C. Yeh, C.-C. Lin, C.-H. Chen, and Y.-J. Cheng, “Patterned structure of remote phosphor for phosphor-converted white LEDs,” Opt. Express 19(S4Suppl 4), A930–A936 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ying, S. P.

M. T. Lin, S. P. Ying, M. Y. Lin, K. Y. Tai, S. C. Tai, C. H. Liu, J. C. Chen, and C. C. Sun, “Ring Remote Phosphor Structure for Phosphor-Converted White LEDs,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(8), 574–576 (2010).
[Crossref]

Yu, X.

X. Yu, W. Shu, R. Hu, B. Xie, Y. Ma, and X. Luo, “Dynamic Phosphor Sedimentation Effect on the Optical Performance of White LEDs,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(14), 1195–1198 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Ma, R. Hu, X. Yu, W. Shu, and X. Luo, “A modified bidirectional thermal resistance model for junction and phosphor temperature estimation in phosphor-converted light-emitting diodes,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transf. 106, 1–6 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. Cheng, X. Yu, Y. Ma, B. Xie, Q. Chen, R. Hu, and X. Luo, “Angular Color Uniformity Enhancement of White LEDs by Lens Wetting Phosphor Coating,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(14), 1589–1592 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yu, X. J.

X. J. Yu, B. Xie, Q. Chen, Y. P. Ma, R. K. Wu, and X. B. Luo, “Thermal remote phosphor coating for phosphor-converted white-light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Trans. Compon. Packaging Manuf. Technol. 5(9), 1253–1257 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yum, J. H.

J. H. Yum, S. Y. Seo, S. Lee, and Y. E. Sung, “Comparison of Y3Al5O12:Ce0.05 phosphor coating methods for white-light-emitting diode on gallium nitride,” Proc. SPIE 4445, 60–69 (2001).
[Crossref]

Zeng, C.

C. Zeng, H. Liu, Y. Hu, L. Liao, and L. Mei, “Color-tunable properties and energy transfer in Ba3GdNa(PO4)3F:Eu2+, Tb3+ phosphor pumped for n -UV w-LEDs,” Opt. Laser Technol. 74, 6–10 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhang, K.

Q. Meng, H. Rao, Q. Zhang, K. Zhang, W. Zheng, and T. Li, “Optimized Self-Adaptive Phosphor Coating Structure of White LEDs by Conventional Dispensing Method,” IEEE Trans. Compon. Packaging Manuf. Technol. 7(12), 1965–1968 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Q.

Q. Meng, H. Rao, Q. Zhang, K. Zhang, W. Zheng, and T. Li, “Optimized Self-Adaptive Phosphor Coating Structure of White LEDs by Conventional Dispensing Method,” IEEE Trans. Compon. Packaging Manuf. Technol. 7(12), 1965–1968 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zheng, H.

Y. Wang, H. Zheng, R. Hu, and X. Luo, “Modeling on phosphor sedimentation phenomenon during curing process of high power LED packaging,” J. Solid State Lighting 1(1), 2 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Zheng, J. Ma, and X. Luo, “Conformal Phosphor Distribution for White Lighting Emitting Diode Packaging by Conventional Dispensing Coating Method With Structure Control,” IEEE Trans. Compon. Packaging Manuf. Technol. 3(3), 417–421 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Zheng, X. Luo, R. Hu, B. Cao, X. Fu, Y. Wang, and S. Liu, “Conformal phosphor coating using capillary microchannel for controlling color deviation of phosphor-converted white light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 20(5), 5092–5098 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zheng, W.

Q. Meng, H. Rao, Q. Zhang, K. Zhang, W. Zheng, and T. Li, “Optimized Self-Adaptive Phosphor Coating Structure of White LEDs by Conventional Dispensing Method,” IEEE Trans. Compon. Packaging Manuf. Technol. 7(12), 1965–1968 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhou, L.

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting,” J. Disp. Technol. 3(2), 160–175 (2007).
[Crossref]

Zhou, M.

X. Pan, D. Hou, M. Zhou, H. Lai, H. Ming, and X. Ye, “HF-Free Preparation, High Thermal and Color Stability of Mn4+ Activated K2TiF6 Red Phosphors for White Light-Emitting Diodes,” ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol. 7(1), R3006–R3011 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zhu, Y.

N. Narendran, Y. Gu, J. P. Freyssinier-Nova, and Y. Zhu, “Extracting phosphor‐scattered photons to improve white LED efficiency,” Phys. Status Solidi 202(6), 60–62 (2005).
[Crossref]

Zou, Y.

R. Hu, Y. Wang, Y. Zou, X. Chen, S. Liu, and X. Luo, “Study on phosphor sedimentation effect in white light-emitting diode packages by modeling multi-layer phosphors with the modified Kubelka-Munk theory,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(6), 063108 (2013).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

H. Luo, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Analysis of high-power packages for phosphor-based white-light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(24), 243505 (2005).
[Crossref]

ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol. (1)

X. Pan, D. Hou, M. Zhou, H. Lai, H. Ming, and X. Ye, “HF-Free Preparation, High Thermal and Color Stability of Mn4+ Activated K2TiF6 Red Phosphors for White Light-Emitting Diodes,” ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol. 7(1), R3006–R3011 (2018).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

C. Sommer, J. R. Krenn, P. Hartmann, P. Pachler, M. Schweighart, S. Tasch, and F. P. Wenzl, “The Effect of the Phosphor Particle Sizes on the Angular Homogeneity of Phosphor-Converted High-Power White LED Light Sources,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1181–1188 (2009).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (6)

M. T. Lin, S. P. Ying, M. Y. Lin, K. Y. Tai, S. C. Tai, C. H. Liu, J. C. Chen, and C. C. Sun, “Ring Remote Phosphor Structure for Phosphor-Converted White LEDs,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(8), 574–576 (2010).
[Crossref]

T. Cheng, X. Yu, Y. Ma, B. Xie, Q. Chen, R. Hu, and X. Luo, “Angular Color Uniformity Enhancement of White LEDs by Lens Wetting Phosphor Coating,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(14), 1589–1592 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. Yu, W. Shu, R. Hu, B. Xie, Y. Ma, and X. Luo, “Dynamic Phosphor Sedimentation Effect on the Optical Performance of White LEDs,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(14), 1195–1198 (2017).
[Crossref]

Z. Y. Liu, S. Liu, K. Wang, and X. B. Luo, “Optical Analysis of Color Distribution in White LEDs With Various Packaging Methods,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20(24), 2027–2029 (2008).
[Crossref]

Y. Shuai, Y. He, N. T. Tran, and F. G. Shi, “Angular CCT Uniformity of Phosphor Converted White LEDs: Effects of Phosphor Materials and Packaging Structures,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(3), 137–139 (2011).
[Crossref]

R. Hu, X. Luo, and S. Liu, “Study on the Optical Properties of Conformal Coating Light-Emitting Diode by Monte Carlo Simulation,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(22), 1673–1675 (2011).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Compon. Packaging Manuf. Technol. (3)

H. Zheng, J. Ma, and X. Luo, “Conformal Phosphor Distribution for White Lighting Emitting Diode Packaging by Conventional Dispensing Coating Method With Structure Control,” IEEE Trans. Compon. Packaging Manuf. Technol. 3(3), 417–421 (2013).
[Crossref]

Q. Meng, H. Rao, Q. Zhang, K. Zhang, W. Zheng, and T. Li, “Optimized Self-Adaptive Phosphor Coating Structure of White LEDs by Conventional Dispensing Method,” IEEE Trans. Compon. Packaging Manuf. Technol. 7(12), 1965–1968 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. J. Yu, B. Xie, Q. Chen, Y. P. Ma, R. K. Wu, and X. B. Luo, “Thermal remote phosphor coating for phosphor-converted white-light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Trans. Compon. Packaging Manuf. Technol. 5(9), 1253–1257 (2015).
[Crossref]

Int. J. Heat Mass Transf. (1)

Y. Ma, R. Hu, X. Yu, W. Shu, and X. Luo, “A modified bidirectional thermal resistance model for junction and phosphor temperature estimation in phosphor-converted light-emitting diodes,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transf. 106, 1–6 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

R. Hu, Y. Wang, Y. Zou, X. Chen, S. Liu, and X. Luo, “Study on phosphor sedimentation effect in white light-emitting diode packages by modeling multi-layer phosphors with the modified Kubelka-Munk theory,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(6), 063108 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Disp. Technol. (2)

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting,” J. Disp. Technol. 3(2), 160–175 (2007).
[Crossref]

K.-J. Chen, H.-C. Chen, C.-C. Lin, C.-H. Wang, C.-C. Yeh, H.-H. Tsai, S.-H. Chien, M.-H. Shih, and H.-C. Kuo, “An Investigation of the Optical Analysis in White Light-Emitting Diodes with Conformal and Remote Phosphor Structure,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(11), 915–920 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Lumin. (1)

R. Hu, X. Luo, H. Feng, and S. Liu, “Effect of phosphor settling on the optical performance of phosphor-converted white light-emitting diode,” J. Lumin. 132(5), 1252–1256 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Photon. for Energy (1)

C.-H. Huang, K.-J. Chen, M.-T. Tsai, M.-H. Shih, C.-W. Sun, W.-I. Lee, C.-C. Lin, and H. C. Kuo, “High-efficiency and low assembly dependent chip-scale package for white light-emitting diodes,” J. Photon. for Energy 5(1), 057606 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Solid State Lighting (1)

Y. Wang, H. Zheng, R. Hu, and X. Luo, “Modeling on phosphor sedimentation phenomenon during curing process of high power LED packaging,” J. Solid State Lighting 1(1), 2 (2014).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Laser Technol. (2)

M. H. Tong, Y. J. Liang, P. Yan, Q. Wang, and G. G. Li, “Synthesis and luminescence properties of a bluish-green emitting phosphor Ba3(PO4)2: Ce3+, Tb3+,” Opt. Laser Technol. 75, 221–228 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Zeng, H. Liu, Y. Hu, L. Liao, and L. Mei, “Color-tunable properties and energy transfer in Ba3GdNa(PO4)3F:Eu2+, Tb3+ phosphor pumped for n -UV w-LEDs,” Opt. Laser Technol. 74, 6–10 (2015).
[Crossref]

Phys. Status Solidi (1)

N. Narendran, Y. Gu, J. P. Freyssinier-Nova, and Y. Zhu, “Extracting phosphor‐scattered photons to improve white LED efficiency,” Phys. Status Solidi 202(6), 60–62 (2005).
[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (1)

J. H. Yum, S. Y. Seo, S. Lee, and Y. E. Sung, “Comparison of Y3Al5O12:Ce0.05 phosphor coating methods for white-light-emitting diode on gallium nitride,” Proc. SPIE 4445, 60–69 (2001).
[Crossref]

Pror. Energy Combust. Sci. (1)

X. Luo, R. Hu, S. Liu, and K. Wang, “Heat and fluid flow in high power LED packaging and applications,” Pror. Energy Combust. Sci. 56, 1–32 (2016).
[Crossref]

Other (3)

T.-Y. Seong, J. Han, H. Amano, and H. Morkoç, III-Nitride Based Light Emitting Diodes and Applications, Second ed., Springer Nature, Singapore, (2017).

Q. Chen, R. Hu, Y. Wang, H. Zheng, and X. Luo, “A Method to Eliminate the Effect of Phosphor Sedimentation on LED’s Angular Color Uniformity,” ASME. Intern. Electron. Packag. Techn. Conf. 2, V002T02A044 (2015).

K.-C. Lee, D. G. Kim, S.-M. Kim, H.-S. Oh, and J. H. Baek, “The Influence of Phosphor Sedimentation on the White LEDs with Different Structure Chip,” Proc. of SPIE-OSA-IEEE 8312, 83120E (2011).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Cross-section optical microscopy images obtained from the samples with phosphor films formed by (a) dispersion (b) and sedimentation methods, showing the geometry of the phosphor film, LED chip, and metal reflector.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 PL emission spectra of packaged white LEDs fabricated with different phosphor deposition methods, which consisted of 446 nm blue LED chip, nitride green, and K2SiF6:Mn4+ yellow phosphors.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 The angular distribution of the CCT of the phosphor dispersion and phosphor sedimentation samples in the range of angles from −80° to 80°.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 The current dependence of (a) the luminous flux and (b) luminous efficacy of the packaged samples (3804 PPA PKG) with different phosphor deposition methods.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 The lumen maintenance of the packaged samples with different phosphor deposition methods as a function of aging time. These samples were examined under the hydrothermal condition, namely, a humidity of 85% and a temperature of 85 °C.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) Optical image of a packaged pc-WLED. The thermal images of the packages (3804PKG) with (b) phosphor dispersion and (c) phosphor sedimentation samples, which were taken at 300 mA using a thermal imaging camera.

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