Abstract

Recently, different nanophotonic computational design methods based on optimization algorithms have been proposed which revolutionized the conventional design techniques of photonic integrated devices. The intelligently designed photonic devices have small footprints and high operating performance along with their fabrication feasibility. In this study, we introduce a new approach based on attractor selection algorithm to design photonic integrated devices. In order to demonstrate the potential of the proposed approach, we designed two structures: an optical coupler and an asymmetric light transmitter. The designed photonic devices operate at telecom wavelengths and have compact dimensions. The designed optical coupler has a footprint of only 4 × 2 μm2 and coupling efficiency of 87.5% at a design wavelength of 1550 nm with spatial beam width compression ratio of 10:1. Moreover, the designed optical coupler operates at a wide bandwidth of 6.45% where the transmission efficiency is above 80%. In addition, the designed asymmetric light transmitter with a size of 2 × 2 μm2 has the forward and backward transmission efficiencies of 88.1% and 8.6%, respectively. The bandwidth of 3.47% was calculated for the designed asymmetric light transmitter where the forward transmission efficiency is higher than 80% and the backward efficiency transmission is under 10%. In order to evaluate the operating performance of the designed photonic devices, coupling losses are analyzed. The presented results show that the attractor selection algorithm, which is based on artificial neural networks, can bring a conceptual breakthrough for the design of efficient integrated nanophotonic devices.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2018 (3)

L. Su, A. Y. Piggott, N. V. Sapra, J. Petykiewicz, and J. Vuckovic, “Inverse design and demonstration of a compact on-chip narrowband three-channel wavelength demultiplexer,” ACS Photonics 5(2), 301–305 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Turduev, E. Bor, C. Latifoglu, I. H. Giden, Y. S. Hanay, and H. Kurt, “Ultra-compact photonic structure design for strong light confinement and coupling into nano-waveguide,” J. Lightwave Technol. 36(14), 2812–2819 (2018).
[Crossref]

D. Liu, Y. Tan, E. Khoram, and Z. Yu, “Training deep neural networks for the inverse design of nanophotonic structures,” ACS Photonics 5(4), 1365–1369 (2018).
[Crossref]

2016 (3)

F. Callewaert, S. Butun, Z. Li, and K. Aydin, “Inverse design of an ultra-compact broadband optical diode based on asymmetric spatial mode conversion,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 32577 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Silver, A. Huang, C. J. Maddison, A. Guez, L. Sifre, G. van den Driessche, J. Schrittwieser, I. Antonoglou, V. Panneershelvam, M. Lanctot, S. Dieleman, D. Grewe, J. Nham, N. Kalchbrenner, I. Sutskever, T. Lillicrap, M. Leach, K. Kavukcuoglu, T. Graepel, and D. Hassabis, “Mastering the game of Go with deep neural networks and tree search,” Nature 529(7587), 484–489 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Tian, J. Zhou, Y. Wang, G. Zhang, and H. Xia, “An adaptive vehicular epidemic routing method based on attractor selection model,” Ad Hoc Netw. 36(2), 465–481 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (4)

Y. S. Hanay, S. Arakawa, and M. Murata, “Network topology selection with multistate neural memories,” Expert Syst. Appl. 42(6), 3219–3226 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. Shen, P. Wang, R. Polson, and R. Menon, “An integrated-nanophotonics polarization beamsplitter with 2.4 × 2.4 μm2 footprint,” Nat. Photonics 9(6), 378–382 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. Shen, R. Polson, and R. Menon, “Integrated digital metamaterials enables ultra-compact optical diodes,” Opt. Express 23(8), 10847–10855 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Y. Piggott, J. Lu, K. G. Lagoudakis, J. Petykiewicz, T. M. Babinec, and J. Vuckovic, “Inverse design and demonstration of a compact and broadband on-chip wavelength demultiplexer,” Nat. Photonics 9(6), 374–377 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

A. Y. Piggott, J. Lu, T. M. Babinec, K. G. Lagoudakis, J. Petykiewicz, and J. Vučković, “Inverse design and implementation of a wavelength demultiplexing grating coupler,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 7210 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Shen, P. Wang, R. Polson, and R. Menon, “Integrated metamaterials for efficient and compact free-space-to-waveguide coupling,” Opt. Express 22(22), 27175–27182 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (2)

J. Lu and J. Vučković, “Nanophotonic computational design,” Opt. Express 21(11), 13351–13367 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Jalas, A. Petrov, M. Eich, W. Freude, S. Fan, Z. Yu, R. Baets, M. Popovic, A. Melloni, J. D. Joannopoulos, M. Vanwolleghem, C. R. Doerr, and H. Renner, “What is- and what is not- an optical isolator,” Nat. Photonics 7(8), 579–582 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (4)

C. Wang, X. L. Zhong, and Z. Y. Li, “Linear and passive silicon optical isolator,” Sci. Rep. 2(1), 674 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Cicek, M. B. Yucel, O. A. Kaya, and B. Ulug, “Refraction-based photonic crystal diode,” Opt. Lett. 37(14), 2937–2939 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Mutlu, A. E. Akosman, A. E. Serebryannikov, and E. Ozbay, “Diodelike asymmetric transmission of linearly polarized waves using magnetoelectric coupling and electromagnetic wave tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(21), 213905 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Liu, D. A. B. Miller, and S. Fan, “Ultra-compact photonic crystal waveguide spatial mode converter and its connection to the optical diode effect,” Opt. Express 20(27), 28388–28397 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

C. Wang, C. Z. Zhou, and Z. Y. Li, “On-chip optical diode based on silicon photonic crystal heterojunctions,” Opt. Express 19(27), 26948–26955 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Bi, J. Hu, P. Jiang, D. H. Kim, G. F. Dionne, L. C. Kimerling, and C. A. Ross, “On-chip optical isolation in monolithically integrated non-reciprocal optical resonators,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 758–762 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (4)

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovic, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 518–526 (2010).
[Crossref]

D. Liang and J. E. Bowers, “Recent progress in lasers on silicon,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 511–517 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and S. G. Johnson, “Meep: a flexible free-software package for electromagnetic simulations by the FDTD method,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 181(3), 687–702 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. Koizumi, T. Miyamura, S. Arakawa, E. Oki, K. Shiomoto, and M. Murata, “Adaptive virtual network topology control based on attractor selection,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(11), 1720–1731 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

Z. Yu and S. Fan, “Complete optical isolation created by indirect interband photonic transitions,” Nat. Photonics 3(2), 91–94 (2009).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

A. Kashiwagi, I. Urabe, K. Kaneko, and T. Yomo, “Adaptive response of a gene network to environmental changes by fitness-induced attractor selection,” PLoS One 1(1), e49 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

R. Nagarajan, C. H. Joyner, R. P. Schneider, J. S. Bostak, T. Butrie, A. G. Dentai, V. G. Dominic, P. W. Evans, M. Kato, M. Kauffman, D. J. H. Lambert, S. K. Mathis, A. Mathur, R. H. Miles, M. L. Mitchell, M. J. Missey, S. Murthy, A. C. Nilsson, F. H. Peters, S. C. Pennypacker, J. L. Pleumeekers, R. A. Salvatore, R. K. Schlenker, R. B. Taylor, H. Tsai, M. F. Van Leeuwen, J. Webjorn, M. Ziari, D. Perkins, J. Singh, S. G. Grubb, M. S. Reffle, D. G. Mehuys, F. A. Kish, and D. F. Welch, “Large-scale photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(1), 50–65 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, “All-optical control of light on a silicon chip,” Nature 431(7012), 1081–1084 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

J. A. Berenger, “Perfectly matched layer for the absorption of electromagnetic waves,” J. Comput. Phys. 114(2), 185–200 (1994).
[Crossref]

1982 (1)

J. J. Hopfield, “Neural networks and physical systems with emergent collective computational abilities,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 79(8), 2554–2558 (1982).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Akosman, A. E.

M. Mutlu, A. E. Akosman, A. E. Serebryannikov, and E. Ozbay, “Diodelike asymmetric transmission of linearly polarized waves using magnetoelectric coupling and electromagnetic wave tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(21), 213905 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Almeida, V. R.

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, “All-optical control of light on a silicon chip,” Nature 431(7012), 1081–1084 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Antonoglou, I.

D. Silver, A. Huang, C. J. Maddison, A. Guez, L. Sifre, G. van den Driessche, J. Schrittwieser, I. Antonoglou, V. Panneershelvam, M. Lanctot, S. Dieleman, D. Grewe, J. Nham, N. Kalchbrenner, I. Sutskever, T. Lillicrap, M. Leach, K. Kavukcuoglu, T. Graepel, and D. Hassabis, “Mastering the game of Go with deep neural networks and tree search,” Nature 529(7587), 484–489 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arakawa, S.

Y. S. Hanay, S. Arakawa, and M. Murata, “Network topology selection with multistate neural memories,” Expert Syst. Appl. 42(6), 3219–3226 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Koizumi, T. Miyamura, S. Arakawa, E. Oki, K. Shiomoto, and M. Murata, “Adaptive virtual network topology control based on attractor selection,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(11), 1720–1731 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. S. Hanay, Y. Koizumi, S. Arakawa, and M. Murata, “Virtual network topology control with Oja and APEX learning,” Proc. 24th Int. Teletraffic Congr.47, 1–6 (2012).

Aydin, K.

F. Callewaert, S. Butun, Z. Li, and K. Aydin, “Inverse design of an ultra-compact broadband optical diode based on asymmetric spatial mode conversion,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 32577 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Babinec, T. M.

A. Y. Piggott, J. Lu, K. G. Lagoudakis, J. Petykiewicz, T. M. Babinec, and J. Vuckovic, “Inverse design and demonstration of a compact and broadband on-chip wavelength demultiplexer,” Nat. Photonics 9(6), 374–377 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Y. Piggott, J. Lu, T. M. Babinec, K. G. Lagoudakis, J. Petykiewicz, and J. Vučković, “Inverse design and implementation of a wavelength demultiplexing grating coupler,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 7210 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baets, R.

D. Jalas, A. Petrov, M. Eich, W. Freude, S. Fan, Z. Yu, R. Baets, M. Popovic, A. Melloni, J. D. Joannopoulos, M. Vanwolleghem, C. R. Doerr, and H. Renner, “What is- and what is not- an optical isolator,” Nat. Photonics 7(8), 579–582 (2013).
[Crossref]

Barrios, C. A.

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, “All-optical control of light on a silicon chip,” Nature 431(7012), 1081–1084 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Berenger, J. A.

J. A. Berenger, “Perfectly matched layer for the absorption of electromagnetic waves,” J. Comput. Phys. 114(2), 185–200 (1994).
[Crossref]

Bermel, P.

A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and S. G. Johnson, “Meep: a flexible free-software package for electromagnetic simulations by the FDTD method,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 181(3), 687–702 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bi, L.

L. Bi, J. Hu, P. Jiang, D. H. Kim, G. F. Dionne, L. C. Kimerling, and C. A. Ross, “On-chip optical isolation in monolithically integrated non-reciprocal optical resonators,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 758–762 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bor, E.

Bostak, J. S.

R. Nagarajan, C. H. Joyner, R. P. Schneider, J. S. Bostak, T. Butrie, A. G. Dentai, V. G. Dominic, P. W. Evans, M. Kato, M. Kauffman, D. J. H. Lambert, S. K. Mathis, A. Mathur, R. H. Miles, M. L. Mitchell, M. J. Missey, S. Murthy, A. C. Nilsson, F. H. Peters, S. C. Pennypacker, J. L. Pleumeekers, R. A. Salvatore, R. K. Schlenker, R. B. Taylor, H. Tsai, M. F. Van Leeuwen, J. Webjorn, M. Ziari, D. Perkins, J. Singh, S. G. Grubb, M. S. Reffle, D. G. Mehuys, F. A. Kish, and D. F. Welch, “Large-scale photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(1), 50–65 (2005).
[Crossref]

Bowers, J. E.

D. Liang and J. E. Bowers, “Recent progress in lasers on silicon,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 511–517 (2010).
[Crossref]

Butrie, T.

R. Nagarajan, C. H. Joyner, R. P. Schneider, J. S. Bostak, T. Butrie, A. G. Dentai, V. G. Dominic, P. W. Evans, M. Kato, M. Kauffman, D. J. H. Lambert, S. K. Mathis, A. Mathur, R. H. Miles, M. L. Mitchell, M. J. Missey, S. Murthy, A. C. Nilsson, F. H. Peters, S. C. Pennypacker, J. L. Pleumeekers, R. A. Salvatore, R. K. Schlenker, R. B. Taylor, H. Tsai, M. F. Van Leeuwen, J. Webjorn, M. Ziari, D. Perkins, J. Singh, S. G. Grubb, M. S. Reffle, D. G. Mehuys, F. A. Kish, and D. F. Welch, “Large-scale photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(1), 50–65 (2005).
[Crossref]

Butun, S.

F. Callewaert, S. Butun, Z. Li, and K. Aydin, “Inverse design of an ultra-compact broadband optical diode based on asymmetric spatial mode conversion,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 32577 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Callewaert, F.

F. Callewaert, S. Butun, Z. Li, and K. Aydin, “Inverse design of an ultra-compact broadband optical diode based on asymmetric spatial mode conversion,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 32577 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cicek, A.

Dentai, A. G.

R. Nagarajan, C. H. Joyner, R. P. Schneider, J. S. Bostak, T. Butrie, A. G. Dentai, V. G. Dominic, P. W. Evans, M. Kato, M. Kauffman, D. J. H. Lambert, S. K. Mathis, A. Mathur, R. H. Miles, M. L. Mitchell, M. J. Missey, S. Murthy, A. C. Nilsson, F. H. Peters, S. C. Pennypacker, J. L. Pleumeekers, R. A. Salvatore, R. K. Schlenker, R. B. Taylor, H. Tsai, M. F. Van Leeuwen, J. Webjorn, M. Ziari, D. Perkins, J. Singh, S. G. Grubb, M. S. Reffle, D. G. Mehuys, F. A. Kish, and D. F. Welch, “Large-scale photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(1), 50–65 (2005).
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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic representations of the intended design of (a) an optical coupler and (b) an ALT.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) 3D and top view of designed optical coupler are shown with structural dimensions where the yellow arrow represents the incident light. (b) Normalized transmission efficiency is plotted and shaded region indicates the operating bandwidth of proposed photonic device. (c) Steady state magnetic field and (d) intensity distributions at z = 0 plane of 3D FDTD region are given for wavelength of λ = 1550 nm. Dashed lines indicate the boundaries of optical coupler and direction of incident light is represented by arrows. (e) Lateral cross-sectional intensity profiles at input region (Air) and nano-waveguide region (Wvg) of the device are represented. (f) Field and (g) intensity distributions in yz-plane at nano-waveguide region of the photonic device are given for wavelength of λ = 1550 nm where dashed lines denote the boundaries of dielectric materials.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Field, (b) intensity and (c) phase distributions at z = 0 plane of 3D FDTD region are given for wavelength of λ = 1500 nm. (d) Field, (e) intensity and (f) phase distributions at z = 0 plane of FDTD region are given for wavelength of λ = 1600 nm. Dashed lines represent the boundaries of optical coupler and arrows indicate the direction of incident light.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Locations of monitors in order to calculate transmission, reflection and out-of-plane loss are shown on 3D view of designed optical coupler. (b) Transmission, reflection and out-of-plane loss efficiencies are plotted where shaded region indicates the operating bandwidth.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) 3D view and (b) top view of the designed ALT are represented with structural dimensions. Forward and backward directions of incident light are indicated with blue and red arrows, respectively. (c) Positions of optical power monitors in order to calculate transmission, reflection and out-of-plane loss for both forward and backward directions are schematically represented on 3D view of designed ALT. (d) Normalized efficiencies for forward transmission (TF), backward transmission (TB), forward reflection (RF), backward reflection (RB), forward out-of-plane loss (LF) and backward out-of-plane loss (LB) are plotted where yellow line indicates the operating wavelength of λ = 1550 nm. The bandwidth is shown by shaded region in Fig. 5(d)).
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 For forward direction, (a) magnetic field and (b) intensity distributions at z = 0 plane at wavelength of λ = 1550 nm. Cross-sectional views of (c) magnetic field and (d) intensity distributions in yz-plane (x = 2 µm location) are shown for forward direction. For backward direction, (e) magnetic field and (f) intensity distributions at z = 0 plane. Cross-sectional views of (g) magnetic field and (h) intensity distributions in yz-plane (x = −2 µm location) are shown for backward direction. The dashed lines represent the boundaries of design medium and waveguides. The arrows indicate the forward (left-to-right) and backward (right-to-left) directions of incident light.

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

E coupler = i= λ start λ end ( T desired T i )
E ALT =( T Fdesired T F )+( T B T Bdesired )
d x i dt =α( f( j W ij x j θ ) x i )+η
f( z )=tanh( μz )
α= 1 1+ e ( δ( Eζ ) )
W= X + X

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