Abstract

Laser reflow soldering is an important technology in electronic components processing. In this paper, we presented a simple but efficient method to achieve reflow soldering process with gradient energy band created by just two parallel mirrors. The detailed influence of the variety of optical parameters on the soldering process has been analyzed by using the finite element method. And the modulation of the optical parameters on reflow soldering parameters also has been demonstrated. In our experiment, one HR mirror and one-mirror with transmissivity of 10% have been used to create a gradient energy band with an incident laser power of 50W. In summary, both the simulations and the experiments show that the typical reflow soldering profile has been acquired by the optical system. The high quality joints on both the front and rear surface of the capacitor can be acquired by just one surface radiation of the optical system.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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  1. M. R. Harrison, J. H. Vincent, and H. A. H. Steen, “Lead-free reflow soldering for electronics assembly,” Solder. Surf. Mt. Technol. 13(3), 21–38 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  2. C. Anguiano, M. Félix, A. Medel, M. Bravo, D. Salazar, and H. Márquez, “Study of heating capacity of focused IR light soldering systems,” Opt. Express 21(20), 23851–23865 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. L. Livovsky, A. Pietrikvoa, and J. Durisin, “Monitoring of the temperature profile of vapour phase reflow soldering,” proceeding of IEEE on International Spring Seminar on Electronics Technology(IEEE, 2009), pp. 667–669.
  4. J. Lee, Y. Lee, and Y. Kim, “Fluxless laser reflow bumping of Sn-Pb eutectic solder,” Scr. Mater. 42(8), 789–793 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  5. B. Illés, “Distribution of the heat transfer coefficient in convection reflow oven,” Appl. Therm. Eng. 30(13), 1523–1530 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  6. N. Lee, Reflow Soldering Processes and Troubleshooting: SMT, BGA, CSP and Flip Chip Technologies (Newnes, 2002) Chap. 4.
  7. J. Kim, J. Jung, J. Lee, H. Jeong-Suh, and H.-S. Kang, “Effects of Laser Parameters on the Characteristics of a Sn-3.5 wt.%Ag Solder Joint,” Met. Mater. Int. 15(1), 119–123 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  8. W. Liu, Y. Tian, L. Yang, C. Wang, and L. Sun, “Oxidation and Au-Sn reaction of laser reflowed micro-solder joints protected by N2 or exposed to air atmosphere,” Solder. Surf. Mt. Technol. 11(1), 13–20 (8) (1999).
  9. W. Liu, C. Wang, Y. Tian, and L. Kong, “Sagging Phenomenon of Micro-Solder Joints Fabricated by Laser Reflow Process,” in proceeding of IEEE on International Conference on Electronic Packaging Technology (IEEE, 2007), pp.1–5.
  10. J. Gao, Y. Wu, and H. Ding, “Thermal profiling: a reflow process based on the heating factor,” Solder. Surf. Mt. Technol. 20(4), 20–27 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  11. N. Lee, “Optimizing the reflow profile via defect mechanism analysis,” Surf. Mt. Tech. 13(3), 21–38 (2001).
  12. G. Zhu, X. Zhu, and C. Zhu, “Analytical approach of laser beam propagation in the hollow polygonal light pipe,” Appl. Opt. 52(23), 5619–5630 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. H. Ye, C. Basaran, and D. Hopkins, “Thermomigration in Pb-Sn solder joints under joule heating during electric current stressing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(7), 1045–1047 (2003).
    [Crossref]

2013 (2)

2010 (1)

B. Illés, “Distribution of the heat transfer coefficient in convection reflow oven,” Appl. Therm. Eng. 30(13), 1523–1530 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

J. Kim, J. Jung, J. Lee, H. Jeong-Suh, and H.-S. Kang, “Effects of Laser Parameters on the Characteristics of a Sn-3.5 wt.%Ag Solder Joint,” Met. Mater. Int. 15(1), 119–123 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

J. Gao, Y. Wu, and H. Ding, “Thermal profiling: a reflow process based on the heating factor,” Solder. Surf. Mt. Technol. 20(4), 20–27 (2008).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

H. Ye, C. Basaran, and D. Hopkins, “Thermomigration in Pb-Sn solder joints under joule heating during electric current stressing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(7), 1045–1047 (2003).
[Crossref]

2001 (2)

N. Lee, “Optimizing the reflow profile via defect mechanism analysis,” Surf. Mt. Tech. 13(3), 21–38 (2001).

M. R. Harrison, J. H. Vincent, and H. A. H. Steen, “Lead-free reflow soldering for electronics assembly,” Solder. Surf. Mt. Technol. 13(3), 21–38 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

J. Lee, Y. Lee, and Y. Kim, “Fluxless laser reflow bumping of Sn-Pb eutectic solder,” Scr. Mater. 42(8), 789–793 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

W. Liu, Y. Tian, L. Yang, C. Wang, and L. Sun, “Oxidation and Au-Sn reaction of laser reflowed micro-solder joints protected by N2 or exposed to air atmosphere,” Solder. Surf. Mt. Technol. 11(1), 13–20 (8) (1999).

Anguiano, C.

Basaran, C.

H. Ye, C. Basaran, and D. Hopkins, “Thermomigration in Pb-Sn solder joints under joule heating during electric current stressing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(7), 1045–1047 (2003).
[Crossref]

Bravo, M.

Ding, H.

J. Gao, Y. Wu, and H. Ding, “Thermal profiling: a reflow process based on the heating factor,” Solder. Surf. Mt. Technol. 20(4), 20–27 (2008).
[Crossref]

Durisin, J.

L. Livovsky, A. Pietrikvoa, and J. Durisin, “Monitoring of the temperature profile of vapour phase reflow soldering,” proceeding of IEEE on International Spring Seminar on Electronics Technology(IEEE, 2009), pp. 667–669.

Félix, M.

Gao, J.

J. Gao, Y. Wu, and H. Ding, “Thermal profiling: a reflow process based on the heating factor,” Solder. Surf. Mt. Technol. 20(4), 20–27 (2008).
[Crossref]

Harrison, M. R.

M. R. Harrison, J. H. Vincent, and H. A. H. Steen, “Lead-free reflow soldering for electronics assembly,” Solder. Surf. Mt. Technol. 13(3), 21–38 (2001).
[Crossref]

Hopkins, D.

H. Ye, C. Basaran, and D. Hopkins, “Thermomigration in Pb-Sn solder joints under joule heating during electric current stressing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(7), 1045–1047 (2003).
[Crossref]

Illés, B.

B. Illés, “Distribution of the heat transfer coefficient in convection reflow oven,” Appl. Therm. Eng. 30(13), 1523–1530 (2010).
[Crossref]

Jeong-Suh, H.

J. Kim, J. Jung, J. Lee, H. Jeong-Suh, and H.-S. Kang, “Effects of Laser Parameters on the Characteristics of a Sn-3.5 wt.%Ag Solder Joint,” Met. Mater. Int. 15(1), 119–123 (2009).
[Crossref]

Jung, J.

J. Kim, J. Jung, J. Lee, H. Jeong-Suh, and H.-S. Kang, “Effects of Laser Parameters on the Characteristics of a Sn-3.5 wt.%Ag Solder Joint,” Met. Mater. Int. 15(1), 119–123 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kang, H.-S.

J. Kim, J. Jung, J. Lee, H. Jeong-Suh, and H.-S. Kang, “Effects of Laser Parameters on the Characteristics of a Sn-3.5 wt.%Ag Solder Joint,” Met. Mater. Int. 15(1), 119–123 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kim, J.

J. Kim, J. Jung, J. Lee, H. Jeong-Suh, and H.-S. Kang, “Effects of Laser Parameters on the Characteristics of a Sn-3.5 wt.%Ag Solder Joint,” Met. Mater. Int. 15(1), 119–123 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kim, Y.

J. Lee, Y. Lee, and Y. Kim, “Fluxless laser reflow bumping of Sn-Pb eutectic solder,” Scr. Mater. 42(8), 789–793 (2000).
[Crossref]

Kong, L.

W. Liu, C. Wang, Y. Tian, and L. Kong, “Sagging Phenomenon of Micro-Solder Joints Fabricated by Laser Reflow Process,” in proceeding of IEEE on International Conference on Electronic Packaging Technology (IEEE, 2007), pp.1–5.

Lee, J.

J. Kim, J. Jung, J. Lee, H. Jeong-Suh, and H.-S. Kang, “Effects of Laser Parameters on the Characteristics of a Sn-3.5 wt.%Ag Solder Joint,” Met. Mater. Int. 15(1), 119–123 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Lee, Y. Lee, and Y. Kim, “Fluxless laser reflow bumping of Sn-Pb eutectic solder,” Scr. Mater. 42(8), 789–793 (2000).
[Crossref]

Lee, N.

N. Lee, “Optimizing the reflow profile via defect mechanism analysis,” Surf. Mt. Tech. 13(3), 21–38 (2001).

Lee, Y.

J. Lee, Y. Lee, and Y. Kim, “Fluxless laser reflow bumping of Sn-Pb eutectic solder,” Scr. Mater. 42(8), 789–793 (2000).
[Crossref]

Liu, W.

W. Liu, Y. Tian, L. Yang, C. Wang, and L. Sun, “Oxidation and Au-Sn reaction of laser reflowed micro-solder joints protected by N2 or exposed to air atmosphere,” Solder. Surf. Mt. Technol. 11(1), 13–20 (8) (1999).

W. Liu, C. Wang, Y. Tian, and L. Kong, “Sagging Phenomenon of Micro-Solder Joints Fabricated by Laser Reflow Process,” in proceeding of IEEE on International Conference on Electronic Packaging Technology (IEEE, 2007), pp.1–5.

Livovsky, L.

L. Livovsky, A. Pietrikvoa, and J. Durisin, “Monitoring of the temperature profile of vapour phase reflow soldering,” proceeding of IEEE on International Spring Seminar on Electronics Technology(IEEE, 2009), pp. 667–669.

Márquez, H.

Medel, A.

Pietrikvoa, A.

L. Livovsky, A. Pietrikvoa, and J. Durisin, “Monitoring of the temperature profile of vapour phase reflow soldering,” proceeding of IEEE on International Spring Seminar on Electronics Technology(IEEE, 2009), pp. 667–669.

Salazar, D.

Steen, H. A. H.

M. R. Harrison, J. H. Vincent, and H. A. H. Steen, “Lead-free reflow soldering for electronics assembly,” Solder. Surf. Mt. Technol. 13(3), 21–38 (2001).
[Crossref]

Sun, L.

W. Liu, Y. Tian, L. Yang, C. Wang, and L. Sun, “Oxidation and Au-Sn reaction of laser reflowed micro-solder joints protected by N2 or exposed to air atmosphere,” Solder. Surf. Mt. Technol. 11(1), 13–20 (8) (1999).

Tian, Y.

W. Liu, Y. Tian, L. Yang, C. Wang, and L. Sun, “Oxidation and Au-Sn reaction of laser reflowed micro-solder joints protected by N2 or exposed to air atmosphere,” Solder. Surf. Mt. Technol. 11(1), 13–20 (8) (1999).

W. Liu, C. Wang, Y. Tian, and L. Kong, “Sagging Phenomenon of Micro-Solder Joints Fabricated by Laser Reflow Process,” in proceeding of IEEE on International Conference on Electronic Packaging Technology (IEEE, 2007), pp.1–5.

Vincent, J. H.

M. R. Harrison, J. H. Vincent, and H. A. H. Steen, “Lead-free reflow soldering for electronics assembly,” Solder. Surf. Mt. Technol. 13(3), 21–38 (2001).
[Crossref]

Wang, C.

W. Liu, Y. Tian, L. Yang, C. Wang, and L. Sun, “Oxidation and Au-Sn reaction of laser reflowed micro-solder joints protected by N2 or exposed to air atmosphere,” Solder. Surf. Mt. Technol. 11(1), 13–20 (8) (1999).

W. Liu, C. Wang, Y. Tian, and L. Kong, “Sagging Phenomenon of Micro-Solder Joints Fabricated by Laser Reflow Process,” in proceeding of IEEE on International Conference on Electronic Packaging Technology (IEEE, 2007), pp.1–5.

Wu, Y.

J. Gao, Y. Wu, and H. Ding, “Thermal profiling: a reflow process based on the heating factor,” Solder. Surf. Mt. Technol. 20(4), 20–27 (2008).
[Crossref]

Yang, L.

W. Liu, Y. Tian, L. Yang, C. Wang, and L. Sun, “Oxidation and Au-Sn reaction of laser reflowed micro-solder joints protected by N2 or exposed to air atmosphere,” Solder. Surf. Mt. Technol. 11(1), 13–20 (8) (1999).

Ye, H.

H. Ye, C. Basaran, and D. Hopkins, “Thermomigration in Pb-Sn solder joints under joule heating during electric current stressing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(7), 1045–1047 (2003).
[Crossref]

Zhu, C.

Zhu, G.

Zhu, X.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

H. Ye, C. Basaran, and D. Hopkins, “Thermomigration in Pb-Sn solder joints under joule heating during electric current stressing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(7), 1045–1047 (2003).
[Crossref]

Appl. Therm. Eng. (1)

B. Illés, “Distribution of the heat transfer coefficient in convection reflow oven,” Appl. Therm. Eng. 30(13), 1523–1530 (2010).
[Crossref]

Met. Mater. Int. (1)

J. Kim, J. Jung, J. Lee, H. Jeong-Suh, and H.-S. Kang, “Effects of Laser Parameters on the Characteristics of a Sn-3.5 wt.%Ag Solder Joint,” Met. Mater. Int. 15(1), 119–123 (2009).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (1)

Scr. Mater. (1)

J. Lee, Y. Lee, and Y. Kim, “Fluxless laser reflow bumping of Sn-Pb eutectic solder,” Scr. Mater. 42(8), 789–793 (2000).
[Crossref]

Solder. Surf. Mt. Technol. (3)

W. Liu, Y. Tian, L. Yang, C. Wang, and L. Sun, “Oxidation and Au-Sn reaction of laser reflowed micro-solder joints protected by N2 or exposed to air atmosphere,” Solder. Surf. Mt. Technol. 11(1), 13–20 (8) (1999).

J. Gao, Y. Wu, and H. Ding, “Thermal profiling: a reflow process based on the heating factor,” Solder. Surf. Mt. Technol. 20(4), 20–27 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. R. Harrison, J. H. Vincent, and H. A. H. Steen, “Lead-free reflow soldering for electronics assembly,” Solder. Surf. Mt. Technol. 13(3), 21–38 (2001).
[Crossref]

Surf. Mt. Tech. (1)

N. Lee, “Optimizing the reflow profile via defect mechanism analysis,” Surf. Mt. Tech. 13(3), 21–38 (2001).

Other (3)

W. Liu, C. Wang, Y. Tian, and L. Kong, “Sagging Phenomenon of Micro-Solder Joints Fabricated by Laser Reflow Process,” in proceeding of IEEE on International Conference on Electronic Packaging Technology (IEEE, 2007), pp.1–5.

L. Livovsky, A. Pietrikvoa, and J. Durisin, “Monitoring of the temperature profile of vapour phase reflow soldering,” proceeding of IEEE on International Spring Seminar on Electronics Technology(IEEE, 2009), pp. 667–669.

N. Lee, Reflow Soldering Processes and Troubleshooting: SMT, BGA, CSP and Flip Chip Technologies (Newnes, 2002) Chap. 4.

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Figures (15)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) A classical reflow soldering production line. (b) The temperature profile of a typical reflow soldering process.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 The schematic picture of the gradient energy band realized by a dual-mirrors optical system.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 The relationship between the power density distribution of the gradient energy band and the transmissivity of M2.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 The model structure of ceramic capacitors soldering with gradient energy band.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 The temperature profiles in positive (a) and negative (b) direction with different transmissivity of M2 (the incident laser power density is 50W/cm2, the moving velocity is 100mm/min).
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 The temperature profiles of capacitors in different splice sequence model respectively. (a) The positive-positive combination. (b) The positive-negative combination. (c) The negative-positive combination. (d) The negative-negative combination.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 (a), (b), (c) and (d) describe the relationship between the incident laser power density and preheat rate, soak temperature, peak temperature, soak time with different transmissivity of M2, respectively. In this condition, the velocity of the capacitor keeps at 100mm/min.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 (a), (b), (c) and (d) describe the relationship between the incident laser power density and preheat rate, soak temperature, peak temperature, soak time with different velocity of the capacitor, respectively. In this condition, the transmissivity of M2 keeps at 20%.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 (a), (b), (c) and (d) describe the relationship between velocity of the capacitor and the preheat rate, the soak temperature, the peak temperature and the soak time with different transmission of M2, respectively. In this condition, the incident laser power density keeps at 50 W/cm2.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 The temperature profiles of capacitors with the M2 transmissivity of 20%, the incident laser power density of 50W/cm2. The solid lines represent the front surface, and the dash lines represent the back surface.
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 The experiment scheme photograph.
Fig. 12
Fig. 12 Energy distribution of energy bands for different transmissivity on the soldering plane.
Fig. 13
Fig. 13 The relationship between maximum temperatures and capacitor velocity with different laser power during single path movement of capacitor.
Fig. 14
Fig. 14 The temperature profile of the capacitor.
Fig. 15
Fig. 15 The metallograph of the joints, the magnification is 200.

Tables (5)

Tables Icon

Table 1 The description of the parameters in reflow soldering process

Tables Icon

Table 2 Parameters used in simulation

Tables Icon

Table 3 Definition of the zones and parameters in gradient energy band reflow soldering process

Tables Icon

Table 4 The returning positions for different transmissivity

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Table 5 Parameters of the reflow soldering system

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I i = P 0 R 1 i 1 ( 1 T 2 ) i 1 T 2 D 0 2 ,
θ = tan 1 ( 2 d 0 / D 0 ) ,
{ ρ c C p c T c ( t ) t = · ( k c T c ( t ) ) + Q c ρ s C p s T s ( t ) t = · ( k s T s ( t ) ) + Q s T c ( 0 ) = T s ( 0 ) = T e x t ,
{ n c [ k c T c ( t ) ] = h [ T e x t T c ( t ) ] + α c I l a s ( t ) n s [ k s T s ( t ) ] = h [ T e x t T s ( t ) ] + α s I l a s ( t ) ,
{ n c [ k c T c ( t ) ] = h [ T e x t T c ( t ) ] n s [ k s T s ( t ) ] = h [ T e x t T s ( t ) ] .

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