Abstract

An asymmetric double semiconductor quantum well is proposed to realize two-dimensional parity-time (PT) symmetry and an electromagnetically induced grating. In such a nontrivial grating with PT symmetry, the incident probe photons can be diffracted to selected angles depending on the spatial relationship of the real and imaginary parts of the refractive index. Such results are due to the interference mechanism between the amplitude and phase of the grating and can be manipulated by the probe detuning, modulation amplitudes of the standing wave fields, and interaction length of the medium. Such a system may lead to new approaches of observing PT-symmetry-related phenomena and has potential applications in photoelectric devices requiring asymmetric light transport using semiconductor quantum wells.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  35. M. Kulishov, J. Laniel, N. Bélanger, J. Azaña, and D. Plant, “Nonreciprocal waveguide Bragg gratings,” Opt. Express 13(8), 3068–3078 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  36. Y.-M. Liu, F. Gao, C.-H. Fan, and J.-H. Wu, “Asymmetric light diffraction of an atomic grating with PT symmetry,” Opt. Lett. 42(21), 4283–4286 (2017).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
  40. L. Feng, Z. J. Wong, R.-M. Ma, Y. Wang, and X. Zhang, “Single-mode laser by parity-time symmetry breaking,” Science 346(6212), 972–975 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  42. H. Jing, S. K. Özdemir, X.-Y. Lü, J. Zhang, L. Yang, and F. Nori, “PT-symmetric phonon laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(5), 053604 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  43. B. He, L. Yang, and M. Xiao, “Dynamical phonon laser in coupled active-passive microresonators,” Phys. Rev. A (Coll. Park) 94(3), 031802 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  44. C. Hang, G. Huang, and V. V. Konotop, “PT Symmetry with a system of three-level atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(8), 083604 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  45. H. J. Li, J. P. Dou, and G. Huang, “PT symmetry via electromagnetically induced transparency,” Opt. Express 21(26), 32053–32062 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  46. J. Sheng, M.-A. Miri, D. N. Christodoulides, and M. Xiao, “PT-symmetric optical potentials in a coherent atomic medium,” Phys. Rev. A 88(4), 041803 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  47. Z. Zhang, Y. Zhang, J. Sheng, L. Yang, M.-A. Miri, D. N. Christodoulides, B. He, Y. Zhang, and M. Xiao, “Observation of Parity-Time Symmetry in optically induced atomic lattices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117(12), 123601 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  49. M. Phillips and H. Wang, “Electromagnetically induced transparency due to intervalence band coherence in a GaAs quantum well,” Opt. Lett. 28(10), 831–833 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  50. J. F. Dynes, M. D. Frogley, M. Beck, J. Faist, and C. C. Phillips, “AC Stark splitting and quantum interference with intersubband transitions in quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(15), 157403 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  51. M. D. Frogley, J. F. Dynes, M. Beck, J. Faist, and C. C. Phillips, “Gain without inversion in semiconductor nanostructures,” Nat. Mater. 5(3), 175–178 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  52. J.-H. Wu, J.-Y. Gao, J.-H. Xu, L. Silvestri, M. Artoni, G. C. La Rocca, and F. Bassani, “Ultrafast all optical switching via tunable Fano interference,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(5), 057401 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  53. H. G. Roskos, M. C. Nuss, J. Shah, K. Leo, D. A. B. Miller, A. M. Fox, S. Schmitt-Rink, and K. Köhler, “Coherent submillimeter-wave emission from charge oscillations in a double-well potential,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68(14), 2216–2219 (1992).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  54. W.-X. Yang and R.-K. Lee, “Controllable entanglement and polarization phase gate in coupled double quantum-well structures,” Opt. Express 16(22), 17161–17170 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  55. C. Zhu and G. Huang, “Slow-light solitons in coupled asymmetric quantum wells via interband transitions,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 80(23), 235408 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  56. X. Q. Luo, D. L. Wang, Z. Q. Zhang, J. W. Ding, and W. M. Liu, “Nonlinear optical behavior of a four-level quantum well with coupled relaxation of optical and longitudinal phonons,” Phys. Rev. A 84(3), 033803 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  57. D. E. Nikonov, A. Imamoğlu, L. V. Butov, and H. Schmidt, “Collective intersubband excitations in quantum wells: coulomb interaction versus subband dispersion,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79(23), 4633–4636 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  58. Y. Y. Chen, Z. Z. Liu, and R. G. Wan, “Two-dimensional electromagnetically induced grating in coherent atomic medium,” Europhys. Lett. 116(6), 64006 (2016).
    [Crossref]

2018 (1)

T. Shui, W.-X. Yang, S. Liu, L. Li, and Z. Zhu, “Asymmetric diffraction by atomic gratings with optical PT symmetry in the Raman-Nath regime,” Phys. Rev. A (Coll. Park) 97(3), 033819 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (1)

2016 (3)

Z. Zhang, Y. Zhang, J. Sheng, L. Yang, M.-A. Miri, D. N. Christodoulides, B. He, Y. Zhang, and M. Xiao, “Observation of Parity-Time Symmetry in optically induced atomic lattices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117(12), 123601 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. He, L. Yang, and M. Xiao, “Dynamical phonon laser in coupled active-passive microresonators,” Phys. Rev. A (Coll. Park) 94(3), 031802 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Y. Chen, Z. Z. Liu, and R. G. Wan, “Two-dimensional electromagnetically induced grating in coherent atomic medium,” Europhys. Lett. 116(6), 64006 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (1)

Y. Zhang, Z. Wu, M. R. Belić, H. Zheng, Z. Wang, M. Xiao, and Y. Zhang, “Photonic Floquet topological insulators in atomic ensembles,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(3), 331–338 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (5)

L. Chang, X. Jiang, S. Hua, C. Yang, J. Wen, L. Jiang, G. Li, G. Wang, and M. Xiao, “Parity-time symmetry and variable optical isolation in active-passive-coupled microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 8(7), 524–529 (2014).
[Crossref]

B. Peng, S. K. Ozdemir, F. Lei, F. Monifi, M. Gianfreda, G. L. Long, S. Fan, F. Nori, C. M. Bender, and L. Yang, “Parity-time-symmetric whispering-gallery microcavities,” Nat. Phys. 10(5), 394–398 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Feng, Z. J. Wong, R.-M. Ma, Y. Wang, and X. Zhang, “Single-mode laser by parity-time symmetry breaking,” Science 346(6212), 972–975 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Hodaei, M.-A. Miri, M. Heinrich, D. N. Christodoulides, and M. Khajavikhan, “Parity-time-symmetric microring lasers,” Science 346(6212), 975–978 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Jing, S. K. Özdemir, X.-Y. Lü, J. Zhang, L. Yang, and F. Nori, “PT-symmetric phonon laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(5), 053604 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (4)

C. Hang, G. Huang, and V. V. Konotop, “PT Symmetry with a system of three-level atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(8), 083604 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. J. Li, J. P. Dou, and G. Huang, “PT symmetry via electromagnetically induced transparency,” Opt. Express 21(26), 32053–32062 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Sheng, M.-A. Miri, D. N. Christodoulides, and M. Xiao, “PT-symmetric optical potentials in a coherent atomic medium,” Phys. Rev. A 88(4), 041803 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. Feng, Y.-L. Xu, W. S. Fegadolli, M.-H. Lu, J. E. B. Oliveira, V. R. Almeida, Y.-F. Chen, and A. Scherer, “Experimental demonstration of a unidirectional reflectionless parity-time metamaterial at optical frequencies,” Nat. Mater. 12(2), 108–113 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (4)

Z. Lin, H. Ramezani, T. Eichelkraut, T. Kottos, H. Cao, and D. N. Christodoulides, “Unidirectional Invisibility Induced by PT-Symmetric Periodic Structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(21), 213901 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Zhang, Z. Wang, Z. Nie, C. Li, H. Chen, K. Lu, and M. Xiao, “Four-wave mixing dipole soliton in laser-induced atomic gratings,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(9), 093904 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R.-G. Wan, J. Kou, L. Jiang, Y. Jiang, and J.-Y. Gao, “Electromagnetically induced grating via enhanced nonlinear modulation by spontaneously generated coherence,” Phys. Rev. A 83(3), 033824 (2011).
[Crossref]

X. Q. Luo, D. L. Wang, Z. Q. Zhang, J. W. Ding, and W. M. Liu, “Nonlinear optical behavior of a four-level quantum well with coupled relaxation of optical and longitudinal phonons,” Phys. Rev. A 84(3), 033803 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (5)

Y. D. Chong, L. Ge, H. Cao, and A. D. Stone, “Coherent perfect absorbers: time-reversed lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(5), 053901 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Longhi, “PT-symmetric laser absorber,” Phys. Rev. A 82(3), 031801 (2010).
[Crossref]

L. E. E. de Araujo, “Electromagnetically induced phase grating,” Opt. Lett. 35(7), 977–979 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Ramezani, T. Kottos, R. El-Ganainy, and D. N. Christodoulides, “Unidirectional nonlinear PT-symmetric optical structures,” Phys. Rev. A 82(4), 043803 (2010).
[Crossref]

C. E. Rüter, K. G. Makris, R. El-Ganainy, D. N. Christodoulides, M. Segev, and D. Kip, “Observation of parity-time symmetry in optics,” Nat. Phys. 6(3), 192–195 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (3)

A. Guo, G. J. Salamo, D. Duchesne, R. Morandotti, M. Volatier-Ravat, V. Aimez, G. A. Siviloglou, and D. N. Christodoulides, “Observation of PT-symmetry breaking in complex optical potentials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(9), 093902 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Longhi, “Bloch oscillations in complex crystals with PT Symmetry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(12), 123601 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Zhu and G. Huang, “Slow-light solitons in coupled asymmetric quantum wells via interband transitions,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 80(23), 235408 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

W.-X. Yang and R.-K. Lee, “Controllable entanglement and polarization phase gate in coupled double quantum-well structures,” Opt. Express 16(22), 17161–17170 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. H. Musslimani, K. G. Makris, R. El-Ganainy, and D. N. Christodoulides, “Optical solitons in PT periodic potentials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(3), 030402 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

2006 (2)

M. Artoni and G. C. La Rocca, “Optically tunable photonic stop bands in homogeneous absorbing media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(7), 073905 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. D. Frogley, J. F. Dynes, M. Beck, J. Faist, and C. C. Phillips, “Gain without inversion in semiconductor nanostructures,” Nat. Mater. 5(3), 175–178 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (5)

J.-H. Wu, J.-Y. Gao, J.-H. Xu, L. Silvestri, M. Artoni, G. C. La Rocca, and F. Bassani, “Ultrafast all optical switching via tunable Fano interference,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(5), 057401 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Kulishov, J. Laniel, N. Bélanger, J. Azaña, and D. Plant, “Nonreciprocal waveguide Bragg gratings,” Opt. Express 13(8), 3068–3078 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. F. Dynes, M. D. Frogley, M. Beck, J. Faist, and C. C. Phillips, “AC Stark splitting and quantum interference with intersubband transitions in quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(15), 157403 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Fleischhauer, A. Imamoglu, and J. P. Marangos, “Electromagnetically induced transparency: Optics in coherent media,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 77(2), 633–673 (2005).
[Crossref]

A. W. Brown and M. Xiao, “All-optical switching and routing based on an electromagnetically induced absorption grating,” Opt. Lett. 30(7), 699–701 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

2002 (2)

A. André and M. D. Lukin, “Manipulating light pulses via dynamically controlled photonic band gap,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(14), 143602 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. C. Cardoso and J. W. R. Tabosa, “Electromagnetically induced gratings in a degenerate open two-level system,” Phys. Rev. A 65(3), 033803 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (5)

H. Wang, D. Goorskey, and M. Xiao, “Enhanced Kerr nonlinearity via atomic coherence in a three-level atomic system,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(7), 073601 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Yan, E. G. Rickey, and Y. Zhu, “Observation of absorptive photon switching by quantum interference,” Phys. Rev. A 64(4), 041801 (2001).
[Crossref]

A. V. Turukhin, V. S. Sudarshanam, M. S. Shahriar, J. A. Musser, B. S. Ham, and P. R. Hemmer, “Observation of ultraslow and stored light pulses in a solid,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(2), 023602 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Liu, Z. Dutton, C. H. Behroozi, and L. V. Hau, “Observation of coherent optical information storage in an atomic medium using halted light pulses,” Nature 409(6819), 490–493 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. F. Phillips, A. Fleischhauer, A. Mair, R. L. Walsworth, and M. D. Lukin, “Storage of light in atomic vapor,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(5), 783–786 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

G. B. Serapiglia, E. Paspalakis, C. Sirtori, K. L. Vodopyanov, and C. C. Phillips, “Laser-induced quantum coherence in a semiconductor quantum well,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(5), 1019–1022 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1999 (2)

L. V. Hau, S. E. Harris, Z. Dutton, and C. H. Behroozi, “Light speed reduction to 17 metres per second in an ultracold atomic gas,” Nature 397(6720), 594–598 (1999).
[Crossref]

M. Mitsunaga and N. Imoto, “Observation of an electromagnetically induced grating in cold sodium atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 59(6), 4773–4776 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (4)

C. M. Bender and S. Boettcher, “Real spectra in non-Hermitian Hamiltonians having PT symmetry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80(24), 5243–5246 (1998).
[Crossref]

J. P. Marangos, “Electromagnetically induced transparency,” J. Mod. Opt. 45(3), 471–503 (1998).
[Crossref]

S. E. Harris and Y. Yamamoto, “Photon switching by quantum interference,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81(17), 3611–3614 (1998).
[Crossref]

H. Y. Ling, Y.-Q. Li, and M. Xiao, “Electromagnetically induced grating: Homogeneously broadened medium,” Phys. Rev. A 57(2), 1338–1344 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (2)

S. E. Harris, “Electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Today 50(7), 36–42 (1997).
[Crossref]

D. E. Nikonov, A. Imamoğlu, L. V. Butov, and H. Schmidt, “Collective intersubband excitations in quantum wells: coulomb interaction versus subband dispersion,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79(23), 4633–4636 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

1992 (1)

H. G. Roskos, M. C. Nuss, J. Shah, K. Leo, D. A. B. Miller, A. M. Fox, S. Schmitt-Rink, and K. Köhler, “Coherent submillimeter-wave emission from charge oscillations in a double-well potential,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68(14), 2216–2219 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aimez, V.

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H. Ramezani, T. Kottos, R. El-Ganainy, and D. N. Christodoulides, “Unidirectional nonlinear PT-symmetric optical structures,” Phys. Rev. A 82(4), 043803 (2010).
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Gao, J.-Y.

R.-G. Wan, J. Kou, L. Jiang, Y. Jiang, and J.-Y. Gao, “Electromagnetically induced grating via enhanced nonlinear modulation by spontaneously generated coherence,” Phys. Rev. A 83(3), 033824 (2011).
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H. Hodaei, M.-A. Miri, M. Heinrich, D. N. Christodoulides, and M. Khajavikhan, “Parity-time-symmetric microring lasers,” Science 346(6212), 975–978 (2014).
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R.-G. Wan, J. Kou, L. Jiang, Y. Jiang, and J.-Y. Gao, “Electromagnetically induced grating via enhanced nonlinear modulation by spontaneously generated coherence,” Phys. Rev. A 83(3), 033824 (2011).
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L. Chang, X. Jiang, S. Hua, C. Yang, J. Wen, L. Jiang, G. Li, G. Wang, and M. Xiao, “Parity-time symmetry and variable optical isolation in active-passive-coupled microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 8(7), 524–529 (2014).
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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Schematic of one pair of asymmetric double QWs with buffer layers. (b) Band diagram of the asymmetric double QWs. (c) Geometry of laser beams applied to the asymmetric double QWs along the z-direction, and the corresponding far-field diffraction patterns of the probe field.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a, c) Real parts nR and (b, d) imaginary parts nI of the 2D complex refractive index for TW and SW coupling field, respectively. The parameters for (a) and (b) are δ Ω c x = δ Ω c y = 0 and those for (c) and (d) are δ Ω c x = δ Ω c y = 0.1 MHz . The other parameters are Ω p = 0.01 MHz , Ω c 0 = 1 MHz , Ω d 0 = 3 MHz , Δ p = 3.685 MHz , Δ c = Δ d = 0 , Γ 3 d h p = Γ 3 d h p = 2.58 meV , Γ 3 l = Γ 4 l = 2.07 meV , M x = M y = 5 , Λ x / λ = Λ y / λ = 4 , and L = 500 ζ .
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Diffraction intensities as a function of ( sin θ x , sin θ y ) for (a) δ Ω c x = δ Ω c y = 0 and (b) δ Ω c x = δ Ω c y = 0.1 MHz . The other parameters are the same as in Fig. 2.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Top view of the real part nR of the 2D complex refractive index for the unchanged absolute value and different signs of Δ p , δ Ω c x and δ Ω c y , respectively; the parameters are (a) Δ p = 3.685 MHz , δ Ω c x = 0.1 MHz and δ Ω c y = 0.1 MHz , (b) Δ p = 3.685 MHz , δ Ω c x = 0.1 MHz and δ Ω c y = 0.1 MHz , (c) Δ p = 3.685 MHz , δ Ω c x = 0.1 MHz and δ Ω c y = 0.1 MHz , (d) Δ p = 3.685 MHz , δ Ω c x = 0.1 MHz and δ Ω c y = 0.1 MHz , (e) Δ p = 3.685 MHz , δ Ω c x = 0.1 MHz and δ Ω c y = 0.1 MHz , (f) Δ p = 3.685 MHz , δ Ω c x = 0.1 MHz and δ Ω c y = 0.1 MHz , (g) Δ p = 3.685 MHz , δ Ω c x = 0.1 MHz and δ Ω c y = 0.1 MHz , (h) Δ p = 3.685 MHz , δ Ω c x = 0.1 MHz and δ Ω c y = 0.1 MHz , the other parameters are the same as in Fig. 2.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Top view of the imaginary part nI of the 2D complex refractive index for the unchanged absolute value and different signs of δ Ω d x and δ Ω d y , respectively; the parameters are (a) δ Ω d x = 0.1 MHz and δ Ω d y = 0.1 MHz , (b) δ Ω d x = 0.1 MHz and δ Ω d y = 0.1 MHz , (c) δ Ω d x = 0.1 MHz and δ Ω d y = 0.1 MHz , (d) δ Ω d x = 0.1 MHz and δ Ω d y = 0.1 MHz . The other parameters are the same as in Fig. 2.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Diffraction patterns with PT symmetry as a function of ( sin θ x , sin θ y ) in different domains: (a) domain I ( 0 sin θ x , sin θ y 1 ), (b) domain II ( 1 sin θ x 0 , 0 sin θ y 1 ), (c) domain III ( 1 sin θ x , sin θ y 0 ), and (d) domain IV ( 0 sin θ x 1 , 1 sin θ y 0 ).
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Diffraction intensities with PT symmetry as a function of ( sin θ x , sin θ y ) for different values of the interaction length: (a) L = 100 ζ , (b) L = 300 ζ , (c) L = 500 ζ , and (d) L = 700 ζ . The other parameters are the same as in Fig. 2.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Different signs of Δ p , δ Ω c x , δ Ω c y , δ Ω d x , and δ Ω d y .

Equations (21)

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H = ( Δ c Δ p ) | 2 2 | Δ p | 3 3 | Δ d | 4 4 | + [ Ω p | 1 3 | + Ω c | 2 3 | + Ω d | 1 4 | + H .c . ] .
ρ = i [ H , ρ ] 1 2 { γ ˜ , ρ } ,
ρ ˙ 22 = i Ω c ( ρ 32 ρ 23 ) + Γ 42 ρ 44 + Γ 32 ρ 33 Γ 2 ρ 22 ,
ρ ˙ 33 = i Ω c ( ρ 23 ρ 32 ) + i Ω p ( ρ 13 ρ 31 ) Γ 3 ρ 33 + Γ 43 ρ 44 ,
ρ ˙ 44 = i Ω d ( ρ 14 ρ 41 ) Γ 4 ρ 44 ,
ρ ˙ 12 = i Ω c ρ 13 + i Ω p ρ 32 + i Ω d ρ 42 γ ˜ 12 ρ 12 ,
ρ ˙ 13 = i Ω c ρ 12 + i Ω d ρ 43 + i Ω p ( ρ 33 ρ 11 ) γ ˜ 13 ρ 13 ,
ρ ˙ 14 = i Ω p ρ 34 + i Ω d ( ρ 44 ρ 11 ) γ ˜ 14 ρ 14 ,
ρ ˙ 23 = i Ω p ρ 21 + i Ω c ( ρ 33 ρ 22 ) γ ˜ 23 ρ 23 ,
ρ ˙ 24 = i Ω d ρ 21 + i Ω c ρ 34 γ ˜ 24 ρ 24 ,
ρ ˙ 34 = i Ω p ρ 14 i Ω d ρ 31 + i Ω c ρ 24 γ ˜ 34 ρ 34 ,
ρ 31 ( 1 ) = i A ( ρ 33 ( 0 ) ρ 11 ( 0 ) ) + B Ω c ρ 23 ( 0 ) + C Ω d ρ 14 ( 0 ) A γ ˜ 13 + B Ω c 2 + C Ω d 2 Ω p ,
ρ 33 ( 0 ) = Ω c 2 Ω d 2 Ω d 2 ( 2 Ω c 2 + γ 2 + Δ c 2 ) + Ω c 2 ( 2 Ω d 2 + γ 2 + Δ d 2 ) ,
ρ 11 ( 0 ) = Ω d 2 + γ 2 + Δ d 2 Ω d 2 ρ 33 ( 0 ) ,
ρ 23 ( 0 ) = i γ + Δ c Ω c ρ 33 ( 0 ) ,
χ = N μ 13 ε 0 E p ρ 31 ( 1 ) = N μ 13 2 2 ε 0 ρ 31 ( 1 ) Ω p ,
E p z = ( α + i β ) E p ,
T ( x , y ) = e α L e i β L ,
Ω c = Ω c 0 + δ Ω c x cos [ 2 π ( x x i ) / Λ x ] + δ Ω c y cos [ 2 π ( y y i ) / Λ y ] , Ω d = Ω d 0 + δ Ω d x sin [ 2 π ( x x i ) / Λ x ] + δ Ω d y sin [ 2 π ( y y i ) / Λ y ] ,
I ( θ ) = | E p ( θ ) | 2 sin 2 ( M x π Λ x sin θ x / λ ) M x 2 sin 2 ( π Λ x sin θ x / λ ) sin 2 ( M y π Λ y sin θ y / λ ) M y 2 sin 2 ( π Λ y sin θ y / λ ) ,
E ( θ ) = Λ x / 2 Λ x / 2 exp ( 2 π i x sin θ x / λ ) d x × Λ y / 2 Λ y / 2 T ( x , y ) exp ( 2 π i y sin θ y / λ ) d y .

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