Abstract

A comparative study was carried out of the structure and reflection performance of four types of multilayer mirror for extreme ultraviolet lithography at 11.2 nm; these were a pure Mo/Be structure and three Mo/Be-based structures with thin B4C, C and Si interlayers. It was demonstrated that Mo/Be mirrors show maximum reflectance at normal incidence, while maximum structural perfection is shown by Mo/Be/Si mirrors. The introduction of B4C and C layers into the structure increases the interlayer roughness and reduces the sharpness of the interfaces, adversely affecting the target coating characteristics. Results are presented for studies using four techniques: X-ray reflectometry, small-angle X-ray scattering, atomic force microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy.

Published by The Optical Society under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License. Further distribution of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the published article's title, journal citation, and DOI.

Full Article  |  PDF Article
OSA Recommended Articles
NbC/Si multilayer mirror for next generation EUV light sources

Mohammed H. Modi, S. K. Rai, Mourad Idir, F. Schaefers, and G. S. Lodha
Opt. Express 20(14) 15114-15120 (2012)

Microstructure of Mo/Si multilayers with B4C diffusion barrier layers

Ileana Nedelcu, Robbert W. E. van de Kruijs, Andrey E. Yakshin, and Fred Bijkerk
Appl. Opt. 48(2) 155-160 (2009)

High-reflection Mo/Be/Si multilayers for EUV lithography

Nikolai I. Chkhalo, Sergei A. Gusev, Andrey N. Nechay, Dmitry E. Pariev, Vladimir N. Polkovnikov, Nikolai N. Salashchenko, Franz Schäfers, Mewael G. Sertsu, Andrey Sokolov, Mikhail V. Svechnikov, and Dmitry A. Tatarsky
Opt. Lett. 42(24) 5070-5073 (2017)

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. E. Spiller, “High-performance multilayer coatings for EUV lithography,” in A. M. Khounsary, U. Dinger, and K. Ota, eds. (2004), Vol. 5193, p. 89.
  2. B. Wu and A. Kumar, “Extreme ultraviolet lithography and three dimensional integrated circuit—A review,” Appl. Phys. Rev. 1(1), 011104 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  3. C. Montcalm, S. Bajt, P. B. Mirkarimi, E. A. Spiller, F. J. Weber, and J. a. Folta, “Multilayer reflective coatings for extreme-ultraviolet lithography,” in Spie, Y. Vladimirsky, ed. (1998), Vol. 3331, p. 42.
  4. V. Banine, J. P. Benschop, M. Leenders, and R. Moors, “Relationship between an EUV source and the performance of an EUV lithographic system,” in Proceedings of the SPIE-The International Society for Optical Engineering, E. A. Dobisz, ed. (2000), 3997, pp. 126–135.
    [Crossref]
  5. B. Sae-Lao and C. Montcalm, “Molybdenum-strontium multilayer mirrors for the 8-12-nm extreme-ultraviolet wavelength region,” Opt. Lett. 26(7), 468–470 (2001).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. S. Bajt, “Molybdenum–ruthenium/beryllium multilayer coatings,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A Vacuum, Surfaces,” Film. 18, 557 (2000).
  7. A. E. Yakshin, R. W. E. van de Kruijs, I. Nedelcu, E. Zoethout, E. Louis, F. Bijkerk, H. Enkisch, and S. Müllender, “Enhanced reflectance of interface engineered Mo/Si multilayers produced by thermal particle deposition,” in Proc. SPIE, M. J. Lercel, ed. (2007), Vol. 6517, p. 65170I.
    [Crossref]
  8. I. Nedelcu, R. W. E. van de Kruijs, A. E. Yakshin, and F. Bijkerk, “Temperature-dependent nanocrystal formation in Mo/Si multilayers,” Phys. Rev. B 76(24), 245404 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  9. A. Haase, V. Soltwisch, F. Scholze, and S. Braun, “Characterization of Mo/Si mirror interface roughness for different Mo layer thickness using resonant diffuse EUV scattering,” in A. Duparré and R. Geyl, eds. (2015), Vol. 9628, p. 962804.
  10. J. Z. Jiaoling Zhao, H. H. Hongbo He, H. W. Hu Wang, K. Y. Kui Yi, B. W. Bin Wang, and Y. C. and Yun Cui, “Interface characterization of Mo/Si multilayers,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 14(8), 83401–83404 (2016).
  11. S. Braun, H. Mai, M. Moss, R. Scholz, and A. Leson, “Mo/Si Multilayers with Different Barrier Layers for Applications as Extreme Ultraviolet Mirrors,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41(Part 1, No. 6B), 4074–4081 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  12. S. Bajt, “Improved reflectance and stability of Mo-Si multilayers,” Opt. Eng. 41(8), 1797 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  13. S. L. Nyabero, R. W. E. van de Kruijs, A. E. Yakshin, E. Zoethout, and F. Bijkerk, “Thermally induced interface chemistry in Mo/B 4 C/Si/B 4 C multilayered films,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(5), 054317 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  14. T. Feigl, H. Lauth, S. Yulin, and N. Kaiser, “Heat resistance of EUV multilayer mirrors for long-time applications,” Microelectron. Eng. 57–58, 3–8 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  15. A. A. Schafgans, D. J. Brown, I. V. Fomenkov, Y. Tao, M. Purvis, S. I. Rokitski, G. O. Vaschenko, R. J. Rafac, and D. C. Brandt, “Scaling LPP EUV sources to meet high volume manufacturing requirements (Conference Presentation),” in E. M. Panning and K. A. Goldberg, eds. (2017), p. 101431I.
  16. B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, and J. C. Davis, “X-Ray Interactions: Photoabsorption, Scattering, Transmission, and Reflection at E = 50-30,000 eV, Z = 1-92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54(2), 181–342 (1993).
    [Crossref]
  17. N. I. Chkhalo, S. A. Gusev, A. N. Nechay, D. E. Pariev, V. N. Polkovnikov, N. N. Salashchenko, F. Schäfers, M. G. Sertsu, A. Sokolov, M. V. Svechnikov, and D. A. Tatarsky, “High-reflection Mo/Be/Si multilayers for EUV lithography,” Opt. Lett. 42(24), 5070–5073 (2017).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. S. A. Bogachev, N. I. Chkhalo, S. V. Kuzin, D. E. Pariev, V. N. Polkovnikov, N. N. Salashchenko, S. V. Shestov, and S. Y. Zuev, “Advanced materials for multilayer mirrors for extreme ultraviolet solar astronomy,” Appl. Opt. 55(9), 2126–2135 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. N. I. Chkhalo and N. N. Salashchenko, “Next generation nanolithography based on Ru/Be and Rh/Sr multilayer optics,” AIP Adv. 3(8), 082130 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  20. N. Choksi, D. S. Pickard, M. McCord, R. F. W. Pease, Y. Shroff, Y. Chen, W. Oldham, and D. Markle, “Maskless extreme ultraviolet lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B Microelectron. Nanom. Struct. 17, 3047 (1999).
  21. N. Chkhalo, V. Polkovnikov, N. Salashchenko, and M. Toropov, “Deposition of Mo/Si multilayers onto MEMS micromirrors and its utilization for extreme ultraviolet maskless lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B. Nanotechnol. Microelectron. Mater. Process. Meas. Phenom. 35, 062002 (2017).
  22. N. I. Chkhalo, A. N. Nechay, D. E. Pariev, V. N. Polkovnikov, and N. N. Salashchenko, “Structural and reflective characteristics of Mo / Be multilayer with barrier layers,” https://www.utwente.nl/mesaplus/xuv/workshops/archive/pxrnm-workshop-2016/program/chkhalo-structural-and-reflective-characteristics-of-mo-be-multilayer-with-barrier-layers.pdf .
  23. N. I. Chkhalo, D. E. Pariev, V. N. Polkovnikov, N. N. Salashchenko, R. A. Shaposhnikov, I. L. Stroulea, M. V. Svechnikov, Y. A. Vainer, and S. Y. Zuev, “Be/Al-based multilayer mirrors with improved reflection and spectral selectivity for solar astronomy above 17 nm wavelength,” Thin Solid Films 631, 106–111 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  24. “ATSDR: Public Health Statement for Beryllium,” https://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/phs/phs.asp?id=339&tid=33 .
  25. M. S. Bibishkin, D. P. Chekhonadskih, N. I. Chkhalo, E. B. Kluyenkov, A. E. Pestov, N. N. Salashchenko, L. A. Shmaenok, I. G. Zabrodin, and S. Y. Zuev, “Laboratory methods for investigations of multilayer mirrors in extreme ultraviolet and soft x-ray region,” in Proc. SPIE, K. A. Valiev and A. A. Orlikovsky, eds. (2004), Vol. 5401, pp. 8–15.
    [Crossref]
  26. F. Schäfers, P. Bischoff, F. Eggenstein, A. Erko, A. Gaupp, S. Künstner, M. Mast, J. S. Schmidt, F. Senf, F. Siewert, A. Sokolov, and T. Zeschke, “The at-wavelength metrology facility for UV- and XUV-reflection and diffraction optics at BESSY-II,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 23(1), 67–77 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  27. A. Sokolov, P. Bischoff, F. Eggenstein, A. Erko, A. Gaupp, S. Künstner, M. Mast, J.-S. Schmidt, F. Senf, F. Siewert, T. Zeschke, and F. Schäfers, “At-wavelength metrology facility for soft X-ray reflection optics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 87(5), 052005 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  28. N. I. Chkhalo, N. N. Salashchenko, and M. V. Zorina, “Note: A stand on the basis of atomic force microscope to study substrates for imaging optics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 86(1), 016102 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  29. R. M. Langford and A. K. Petford-Long, “Preparation of transmission electron microscopy cross-section specimens using focused ion beam milling,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A Vacuum, Surfaces. Film. 19, 2186–2193 (2001).
  30. A. Zameshin, I. A. Makhotkin, S. N. Yakunin, R. W. E. van de Kruijs, A. E. Yakshin, and F. Bijkerk, “Reconstruction of interfaces of periodic multilayers from X-ray reflectivity using a free-form approach,” J. Appl. Cryst. 49(4), 1300–1307 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  31. M. Svechnikov, D. Pariev, A. Nechay, N. Salashchenko, N. Chkhalo, Y. Vainer, and D. Gaman, “Extended model for the reconstruction of periodic multilayers from extreme ultraviolet and X-ray reflectivity data,” J. Appl. Cryst. 50(5), 1428–1440 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  32. L. G. Parratt, “Surface studies of solids by total reflection of x-rays,” Phys. Rev. 95(2), 359–369 (1954).
    [Crossref]
  33. A. V. Vinogradov, I. A. Brytov, A. Y. Grudsky, M. T. Kogan, I. V. Kozhevnikov, and V. A. Slemzin, Zerkal’naya Rentgenovskaya Optika (X–ray Mirror Optics) (Mashinostroenie, 1989).
  34. S. K. Sinha, E. B. Sirota, S. Garoff, and H. B. Stanley, “X-ray and neutron scattering from rough surfaces,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 38(4), 2297–2311 (1988).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  35. D. K. G. de Boer and de Boer DK, “Influence of the roughness profile on the specular reflectivity of x rays and neutrons,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 49(9), 5817–5820 (1994).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  36. V. Holỷ, J. Kuběna, I. Ohlídal, K. Lischka, and W. Plotz, “X-ray reflection from rough layered systems,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 47(23), 15896–15903 (1993).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  37. I. V. Kozhevnikov and M. V. Pyatakhin, “Use of DWBA and perturbation theory in X-ray control of the surface roughness,” J. XRay Sci. Technol. 8, 253–275 (2000).
  38. V. Holỷ and T. Baumbach, “Nonspecular x-ray reflection from rough multilayers,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 49(15), 10668–10676 (1994).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  39. I. V. Kozhevnikov, “Analysis of X-ray scattering from a rough multilayer mirror in the first-order perturbation theory,” Nucl. Instruments Methods Phys. Res. Sect. A Accel. Spectrometers. Detect. Assoc. Equip. 498(1-3), 482–495 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  40. N. I. Chkhalo, E. B. Kluenkov, A. E. Pestov, V. N. Polkovnikov, D. G. Raskin, N. N. Salashchenko, L. A. Suslov, and M. N. Toropov, “Manufacturing of XEUV mirrors with a sub-nanometer surface shape accuracy,” Nucl. Instruments Methods Phys. Res. Sect. A Accel. Spectrometers. Detect. Assoc. Equip. 603(1-2), 62–65 (2009).
    [Crossref]

2017 (4)

N. I. Chkhalo, S. A. Gusev, A. N. Nechay, D. E. Pariev, V. N. Polkovnikov, N. N. Salashchenko, F. Schäfers, M. G. Sertsu, A. Sokolov, M. V. Svechnikov, and D. A. Tatarsky, “High-reflection Mo/Be/Si multilayers for EUV lithography,” Opt. Lett. 42(24), 5070–5073 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Chkhalo, V. Polkovnikov, N. Salashchenko, and M. Toropov, “Deposition of Mo/Si multilayers onto MEMS micromirrors and its utilization for extreme ultraviolet maskless lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B. Nanotechnol. Microelectron. Mater. Process. Meas. Phenom. 35, 062002 (2017).

N. I. Chkhalo, D. E. Pariev, V. N. Polkovnikov, N. N. Salashchenko, R. A. Shaposhnikov, I. L. Stroulea, M. V. Svechnikov, Y. A. Vainer, and S. Y. Zuev, “Be/Al-based multilayer mirrors with improved reflection and spectral selectivity for solar astronomy above 17 nm wavelength,” Thin Solid Films 631, 106–111 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Svechnikov, D. Pariev, A. Nechay, N. Salashchenko, N. Chkhalo, Y. Vainer, and D. Gaman, “Extended model for the reconstruction of periodic multilayers from extreme ultraviolet and X-ray reflectivity data,” J. Appl. Cryst. 50(5), 1428–1440 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (5)

F. Schäfers, P. Bischoff, F. Eggenstein, A. Erko, A. Gaupp, S. Künstner, M. Mast, J. S. Schmidt, F. Senf, F. Siewert, A. Sokolov, and T. Zeschke, “The at-wavelength metrology facility for UV- and XUV-reflection and diffraction optics at BESSY-II,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 23(1), 67–77 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Sokolov, P. Bischoff, F. Eggenstein, A. Erko, A. Gaupp, S. Künstner, M. Mast, J.-S. Schmidt, F. Senf, F. Siewert, T. Zeschke, and F. Schäfers, “At-wavelength metrology facility for soft X-ray reflection optics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 87(5), 052005 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Zameshin, I. A. Makhotkin, S. N. Yakunin, R. W. E. van de Kruijs, A. E. Yakshin, and F. Bijkerk, “Reconstruction of interfaces of periodic multilayers from X-ray reflectivity using a free-form approach,” J. Appl. Cryst. 49(4), 1300–1307 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. A. Bogachev, N. I. Chkhalo, S. V. Kuzin, D. E. Pariev, V. N. Polkovnikov, N. N. Salashchenko, S. V. Shestov, and S. Y. Zuev, “Advanced materials for multilayer mirrors for extreme ultraviolet solar astronomy,” Appl. Opt. 55(9), 2126–2135 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Z. Jiaoling Zhao, H. H. Hongbo He, H. W. Hu Wang, K. Y. Kui Yi, B. W. Bin Wang, and Y. C. and Yun Cui, “Interface characterization of Mo/Si multilayers,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 14(8), 83401–83404 (2016).

2015 (1)

N. I. Chkhalo, N. N. Salashchenko, and M. V. Zorina, “Note: A stand on the basis of atomic force microscope to study substrates for imaging optics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 86(1), 016102 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (1)

B. Wu and A. Kumar, “Extreme ultraviolet lithography and three dimensional integrated circuit—A review,” Appl. Phys. Rev. 1(1), 011104 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

N. I. Chkhalo and N. N. Salashchenko, “Next generation nanolithography based on Ru/Be and Rh/Sr multilayer optics,” AIP Adv. 3(8), 082130 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

S. L. Nyabero, R. W. E. van de Kruijs, A. E. Yakshin, E. Zoethout, and F. Bijkerk, “Thermally induced interface chemistry in Mo/B 4 C/Si/B 4 C multilayered films,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(5), 054317 (2012).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

N. I. Chkhalo, E. B. Kluenkov, A. E. Pestov, V. N. Polkovnikov, D. G. Raskin, N. N. Salashchenko, L. A. Suslov, and M. N. Toropov, “Manufacturing of XEUV mirrors with a sub-nanometer surface shape accuracy,” Nucl. Instruments Methods Phys. Res. Sect. A Accel. Spectrometers. Detect. Assoc. Equip. 603(1-2), 62–65 (2009).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

I. Nedelcu, R. W. E. van de Kruijs, A. E. Yakshin, and F. Bijkerk, “Temperature-dependent nanocrystal formation in Mo/Si multilayers,” Phys. Rev. B 76(24), 245404 (2007).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

I. V. Kozhevnikov, “Analysis of X-ray scattering from a rough multilayer mirror in the first-order perturbation theory,” Nucl. Instruments Methods Phys. Res. Sect. A Accel. Spectrometers. Detect. Assoc. Equip. 498(1-3), 482–495 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (2)

S. Braun, H. Mai, M. Moss, R. Scholz, and A. Leson, “Mo/Si Multilayers with Different Barrier Layers for Applications as Extreme Ultraviolet Mirrors,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41(Part 1, No. 6B), 4074–4081 (2002).
[Crossref]

S. Bajt, “Improved reflectance and stability of Mo-Si multilayers,” Opt. Eng. 41(8), 1797 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (3)

B. Sae-Lao and C. Montcalm, “Molybdenum-strontium multilayer mirrors for the 8-12-nm extreme-ultraviolet wavelength region,” Opt. Lett. 26(7), 468–470 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Feigl, H. Lauth, S. Yulin, and N. Kaiser, “Heat resistance of EUV multilayer mirrors for long-time applications,” Microelectron. Eng. 57–58, 3–8 (2001).
[Crossref]

R. M. Langford and A. K. Petford-Long, “Preparation of transmission electron microscopy cross-section specimens using focused ion beam milling,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A Vacuum, Surfaces. Film. 19, 2186–2193 (2001).

2000 (2)

S. Bajt, “Molybdenum–ruthenium/beryllium multilayer coatings,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A Vacuum, Surfaces,” Film. 18, 557 (2000).

I. V. Kozhevnikov and M. V. Pyatakhin, “Use of DWBA and perturbation theory in X-ray control of the surface roughness,” J. XRay Sci. Technol. 8, 253–275 (2000).

1999 (1)

N. Choksi, D. S. Pickard, M. McCord, R. F. W. Pease, Y. Shroff, Y. Chen, W. Oldham, and D. Markle, “Maskless extreme ultraviolet lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B Microelectron. Nanom. Struct. 17, 3047 (1999).

1994 (2)

V. Holỷ and T. Baumbach, “Nonspecular x-ray reflection from rough multilayers,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 49(15), 10668–10676 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. K. G. de Boer and de Boer DK, “Influence of the roughness profile on the specular reflectivity of x rays and neutrons,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 49(9), 5817–5820 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1993 (2)

V. Holỷ, J. Kuběna, I. Ohlídal, K. Lischka, and W. Plotz, “X-ray reflection from rough layered systems,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 47(23), 15896–15903 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, and J. C. Davis, “X-Ray Interactions: Photoabsorption, Scattering, Transmission, and Reflection at E = 50-30,000 eV, Z = 1-92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54(2), 181–342 (1993).
[Crossref]

1988 (1)

S. K. Sinha, E. B. Sirota, S. Garoff, and H. B. Stanley, “X-ray and neutron scattering from rough surfaces,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 38(4), 2297–2311 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1954 (1)

L. G. Parratt, “Surface studies of solids by total reflection of x-rays,” Phys. Rev. 95(2), 359–369 (1954).
[Crossref]

and Yun Cui, Y. C.

J. Z. Jiaoling Zhao, H. H. Hongbo He, H. W. Hu Wang, K. Y. Kui Yi, B. W. Bin Wang, and Y. C. and Yun Cui, “Interface characterization of Mo/Si multilayers,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 14(8), 83401–83404 (2016).

Bajt, S.

S. Bajt, “Improved reflectance and stability of Mo-Si multilayers,” Opt. Eng. 41(8), 1797 (2002).
[Crossref]

S. Bajt, “Molybdenum–ruthenium/beryllium multilayer coatings,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A Vacuum, Surfaces,” Film. 18, 557 (2000).

Banine, V.

V. Banine, J. P. Benschop, M. Leenders, and R. Moors, “Relationship between an EUV source and the performance of an EUV lithographic system,” in Proceedings of the SPIE-The International Society for Optical Engineering, E. A. Dobisz, ed. (2000), 3997, pp. 126–135.
[Crossref]

Baumbach, T.

V. Holỷ and T. Baumbach, “Nonspecular x-ray reflection from rough multilayers,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 49(15), 10668–10676 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Benschop, J. P.

V. Banine, J. P. Benschop, M. Leenders, and R. Moors, “Relationship between an EUV source and the performance of an EUV lithographic system,” in Proceedings of the SPIE-The International Society for Optical Engineering, E. A. Dobisz, ed. (2000), 3997, pp. 126–135.
[Crossref]

Bijkerk, F.

A. Zameshin, I. A. Makhotkin, S. N. Yakunin, R. W. E. van de Kruijs, A. E. Yakshin, and F. Bijkerk, “Reconstruction of interfaces of periodic multilayers from X-ray reflectivity using a free-form approach,” J. Appl. Cryst. 49(4), 1300–1307 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. L. Nyabero, R. W. E. van de Kruijs, A. E. Yakshin, E. Zoethout, and F. Bijkerk, “Thermally induced interface chemistry in Mo/B 4 C/Si/B 4 C multilayered films,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(5), 054317 (2012).
[Crossref]

I. Nedelcu, R. W. E. van de Kruijs, A. E. Yakshin, and F. Bijkerk, “Temperature-dependent nanocrystal formation in Mo/Si multilayers,” Phys. Rev. B 76(24), 245404 (2007).
[Crossref]

Bin Wang, B. W.

J. Z. Jiaoling Zhao, H. H. Hongbo He, H. W. Hu Wang, K. Y. Kui Yi, B. W. Bin Wang, and Y. C. and Yun Cui, “Interface characterization of Mo/Si multilayers,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 14(8), 83401–83404 (2016).

Bischoff, P.

F. Schäfers, P. Bischoff, F. Eggenstein, A. Erko, A. Gaupp, S. Künstner, M. Mast, J. S. Schmidt, F. Senf, F. Siewert, A. Sokolov, and T. Zeschke, “The at-wavelength metrology facility for UV- and XUV-reflection and diffraction optics at BESSY-II,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 23(1), 67–77 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Sokolov, P. Bischoff, F. Eggenstein, A. Erko, A. Gaupp, S. Künstner, M. Mast, J.-S. Schmidt, F. Senf, F. Siewert, T. Zeschke, and F. Schäfers, “At-wavelength metrology facility for soft X-ray reflection optics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 87(5), 052005 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bogachev, S. A.

Braun, S.

S. Braun, H. Mai, M. Moss, R. Scholz, and A. Leson, “Mo/Si Multilayers with Different Barrier Layers for Applications as Extreme Ultraviolet Mirrors,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41(Part 1, No. 6B), 4074–4081 (2002).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y.

N. Choksi, D. S. Pickard, M. McCord, R. F. W. Pease, Y. Shroff, Y. Chen, W. Oldham, and D. Markle, “Maskless extreme ultraviolet lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B Microelectron. Nanom. Struct. 17, 3047 (1999).

Chkhalo, N.

M. Svechnikov, D. Pariev, A. Nechay, N. Salashchenko, N. Chkhalo, Y. Vainer, and D. Gaman, “Extended model for the reconstruction of periodic multilayers from extreme ultraviolet and X-ray reflectivity data,” J. Appl. Cryst. 50(5), 1428–1440 (2017).
[Crossref]

N. Chkhalo, V. Polkovnikov, N. Salashchenko, and M. Toropov, “Deposition of Mo/Si multilayers onto MEMS micromirrors and its utilization for extreme ultraviolet maskless lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B. Nanotechnol. Microelectron. Mater. Process. Meas. Phenom. 35, 062002 (2017).

Chkhalo, N. I.

N. I. Chkhalo, D. E. Pariev, V. N. Polkovnikov, N. N. Salashchenko, R. A. Shaposhnikov, I. L. Stroulea, M. V. Svechnikov, Y. A. Vainer, and S. Y. Zuev, “Be/Al-based multilayer mirrors with improved reflection and spectral selectivity for solar astronomy above 17 nm wavelength,” Thin Solid Films 631, 106–111 (2017).
[Crossref]

N. I. Chkhalo, S. A. Gusev, A. N. Nechay, D. E. Pariev, V. N. Polkovnikov, N. N. Salashchenko, F. Schäfers, M. G. Sertsu, A. Sokolov, M. V. Svechnikov, and D. A. Tatarsky, “High-reflection Mo/Be/Si multilayers for EUV lithography,” Opt. Lett. 42(24), 5070–5073 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. A. Bogachev, N. I. Chkhalo, S. V. Kuzin, D. E. Pariev, V. N. Polkovnikov, N. N. Salashchenko, S. V. Shestov, and S. Y. Zuev, “Advanced materials for multilayer mirrors for extreme ultraviolet solar astronomy,” Appl. Opt. 55(9), 2126–2135 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. I. Chkhalo, N. N. Salashchenko, and M. V. Zorina, “Note: A stand on the basis of atomic force microscope to study substrates for imaging optics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 86(1), 016102 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. I. Chkhalo and N. N. Salashchenko, “Next generation nanolithography based on Ru/Be and Rh/Sr multilayer optics,” AIP Adv. 3(8), 082130 (2013).
[Crossref]

N. I. Chkhalo, E. B. Kluenkov, A. E. Pestov, V. N. Polkovnikov, D. G. Raskin, N. N. Salashchenko, L. A. Suslov, and M. N. Toropov, “Manufacturing of XEUV mirrors with a sub-nanometer surface shape accuracy,” Nucl. Instruments Methods Phys. Res. Sect. A Accel. Spectrometers. Detect. Assoc. Equip. 603(1-2), 62–65 (2009).
[Crossref]

Choksi, N.

N. Choksi, D. S. Pickard, M. McCord, R. F. W. Pease, Y. Shroff, Y. Chen, W. Oldham, and D. Markle, “Maskless extreme ultraviolet lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B Microelectron. Nanom. Struct. 17, 3047 (1999).

Davis, J. C.

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, and J. C. Davis, “X-Ray Interactions: Photoabsorption, Scattering, Transmission, and Reflection at E = 50-30,000 eV, Z = 1-92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54(2), 181–342 (1993).
[Crossref]

de Boer, D. K. G.

D. K. G. de Boer and de Boer DK, “Influence of the roughness profile on the specular reflectivity of x rays and neutrons,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 49(9), 5817–5820 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eggenstein, F.

A. Sokolov, P. Bischoff, F. Eggenstein, A. Erko, A. Gaupp, S. Künstner, M. Mast, J.-S. Schmidt, F. Senf, F. Siewert, T. Zeschke, and F. Schäfers, “At-wavelength metrology facility for soft X-ray reflection optics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 87(5), 052005 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Schäfers, P. Bischoff, F. Eggenstein, A. Erko, A. Gaupp, S. Künstner, M. Mast, J. S. Schmidt, F. Senf, F. Siewert, A. Sokolov, and T. Zeschke, “The at-wavelength metrology facility for UV- and XUV-reflection and diffraction optics at BESSY-II,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 23(1), 67–77 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Erko, A.

F. Schäfers, P. Bischoff, F. Eggenstein, A. Erko, A. Gaupp, S. Künstner, M. Mast, J. S. Schmidt, F. Senf, F. Siewert, A. Sokolov, and T. Zeschke, “The at-wavelength metrology facility for UV- and XUV-reflection and diffraction optics at BESSY-II,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 23(1), 67–77 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Sokolov, P. Bischoff, F. Eggenstein, A. Erko, A. Gaupp, S. Künstner, M. Mast, J.-S. Schmidt, F. Senf, F. Siewert, T. Zeschke, and F. Schäfers, “At-wavelength metrology facility for soft X-ray reflection optics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 87(5), 052005 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Feigl, T.

T. Feigl, H. Lauth, S. Yulin, and N. Kaiser, “Heat resistance of EUV multilayer mirrors for long-time applications,” Microelectron. Eng. 57–58, 3–8 (2001).
[Crossref]

Gaman, D.

M. Svechnikov, D. Pariev, A. Nechay, N. Salashchenko, N. Chkhalo, Y. Vainer, and D. Gaman, “Extended model for the reconstruction of periodic multilayers from extreme ultraviolet and X-ray reflectivity data,” J. Appl. Cryst. 50(5), 1428–1440 (2017).
[Crossref]

Garoff, S.

S. K. Sinha, E. B. Sirota, S. Garoff, and H. B. Stanley, “X-ray and neutron scattering from rough surfaces,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 38(4), 2297–2311 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gaupp, A.

A. Sokolov, P. Bischoff, F. Eggenstein, A. Erko, A. Gaupp, S. Künstner, M. Mast, J.-S. Schmidt, F. Senf, F. Siewert, T. Zeschke, and F. Schäfers, “At-wavelength metrology facility for soft X-ray reflection optics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 87(5), 052005 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Schäfers, P. Bischoff, F. Eggenstein, A. Erko, A. Gaupp, S. Künstner, M. Mast, J. S. Schmidt, F. Senf, F. Siewert, A. Sokolov, and T. Zeschke, “The at-wavelength metrology facility for UV- and XUV-reflection and diffraction optics at BESSY-II,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 23(1), 67–77 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gullikson, E. M.

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, and J. C. Davis, “X-Ray Interactions: Photoabsorption, Scattering, Transmission, and Reflection at E = 50-30,000 eV, Z = 1-92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54(2), 181–342 (1993).
[Crossref]

Gusev, S. A.

Henke, B. L.

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, and J. C. Davis, “X-Ray Interactions: Photoabsorption, Scattering, Transmission, and Reflection at E = 50-30,000 eV, Z = 1-92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54(2), 181–342 (1993).
[Crossref]

Hol?, V.

V. Holỷ and T. Baumbach, “Nonspecular x-ray reflection from rough multilayers,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 49(15), 10668–10676 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Holỷ, J. Kuběna, I. Ohlídal, K. Lischka, and W. Plotz, “X-ray reflection from rough layered systems,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 47(23), 15896–15903 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hongbo He, H. H.

J. Z. Jiaoling Zhao, H. H. Hongbo He, H. W. Hu Wang, K. Y. Kui Yi, B. W. Bin Wang, and Y. C. and Yun Cui, “Interface characterization of Mo/Si multilayers,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 14(8), 83401–83404 (2016).

Hu Wang, H. W.

J. Z. Jiaoling Zhao, H. H. Hongbo He, H. W. Hu Wang, K. Y. Kui Yi, B. W. Bin Wang, and Y. C. and Yun Cui, “Interface characterization of Mo/Si multilayers,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 14(8), 83401–83404 (2016).

Jiaoling Zhao, J. Z.

J. Z. Jiaoling Zhao, H. H. Hongbo He, H. W. Hu Wang, K. Y. Kui Yi, B. W. Bin Wang, and Y. C. and Yun Cui, “Interface characterization of Mo/Si multilayers,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 14(8), 83401–83404 (2016).

Kaiser, N.

T. Feigl, H. Lauth, S. Yulin, and N. Kaiser, “Heat resistance of EUV multilayer mirrors for long-time applications,” Microelectron. Eng. 57–58, 3–8 (2001).
[Crossref]

Kluenkov, E. B.

N. I. Chkhalo, E. B. Kluenkov, A. E. Pestov, V. N. Polkovnikov, D. G. Raskin, N. N. Salashchenko, L. A. Suslov, and M. N. Toropov, “Manufacturing of XEUV mirrors with a sub-nanometer surface shape accuracy,” Nucl. Instruments Methods Phys. Res. Sect. A Accel. Spectrometers. Detect. Assoc. Equip. 603(1-2), 62–65 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kozhevnikov, I. V.

I. V. Kozhevnikov, “Analysis of X-ray scattering from a rough multilayer mirror in the first-order perturbation theory,” Nucl. Instruments Methods Phys. Res. Sect. A Accel. Spectrometers. Detect. Assoc. Equip. 498(1-3), 482–495 (2003).
[Crossref]

I. V. Kozhevnikov and M. V. Pyatakhin, “Use of DWBA and perturbation theory in X-ray control of the surface roughness,” J. XRay Sci. Technol. 8, 253–275 (2000).

Kubena, J.

V. Holỷ, J. Kuběna, I. Ohlídal, K. Lischka, and W. Plotz, “X-ray reflection from rough layered systems,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 47(23), 15896–15903 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kui Yi, K. Y.

J. Z. Jiaoling Zhao, H. H. Hongbo He, H. W. Hu Wang, K. Y. Kui Yi, B. W. Bin Wang, and Y. C. and Yun Cui, “Interface characterization of Mo/Si multilayers,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 14(8), 83401–83404 (2016).

Kumar, A.

B. Wu and A. Kumar, “Extreme ultraviolet lithography and three dimensional integrated circuit—A review,” Appl. Phys. Rev. 1(1), 011104 (2014).
[Crossref]

Künstner, S.

F. Schäfers, P. Bischoff, F. Eggenstein, A. Erko, A. Gaupp, S. Künstner, M. Mast, J. S. Schmidt, F. Senf, F. Siewert, A. Sokolov, and T. Zeschke, “The at-wavelength metrology facility for UV- and XUV-reflection and diffraction optics at BESSY-II,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 23(1), 67–77 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Sokolov, P. Bischoff, F. Eggenstein, A. Erko, A. Gaupp, S. Künstner, M. Mast, J.-S. Schmidt, F. Senf, F. Siewert, T. Zeschke, and F. Schäfers, “At-wavelength metrology facility for soft X-ray reflection optics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 87(5), 052005 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kuzin, S. V.

Langford, R. M.

R. M. Langford and A. K. Petford-Long, “Preparation of transmission electron microscopy cross-section specimens using focused ion beam milling,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A Vacuum, Surfaces. Film. 19, 2186–2193 (2001).

Lauth, H.

T. Feigl, H. Lauth, S. Yulin, and N. Kaiser, “Heat resistance of EUV multilayer mirrors for long-time applications,” Microelectron. Eng. 57–58, 3–8 (2001).
[Crossref]

Leenders, M.

V. Banine, J. P. Benschop, M. Leenders, and R. Moors, “Relationship between an EUV source and the performance of an EUV lithographic system,” in Proceedings of the SPIE-The International Society for Optical Engineering, E. A. Dobisz, ed. (2000), 3997, pp. 126–135.
[Crossref]

Leson, A.

S. Braun, H. Mai, M. Moss, R. Scholz, and A. Leson, “Mo/Si Multilayers with Different Barrier Layers for Applications as Extreme Ultraviolet Mirrors,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41(Part 1, No. 6B), 4074–4081 (2002).
[Crossref]

Lischka, K.

V. Holỷ, J. Kuběna, I. Ohlídal, K. Lischka, and W. Plotz, “X-ray reflection from rough layered systems,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 47(23), 15896–15903 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mai, H.

S. Braun, H. Mai, M. Moss, R. Scholz, and A. Leson, “Mo/Si Multilayers with Different Barrier Layers for Applications as Extreme Ultraviolet Mirrors,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41(Part 1, No. 6B), 4074–4081 (2002).
[Crossref]

Makhotkin, I. A.

A. Zameshin, I. A. Makhotkin, S. N. Yakunin, R. W. E. van de Kruijs, A. E. Yakshin, and F. Bijkerk, “Reconstruction of interfaces of periodic multilayers from X-ray reflectivity using a free-form approach,” J. Appl. Cryst. 49(4), 1300–1307 (2016).
[Crossref]

Markle, D.

N. Choksi, D. S. Pickard, M. McCord, R. F. W. Pease, Y. Shroff, Y. Chen, W. Oldham, and D. Markle, “Maskless extreme ultraviolet lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B Microelectron. Nanom. Struct. 17, 3047 (1999).

Mast, M.

A. Sokolov, P. Bischoff, F. Eggenstein, A. Erko, A. Gaupp, S. Künstner, M. Mast, J.-S. Schmidt, F. Senf, F. Siewert, T. Zeschke, and F. Schäfers, “At-wavelength metrology facility for soft X-ray reflection optics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 87(5), 052005 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Schäfers, P. Bischoff, F. Eggenstein, A. Erko, A. Gaupp, S. Künstner, M. Mast, J. S. Schmidt, F. Senf, F. Siewert, A. Sokolov, and T. Zeschke, “The at-wavelength metrology facility for UV- and XUV-reflection and diffraction optics at BESSY-II,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 23(1), 67–77 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McCord, M.

N. Choksi, D. S. Pickard, M. McCord, R. F. W. Pease, Y. Shroff, Y. Chen, W. Oldham, and D. Markle, “Maskless extreme ultraviolet lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B Microelectron. Nanom. Struct. 17, 3047 (1999).

Montcalm, C.

Moors, R.

V. Banine, J. P. Benschop, M. Leenders, and R. Moors, “Relationship between an EUV source and the performance of an EUV lithographic system,” in Proceedings of the SPIE-The International Society for Optical Engineering, E. A. Dobisz, ed. (2000), 3997, pp. 126–135.
[Crossref]

Moss, M.

S. Braun, H. Mai, M. Moss, R. Scholz, and A. Leson, “Mo/Si Multilayers with Different Barrier Layers for Applications as Extreme Ultraviolet Mirrors,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41(Part 1, No. 6B), 4074–4081 (2002).
[Crossref]

Nechay, A.

M. Svechnikov, D. Pariev, A. Nechay, N. Salashchenko, N. Chkhalo, Y. Vainer, and D. Gaman, “Extended model for the reconstruction of periodic multilayers from extreme ultraviolet and X-ray reflectivity data,” J. Appl. Cryst. 50(5), 1428–1440 (2017).
[Crossref]

Nechay, A. N.

Nedelcu, I.

I. Nedelcu, R. W. E. van de Kruijs, A. E. Yakshin, and F. Bijkerk, “Temperature-dependent nanocrystal formation in Mo/Si multilayers,” Phys. Rev. B 76(24), 245404 (2007).
[Crossref]

Nyabero, S. L.

S. L. Nyabero, R. W. E. van de Kruijs, A. E. Yakshin, E. Zoethout, and F. Bijkerk, “Thermally induced interface chemistry in Mo/B 4 C/Si/B 4 C multilayered films,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(5), 054317 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ohlídal, I.

V. Holỷ, J. Kuběna, I. Ohlídal, K. Lischka, and W. Plotz, “X-ray reflection from rough layered systems,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 47(23), 15896–15903 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Oldham, W.

N. Choksi, D. S. Pickard, M. McCord, R. F. W. Pease, Y. Shroff, Y. Chen, W. Oldham, and D. Markle, “Maskless extreme ultraviolet lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B Microelectron. Nanom. Struct. 17, 3047 (1999).

Pariev, D.

M. Svechnikov, D. Pariev, A. Nechay, N. Salashchenko, N. Chkhalo, Y. Vainer, and D. Gaman, “Extended model for the reconstruction of periodic multilayers from extreme ultraviolet and X-ray reflectivity data,” J. Appl. Cryst. 50(5), 1428–1440 (2017).
[Crossref]

Pariev, D. E.

Parratt, L. G.

L. G. Parratt, “Surface studies of solids by total reflection of x-rays,” Phys. Rev. 95(2), 359–369 (1954).
[Crossref]

Pease, R. F. W.

N. Choksi, D. S. Pickard, M. McCord, R. F. W. Pease, Y. Shroff, Y. Chen, W. Oldham, and D. Markle, “Maskless extreme ultraviolet lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B Microelectron. Nanom. Struct. 17, 3047 (1999).

Pestov, A. E.

N. I. Chkhalo, E. B. Kluenkov, A. E. Pestov, V. N. Polkovnikov, D. G. Raskin, N. N. Salashchenko, L. A. Suslov, and M. N. Toropov, “Manufacturing of XEUV mirrors with a sub-nanometer surface shape accuracy,” Nucl. Instruments Methods Phys. Res. Sect. A Accel. Spectrometers. Detect. Assoc. Equip. 603(1-2), 62–65 (2009).
[Crossref]

Petford-Long, A. K.

R. M. Langford and A. K. Petford-Long, “Preparation of transmission electron microscopy cross-section specimens using focused ion beam milling,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A Vacuum, Surfaces. Film. 19, 2186–2193 (2001).

Pickard, D. S.

N. Choksi, D. S. Pickard, M. McCord, R. F. W. Pease, Y. Shroff, Y. Chen, W. Oldham, and D. Markle, “Maskless extreme ultraviolet lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B Microelectron. Nanom. Struct. 17, 3047 (1999).

Plotz, W.

V. Holỷ, J. Kuběna, I. Ohlídal, K. Lischka, and W. Plotz, “X-ray reflection from rough layered systems,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 47(23), 15896–15903 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Polkovnikov, V.

N. Chkhalo, V. Polkovnikov, N. Salashchenko, and M. Toropov, “Deposition of Mo/Si multilayers onto MEMS micromirrors and its utilization for extreme ultraviolet maskless lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B. Nanotechnol. Microelectron. Mater. Process. Meas. Phenom. 35, 062002 (2017).

Polkovnikov, V. N.

N. I. Chkhalo, D. E. Pariev, V. N. Polkovnikov, N. N. Salashchenko, R. A. Shaposhnikov, I. L. Stroulea, M. V. Svechnikov, Y. A. Vainer, and S. Y. Zuev, “Be/Al-based multilayer mirrors with improved reflection and spectral selectivity for solar astronomy above 17 nm wavelength,” Thin Solid Films 631, 106–111 (2017).
[Crossref]

N. I. Chkhalo, S. A. Gusev, A. N. Nechay, D. E. Pariev, V. N. Polkovnikov, N. N. Salashchenko, F. Schäfers, M. G. Sertsu, A. Sokolov, M. V. Svechnikov, and D. A. Tatarsky, “High-reflection Mo/Be/Si multilayers for EUV lithography,” Opt. Lett. 42(24), 5070–5073 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. A. Bogachev, N. I. Chkhalo, S. V. Kuzin, D. E. Pariev, V. N. Polkovnikov, N. N. Salashchenko, S. V. Shestov, and S. Y. Zuev, “Advanced materials for multilayer mirrors for extreme ultraviolet solar astronomy,” Appl. Opt. 55(9), 2126–2135 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. I. Chkhalo, E. B. Kluenkov, A. E. Pestov, V. N. Polkovnikov, D. G. Raskin, N. N. Salashchenko, L. A. Suslov, and M. N. Toropov, “Manufacturing of XEUV mirrors with a sub-nanometer surface shape accuracy,” Nucl. Instruments Methods Phys. Res. Sect. A Accel. Spectrometers. Detect. Assoc. Equip. 603(1-2), 62–65 (2009).
[Crossref]

Pyatakhin, M. V.

I. V. Kozhevnikov and M. V. Pyatakhin, “Use of DWBA and perturbation theory in X-ray control of the surface roughness,” J. XRay Sci. Technol. 8, 253–275 (2000).

Raskin, D. G.

N. I. Chkhalo, E. B. Kluenkov, A. E. Pestov, V. N. Polkovnikov, D. G. Raskin, N. N. Salashchenko, L. A. Suslov, and M. N. Toropov, “Manufacturing of XEUV mirrors with a sub-nanometer surface shape accuracy,” Nucl. Instruments Methods Phys. Res. Sect. A Accel. Spectrometers. Detect. Assoc. Equip. 603(1-2), 62–65 (2009).
[Crossref]

Sae-Lao, B.

Salashchenko, N.

N. Chkhalo, V. Polkovnikov, N. Salashchenko, and M. Toropov, “Deposition of Mo/Si multilayers onto MEMS micromirrors and its utilization for extreme ultraviolet maskless lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B. Nanotechnol. Microelectron. Mater. Process. Meas. Phenom. 35, 062002 (2017).

M. Svechnikov, D. Pariev, A. Nechay, N. Salashchenko, N. Chkhalo, Y. Vainer, and D. Gaman, “Extended model for the reconstruction of periodic multilayers from extreme ultraviolet and X-ray reflectivity data,” J. Appl. Cryst. 50(5), 1428–1440 (2017).
[Crossref]

Salashchenko, N. N.

N. I. Chkhalo, D. E. Pariev, V. N. Polkovnikov, N. N. Salashchenko, R. A. Shaposhnikov, I. L. Stroulea, M. V. Svechnikov, Y. A. Vainer, and S. Y. Zuev, “Be/Al-based multilayer mirrors with improved reflection and spectral selectivity for solar astronomy above 17 nm wavelength,” Thin Solid Films 631, 106–111 (2017).
[Crossref]

N. I. Chkhalo, S. A. Gusev, A. N. Nechay, D. E. Pariev, V. N. Polkovnikov, N. N. Salashchenko, F. Schäfers, M. G. Sertsu, A. Sokolov, M. V. Svechnikov, and D. A. Tatarsky, “High-reflection Mo/Be/Si multilayers for EUV lithography,” Opt. Lett. 42(24), 5070–5073 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. A. Bogachev, N. I. Chkhalo, S. V. Kuzin, D. E. Pariev, V. N. Polkovnikov, N. N. Salashchenko, S. V. Shestov, and S. Y. Zuev, “Advanced materials for multilayer mirrors for extreme ultraviolet solar astronomy,” Appl. Opt. 55(9), 2126–2135 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. I. Chkhalo, N. N. Salashchenko, and M. V. Zorina, “Note: A stand on the basis of atomic force microscope to study substrates for imaging optics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 86(1), 016102 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. I. Chkhalo and N. N. Salashchenko, “Next generation nanolithography based on Ru/Be and Rh/Sr multilayer optics,” AIP Adv. 3(8), 082130 (2013).
[Crossref]

N. I. Chkhalo, E. B. Kluenkov, A. E. Pestov, V. N. Polkovnikov, D. G. Raskin, N. N. Salashchenko, L. A. Suslov, and M. N. Toropov, “Manufacturing of XEUV mirrors with a sub-nanometer surface shape accuracy,” Nucl. Instruments Methods Phys. Res. Sect. A Accel. Spectrometers. Detect. Assoc. Equip. 603(1-2), 62–65 (2009).
[Crossref]

Schäfers, F.

N. I. Chkhalo, S. A. Gusev, A. N. Nechay, D. E. Pariev, V. N. Polkovnikov, N. N. Salashchenko, F. Schäfers, M. G. Sertsu, A. Sokolov, M. V. Svechnikov, and D. A. Tatarsky, “High-reflection Mo/Be/Si multilayers for EUV lithography,” Opt. Lett. 42(24), 5070–5073 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Schäfers, P. Bischoff, F. Eggenstein, A. Erko, A. Gaupp, S. Künstner, M. Mast, J. S. Schmidt, F. Senf, F. Siewert, A. Sokolov, and T. Zeschke, “The at-wavelength metrology facility for UV- and XUV-reflection and diffraction optics at BESSY-II,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 23(1), 67–77 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Sokolov, P. Bischoff, F. Eggenstein, A. Erko, A. Gaupp, S. Künstner, M. Mast, J.-S. Schmidt, F. Senf, F. Siewert, T. Zeschke, and F. Schäfers, “At-wavelength metrology facility for soft X-ray reflection optics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 87(5), 052005 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schmidt, J. S.

F. Schäfers, P. Bischoff, F. Eggenstein, A. Erko, A. Gaupp, S. Künstner, M. Mast, J. S. Schmidt, F. Senf, F. Siewert, A. Sokolov, and T. Zeschke, “The at-wavelength metrology facility for UV- and XUV-reflection and diffraction optics at BESSY-II,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 23(1), 67–77 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schmidt, J.-S.

A. Sokolov, P. Bischoff, F. Eggenstein, A. Erko, A. Gaupp, S. Künstner, M. Mast, J.-S. Schmidt, F. Senf, F. Siewert, T. Zeschke, and F. Schäfers, “At-wavelength metrology facility for soft X-ray reflection optics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 87(5), 052005 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Scholz, R.

S. Braun, H. Mai, M. Moss, R. Scholz, and A. Leson, “Mo/Si Multilayers with Different Barrier Layers for Applications as Extreme Ultraviolet Mirrors,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41(Part 1, No. 6B), 4074–4081 (2002).
[Crossref]

Senf, F.

A. Sokolov, P. Bischoff, F. Eggenstein, A. Erko, A. Gaupp, S. Künstner, M. Mast, J.-S. Schmidt, F. Senf, F. Siewert, T. Zeschke, and F. Schäfers, “At-wavelength metrology facility for soft X-ray reflection optics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 87(5), 052005 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Schäfers, P. Bischoff, F. Eggenstein, A. Erko, A. Gaupp, S. Künstner, M. Mast, J. S. Schmidt, F. Senf, F. Siewert, A. Sokolov, and T. Zeschke, “The at-wavelength metrology facility for UV- and XUV-reflection and diffraction optics at BESSY-II,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 23(1), 67–77 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sertsu, M. G.

Shaposhnikov, R. A.

N. I. Chkhalo, D. E. Pariev, V. N. Polkovnikov, N. N. Salashchenko, R. A. Shaposhnikov, I. L. Stroulea, M. V. Svechnikov, Y. A. Vainer, and S. Y. Zuev, “Be/Al-based multilayer mirrors with improved reflection and spectral selectivity for solar astronomy above 17 nm wavelength,” Thin Solid Films 631, 106–111 (2017).
[Crossref]

Shestov, S. V.

Shroff, Y.

N. Choksi, D. S. Pickard, M. McCord, R. F. W. Pease, Y. Shroff, Y. Chen, W. Oldham, and D. Markle, “Maskless extreme ultraviolet lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B Microelectron. Nanom. Struct. 17, 3047 (1999).

Siewert, F.

F. Schäfers, P. Bischoff, F. Eggenstein, A. Erko, A. Gaupp, S. Künstner, M. Mast, J. S. Schmidt, F. Senf, F. Siewert, A. Sokolov, and T. Zeschke, “The at-wavelength metrology facility for UV- and XUV-reflection and diffraction optics at BESSY-II,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 23(1), 67–77 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Sokolov, P. Bischoff, F. Eggenstein, A. Erko, A. Gaupp, S. Künstner, M. Mast, J.-S. Schmidt, F. Senf, F. Siewert, T. Zeschke, and F. Schäfers, “At-wavelength metrology facility for soft X-ray reflection optics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 87(5), 052005 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sinha, S. K.

S. K. Sinha, E. B. Sirota, S. Garoff, and H. B. Stanley, “X-ray and neutron scattering from rough surfaces,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 38(4), 2297–2311 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sirota, E. B.

S. K. Sinha, E. B. Sirota, S. Garoff, and H. B. Stanley, “X-ray and neutron scattering from rough surfaces,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 38(4), 2297–2311 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sokolov, A.

N. I. Chkhalo, S. A. Gusev, A. N. Nechay, D. E. Pariev, V. N. Polkovnikov, N. N. Salashchenko, F. Schäfers, M. G. Sertsu, A. Sokolov, M. V. Svechnikov, and D. A. Tatarsky, “High-reflection Mo/Be/Si multilayers for EUV lithography,” Opt. Lett. 42(24), 5070–5073 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Sokolov, P. Bischoff, F. Eggenstein, A. Erko, A. Gaupp, S. Künstner, M. Mast, J.-S. Schmidt, F. Senf, F. Siewert, T. Zeschke, and F. Schäfers, “At-wavelength metrology facility for soft X-ray reflection optics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 87(5), 052005 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Schäfers, P. Bischoff, F. Eggenstein, A. Erko, A. Gaupp, S. Künstner, M. Mast, J. S. Schmidt, F. Senf, F. Siewert, A. Sokolov, and T. Zeschke, “The at-wavelength metrology facility for UV- and XUV-reflection and diffraction optics at BESSY-II,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 23(1), 67–77 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stanley, H. B.

S. K. Sinha, E. B. Sirota, S. Garoff, and H. B. Stanley, “X-ray and neutron scattering from rough surfaces,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 38(4), 2297–2311 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stroulea, I. L.

N. I. Chkhalo, D. E. Pariev, V. N. Polkovnikov, N. N. Salashchenko, R. A. Shaposhnikov, I. L. Stroulea, M. V. Svechnikov, Y. A. Vainer, and S. Y. Zuev, “Be/Al-based multilayer mirrors with improved reflection and spectral selectivity for solar astronomy above 17 nm wavelength,” Thin Solid Films 631, 106–111 (2017).
[Crossref]

Suslov, L. A.

N. I. Chkhalo, E. B. Kluenkov, A. E. Pestov, V. N. Polkovnikov, D. G. Raskin, N. N. Salashchenko, L. A. Suslov, and M. N. Toropov, “Manufacturing of XEUV mirrors with a sub-nanometer surface shape accuracy,” Nucl. Instruments Methods Phys. Res. Sect. A Accel. Spectrometers. Detect. Assoc. Equip. 603(1-2), 62–65 (2009).
[Crossref]

Svechnikov, M.

M. Svechnikov, D. Pariev, A. Nechay, N. Salashchenko, N. Chkhalo, Y. Vainer, and D. Gaman, “Extended model for the reconstruction of periodic multilayers from extreme ultraviolet and X-ray reflectivity data,” J. Appl. Cryst. 50(5), 1428–1440 (2017).
[Crossref]

Svechnikov, M. V.

N. I. Chkhalo, D. E. Pariev, V. N. Polkovnikov, N. N. Salashchenko, R. A. Shaposhnikov, I. L. Stroulea, M. V. Svechnikov, Y. A. Vainer, and S. Y. Zuev, “Be/Al-based multilayer mirrors with improved reflection and spectral selectivity for solar astronomy above 17 nm wavelength,” Thin Solid Films 631, 106–111 (2017).
[Crossref]

N. I. Chkhalo, S. A. Gusev, A. N. Nechay, D. E. Pariev, V. N. Polkovnikov, N. N. Salashchenko, F. Schäfers, M. G. Sertsu, A. Sokolov, M. V. Svechnikov, and D. A. Tatarsky, “High-reflection Mo/Be/Si multilayers for EUV lithography,” Opt. Lett. 42(24), 5070–5073 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tatarsky, D. A.

Toropov, M.

N. Chkhalo, V. Polkovnikov, N. Salashchenko, and M. Toropov, “Deposition of Mo/Si multilayers onto MEMS micromirrors and its utilization for extreme ultraviolet maskless lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B. Nanotechnol. Microelectron. Mater. Process. Meas. Phenom. 35, 062002 (2017).

Toropov, M. N.

N. I. Chkhalo, E. B. Kluenkov, A. E. Pestov, V. N. Polkovnikov, D. G. Raskin, N. N. Salashchenko, L. A. Suslov, and M. N. Toropov, “Manufacturing of XEUV mirrors with a sub-nanometer surface shape accuracy,” Nucl. Instruments Methods Phys. Res. Sect. A Accel. Spectrometers. Detect. Assoc. Equip. 603(1-2), 62–65 (2009).
[Crossref]

Vainer, Y.

M. Svechnikov, D. Pariev, A. Nechay, N. Salashchenko, N. Chkhalo, Y. Vainer, and D. Gaman, “Extended model for the reconstruction of periodic multilayers from extreme ultraviolet and X-ray reflectivity data,” J. Appl. Cryst. 50(5), 1428–1440 (2017).
[Crossref]

Vainer, Y. A.

N. I. Chkhalo, D. E. Pariev, V. N. Polkovnikov, N. N. Salashchenko, R. A. Shaposhnikov, I. L. Stroulea, M. V. Svechnikov, Y. A. Vainer, and S. Y. Zuev, “Be/Al-based multilayer mirrors with improved reflection and spectral selectivity for solar astronomy above 17 nm wavelength,” Thin Solid Films 631, 106–111 (2017).
[Crossref]

van de Kruijs, R. W. E.

A. Zameshin, I. A. Makhotkin, S. N. Yakunin, R. W. E. van de Kruijs, A. E. Yakshin, and F. Bijkerk, “Reconstruction of interfaces of periodic multilayers from X-ray reflectivity using a free-form approach,” J. Appl. Cryst. 49(4), 1300–1307 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. L. Nyabero, R. W. E. van de Kruijs, A. E. Yakshin, E. Zoethout, and F. Bijkerk, “Thermally induced interface chemistry in Mo/B 4 C/Si/B 4 C multilayered films,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(5), 054317 (2012).
[Crossref]

I. Nedelcu, R. W. E. van de Kruijs, A. E. Yakshin, and F. Bijkerk, “Temperature-dependent nanocrystal formation in Mo/Si multilayers,” Phys. Rev. B 76(24), 245404 (2007).
[Crossref]

Wu, B.

B. Wu and A. Kumar, “Extreme ultraviolet lithography and three dimensional integrated circuit—A review,” Appl. Phys. Rev. 1(1), 011104 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yakshin, A. E.

A. Zameshin, I. A. Makhotkin, S. N. Yakunin, R. W. E. van de Kruijs, A. E. Yakshin, and F. Bijkerk, “Reconstruction of interfaces of periodic multilayers from X-ray reflectivity using a free-form approach,” J. Appl. Cryst. 49(4), 1300–1307 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. L. Nyabero, R. W. E. van de Kruijs, A. E. Yakshin, E. Zoethout, and F. Bijkerk, “Thermally induced interface chemistry in Mo/B 4 C/Si/B 4 C multilayered films,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(5), 054317 (2012).
[Crossref]

I. Nedelcu, R. W. E. van de Kruijs, A. E. Yakshin, and F. Bijkerk, “Temperature-dependent nanocrystal formation in Mo/Si multilayers,” Phys. Rev. B 76(24), 245404 (2007).
[Crossref]

Yakunin, S. N.

A. Zameshin, I. A. Makhotkin, S. N. Yakunin, R. W. E. van de Kruijs, A. E. Yakshin, and F. Bijkerk, “Reconstruction of interfaces of periodic multilayers from X-ray reflectivity using a free-form approach,” J. Appl. Cryst. 49(4), 1300–1307 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yulin, S.

T. Feigl, H. Lauth, S. Yulin, and N. Kaiser, “Heat resistance of EUV multilayer mirrors for long-time applications,” Microelectron. Eng. 57–58, 3–8 (2001).
[Crossref]

Zameshin, A.

A. Zameshin, I. A. Makhotkin, S. N. Yakunin, R. W. E. van de Kruijs, A. E. Yakshin, and F. Bijkerk, “Reconstruction of interfaces of periodic multilayers from X-ray reflectivity using a free-form approach,” J. Appl. Cryst. 49(4), 1300–1307 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zeschke, T.

F. Schäfers, P. Bischoff, F. Eggenstein, A. Erko, A. Gaupp, S. Künstner, M. Mast, J. S. Schmidt, F. Senf, F. Siewert, A. Sokolov, and T. Zeschke, “The at-wavelength metrology facility for UV- and XUV-reflection and diffraction optics at BESSY-II,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 23(1), 67–77 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Sokolov, P. Bischoff, F. Eggenstein, A. Erko, A. Gaupp, S. Künstner, M. Mast, J.-S. Schmidt, F. Senf, F. Siewert, T. Zeschke, and F. Schäfers, “At-wavelength metrology facility for soft X-ray reflection optics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 87(5), 052005 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zoethout, E.

S. L. Nyabero, R. W. E. van de Kruijs, A. E. Yakshin, E. Zoethout, and F. Bijkerk, “Thermally induced interface chemistry in Mo/B 4 C/Si/B 4 C multilayered films,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(5), 054317 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zorina, M. V.

N. I. Chkhalo, N. N. Salashchenko, and M. V. Zorina, “Note: A stand on the basis of atomic force microscope to study substrates for imaging optics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 86(1), 016102 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zuev, S. Y.

N. I. Chkhalo, D. E. Pariev, V. N. Polkovnikov, N. N. Salashchenko, R. A. Shaposhnikov, I. L. Stroulea, M. V. Svechnikov, Y. A. Vainer, and S. Y. Zuev, “Be/Al-based multilayer mirrors with improved reflection and spectral selectivity for solar astronomy above 17 nm wavelength,” Thin Solid Films 631, 106–111 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. A. Bogachev, N. I. Chkhalo, S. V. Kuzin, D. E. Pariev, V. N. Polkovnikov, N. N. Salashchenko, S. V. Shestov, and S. Y. Zuev, “Advanced materials for multilayer mirrors for extreme ultraviolet solar astronomy,” Appl. Opt. 55(9), 2126–2135 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

AIP Adv. (1)

N. I. Chkhalo and N. N. Salashchenko, “Next generation nanolithography based on Ru/Be and Rh/Sr multilayer optics,” AIP Adv. 3(8), 082130 (2013).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Rev. (1)

B. Wu and A. Kumar, “Extreme ultraviolet lithography and three dimensional integrated circuit—A review,” Appl. Phys. Rev. 1(1), 011104 (2014).
[Crossref]

At. Data Nucl. Data Tables (1)

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, and J. C. Davis, “X-Ray Interactions: Photoabsorption, Scattering, Transmission, and Reflection at E = 50-30,000 eV, Z = 1-92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54(2), 181–342 (1993).
[Crossref]

Chin. Opt. Lett. (1)

J. Z. Jiaoling Zhao, H. H. Hongbo He, H. W. Hu Wang, K. Y. Kui Yi, B. W. Bin Wang, and Y. C. and Yun Cui, “Interface characterization of Mo/Si multilayers,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 14(8), 83401–83404 (2016).

Film. (1)

S. Bajt, “Molybdenum–ruthenium/beryllium multilayer coatings,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A Vacuum, Surfaces,” Film. 18, 557 (2000).

J. Appl. Cryst. (2)

A. Zameshin, I. A. Makhotkin, S. N. Yakunin, R. W. E. van de Kruijs, A. E. Yakshin, and F. Bijkerk, “Reconstruction of interfaces of periodic multilayers from X-ray reflectivity using a free-form approach,” J. Appl. Cryst. 49(4), 1300–1307 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Svechnikov, D. Pariev, A. Nechay, N. Salashchenko, N. Chkhalo, Y. Vainer, and D. Gaman, “Extended model for the reconstruction of periodic multilayers from extreme ultraviolet and X-ray reflectivity data,” J. Appl. Cryst. 50(5), 1428–1440 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

S. L. Nyabero, R. W. E. van de Kruijs, A. E. Yakshin, E. Zoethout, and F. Bijkerk, “Thermally induced interface chemistry in Mo/B 4 C/Si/B 4 C multilayered films,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(5), 054317 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Synchrotron Radiat. (1)

F. Schäfers, P. Bischoff, F. Eggenstein, A. Erko, A. Gaupp, S. Künstner, M. Mast, J. S. Schmidt, F. Senf, F. Siewert, A. Sokolov, and T. Zeschke, “The at-wavelength metrology facility for UV- and XUV-reflection and diffraction optics at BESSY-II,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 23(1), 67–77 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A Vacuum, Surfaces. Film. (1)

R. M. Langford and A. K. Petford-Long, “Preparation of transmission electron microscopy cross-section specimens using focused ion beam milling,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A Vacuum, Surfaces. Film. 19, 2186–2193 (2001).

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B Microelectron. Nanom. Struct. (1)

N. Choksi, D. S. Pickard, M. McCord, R. F. W. Pease, Y. Shroff, Y. Chen, W. Oldham, and D. Markle, “Maskless extreme ultraviolet lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B Microelectron. Nanom. Struct. 17, 3047 (1999).

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B. Nanotechnol. Microelectron. Mater. Process. Meas. Phenom. (1)

N. Chkhalo, V. Polkovnikov, N. Salashchenko, and M. Toropov, “Deposition of Mo/Si multilayers onto MEMS micromirrors and its utilization for extreme ultraviolet maskless lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B. Nanotechnol. Microelectron. Mater. Process. Meas. Phenom. 35, 062002 (2017).

J. XRay Sci. Technol. (1)

I. V. Kozhevnikov and M. V. Pyatakhin, “Use of DWBA and perturbation theory in X-ray control of the surface roughness,” J. XRay Sci. Technol. 8, 253–275 (2000).

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

S. Braun, H. Mai, M. Moss, R. Scholz, and A. Leson, “Mo/Si Multilayers with Different Barrier Layers for Applications as Extreme Ultraviolet Mirrors,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41(Part 1, No. 6B), 4074–4081 (2002).
[Crossref]

Microelectron. Eng. (1)

T. Feigl, H. Lauth, S. Yulin, and N. Kaiser, “Heat resistance of EUV multilayer mirrors for long-time applications,” Microelectron. Eng. 57–58, 3–8 (2001).
[Crossref]

Nucl. Instruments Methods Phys. Res. Sect. A Accel. Spectrometers. Detect. Assoc. Equip. (2)

I. V. Kozhevnikov, “Analysis of X-ray scattering from a rough multilayer mirror in the first-order perturbation theory,” Nucl. Instruments Methods Phys. Res. Sect. A Accel. Spectrometers. Detect. Assoc. Equip. 498(1-3), 482–495 (2003).
[Crossref]

N. I. Chkhalo, E. B. Kluenkov, A. E. Pestov, V. N. Polkovnikov, D. G. Raskin, N. N. Salashchenko, L. A. Suslov, and M. N. Toropov, “Manufacturing of XEUV mirrors with a sub-nanometer surface shape accuracy,” Nucl. Instruments Methods Phys. Res. Sect. A Accel. Spectrometers. Detect. Assoc. Equip. 603(1-2), 62–65 (2009).
[Crossref]

Opt. Eng. (1)

S. Bajt, “Improved reflectance and stability of Mo-Si multilayers,” Opt. Eng. 41(8), 1797 (2002).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. (1)

L. G. Parratt, “Surface studies of solids by total reflection of x-rays,” Phys. Rev. 95(2), 359–369 (1954).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

I. Nedelcu, R. W. E. van de Kruijs, A. E. Yakshin, and F. Bijkerk, “Temperature-dependent nanocrystal formation in Mo/Si multilayers,” Phys. Rev. B 76(24), 245404 (2007).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter (4)

V. Holỷ and T. Baumbach, “Nonspecular x-ray reflection from rough multilayers,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 49(15), 10668–10676 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. K. Sinha, E. B. Sirota, S. Garoff, and H. B. Stanley, “X-ray and neutron scattering from rough surfaces,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 38(4), 2297–2311 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. K. G. de Boer and de Boer DK, “Influence of the roughness profile on the specular reflectivity of x rays and neutrons,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 49(9), 5817–5820 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Holỷ, J. Kuběna, I. Ohlídal, K. Lischka, and W. Plotz, “X-ray reflection from rough layered systems,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 47(23), 15896–15903 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (2)

A. Sokolov, P. Bischoff, F. Eggenstein, A. Erko, A. Gaupp, S. Künstner, M. Mast, J.-S. Schmidt, F. Senf, F. Siewert, T. Zeschke, and F. Schäfers, “At-wavelength metrology facility for soft X-ray reflection optics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 87(5), 052005 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. I. Chkhalo, N. N. Salashchenko, and M. V. Zorina, “Note: A stand on the basis of atomic force microscope to study substrates for imaging optics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 86(1), 016102 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Thin Solid Films (1)

N. I. Chkhalo, D. E. Pariev, V. N. Polkovnikov, N. N. Salashchenko, R. A. Shaposhnikov, I. L. Stroulea, M. V. Svechnikov, Y. A. Vainer, and S. Y. Zuev, “Be/Al-based multilayer mirrors with improved reflection and spectral selectivity for solar astronomy above 17 nm wavelength,” Thin Solid Films 631, 106–111 (2017).
[Crossref]

Other (10)

“ATSDR: Public Health Statement for Beryllium,” https://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/phs/phs.asp?id=339&tid=33 .

M. S. Bibishkin, D. P. Chekhonadskih, N. I. Chkhalo, E. B. Kluyenkov, A. E. Pestov, N. N. Salashchenko, L. A. Shmaenok, I. G. Zabrodin, and S. Y. Zuev, “Laboratory methods for investigations of multilayer mirrors in extreme ultraviolet and soft x-ray region,” in Proc. SPIE, K. A. Valiev and A. A. Orlikovsky, eds. (2004), Vol. 5401, pp. 8–15.
[Crossref]

N. I. Chkhalo, A. N. Nechay, D. E. Pariev, V. N. Polkovnikov, and N. N. Salashchenko, “Structural and reflective characteristics of Mo / Be multilayer with barrier layers,” https://www.utwente.nl/mesaplus/xuv/workshops/archive/pxrnm-workshop-2016/program/chkhalo-structural-and-reflective-characteristics-of-mo-be-multilayer-with-barrier-layers.pdf .

A. V. Vinogradov, I. A. Brytov, A. Y. Grudsky, M. T. Kogan, I. V. Kozhevnikov, and V. A. Slemzin, Zerkal’naya Rentgenovskaya Optika (X–ray Mirror Optics) (Mashinostroenie, 1989).

A. Haase, V. Soltwisch, F. Scholze, and S. Braun, “Characterization of Mo/Si mirror interface roughness for different Mo layer thickness using resonant diffuse EUV scattering,” in A. Duparré and R. Geyl, eds. (2015), Vol. 9628, p. 962804.

A. E. Yakshin, R. W. E. van de Kruijs, I. Nedelcu, E. Zoethout, E. Louis, F. Bijkerk, H. Enkisch, and S. Müllender, “Enhanced reflectance of interface engineered Mo/Si multilayers produced by thermal particle deposition,” in Proc. SPIE, M. J. Lercel, ed. (2007), Vol. 6517, p. 65170I.
[Crossref]

C. Montcalm, S. Bajt, P. B. Mirkarimi, E. A. Spiller, F. J. Weber, and J. a. Folta, “Multilayer reflective coatings for extreme-ultraviolet lithography,” in Spie, Y. Vladimirsky, ed. (1998), Vol. 3331, p. 42.

V. Banine, J. P. Benschop, M. Leenders, and R. Moors, “Relationship between an EUV source and the performance of an EUV lithographic system,” in Proceedings of the SPIE-The International Society for Optical Engineering, E. A. Dobisz, ed. (2000), 3997, pp. 126–135.
[Crossref]

A. A. Schafgans, D. J. Brown, I. V. Fomenkov, Y. Tao, M. Purvis, S. I. Rokitski, G. O. Vaschenko, R. J. Rafac, and D. C. Brandt, “Scaling LPP EUV sources to meet high volume manufacturing requirements (Conference Presentation),” in E. M. Panning and K. A. Goldberg, eds. (2017), p. 101431I.

E. Spiller, “High-performance multilayer coatings for EUV lithography,” in A. M. Khounsary, U. Dinger, and K. Ota, eds. (2004), Vol. 5193, p. 89.

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Types of Mo/Be-based structures investigated; the number of periods in each MLM was 110.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Experimental (red) and fitted (blue) reflectometric curves for the samples under study. Two angular dependences and one spectral dependence are presented for each sample. The main parameters of the models are given in Table 1.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Rocking curves near the specular direction (the first Bragg peak); and (b) the same curves, normalized to the Mo/Be rocking curve. The mutual position of the source and the detector is fixed and corresponds to the first Bragg peak for each sample (θbragg = 0.8°–0.815°).
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Detector scan in the vicinity of the first Bragg peak; and (b) the region of quasi-Bragg resonance on a linear scale.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 AFM surface maps of the studied samples, with frames of 2 × 2 and 1 × 1 μm; the number of points in each frame is 256 × 256, and the root-mean-square roughness σ is given after subtracting the noise value.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Surface roughness of samples under study: (a) for a frame of 2 × 2 μm; (b) for a frame of 1 × 1 μm; the two points correspond to two surface areas for each sample.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 HRTEM images for the cross sections of the samples; bright areas correspond to the transparent material (Be), while the dark areas correspond to the opaque material (Mo). For clarity, images are scaled to an equal 5.75 nm period.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Averaged brightness profiles for the HRTEM images in Fig. 7; bright areas correspond to the transparent material (Be), while the dark areas correspond to the opaque material (Mo). For clarity, the profiles are scaled to the same period of 5.75 nm.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 (a) HRTEM profiles of Be-on-Mo transition regions; (b) comparison of the Mo-on-Be and Be-on-Mo transition regions in the pure Mo/Be multilayer (sample).

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Main characteristics of the samples after fitting, where <d> is the average period, and <h(M)> is the film thickness averaged over all periods

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

r( z j )= r j F +r( z j+1 )exp(2i χ j+1 l j+1 ) 1+ r j F r( z j+1 )exp(2i χ j+1 l j+1 ) ,j=0..N, r( z N+1 )=0, t( z j )= t( z j+1 ) t j F exp(i χ j+1 l j+1 ) 1+ r j F r( z j+1 )exp(2i χ j+1 l j+1 ) ,j=0..N, t( z N+1 )=1,
Φ c (θ,φ) k 4 | ε 1 ε 2 | 2 2sin θ 0 | ψ(0, θ 0 )ψ(0,θ) | 2 PS D 2D ( ν )× | ψ(0, θ 0 )ψ(0,θ)ψ(Γd, θ 0 )ψ(Γd,θ) ψ(0, θ 0 )ψ(0,θ)ψ(d, θ 0 )ψ(d,θ) | 2
Φ u (θ,φ) k 4 | ε 1 ε 2 | 2 2sin θ 0 | ψ(0, θ 0 )ψ(0,θ) | 2 PS D 2D ( ν )× | ψ(0, θ 0 )ψ(0,θ) | 2 + | ψ(Γd, θ 0 )ψ(Γd,θ) | 2 | ψ(0, θ 0 )ψ(0,θ) | 2 | ψ(d, θ 0 )ψ(d,θ) | 2

Metrics