Abstract

X-ray phase-contrast imaging allows for non-invasive analysis in low-absorbing materials, such as soft tissue. Its application in medical or materials science has yet to be realized on a wider scale due to the requirements on the X-ray source, demanding high flux and small source size. Laser wakefield accelerators generate betatron X-rays fulfilling these criteria and can be suitable sources for phase-contrast imaging. In this work, we present the first phase-contrast images obtained by using ionization injection-based laser wakefield acceleration, which results in a higher photon yield and smoother X-ray beam profile compared to self-injection. A peak photon yield of 1.9 × 1011 ph/sr and a source size of 3 μm were estimated. Furthermore, the current laser parameters produce an X-ray spectrum mainly in the soft X-ray range, in which laser-plasma based phase-contrast imaging had yet to be studied. The phase-contrast images of a Chrysopa lacewing resolve features on the order of 4 μm. These images are further used for a tomographic reconstruction and a volume rendering, showing details on the order of tens of μm.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2018 (2)

A. Döpp, L. Hehn, J. Götzfried, J. Wenz, M. Gilljohann, H. Ding, S. Schindler, F. Pfeiffer, and S. Karsch, “Quick x-ray microtomography using a laser-driven betatron source,” Optica 5, 199–203 (2018).
[Crossref]

I. Gallardo González, H. Ekerfelt, M. Hansson, T. L. Audet, B. Aurand, F. G. Desforges, S. Dobosz Dufrénoy, A. Persson, X. Davoine, C.-G. Wahlström, B. Cros, and O. Lundh, “Effects of the dopant concentration in laser wakefield and direct laser acceleration of electrons,” New J. Phys. 20, 053011 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (2)

A. Döpp, B. Mahieu, A. Lifschitz, C. Thaury, A. Doche, E. Guillaume, G. Grittani, O. Lundh, M. Hansson, J. Gautier, M. Kozlova, J. P. Goddet, P. Rousseau, A. Tafzi, V. Malka, A. Rousse, S. Corde, and K. Ta Phuoc, “Stable femtosecond x-rays with tunable polarization from a laser-driven accelerator,” Light. Sci. & Appl. 6, e17086 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. L. Shaw, N. Lemos, L. D. Amorim, N. Vafaei-Najafabadi, K. A. Marsh, F. S. Tsung, W. B. Mori, and C. Joshi, “Role of direct laser acceleration of electrons in a laser wakefield accelerator with ionization injection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 064801 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (2)

M. Hansson, T. L. Audet, H. Ekerfelt, B. Aurand, I. Gallardo González, F. G. Desforges, X. Davoine, A. Maitrallain, S. Reymond, P. Monot, A. Persson, S. Dobosz Dufrénoy, C.-G. Wahlström, B. Cros, and O. Lundh, “Localization of ionization-induced trapping in a laser wakefield accelerator using a density down-ramp,” Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 58, 055009 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Balles, S. Zabler, T. Ebensperger, C. Fella, and R. Hanke, “Propagator based formalism for optimizing in-line phase contrast imaging in laboratory x-ray setups,” Rev. Sci. Instruments 87, 093707 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (2)

J. Wenz, S. Schleede, K. Khrennikov, M. Bech, P. Thibault, M. Heigoldt, F. Pfeiffer, and S. Karsch, “Quantitative x-ray phase-contrast microtomography from a compact laser-driven betatron source,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7568 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Cole, J. C. Wood, N. C. Lopes, K. Poder, R. L. Abel, S. Alatabi, J. S. J. Bryant, A. Jin, S. Kneip, K. Mecseki, D. R. Symes, S. P. D. Mangles, and Z. Najmudin, “Laser-wakefield accelerators as hard x-ray sources for 3d medical imaging of human bone,” Sci. Reports 5, 13244 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (3)

Z. Najmudin, S. Kneip, M. S. Bloom, S. P. D. Mangles, O. Chekhlov, A. E. Dangor, A. Döpp, K. Ertel, S. J. Hawkes, J. Holloway, C. J. Hooker, J. Jiang, N. C. Lopes, H. Nakamura, P. A. Norreys, P. P. Rajeev, C. Russo, M. J. V. Streeter, D. R. Symes, and M. Wing, “Compact laser accelerators for x-ray phase-contrast imaging,” Philos. transactions. Ser. A, Math. physical, engineering sciences 372, 20130032 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Momose, W. Yashiro, K. Kido, J. Kiyohara, C. Makifuchi, T. Ito, S. Nagatsuka, C. Honda, D. Noda, T. Hattori, T. Endo, M. Nagashima, and J. Tanaka, “X-ray phase imaging: from synchrotron to hospital,” Philos. transactions. Ser. A, Math. physical, engineering sciences 372, 20130023 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. G. Desforges, B. S. Paradkar, M. Hansson, J. Ju, L. Senje, T. L. Audet, A. Persson, S. Dobosz-Dufrénoy, O. Lundh, G. Maynard, P. Monot, J.-L. Vay, C.-G. Wahlström, and B. Cros, “Dynamics of ionization-induced electron injection in the high density regime of laser wakefield acceleration,” Phys. Plasmas 21, 120703 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

M. Burza, A. Gonoskov, K. Svensson, F. Wojda, A. Persson, M. Hansson, G. Genoud, M. Marklund, C.-G. Wahlström, and O. Lundh, “Laser wakefield acceleration using wire produced double density ramps,” Phys. Rev. Accel. Beams 16, 011301 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Corde, K. Ta Phuoc, G. Lambert, R. Fitour, V. Malka, and A. Rousse, “Femtosecond x-rays from laser-plasma accelerators,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 85, 1–48 (2013).
[Crossref]

I. N. Tilikin, T. A. Shelkovenko, S. A. Pikuz, and D. A. Hammer, “Determination of the size of a radiation source by the method of calculation of diffraction patterns,” Opt. Spectrosc. 115, 128–136 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

A. Fedorov, R. Beichel, J. Kalpathy-Cramer, J. Finet, J.-C. Fillion-Robin, S. Pujol, and C. Bauer, “3d slicer as an image computing platform for the quantitative imaging network,” Magn. resonance imaging 30, 1323–1341 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (4)

A. Burvall, U. Lundström, P. A. C. Takman, D. H. Larsson, and H. M. Hertz, “Phase retrieval in x-ray phase-contrast imaging suitable for tomography,” Opt. Express 19, 10359 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Corde, K. Ta Phuoc, R. Fitour, J. Faure, A. Tafzi, J. P. Goddet, V. Malka, and A. Rousse, “Controlled betatron x-ray radiation from tunable optically injected electrons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 255003 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Fourmaux, S. Corde, K. Ta Phuoc, P. Lassonde, G. Lebrun, S. Payeur, F. Martin, S. Sebban, V. Malka, A. Rousse, and J. C. Kieffer, “Single shot phase contrast imaging using laser-produced betatron x-ray beams,” Opt. Lett. 36, 2426 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Castelli, M. Tonutti, F. Arfelli, R. Longo, E. Quaia, L. Rigon, D. Sanabor, F. Zanconati, D. Dreossi, A. Abrami, E. Quai, P. Bregant, K. Casarin, V. Chenda, R. H. Menk, T. Rokvic, A. Vascotto, G. Tromba, and M. A. Cova, “Mammography with synchrotron radiation: First clinical experience with phase-detection technique,” Radiology 259, 684–694 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (5)

G. Tromba, R. Longo, A. Abrami, F. Arfelli, A. Astolfo, P. Bregant, F. Brun, K. Casarin, V. Chenda, D. Dreossi, M. Hola, J. Kaiser, L. Mancini, R. H. Menk, E. Quai, E. Quaia, L. Rigon, T. Rokvic, N. Sodini, D. Sanabor, E. Schultke, M. Tonutti, A. Vascotto, F. Zanconati, M. Cova, and E. Castelli, “The SYRMEP beamline of elettra: Clinical mammography and bio-medical applications,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1266, 18–23 (2010).
[Crossref]

K. A. Nugent, “Coherent methods in the x-ray sciences,” Adv. Phys. 59, 1–99 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. Kneip, C. McGuffey, J. L. Martins, S. F. Martins, C. Bellei, V. Chvykov, F. Dollar, R. Fonseca, C. Huntington, G. Kalintchenko, A. Maksimchuk, S. P. D. Mangles, T. Matsuoka, S. R. Nagel, C. A. J. Palmer, J. Schreiber, K. T. Phuoc, A. G. R. Thomas, V. Yanovsky, L. O. Silva, K. Krushelnick, and Z. Najmudin, “Bright spatially coherent synchrotron x-rays from a table-top source,” Nat. Phys. 6, 980 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. Buck, K. Zeil, A. Popp, K. Schmid, A. Jochmann, S. D. Kraft, B. Hidding, T. Kudyakov, C. M. S. Sears, L. Veisz, S. Karsch, J. Pawelke, R. Sauerbrey, T. Cowan, F. Krausz, and U. Schramm, “Absolute charge calibration of scintillating screens for relativistic electron detection,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 033301 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. McGuffey, A. G. R. Thomas, W. Schumaker, T. Matsuoka, V. Chvykov, F. J. Dollar, G. Kalintchenko, V. Yanovsky, A. Maksimchuk, K. Krushelnick, V. Y. Bychenkov, I. V. Glazyrin, and A. V. Karpeev, “Ionization induced trapping in a laser wakefield accelerator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 025004 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

S. Pieper, B. Lorensen, W. Schroeder, and R. Kikinis, “The NA-MIC kit: ITK, VTK, pipelines, grids and 3D slicer as an open platform for the medical image computing community,” Proc. 3rd IEEE Int. Symp. on Biomed. Imaging: From Nano to Macro 1, 698–701 (2006).

S. P. D. Mangles, A. G. R. Thomas, M. C. Kaluza, O. Lundh, F. Lindau, A. Persson, F. S. Tsung, Z. Najmudin, W. B. Mori, C.-G. Wahlström, and K. Krushelnick, “Laser-wakefield acceleration of monoenergetic electron beams in the first plasma-wave period,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 215001 (2006).
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2005 (2)

Y. I. Nesterets, S. W. Wilkins, T. E. Gureyev, A. Pogany, and A. W. Stevenson, “On the optimization of experimental parameters for x-ray in-line phase-contrast imaging,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 093706 (2005).
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2004 (5)

S. P. D. Mangles, C. D. Murphy, Z. Najmudin, A. G. R. Thomas, J. L. Collier, A. E. Dangor, E. J. Divall, P. S. Foster, J. G. Gallacher, C. J. Hooker, D. A. Jaroszynski, A. J. Langley, W. B. Mori, P. A. Norreys, F. S. Tsung, R. Viskup, B. R. Walton, and K. Krushelnick, “Monoenergetic beams of relativistic electrons from intense laser - plasma interactions,” Nature 431, 535–538 (2004).
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C. G. R. Geddes, C. Toth, J. van Tilborg, E. Esarey, C. B. Schroeder, D. Bruhwiler, C. Nieter, J. Cary, and W. P. Leemans, “High-quality electron beams from a laser wakefield accelerator using plasma-channel guiding,” Nature 431, 538–541 (2004).
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A. Rousse, K. Ta Phuoc, R. Shah, A. Pukhov, E. Lefebvre, V. Malka, S. Kiselev, F. Burgy, J.-P. Rousseau, D. Umstadter, and D. Hulin, “Production of a keV x-ray beam from synchrotron radiation in relativistic laser-plasma interaction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 135005 (2004).
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S. Pieper, M. Halle, and R. Kikinis, “3d slicer,” Proc. 1st IEEE Int. Symp. on Biomed. Imaging: From Nano to Macro 1, 632–635 (2004).

2002 (1)

D. Paganin, S. C. Mayo, T. E. Gureyev, P. R. Miller, and S. W. Wilkins, “Simultaneous phase and amplitude extraction from a single defocused image of a homogeneous object,” J. Microsc. 206, 33–40 (2002).
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2001 (1)

D. Gering, A. Nabavi, R. Kikinis, N. Hata, L. O’Donnell, W. Grimson, F. Jolesz, P. Black, and W. Wells, “An integrated visualization system for surgical planning and guidance using image fusion and an open MR,” J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 13, 967–975 (2001).
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1999 (1)

D. Gering, A. Nabavi, R. Kikinis, W. Grimson, N. Hata, P. Everett, F. Jolesz, and W. Wells, “An integrated visualization system for surgical planning and guidance using image fusion and interventional imaging,” Int Conf Med Image Comput. Comput. Assist. Interv. 2, 809–819 (1999).

1997 (1)

A. Pogany, D. Gao, and S. W. Wilkins, “Contrast and resolution in imaging with a microfocus x-ray source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 2774 (1997).
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1995 (1)

A. Modena, Z. Najmudin, A. Dangor, C. E. Clayton, K. A. Marsh, C. Joshi, V. Malka, C. Darrow, C. Danson, D. Neely, and F. N. Walsh, “Electron acceleration from the breaking of relativistic plasma waves,” Nature 377, 606–608 (1995).
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1994 (1)

P. Kirkpatrick, “Theory and use of ross filters. II,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 15, 223 (1994).
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1987 (2)

G. Sun, E. Ott, Y. C. Lee, and P. Guzdar, “Self-focusing of short intense pulses in plasmas,” The Phys. Fluids 30, 526–532 (1987).
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P. Sprangle, C.-M. Tang, and E. Esarey, “Relativistic self-focusing of short-pulse radiation beams in plasmas,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 15, 145–153 (1987).
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1984 (1)

T. Tajima and J. Dawson, “Ultrahigh gradient particle acceleration by intense laser-driven plasma density waves,” Nature 311, 525–529 (1984).
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1979 (1)

T. Tajima and J. Dawson, “Laser electron accelerator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 43, 267–270 (1979).
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1947 (1)

D. Elder, A. Gurewitsch, R. Langmuir, and H. Pollock, “Radiation from electrons in a synchrotron,” Phys. Rev. 71, 829–830 (1947).
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1928 (1)

Abel, R. L.

J. M. Cole, J. C. Wood, N. C. Lopes, K. Poder, R. L. Abel, S. Alatabi, J. S. J. Bryant, A. Jin, S. Kneip, K. Mecseki, D. R. Symes, S. P. D. Mangles, and Z. Najmudin, “Laser-wakefield accelerators as hard x-ray sources for 3d medical imaging of human bone,” Sci. Reports 5, 13244 (2015).
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Abrami, A.

E. Castelli, M. Tonutti, F. Arfelli, R. Longo, E. Quaia, L. Rigon, D. Sanabor, F. Zanconati, D. Dreossi, A. Abrami, E. Quai, P. Bregant, K. Casarin, V. Chenda, R. H. Menk, T. Rokvic, A. Vascotto, G. Tromba, and M. A. Cova, “Mammography with synchrotron radiation: First clinical experience with phase-detection technique,” Radiology 259, 684–694 (2011).
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G. Tromba, R. Longo, A. Abrami, F. Arfelli, A. Astolfo, P. Bregant, F. Brun, K. Casarin, V. Chenda, D. Dreossi, M. Hola, J. Kaiser, L. Mancini, R. H. Menk, E. Quai, E. Quaia, L. Rigon, T. Rokvic, N. Sodini, D. Sanabor, E. Schultke, M. Tonutti, A. Vascotto, F. Zanconati, M. Cova, and E. Castelli, “The SYRMEP beamline of elettra: Clinical mammography and bio-medical applications,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1266, 18–23 (2010).
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Alatabi, S.

J. M. Cole, J. C. Wood, N. C. Lopes, K. Poder, R. L. Abel, S. Alatabi, J. S. J. Bryant, A. Jin, S. Kneip, K. Mecseki, D. R. Symes, S. P. D. Mangles, and Z. Najmudin, “Laser-wakefield accelerators as hard x-ray sources for 3d medical imaging of human bone,” Sci. Reports 5, 13244 (2015).
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Amorim, L. D.

J. L. Shaw, N. Lemos, L. D. Amorim, N. Vafaei-Najafabadi, K. A. Marsh, F. S. Tsung, W. B. Mori, and C. Joshi, “Role of direct laser acceleration of electrons in a laser wakefield accelerator with ionization injection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 064801 (2017).
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Arfelli, F.

E. Castelli, M. Tonutti, F. Arfelli, R. Longo, E. Quaia, L. Rigon, D. Sanabor, F. Zanconati, D. Dreossi, A. Abrami, E. Quai, P. Bregant, K. Casarin, V. Chenda, R. H. Menk, T. Rokvic, A. Vascotto, G. Tromba, and M. A. Cova, “Mammography with synchrotron radiation: First clinical experience with phase-detection technique,” Radiology 259, 684–694 (2011).
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G. Tromba, R. Longo, A. Abrami, F. Arfelli, A. Astolfo, P. Bregant, F. Brun, K. Casarin, V. Chenda, D. Dreossi, M. Hola, J. Kaiser, L. Mancini, R. H. Menk, E. Quai, E. Quaia, L. Rigon, T. Rokvic, N. Sodini, D. Sanabor, E. Schultke, M. Tonutti, A. Vascotto, F. Zanconati, M. Cova, and E. Castelli, “The SYRMEP beamline of elettra: Clinical mammography and bio-medical applications,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1266, 18–23 (2010).
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Astolfo, A.

G. Tromba, R. Longo, A. Abrami, F. Arfelli, A. Astolfo, P. Bregant, F. Brun, K. Casarin, V. Chenda, D. Dreossi, M. Hola, J. Kaiser, L. Mancini, R. H. Menk, E. Quai, E. Quaia, L. Rigon, T. Rokvic, N. Sodini, D. Sanabor, E. Schultke, M. Tonutti, A. Vascotto, F. Zanconati, M. Cova, and E. Castelli, “The SYRMEP beamline of elettra: Clinical mammography and bio-medical applications,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1266, 18–23 (2010).
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Audet, T. L.

I. Gallardo González, H. Ekerfelt, M. Hansson, T. L. Audet, B. Aurand, F. G. Desforges, S. Dobosz Dufrénoy, A. Persson, X. Davoine, C.-G. Wahlström, B. Cros, and O. Lundh, “Effects of the dopant concentration in laser wakefield and direct laser acceleration of electrons,” New J. Phys. 20, 053011 (2018).
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M. Hansson, T. L. Audet, H. Ekerfelt, B. Aurand, I. Gallardo González, F. G. Desforges, X. Davoine, A. Maitrallain, S. Reymond, P. Monot, A. Persson, S. Dobosz Dufrénoy, C.-G. Wahlström, B. Cros, and O. Lundh, “Localization of ionization-induced trapping in a laser wakefield accelerator using a density down-ramp,” Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 58, 055009 (2016).
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F. G. Desforges, B. S. Paradkar, M. Hansson, J. Ju, L. Senje, T. L. Audet, A. Persson, S. Dobosz-Dufrénoy, O. Lundh, G. Maynard, P. Monot, J.-L. Vay, C.-G. Wahlström, and B. Cros, “Dynamics of ionization-induced electron injection in the high density regime of laser wakefield acceleration,” Phys. Plasmas 21, 120703 (2014).
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Aurand, B.

I. Gallardo González, H. Ekerfelt, M. Hansson, T. L. Audet, B. Aurand, F. G. Desforges, S. Dobosz Dufrénoy, A. Persson, X. Davoine, C.-G. Wahlström, B. Cros, and O. Lundh, “Effects of the dopant concentration in laser wakefield and direct laser acceleration of electrons,” New J. Phys. 20, 053011 (2018).
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M. Hansson, T. L. Audet, H. Ekerfelt, B. Aurand, I. Gallardo González, F. G. Desforges, X. Davoine, A. Maitrallain, S. Reymond, P. Monot, A. Persson, S. Dobosz Dufrénoy, C.-G. Wahlström, B. Cros, and O. Lundh, “Localization of ionization-induced trapping in a laser wakefield accelerator using a density down-ramp,” Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 58, 055009 (2016).
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Balles, A.

A. Balles, S. Zabler, T. Ebensperger, C. Fella, and R. Hanke, “Propagator based formalism for optimizing in-line phase contrast imaging in laboratory x-ray setups,” Rev. Sci. Instruments 87, 093707 (2016).
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Bauer, C.

A. Fedorov, R. Beichel, J. Kalpathy-Cramer, J. Finet, J.-C. Fillion-Robin, S. Pujol, and C. Bauer, “3d slicer as an image computing platform for the quantitative imaging network,” Magn. resonance imaging 30, 1323–1341 (2012).
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Bech, M.

J. Wenz, S. Schleede, K. Khrennikov, M. Bech, P. Thibault, M. Heigoldt, F. Pfeiffer, and S. Karsch, “Quantitative x-ray phase-contrast microtomography from a compact laser-driven betatron source,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7568 (2015).
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Beichel, R.

A. Fedorov, R. Beichel, J. Kalpathy-Cramer, J. Finet, J.-C. Fillion-Robin, S. Pujol, and C. Bauer, “3d slicer as an image computing platform for the quantitative imaging network,” Magn. resonance imaging 30, 1323–1341 (2012).
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Bellei, C.

S. Kneip, C. McGuffey, J. L. Martins, S. F. Martins, C. Bellei, V. Chvykov, F. Dollar, R. Fonseca, C. Huntington, G. Kalintchenko, A. Maksimchuk, S. P. D. Mangles, T. Matsuoka, S. R. Nagel, C. A. J. Palmer, J. Schreiber, K. T. Phuoc, A. G. R. Thomas, V. Yanovsky, L. O. Silva, K. Krushelnick, and Z. Najmudin, “Bright spatially coherent synchrotron x-rays from a table-top source,” Nat. Phys. 6, 980 (2010).
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Black, P.

D. Gering, A. Nabavi, R. Kikinis, N. Hata, L. O’Donnell, W. Grimson, F. Jolesz, P. Black, and W. Wells, “An integrated visualization system for surgical planning and guidance using image fusion and an open MR,” J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 13, 967–975 (2001).
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Bloom, M. S.

Z. Najmudin, S. Kneip, M. S. Bloom, S. P. D. Mangles, O. Chekhlov, A. E. Dangor, A. Döpp, K. Ertel, S. J. Hawkes, J. Holloway, C. J. Hooker, J. Jiang, N. C. Lopes, H. Nakamura, P. A. Norreys, P. P. Rajeev, C. Russo, M. J. V. Streeter, D. R. Symes, and M. Wing, “Compact laser accelerators for x-ray phase-contrast imaging,” Philos. transactions. Ser. A, Math. physical, engineering sciences 372, 20130032 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bregant, P.

E. Castelli, M. Tonutti, F. Arfelli, R. Longo, E. Quaia, L. Rigon, D. Sanabor, F. Zanconati, D. Dreossi, A. Abrami, E. Quai, P. Bregant, K. Casarin, V. Chenda, R. H. Menk, T. Rokvic, A. Vascotto, G. Tromba, and M. A. Cova, “Mammography with synchrotron radiation: First clinical experience with phase-detection technique,” Radiology 259, 684–694 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Tromba, R. Longo, A. Abrami, F. Arfelli, A. Astolfo, P. Bregant, F. Brun, K. Casarin, V. Chenda, D. Dreossi, M. Hola, J. Kaiser, L. Mancini, R. H. Menk, E. Quai, E. Quaia, L. Rigon, T. Rokvic, N. Sodini, D. Sanabor, E. Schultke, M. Tonutti, A. Vascotto, F. Zanconati, M. Cova, and E. Castelli, “The SYRMEP beamline of elettra: Clinical mammography and bio-medical applications,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1266, 18–23 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bruhwiler, D.

C. G. R. Geddes, C. Toth, J. van Tilborg, E. Esarey, C. B. Schroeder, D. Bruhwiler, C. Nieter, J. Cary, and W. P. Leemans, “High-quality electron beams from a laser wakefield accelerator using plasma-channel guiding,” Nature 431, 538–541 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brun, F.

G. Tromba, R. Longo, A. Abrami, F. Arfelli, A. Astolfo, P. Bregant, F. Brun, K. Casarin, V. Chenda, D. Dreossi, M. Hola, J. Kaiser, L. Mancini, R. H. Menk, E. Quai, E. Quaia, L. Rigon, T. Rokvic, N. Sodini, D. Sanabor, E. Schultke, M. Tonutti, A. Vascotto, F. Zanconati, M. Cova, and E. Castelli, “The SYRMEP beamline of elettra: Clinical mammography and bio-medical applications,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1266, 18–23 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bryant, J. S. J.

J. M. Cole, J. C. Wood, N. C. Lopes, K. Poder, R. L. Abel, S. Alatabi, J. S. J. Bryant, A. Jin, S. Kneip, K. Mecseki, D. R. Symes, S. P. D. Mangles, and Z. Najmudin, “Laser-wakefield accelerators as hard x-ray sources for 3d medical imaging of human bone,” Sci. Reports 5, 13244 (2015).
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Buck, A.

A. Buck, K. Zeil, A. Popp, K. Schmid, A. Jochmann, S. D. Kraft, B. Hidding, T. Kudyakov, C. M. S. Sears, L. Veisz, S. Karsch, J. Pawelke, R. Sauerbrey, T. Cowan, F. Krausz, and U. Schramm, “Absolute charge calibration of scintillating screens for relativistic electron detection,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 033301 (2010).
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Burgy, F.

A. Rousse, K. Ta Phuoc, R. Shah, A. Pukhov, E. Lefebvre, V. Malka, S. Kiselev, F. Burgy, J.-P. Rousseau, D. Umstadter, and D. Hulin, “Production of a keV x-ray beam from synchrotron radiation in relativistic laser-plasma interaction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 135005 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Faure, Y. Glinec, A. Pukhov, S. Kiselev, S. Gordienko, E. Lefebvre, J.-P. Rousseau, F. Burgy, and V. Malka, “A laser-plasma accelerator producing monoenergetic electron beams,” Nature 431, 541–544 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Burvall, A.

Burza, M.

M. Burza, A. Gonoskov, K. Svensson, F. Wojda, A. Persson, M. Hansson, G. Genoud, M. Marklund, C.-G. Wahlström, and O. Lundh, “Laser wakefield acceleration using wire produced double density ramps,” Phys. Rev. Accel. Beams 16, 011301 (2013).
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Bychenkov, V. Y.

C. McGuffey, A. G. R. Thomas, W. Schumaker, T. Matsuoka, V. Chvykov, F. J. Dollar, G. Kalintchenko, V. Yanovsky, A. Maksimchuk, K. Krushelnick, V. Y. Bychenkov, I. V. Glazyrin, and A. V. Karpeev, “Ionization induced trapping in a laser wakefield accelerator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 025004 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cary, J.

C. G. R. Geddes, C. Toth, J. van Tilborg, E. Esarey, C. B. Schroeder, D. Bruhwiler, C. Nieter, J. Cary, and W. P. Leemans, “High-quality electron beams from a laser wakefield accelerator using plasma-channel guiding,” Nature 431, 538–541 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Casarin, K.

E. Castelli, M. Tonutti, F. Arfelli, R. Longo, E. Quaia, L. Rigon, D. Sanabor, F. Zanconati, D. Dreossi, A. Abrami, E. Quai, P. Bregant, K. Casarin, V. Chenda, R. H. Menk, T. Rokvic, A. Vascotto, G. Tromba, and M. A. Cova, “Mammography with synchrotron radiation: First clinical experience with phase-detection technique,” Radiology 259, 684–694 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Tromba, R. Longo, A. Abrami, F. Arfelli, A. Astolfo, P. Bregant, F. Brun, K. Casarin, V. Chenda, D. Dreossi, M. Hola, J. Kaiser, L. Mancini, R. H. Menk, E. Quai, E. Quaia, L. Rigon, T. Rokvic, N. Sodini, D. Sanabor, E. Schultke, M. Tonutti, A. Vascotto, F. Zanconati, M. Cova, and E. Castelli, “The SYRMEP beamline of elettra: Clinical mammography and bio-medical applications,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1266, 18–23 (2010).
[Crossref]

Castelli, E.

E. Castelli, M. Tonutti, F. Arfelli, R. Longo, E. Quaia, L. Rigon, D. Sanabor, F. Zanconati, D. Dreossi, A. Abrami, E. Quai, P. Bregant, K. Casarin, V. Chenda, R. H. Menk, T. Rokvic, A. Vascotto, G. Tromba, and M. A. Cova, “Mammography with synchrotron radiation: First clinical experience with phase-detection technique,” Radiology 259, 684–694 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Tromba, R. Longo, A. Abrami, F. Arfelli, A. Astolfo, P. Bregant, F. Brun, K. Casarin, V. Chenda, D. Dreossi, M. Hola, J. Kaiser, L. Mancini, R. H. Menk, E. Quai, E. Quaia, L. Rigon, T. Rokvic, N. Sodini, D. Sanabor, E. Schultke, M. Tonutti, A. Vascotto, F. Zanconati, M. Cova, and E. Castelli, “The SYRMEP beamline of elettra: Clinical mammography and bio-medical applications,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1266, 18–23 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chekhlov, O.

Z. Najmudin, S. Kneip, M. S. Bloom, S. P. D. Mangles, O. Chekhlov, A. E. Dangor, A. Döpp, K. Ertel, S. J. Hawkes, J. Holloway, C. J. Hooker, J. Jiang, N. C. Lopes, H. Nakamura, P. A. Norreys, P. P. Rajeev, C. Russo, M. J. V. Streeter, D. R. Symes, and M. Wing, “Compact laser accelerators for x-ray phase-contrast imaging,” Philos. transactions. Ser. A, Math. physical, engineering sciences 372, 20130032 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chenda, V.

E. Castelli, M. Tonutti, F. Arfelli, R. Longo, E. Quaia, L. Rigon, D. Sanabor, F. Zanconati, D. Dreossi, A. Abrami, E. Quai, P. Bregant, K. Casarin, V. Chenda, R. H. Menk, T. Rokvic, A. Vascotto, G. Tromba, and M. A. Cova, “Mammography with synchrotron radiation: First clinical experience with phase-detection technique,” Radiology 259, 684–694 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Tromba, R. Longo, A. Abrami, F. Arfelli, A. Astolfo, P. Bregant, F. Brun, K. Casarin, V. Chenda, D. Dreossi, M. Hola, J. Kaiser, L. Mancini, R. H. Menk, E. Quai, E. Quaia, L. Rigon, T. Rokvic, N. Sodini, D. Sanabor, E. Schultke, M. Tonutti, A. Vascotto, F. Zanconati, M. Cova, and E. Castelli, “The SYRMEP beamline of elettra: Clinical mammography and bio-medical applications,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1266, 18–23 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chvykov, V.

S. Kneip, C. McGuffey, J. L. Martins, S. F. Martins, C. Bellei, V. Chvykov, F. Dollar, R. Fonseca, C. Huntington, G. Kalintchenko, A. Maksimchuk, S. P. D. Mangles, T. Matsuoka, S. R. Nagel, C. A. J. Palmer, J. Schreiber, K. T. Phuoc, A. G. R. Thomas, V. Yanovsky, L. O. Silva, K. Krushelnick, and Z. Najmudin, “Bright spatially coherent synchrotron x-rays from a table-top source,” Nat. Phys. 6, 980 (2010).
[Crossref]

C. McGuffey, A. G. R. Thomas, W. Schumaker, T. Matsuoka, V. Chvykov, F. J. Dollar, G. Kalintchenko, V. Yanovsky, A. Maksimchuk, K. Krushelnick, V. Y. Bychenkov, I. V. Glazyrin, and A. V. Karpeev, “Ionization induced trapping in a laser wakefield accelerator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 025004 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Clayton, C. E.

A. Modena, Z. Najmudin, A. Dangor, C. E. Clayton, K. A. Marsh, C. Joshi, V. Malka, C. Darrow, C. Danson, D. Neely, and F. N. Walsh, “Electron acceleration from the breaking of relativistic plasma waves,” Nature 377, 606–608 (1995).
[Crossref]

Cole, J. M.

J. M. Cole, J. C. Wood, N. C. Lopes, K. Poder, R. L. Abel, S. Alatabi, J. S. J. Bryant, A. Jin, S. Kneip, K. Mecseki, D. R. Symes, S. P. D. Mangles, and Z. Najmudin, “Laser-wakefield accelerators as hard x-ray sources for 3d medical imaging of human bone,” Sci. Reports 5, 13244 (2015).
[Crossref]

Collier, J. L.

S. P. D. Mangles, C. D. Murphy, Z. Najmudin, A. G. R. Thomas, J. L. Collier, A. E. Dangor, E. J. Divall, P. S. Foster, J. G. Gallacher, C. J. Hooker, D. A. Jaroszynski, A. J. Langley, W. B. Mori, P. A. Norreys, F. S. Tsung, R. Viskup, B. R. Walton, and K. Krushelnick, “Monoenergetic beams of relativistic electrons from intense laser - plasma interactions,” Nature 431, 535–538 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Corde, S.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic of the experimental setup showing the most relevant components. The laser pulse propagates from left to right and is focused on the entrance of the gas cell. Electrons are accelerated and generate X-ray radiation which co-propagates with the electrons and the laser pulse. The wire grid is used to determine the X-ray source size and is not present during the tomographic image acquisition. The dipole magnet disperses the electron beam onto a scintillating screen to monitor the energy. The X-rays propagate to the sample, mounted on a rotational stage. The X-rays are then allowed to propagate a large distance and are finally detected by the CCD. The coordinates (xs, ys), (x, y) and (xd, yd) refer to the transverse plane of the X-ray source, sample and detector respectively.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) A typical electron spectrum for a backing pressure of 230 mbar. The spectrum is broad and decays exponentially towards higher energies. The mean (gray dashed line) and maximum energy (solid blue line) are shown in b), the error bars represent the standard deviation over 10 different spectra. The collected charge (dotted orange line) shows a maximum at a backing pressure of 230 mbar.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Critical energy and X-ray photon yield obtained from the Ross filter measurements. Maximal photon yield is obtained at a backing pressure of 230 mbar, corresponding to an electron number density of 1 × 1019 cm−3. At this pressure, a critical energy of 2.4 keV is obtained. Error bars represent the standard deviation within the average of 10 X-ray pulses. The backing pressure used during the tomographic scan resulted in a peak photon yield of approximately 1.9 × 1011 ph/sr, a divergence of 48 × 67 mrad2 in the vertical and horizontal direction respectively and a critical energy of 2.4 keV. (b) knife edge measurement of the source size, using a 25 μm tungsten wire. The obtained data (dots in b)) was compared to simulated values (shown as a shadow), resulting in a vertical source size of 2.6 ± 0.2 μm and a horizontal source size of 3.6 ± 0.2 μm.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) shows a raw PCI of a 100 μm thick CH-line with some visible edge enhancement due to the phase-contrast effect. The projected thickness of the same CH-line, obtained by using Eq. (3), is shown in (b). (c) shows a PCI of the Chrysopa specimen accompanied by three tomographic slices, the location of these at the specimen is indicated by the red dashed arrows.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 The volume rendering of the Chrysopa specimen is shown here, a) shows the upper part. (b) shows the head where some finer details are resolved, such as the follicles. These are located within the red circle and a line-out plot is shown of two such follicles, showing them to be on the order of 30 μm in width and 10 μm in height. (c) shows a section of the head, which has hollow chambers and (d) shows a close up of the tarsus (leg) where two hooks can be seen at the tip.

Equations (3)

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I s ( x d ) = B ( x s ) I ¯ ( x d + x s r 2 r 1 ) d x s ,
I ( x d , λ ) = | r i λ r 1 r 2 exp ( i π λ r s ( 2 x x d r r 1 x 2 r 1 r x d 2 ) ) q ( x , λ ) d x | 2
t ( r ) = 1 μ ln ( 1 ( μ ( I ( r , r 2 ) ) r 2 δ | k | 2 + μ ) )

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