Abstract

In this paper, we propose and demonstrate a secure and private non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) based visible light communication (VLC) system. Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) modulation is applied in the system and a two-level chaotic encryption scheme is further implemented, which can guarantee both the security of legitimate users against eavesdroppers and the privacy among all the legitimate users. An experimental demonstration with two legitimate users and one eavesdropper successfully verifies the feasibility of the proposed secure and private NOMA VLC system. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first time that simultaneous security and privacy improvement is considered for NOMA VLC systems.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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  1. T. Komine and M. Nakagawa, “Fundamental analysis for visible-light communication system using LED lights,” IEEE Trans. Consum. Electron. 50(1), 100–107 (2004).
  2. H. Haas, “Visible light communication,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC, 2015), paper Tu2G.5.
  3. C.-H. Yeh, H.-Y. Chen, C.-W. Chow, and Y.-L. Liu, “Utilization of multi-band OFDM modulation to increase traffic rate of phosphor-LED wireless VLC,” Opt. Express 23(2), 1133–1138 (2015).
  4. C. Chen, W.-D. Zhong, and D. H. Wu, “On the coverage of multiple-input multiple-output visible light communications [Invited],” J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 9(9), D31–D41 (2017).
  5. H. Minh, D. O’Brien, G. Faulkner, L. Zeng, K. Lee, D. Jung, Y. Oh, and E. Won, “100-Mb/s NRZ visible light communications using a post-equalized white LED,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(15), 1063–1065 (2009).
  6. L. Dai, B. Wang, Y. Yuan, S. Han, C. I, and Z. Wang, “Non-orthogonal multiple access for 5G: solutions, challenges, opportunities, and future research trends,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 53(9), 74–81 (2015).
  7. H. Marshoud, V. M. Kapinas, G. K. Karagiannidis, and S. Muhaidat, “Non-orthogonal multiple access for visible light communications,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(1), 51–54 (2016).
  8. L. Yin, W. O. Popoola, X. Wu, and H. Haas, “Performance evaluation of non-orthogonal multiple access in visible light communication,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 64(12), 5162–5175 (2016).
  9. H. Marshoud, P. Sofotasios, S. Muhaidat, G. K. Karagiannidis, and B. S. Sharif, “On the performance of visible light communication systems with non-orthogonal multiple access,” IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. 16(10), 6350–6364 (2017).
  10. X. Zhang, Q. Gao, C. Gong, and Z. Xu, “User grouping and power allocation for NOMA visible light communication multi-cell networks,” IEEE Commun. Lett. 21(4), 777–780 (2017).
  11. B. Lin, W. Ye, X. Tang, and Z. Ghassemlooy, “Experimental demonstration of bidirectional NOMA-OFDMA visible light communications,” Opt. Express 25(4), 4348–4355 (2017).
  12. H. Li, Z. Huang, Y. Xiao, S. Zhan, and Y. Ji, “Solution for error propagation in a NOMA based VLC network: symmetric superposition coding,” Opt. Express 25(24), 29856–29863 (2017).
  13. C. Chen, W.-D. Zhong, H. L. Yang, P. F. Du, and Y. B. Yang, “Flexible-rate SIC-free NOMA for downlink VLC based on constellation partitioning coding,” to appear in IEEE Wireless Commun. Lett., DOI: (2018).
    [Crossref]
  14. C. Chen, W.-D. Zhong, H. Yang, and P. Du, “On the performance of MIMO-NOMA based visible light communication systems,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 30(4), 307–310 (2018).
  15. G. Pan, J. Ye, and Z. Ding, “On secure VLC systems with spatially random terminals,” IEEE Commun. Lett. 21(3), 492–495 (2017).
  16. L. Yin and H. Haas, “Physical-layer security in multiuser visible light communication networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 36(1), 162–174 (2018).
  17. Y. Liu, K. Liang, H.-Y. Chen, L.-Y. Wei, C.-W. Hsu, C.-W. Chow, and C.-H. Yeh, “Light encryption scheme using light-emitting diode and camera image sensor,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(1), 7801107 (2016).
  18. C.-W. Chow, R.-J. Shiu, Y.-C. Liu, C.-H. Yeh, X.-L. Liao, K.-H. Lin, Y.-C. Wang, and Y.-Y. Chen, “Secure mobile-phone based visible light communications with different noise-ratio light-panel,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(2), 7902806 (2018).
  19. Y. Al-Moliki, M. Alresheedi, and Y. Al-Harthi, “Physical-layer security against known/chosen plaintext attacks for OFDM-based VLC system,” IEEE Commun. Lett. 21(12), 2606–2609 (2017).
  20. B. Chen, L. Zhang, and H. Lu, “High security differential chaos-based modulation with channel scrambling for WDM-aided VLC system,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(5), 7804513 (2016).
  21. Z. Ghassemlooy, S. Arnon, M. Uysal, Z. Y. Xu, and J. Cheng, “Emerging optical wireless communications-advances and challenges,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 33(9), 1738–1749 (2015).
  22. K. Wang, A. Nirmalathas, C. Lim, and E. Skafidas, “High-speed duplex optical wireless communication system for indoor personal area networks,” Opt. Express 18(24), 25199–25216 (2010).
  23. F. Chiarello, L. Ursini, and M. Santagiustina, “Securing wireless infrared communications through optical chaos,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(9), 564–566 (2011).
  24. Q. Zhang, L. Guo, and X. Wei, “Image encryption using DNA addition combining with chaotic maps,” Math. Comput. Model. 52(11), 2028–2035 (2010).
  25. X. Wang and C. Liu, “A novel and effective image encryption algorithm based on chaos and DNA encoding,” Multimed. Tools Appl. 76(5), 6229–6245 (2017).
  26. W. Zhang, C. F. Zhang, C. Chen, and K. Qiu, “Experimental demonstration of security-enhanced OFDMA-PON using chaotic constellation transformation and pilot-aided secure key agreement,” J. Lightw. Technol. 35(9), 1524–1530 (2017).
  27. C. Chen, W.-D. Zhong, and D. H. Wu, “Indoor OFDM visible light communications employing adaptive digital pre-frequency domain equalization,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO, 2016), paper JTh2A.118.
  28. IEEE Computer Society, IEEE standard for binary floating-point arithmetic, ANSI/IEEE Std.754-1985 (1985).

2018 (3)

C. Chen, W.-D. Zhong, H. Yang, and P. Du, “On the performance of MIMO-NOMA based visible light communication systems,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 30(4), 307–310 (2018).

C.-W. Chow, R.-J. Shiu, Y.-C. Liu, C.-H. Yeh, X.-L. Liao, K.-H. Lin, Y.-C. Wang, and Y.-Y. Chen, “Secure mobile-phone based visible light communications with different noise-ratio light-panel,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(2), 7902806 (2018).

L. Yin and H. Haas, “Physical-layer security in multiuser visible light communication networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 36(1), 162–174 (2018).

2017 (9)

X. Wang and C. Liu, “A novel and effective image encryption algorithm based on chaos and DNA encoding,” Multimed. Tools Appl. 76(5), 6229–6245 (2017).

W. Zhang, C. F. Zhang, C. Chen, and K. Qiu, “Experimental demonstration of security-enhanced OFDMA-PON using chaotic constellation transformation and pilot-aided secure key agreement,” J. Lightw. Technol. 35(9), 1524–1530 (2017).

Y. Al-Moliki, M. Alresheedi, and Y. Al-Harthi, “Physical-layer security against known/chosen plaintext attacks for OFDM-based VLC system,” IEEE Commun. Lett. 21(12), 2606–2609 (2017).

G. Pan, J. Ye, and Z. Ding, “On secure VLC systems with spatially random terminals,” IEEE Commun. Lett. 21(3), 492–495 (2017).

C. Chen, W.-D. Zhong, and D. H. Wu, “On the coverage of multiple-input multiple-output visible light communications [Invited],” J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 9(9), D31–D41 (2017).

H. Marshoud, P. Sofotasios, S. Muhaidat, G. K. Karagiannidis, and B. S. Sharif, “On the performance of visible light communication systems with non-orthogonal multiple access,” IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. 16(10), 6350–6364 (2017).

X. Zhang, Q. Gao, C. Gong, and Z. Xu, “User grouping and power allocation for NOMA visible light communication multi-cell networks,” IEEE Commun. Lett. 21(4), 777–780 (2017).

B. Lin, W. Ye, X. Tang, and Z. Ghassemlooy, “Experimental demonstration of bidirectional NOMA-OFDMA visible light communications,” Opt. Express 25(4), 4348–4355 (2017).

H. Li, Z. Huang, Y. Xiao, S. Zhan, and Y. Ji, “Solution for error propagation in a NOMA based VLC network: symmetric superposition coding,” Opt. Express 25(24), 29856–29863 (2017).

2016 (4)

H. Marshoud, V. M. Kapinas, G. K. Karagiannidis, and S. Muhaidat, “Non-orthogonal multiple access for visible light communications,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(1), 51–54 (2016).

L. Yin, W. O. Popoola, X. Wu, and H. Haas, “Performance evaluation of non-orthogonal multiple access in visible light communication,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 64(12), 5162–5175 (2016).

B. Chen, L. Zhang, and H. Lu, “High security differential chaos-based modulation with channel scrambling for WDM-aided VLC system,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(5), 7804513 (2016).

Y. Liu, K. Liang, H.-Y. Chen, L.-Y. Wei, C.-W. Hsu, C.-W. Chow, and C.-H. Yeh, “Light encryption scheme using light-emitting diode and camera image sensor,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(1), 7801107 (2016).

2015 (3)

L. Dai, B. Wang, Y. Yuan, S. Han, C. I, and Z. Wang, “Non-orthogonal multiple access for 5G: solutions, challenges, opportunities, and future research trends,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 53(9), 74–81 (2015).

Z. Ghassemlooy, S. Arnon, M. Uysal, Z. Y. Xu, and J. Cheng, “Emerging optical wireless communications-advances and challenges,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 33(9), 1738–1749 (2015).

C.-H. Yeh, H.-Y. Chen, C.-W. Chow, and Y.-L. Liu, “Utilization of multi-band OFDM modulation to increase traffic rate of phosphor-LED wireless VLC,” Opt. Express 23(2), 1133–1138 (2015).

2011 (1)

F. Chiarello, L. Ursini, and M. Santagiustina, “Securing wireless infrared communications through optical chaos,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(9), 564–566 (2011).

2010 (2)

Q. Zhang, L. Guo, and X. Wei, “Image encryption using DNA addition combining with chaotic maps,” Math. Comput. Model. 52(11), 2028–2035 (2010).

K. Wang, A. Nirmalathas, C. Lim, and E. Skafidas, “High-speed duplex optical wireless communication system for indoor personal area networks,” Opt. Express 18(24), 25199–25216 (2010).

2009 (1)

H. Minh, D. O’Brien, G. Faulkner, L. Zeng, K. Lee, D. Jung, Y. Oh, and E. Won, “100-Mb/s NRZ visible light communications using a post-equalized white LED,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(15), 1063–1065 (2009).

2004 (1)

T. Komine and M. Nakagawa, “Fundamental analysis for visible-light communication system using LED lights,” IEEE Trans. Consum. Electron. 50(1), 100–107 (2004).

Al-Harthi, Y.

Y. Al-Moliki, M. Alresheedi, and Y. Al-Harthi, “Physical-layer security against known/chosen plaintext attacks for OFDM-based VLC system,” IEEE Commun. Lett. 21(12), 2606–2609 (2017).

Al-Moliki, Y.

Y. Al-Moliki, M. Alresheedi, and Y. Al-Harthi, “Physical-layer security against known/chosen plaintext attacks for OFDM-based VLC system,” IEEE Commun. Lett. 21(12), 2606–2609 (2017).

Alresheedi, M.

Y. Al-Moliki, M. Alresheedi, and Y. Al-Harthi, “Physical-layer security against known/chosen plaintext attacks for OFDM-based VLC system,” IEEE Commun. Lett. 21(12), 2606–2609 (2017).

Arnon, S.

Z. Ghassemlooy, S. Arnon, M. Uysal, Z. Y. Xu, and J. Cheng, “Emerging optical wireless communications-advances and challenges,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 33(9), 1738–1749 (2015).

Chen, B.

B. Chen, L. Zhang, and H. Lu, “High security differential chaos-based modulation with channel scrambling for WDM-aided VLC system,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(5), 7804513 (2016).

Chen, C.

C. Chen, W.-D. Zhong, H. Yang, and P. Du, “On the performance of MIMO-NOMA based visible light communication systems,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 30(4), 307–310 (2018).

C. Chen, W.-D. Zhong, and D. H. Wu, “On the coverage of multiple-input multiple-output visible light communications [Invited],” J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 9(9), D31–D41 (2017).

W. Zhang, C. F. Zhang, C. Chen, and K. Qiu, “Experimental demonstration of security-enhanced OFDMA-PON using chaotic constellation transformation and pilot-aided secure key agreement,” J. Lightw. Technol. 35(9), 1524–1530 (2017).

C. Chen, W.-D. Zhong, and D. H. Wu, “Indoor OFDM visible light communications employing adaptive digital pre-frequency domain equalization,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO, 2016), paper JTh2A.118.

C. Chen, W.-D. Zhong, H. L. Yang, P. F. Du, and Y. B. Yang, “Flexible-rate SIC-free NOMA for downlink VLC based on constellation partitioning coding,” to appear in IEEE Wireless Commun. Lett., DOI: (2018).
[Crossref]

Chen, H.-Y.

Y. Liu, K. Liang, H.-Y. Chen, L.-Y. Wei, C.-W. Hsu, C.-W. Chow, and C.-H. Yeh, “Light encryption scheme using light-emitting diode and camera image sensor,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(1), 7801107 (2016).

C.-H. Yeh, H.-Y. Chen, C.-W. Chow, and Y.-L. Liu, “Utilization of multi-band OFDM modulation to increase traffic rate of phosphor-LED wireless VLC,” Opt. Express 23(2), 1133–1138 (2015).

Chen, Y.-Y.

C.-W. Chow, R.-J. Shiu, Y.-C. Liu, C.-H. Yeh, X.-L. Liao, K.-H. Lin, Y.-C. Wang, and Y.-Y. Chen, “Secure mobile-phone based visible light communications with different noise-ratio light-panel,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(2), 7902806 (2018).

Cheng, J.

Z. Ghassemlooy, S. Arnon, M. Uysal, Z. Y. Xu, and J. Cheng, “Emerging optical wireless communications-advances and challenges,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 33(9), 1738–1749 (2015).

Chiarello, F.

F. Chiarello, L. Ursini, and M. Santagiustina, “Securing wireless infrared communications through optical chaos,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(9), 564–566 (2011).

Chow, C.-W.

C.-W. Chow, R.-J. Shiu, Y.-C. Liu, C.-H. Yeh, X.-L. Liao, K.-H. Lin, Y.-C. Wang, and Y.-Y. Chen, “Secure mobile-phone based visible light communications with different noise-ratio light-panel,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(2), 7902806 (2018).

Y. Liu, K. Liang, H.-Y. Chen, L.-Y. Wei, C.-W. Hsu, C.-W. Chow, and C.-H. Yeh, “Light encryption scheme using light-emitting diode and camera image sensor,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(1), 7801107 (2016).

C.-H. Yeh, H.-Y. Chen, C.-W. Chow, and Y.-L. Liu, “Utilization of multi-band OFDM modulation to increase traffic rate of phosphor-LED wireless VLC,” Opt. Express 23(2), 1133–1138 (2015).

Dai, L.

L. Dai, B. Wang, Y. Yuan, S. Han, C. I, and Z. Wang, “Non-orthogonal multiple access for 5G: solutions, challenges, opportunities, and future research trends,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 53(9), 74–81 (2015).

Ding, Z.

G. Pan, J. Ye, and Z. Ding, “On secure VLC systems with spatially random terminals,” IEEE Commun. Lett. 21(3), 492–495 (2017).

Du, P.

C. Chen, W.-D. Zhong, H. Yang, and P. Du, “On the performance of MIMO-NOMA based visible light communication systems,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 30(4), 307–310 (2018).

Du, P. F.

C. Chen, W.-D. Zhong, H. L. Yang, P. F. Du, and Y. B. Yang, “Flexible-rate SIC-free NOMA for downlink VLC based on constellation partitioning coding,” to appear in IEEE Wireless Commun. Lett., DOI: (2018).
[Crossref]

Faulkner, G.

H. Minh, D. O’Brien, G. Faulkner, L. Zeng, K. Lee, D. Jung, Y. Oh, and E. Won, “100-Mb/s NRZ visible light communications using a post-equalized white LED,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(15), 1063–1065 (2009).

Gao, Q.

X. Zhang, Q. Gao, C. Gong, and Z. Xu, “User grouping and power allocation for NOMA visible light communication multi-cell networks,” IEEE Commun. Lett. 21(4), 777–780 (2017).

Ghassemlooy, Z.

B. Lin, W. Ye, X. Tang, and Z. Ghassemlooy, “Experimental demonstration of bidirectional NOMA-OFDMA visible light communications,” Opt. Express 25(4), 4348–4355 (2017).

Z. Ghassemlooy, S. Arnon, M. Uysal, Z. Y. Xu, and J. Cheng, “Emerging optical wireless communications-advances and challenges,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 33(9), 1738–1749 (2015).

Gong, C.

X. Zhang, Q. Gao, C. Gong, and Z. Xu, “User grouping and power allocation for NOMA visible light communication multi-cell networks,” IEEE Commun. Lett. 21(4), 777–780 (2017).

Guo, L.

Q. Zhang, L. Guo, and X. Wei, “Image encryption using DNA addition combining with chaotic maps,” Math. Comput. Model. 52(11), 2028–2035 (2010).

Haas, H.

L. Yin and H. Haas, “Physical-layer security in multiuser visible light communication networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 36(1), 162–174 (2018).

L. Yin, W. O. Popoola, X. Wu, and H. Haas, “Performance evaluation of non-orthogonal multiple access in visible light communication,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 64(12), 5162–5175 (2016).

H. Haas, “Visible light communication,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC, 2015), paper Tu2G.5.

Han, S.

L. Dai, B. Wang, Y. Yuan, S. Han, C. I, and Z. Wang, “Non-orthogonal multiple access for 5G: solutions, challenges, opportunities, and future research trends,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 53(9), 74–81 (2015).

Hsu, C.-W.

Y. Liu, K. Liang, H.-Y. Chen, L.-Y. Wei, C.-W. Hsu, C.-W. Chow, and C.-H. Yeh, “Light encryption scheme using light-emitting diode and camera image sensor,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(1), 7801107 (2016).

Huang, Z.

I, C.

L. Dai, B. Wang, Y. Yuan, S. Han, C. I, and Z. Wang, “Non-orthogonal multiple access for 5G: solutions, challenges, opportunities, and future research trends,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 53(9), 74–81 (2015).

Ji, Y.

Jung, D.

H. Minh, D. O’Brien, G. Faulkner, L. Zeng, K. Lee, D. Jung, Y. Oh, and E. Won, “100-Mb/s NRZ visible light communications using a post-equalized white LED,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(15), 1063–1065 (2009).

Kapinas, V. M.

H. Marshoud, V. M. Kapinas, G. K. Karagiannidis, and S. Muhaidat, “Non-orthogonal multiple access for visible light communications,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(1), 51–54 (2016).

Karagiannidis, G. K.

H. Marshoud, P. Sofotasios, S. Muhaidat, G. K. Karagiannidis, and B. S. Sharif, “On the performance of visible light communication systems with non-orthogonal multiple access,” IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. 16(10), 6350–6364 (2017).

H. Marshoud, V. M. Kapinas, G. K. Karagiannidis, and S. Muhaidat, “Non-orthogonal multiple access for visible light communications,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(1), 51–54 (2016).

Komine, T.

T. Komine and M. Nakagawa, “Fundamental analysis for visible-light communication system using LED lights,” IEEE Trans. Consum. Electron. 50(1), 100–107 (2004).

Lee, K.

H. Minh, D. O’Brien, G. Faulkner, L. Zeng, K. Lee, D. Jung, Y. Oh, and E. Won, “100-Mb/s NRZ visible light communications using a post-equalized white LED,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(15), 1063–1065 (2009).

Li, H.

Liang, K.

Y. Liu, K. Liang, H.-Y. Chen, L.-Y. Wei, C.-W. Hsu, C.-W. Chow, and C.-H. Yeh, “Light encryption scheme using light-emitting diode and camera image sensor,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(1), 7801107 (2016).

Liao, X.-L.

C.-W. Chow, R.-J. Shiu, Y.-C. Liu, C.-H. Yeh, X.-L. Liao, K.-H. Lin, Y.-C. Wang, and Y.-Y. Chen, “Secure mobile-phone based visible light communications with different noise-ratio light-panel,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(2), 7902806 (2018).

Lim, C.

Lin, B.

Lin, K.-H.

C.-W. Chow, R.-J. Shiu, Y.-C. Liu, C.-H. Yeh, X.-L. Liao, K.-H. Lin, Y.-C. Wang, and Y.-Y. Chen, “Secure mobile-phone based visible light communications with different noise-ratio light-panel,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(2), 7902806 (2018).

Liu, C.

X. Wang and C. Liu, “A novel and effective image encryption algorithm based on chaos and DNA encoding,” Multimed. Tools Appl. 76(5), 6229–6245 (2017).

Liu, Y.

Y. Liu, K. Liang, H.-Y. Chen, L.-Y. Wei, C.-W. Hsu, C.-W. Chow, and C.-H. Yeh, “Light encryption scheme using light-emitting diode and camera image sensor,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(1), 7801107 (2016).

Liu, Y.-C.

C.-W. Chow, R.-J. Shiu, Y.-C. Liu, C.-H. Yeh, X.-L. Liao, K.-H. Lin, Y.-C. Wang, and Y.-Y. Chen, “Secure mobile-phone based visible light communications with different noise-ratio light-panel,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(2), 7902806 (2018).

Liu, Y.-L.

Lu, H.

B. Chen, L. Zhang, and H. Lu, “High security differential chaos-based modulation with channel scrambling for WDM-aided VLC system,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(5), 7804513 (2016).

Marshoud, H.

H. Marshoud, P. Sofotasios, S. Muhaidat, G. K. Karagiannidis, and B. S. Sharif, “On the performance of visible light communication systems with non-orthogonal multiple access,” IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. 16(10), 6350–6364 (2017).

H. Marshoud, V. M. Kapinas, G. K. Karagiannidis, and S. Muhaidat, “Non-orthogonal multiple access for visible light communications,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(1), 51–54 (2016).

Minh, H.

H. Minh, D. O’Brien, G. Faulkner, L. Zeng, K. Lee, D. Jung, Y. Oh, and E. Won, “100-Mb/s NRZ visible light communications using a post-equalized white LED,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(15), 1063–1065 (2009).

Muhaidat, S.

H. Marshoud, P. Sofotasios, S. Muhaidat, G. K. Karagiannidis, and B. S. Sharif, “On the performance of visible light communication systems with non-orthogonal multiple access,” IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. 16(10), 6350–6364 (2017).

H. Marshoud, V. M. Kapinas, G. K. Karagiannidis, and S. Muhaidat, “Non-orthogonal multiple access for visible light communications,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(1), 51–54 (2016).

Nakagawa, M.

T. Komine and M. Nakagawa, “Fundamental analysis for visible-light communication system using LED lights,” IEEE Trans. Consum. Electron. 50(1), 100–107 (2004).

Nirmalathas, A.

O’Brien, D.

H. Minh, D. O’Brien, G. Faulkner, L. Zeng, K. Lee, D. Jung, Y. Oh, and E. Won, “100-Mb/s NRZ visible light communications using a post-equalized white LED,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(15), 1063–1065 (2009).

Oh, Y.

H. Minh, D. O’Brien, G. Faulkner, L. Zeng, K. Lee, D. Jung, Y. Oh, and E. Won, “100-Mb/s NRZ visible light communications using a post-equalized white LED,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(15), 1063–1065 (2009).

Pan, G.

G. Pan, J. Ye, and Z. Ding, “On secure VLC systems with spatially random terminals,” IEEE Commun. Lett. 21(3), 492–495 (2017).

Popoola, W. O.

L. Yin, W. O. Popoola, X. Wu, and H. Haas, “Performance evaluation of non-orthogonal multiple access in visible light communication,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 64(12), 5162–5175 (2016).

Qiu, K.

W. Zhang, C. F. Zhang, C. Chen, and K. Qiu, “Experimental demonstration of security-enhanced OFDMA-PON using chaotic constellation transformation and pilot-aided secure key agreement,” J. Lightw. Technol. 35(9), 1524–1530 (2017).

Santagiustina, M.

F. Chiarello, L. Ursini, and M. Santagiustina, “Securing wireless infrared communications through optical chaos,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(9), 564–566 (2011).

Sharif, B. S.

H. Marshoud, P. Sofotasios, S. Muhaidat, G. K. Karagiannidis, and B. S. Sharif, “On the performance of visible light communication systems with non-orthogonal multiple access,” IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. 16(10), 6350–6364 (2017).

Shiu, R.-J.

C.-W. Chow, R.-J. Shiu, Y.-C. Liu, C.-H. Yeh, X.-L. Liao, K.-H. Lin, Y.-C. Wang, and Y.-Y. Chen, “Secure mobile-phone based visible light communications with different noise-ratio light-panel,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(2), 7902806 (2018).

Skafidas, E.

Sofotasios, P.

H. Marshoud, P. Sofotasios, S. Muhaidat, G. K. Karagiannidis, and B. S. Sharif, “On the performance of visible light communication systems with non-orthogonal multiple access,” IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. 16(10), 6350–6364 (2017).

Tang, X.

Ursini, L.

F. Chiarello, L. Ursini, and M. Santagiustina, “Securing wireless infrared communications through optical chaos,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(9), 564–566 (2011).

Uysal, M.

Z. Ghassemlooy, S. Arnon, M. Uysal, Z. Y. Xu, and J. Cheng, “Emerging optical wireless communications-advances and challenges,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 33(9), 1738–1749 (2015).

Wang, B.

L. Dai, B. Wang, Y. Yuan, S. Han, C. I, and Z. Wang, “Non-orthogonal multiple access for 5G: solutions, challenges, opportunities, and future research trends,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 53(9), 74–81 (2015).

Wang, K.

Wang, X.

X. Wang and C. Liu, “A novel and effective image encryption algorithm based on chaos and DNA encoding,” Multimed. Tools Appl. 76(5), 6229–6245 (2017).

Wang, Y.-C.

C.-W. Chow, R.-J. Shiu, Y.-C. Liu, C.-H. Yeh, X.-L. Liao, K.-H. Lin, Y.-C. Wang, and Y.-Y. Chen, “Secure mobile-phone based visible light communications with different noise-ratio light-panel,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(2), 7902806 (2018).

Wang, Z.

L. Dai, B. Wang, Y. Yuan, S. Han, C. I, and Z. Wang, “Non-orthogonal multiple access for 5G: solutions, challenges, opportunities, and future research trends,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 53(9), 74–81 (2015).

Wei, L.-Y.

Y. Liu, K. Liang, H.-Y. Chen, L.-Y. Wei, C.-W. Hsu, C.-W. Chow, and C.-H. Yeh, “Light encryption scheme using light-emitting diode and camera image sensor,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(1), 7801107 (2016).

Wei, X.

Q. Zhang, L. Guo, and X. Wei, “Image encryption using DNA addition combining with chaotic maps,” Math. Comput. Model. 52(11), 2028–2035 (2010).

Won, E.

H. Minh, D. O’Brien, G. Faulkner, L. Zeng, K. Lee, D. Jung, Y. Oh, and E. Won, “100-Mb/s NRZ visible light communications using a post-equalized white LED,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(15), 1063–1065 (2009).

Wu, D. H.

C. Chen, W.-D. Zhong, and D. H. Wu, “On the coverage of multiple-input multiple-output visible light communications [Invited],” J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 9(9), D31–D41 (2017).

C. Chen, W.-D. Zhong, and D. H. Wu, “Indoor OFDM visible light communications employing adaptive digital pre-frequency domain equalization,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO, 2016), paper JTh2A.118.

Wu, X.

L. Yin, W. O. Popoola, X. Wu, and H. Haas, “Performance evaluation of non-orthogonal multiple access in visible light communication,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 64(12), 5162–5175 (2016).

Xiao, Y.

Xu, Z.

X. Zhang, Q. Gao, C. Gong, and Z. Xu, “User grouping and power allocation for NOMA visible light communication multi-cell networks,” IEEE Commun. Lett. 21(4), 777–780 (2017).

Xu, Z. Y.

Z. Ghassemlooy, S. Arnon, M. Uysal, Z. Y. Xu, and J. Cheng, “Emerging optical wireless communications-advances and challenges,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 33(9), 1738–1749 (2015).

Yang, H.

C. Chen, W.-D. Zhong, H. Yang, and P. Du, “On the performance of MIMO-NOMA based visible light communication systems,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 30(4), 307–310 (2018).

Yang, H. L.

C. Chen, W.-D. Zhong, H. L. Yang, P. F. Du, and Y. B. Yang, “Flexible-rate SIC-free NOMA for downlink VLC based on constellation partitioning coding,” to appear in IEEE Wireless Commun. Lett., DOI: (2018).
[Crossref]

Yang, Y. B.

C. Chen, W.-D. Zhong, H. L. Yang, P. F. Du, and Y. B. Yang, “Flexible-rate SIC-free NOMA for downlink VLC based on constellation partitioning coding,” to appear in IEEE Wireless Commun. Lett., DOI: (2018).
[Crossref]

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G. Pan, J. Ye, and Z. Ding, “On secure VLC systems with spatially random terminals,” IEEE Commun. Lett. 21(3), 492–495 (2017).

Ye, W.

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C.-W. Chow, R.-J. Shiu, Y.-C. Liu, C.-H. Yeh, X.-L. Liao, K.-H. Lin, Y.-C. Wang, and Y.-Y. Chen, “Secure mobile-phone based visible light communications with different noise-ratio light-panel,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(2), 7902806 (2018).

Y. Liu, K. Liang, H.-Y. Chen, L.-Y. Wei, C.-W. Hsu, C.-W. Chow, and C.-H. Yeh, “Light encryption scheme using light-emitting diode and camera image sensor,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(1), 7801107 (2016).

C.-H. Yeh, H.-Y. Chen, C.-W. Chow, and Y.-L. Liu, “Utilization of multi-band OFDM modulation to increase traffic rate of phosphor-LED wireless VLC,” Opt. Express 23(2), 1133–1138 (2015).

Yin, L.

L. Yin and H. Haas, “Physical-layer security in multiuser visible light communication networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 36(1), 162–174 (2018).

L. Yin, W. O. Popoola, X. Wu, and H. Haas, “Performance evaluation of non-orthogonal multiple access in visible light communication,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 64(12), 5162–5175 (2016).

Yuan, Y.

L. Dai, B. Wang, Y. Yuan, S. Han, C. I, and Z. Wang, “Non-orthogonal multiple access for 5G: solutions, challenges, opportunities, and future research trends,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 53(9), 74–81 (2015).

Zeng, L.

H. Minh, D. O’Brien, G. Faulkner, L. Zeng, K. Lee, D. Jung, Y. Oh, and E. Won, “100-Mb/s NRZ visible light communications using a post-equalized white LED,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(15), 1063–1065 (2009).

Zhan, S.

Zhang, C. F.

W. Zhang, C. F. Zhang, C. Chen, and K. Qiu, “Experimental demonstration of security-enhanced OFDMA-PON using chaotic constellation transformation and pilot-aided secure key agreement,” J. Lightw. Technol. 35(9), 1524–1530 (2017).

Zhang, L.

B. Chen, L. Zhang, and H. Lu, “High security differential chaos-based modulation with channel scrambling for WDM-aided VLC system,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(5), 7804513 (2016).

Zhang, Q.

Q. Zhang, L. Guo, and X. Wei, “Image encryption using DNA addition combining with chaotic maps,” Math. Comput. Model. 52(11), 2028–2035 (2010).

Zhang, W.

W. Zhang, C. F. Zhang, C. Chen, and K. Qiu, “Experimental demonstration of security-enhanced OFDMA-PON using chaotic constellation transformation and pilot-aided secure key agreement,” J. Lightw. Technol. 35(9), 1524–1530 (2017).

Zhang, X.

X. Zhang, Q. Gao, C. Gong, and Z. Xu, “User grouping and power allocation for NOMA visible light communication multi-cell networks,” IEEE Commun. Lett. 21(4), 777–780 (2017).

Zhong, W.-D.

C. Chen, W.-D. Zhong, H. Yang, and P. Du, “On the performance of MIMO-NOMA based visible light communication systems,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 30(4), 307–310 (2018).

C. Chen, W.-D. Zhong, and D. H. Wu, “On the coverage of multiple-input multiple-output visible light communications [Invited],” J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 9(9), D31–D41 (2017).

C. Chen, W.-D. Zhong, H. L. Yang, P. F. Du, and Y. B. Yang, “Flexible-rate SIC-free NOMA for downlink VLC based on constellation partitioning coding,” to appear in IEEE Wireless Commun. Lett., DOI: (2018).
[Crossref]

C. Chen, W.-D. Zhong, and D. H. Wu, “Indoor OFDM visible light communications employing adaptive digital pre-frequency domain equalization,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO, 2016), paper JTh2A.118.

IEEE Commun. Lett. (3)

X. Zhang, Q. Gao, C. Gong, and Z. Xu, “User grouping and power allocation for NOMA visible light communication multi-cell networks,” IEEE Commun. Lett. 21(4), 777–780 (2017).

G. Pan, J. Ye, and Z. Ding, “On secure VLC systems with spatially random terminals,” IEEE Commun. Lett. 21(3), 492–495 (2017).

Y. Al-Moliki, M. Alresheedi, and Y. Al-Harthi, “Physical-layer security against known/chosen plaintext attacks for OFDM-based VLC system,” IEEE Commun. Lett. 21(12), 2606–2609 (2017).

IEEE Commun. Mag. (1)

L. Dai, B. Wang, Y. Yuan, S. Han, C. I, and Z. Wang, “Non-orthogonal multiple access for 5G: solutions, challenges, opportunities, and future research trends,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 53(9), 74–81 (2015).

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. (2)

L. Yin and H. Haas, “Physical-layer security in multiuser visible light communication networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 36(1), 162–174 (2018).

Z. Ghassemlooy, S. Arnon, M. Uysal, Z. Y. Xu, and J. Cheng, “Emerging optical wireless communications-advances and challenges,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 33(9), 1738–1749 (2015).

IEEE Photonics J. (3)

Y. Liu, K. Liang, H.-Y. Chen, L.-Y. Wei, C.-W. Hsu, C.-W. Chow, and C.-H. Yeh, “Light encryption scheme using light-emitting diode and camera image sensor,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(1), 7801107 (2016).

C.-W. Chow, R.-J. Shiu, Y.-C. Liu, C.-H. Yeh, X.-L. Liao, K.-H. Lin, Y.-C. Wang, and Y.-Y. Chen, “Secure mobile-phone based visible light communications with different noise-ratio light-panel,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(2), 7902806 (2018).

B. Chen, L. Zhang, and H. Lu, “High security differential chaos-based modulation with channel scrambling for WDM-aided VLC system,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(5), 7804513 (2016).

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (4)

H. Minh, D. O’Brien, G. Faulkner, L. Zeng, K. Lee, D. Jung, Y. Oh, and E. Won, “100-Mb/s NRZ visible light communications using a post-equalized white LED,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(15), 1063–1065 (2009).

C. Chen, W.-D. Zhong, H. Yang, and P. Du, “On the performance of MIMO-NOMA based visible light communication systems,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 30(4), 307–310 (2018).

H. Marshoud, V. M. Kapinas, G. K. Karagiannidis, and S. Muhaidat, “Non-orthogonal multiple access for visible light communications,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(1), 51–54 (2016).

F. Chiarello, L. Ursini, and M. Santagiustina, “Securing wireless infrared communications through optical chaos,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(9), 564–566 (2011).

IEEE Trans. Commun. (1)

L. Yin, W. O. Popoola, X. Wu, and H. Haas, “Performance evaluation of non-orthogonal multiple access in visible light communication,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 64(12), 5162–5175 (2016).

IEEE Trans. Consum. Electron. (1)

T. Komine and M. Nakagawa, “Fundamental analysis for visible-light communication system using LED lights,” IEEE Trans. Consum. Electron. 50(1), 100–107 (2004).

IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. (1)

H. Marshoud, P. Sofotasios, S. Muhaidat, G. K. Karagiannidis, and B. S. Sharif, “On the performance of visible light communication systems with non-orthogonal multiple access,” IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. 16(10), 6350–6364 (2017).

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

W. Zhang, C. F. Zhang, C. Chen, and K. Qiu, “Experimental demonstration of security-enhanced OFDMA-PON using chaotic constellation transformation and pilot-aided secure key agreement,” J. Lightw. Technol. 35(9), 1524–1530 (2017).

J. Opt. Commun. Netw. (1)

Math. Comput. Model. (1)

Q. Zhang, L. Guo, and X. Wei, “Image encryption using DNA addition combining with chaotic maps,” Math. Comput. Model. 52(11), 2028–2035 (2010).

Multimed. Tools Appl. (1)

X. Wang and C. Liu, “A novel and effective image encryption algorithm based on chaos and DNA encoding,” Multimed. Tools Appl. 76(5), 6229–6245 (2017).

Opt. Express (4)

Other (4)

C. Chen, W.-D. Zhong, and D. H. Wu, “Indoor OFDM visible light communications employing adaptive digital pre-frequency domain equalization,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO, 2016), paper JTh2A.118.

IEEE Computer Society, IEEE standard for binary floating-point arithmetic, ANSI/IEEE Std.754-1985 (1985).

H. Haas, “Visible light communication,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC, 2015), paper Tu2G.5.

C. Chen, W.-D. Zhong, H. L. Yang, P. F. Du, and Y. B. Yang, “Flexible-rate SIC-free NOMA for downlink VLC based on constellation partitioning coding,” to appear in IEEE Wireless Commun. Lett., DOI: (2018).
[Crossref]

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Illustration of a NOMA VLC system with two legitimate users and one eavesdropper.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Principle of (M1, M2)-QAM based two-user NOMA-OFDM with two-level chaotic encryption: (a) modulation and encryption and (b) decryption and demodulation.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Illustration of SIC-aided decoding for (4, 4)-QAM based NOMA-OFDM signal.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Experimental setup of a secure and private NOMA VLC system with two legitimate users and one eavesdropper using (4, 4)-QAM OFDM with two-level chaotic encryption.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Measured frequency response and the corresponding power loading coefficients for digital pre-FDE and the received electrical spectra (b) before and (c) after digital pre-FDE.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Comparison of PAPR performance of the time-domain NOMA signal with and without encryption. w/o: without; w/: with; enc: encryption.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Measured BER versus power allocation ratio for two legitimate users with perfect SIC. w/o: without; w/: with; enc: encryption.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Measured BER versus power allocation ratio for (a) eavesdropper decoding legitimate users’ signal and (b) one legitimate user decoding the signal of another legitimate user. eav: eavesdropper; w/o: without; w/: with; enc: encryption.

Equations (11)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

x ( t ) = p 1 s 1 ( t ) + p 2 s 2 ( t ) + I DC ,
y 1 ( t ) = Rh 1 ( t ) x ( t ) + z 1 ( t ) ,
y 2 ( t ) = Rh 2 ( t ) x ( t ) + z 2 ( t ) ,
y e ( t ) = Rh e ( t ) x ( t ) + z e ( t ) ,
[ I n , f , k Q n , f , k ] = [ 1 a n , f , k b n , f , k a n , f , k b n , f , k + 1 ] [ I n , f , k + m 1 2 Q n , f , k + m 1 2 ] mod ( m ) m + 1 ,
w n = src { s n , p n } ,
{ x t + 1 = α 1 x t ( 1 x t ) + β 1 y t 2 y t + 1 = α 2 y t ( 1 y t ) + β 2 ( x t 2 + x t y t ) ,
z t + 1 = F γ ( z t ) = { z t / γ , 0 < z t < γ ( z t γ ) / ( 0.5 γ ) , γ z t < 0.5 , F γ ( 1 z t ) , 0.5 z t < 1
a n , f , k = mod ( ceil ( x ( n 1 ) F + f k 10 15 ) , m ) + 1 ,
b n , f , k = mod ( ceil ( y ( n 1 ) F + f k 10 15 ) , m ) + 1 ,
p n = sort { [ z ( n 1 ) F + 1 , z ( n 1 ) F + 2 , , z n F ] T } ,

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