Abstract

We show that the spectral interferometry method and the lateral point-force method used up to now to measure spectral dependence of the group and the phase modal birefringence in highly birefringent fibers with linearly polarized eigenmodes, can be after some modifications extended for the class of spun highly birefringent fibers with elliptically polarized modes. By combining the two methods, it is possible to determine spectral dependence of the group and phase elliptical birefringence in spun highly birefringent fibers. Moreover, if the fiber spin pitch is independently measured, the spectral dependence of ellipticity angle of polarization eigenmodes as well as the built-in linear phase and group birefringence, can be also obtained using the analytical relations between the parameters of spun and non-spun fibers. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach in spectral measurements (700-1600 nm) of the spun side-hole and microstructured highly birefringent fibers with different birefringence dispersion and spin pitches ranging from 4.1 to 200 mm.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]

2018 (2)

2017 (3)

P. St. J. Russell, R. Beravat, and G. K. L. Wong, “Helically twisted photonic crystal fibres,” Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci 375(2087), 20150440 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ya. V. Przhiyalkovsky, S. A. Vasiliev, O. I. Medvedkov, S. K. Morshnev, and E. M. Dianov, “Polarization state evolution in spun birefringent optical fibers,” J. Appl. Phys. 122(12), 123104 (2017).
[Crossref]

Z. Xu, X. S. Yao, Z. Ding, X. J. Chen, X. Zhao, H. Xiao, T. Feng, and T. Liu, “Accurate measurements of circular and residual linear birefringences of spun fibers using binary polarization rotators,” Opt. Express 25(24), 30780–30792 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (2)

2014 (3)

2013 (2)

C. N. Alexeyev, A. N. Alexeyev, B. P. Lapin, G. Milione, and M. A. Yavorsky, “Spin-orbit-interaction-induced generation of optical vortices in multihelicoidal fibers,” Phys. Rev. A 88(6), 063814 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. Xi, G. K. L. Wong, T. Weiss, and P. St. J. Russell, “Measuring mechanical strain and twist using helical photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett. 38(24), 5401–5404 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (1)

G. K. L. Wong, M. S. Kang, H. W. Lee, F. Biancalana, C. Conti, T. Weiss, and P. St. J. Russell, “Excitation of orbital angular momentum resonances in helically twisted photonic crystal fiber,” Science 337(6093), 446–449 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

S. K. Morshnev, Y. K. Chamorovsky, and I. L. Vorob’ev, “Phase delay of polarisation modes in elastically twisted spun fibres,” Quantum Electron. 41(5), 469–474 (2011).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

W. Shin, Y. L. Lee, B.-A. Yu, Y.-C. Noh, and K. Oh, “Spectral characterization of helicoidal long-period fiber gratings in photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Commun. 282(17), 3456–3459 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. Argyros, J. Pla, F. Ladouceur, and L. Poladian, “Circular and elliptical birefringence in spun microstructured optical fibres,” Opt. Express 17(18), 15983–15990 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

2007 (3)

2006 (2)

P. Wang, L. J. Cooper, J. K. Sahu, and W. A. Clarkson, “Efficient single-mode operation of a cladding-pumped ytterbium-doped helical-core fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 31(2), 226–228 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Hlubina, M. Szpulak, L. Knyblová, G. Statkiewicz, T. Martynkien, D. Ciprian, and W. Urbanczyk, “Measurement and modelling of dispersion characteristics of a two-mode birefringent holey fibre,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 17(4), 626–630 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

G. Statkiewicz, T. Martynkien, and W. Urbanczyk, “Measurements of birefringence and its sensitivity to hydrostatic pressure and elongation in photonic bandgap hollow core fiber with residual core ellipticity,” Opt. Commun. 255(4–6), 175–183 (2005).
[Crossref]

F. Treviño-Martínez, D. Tentroi, C. Ayala-Díaz, and F. Mendieta-Jiménez, “Birefringence assessment of single-mode optical fibers,” Opt. Express 13(7), 2556–2563 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (4)

M. Fuochi, J. Hayes, K. Furusawa, W. Belardi, J. Baggett, T. Monro, and D. Richardson, “Polarization mode dispersion reduction in spun large mode area silica holey fibres,” Opt. Express 12(9), 1972–1977 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Nicolet, F. Zolla, and S. Guenneau, “Modelling of twisted optical waveguides with edge elements,” Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 28(2), 153–157 (2004).
[Crossref]

V. I. Kopp, V. M. Churikov, J. Singer, N. Chao, D. Neugroschl, and A. Z. Genack, “Chiral fiber gratings,” Science 305(5680), 74–75 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Statkiewicz, T. Martynkien, and W. Urbanczyk, “Measurements of modal birefringence and polarimetric sensitivity of the birefringent holey fiber to hydrostatic pressure and strain,” Opt. Commun. 241(4–6), 339–348 (2004).
[Crossref]

2001 (2)

K. Suzuki, H. Kubota, S. Kawanishi, M. Tanaka, and M. Fujita, “Optical properties of a low-loss polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Express 9(13), 676–680 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Mogilevtsev, J. Broeng, S. E. Barkou, and A. Bjarklev, “Design of polarization-preserving photonic crystal fibres with elliptical pores,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 3(6), 141–143 (2001).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

1989 (1)

R. I. Laming and D. N. Payne, “Electric current sensors employing spun highly birefringent optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 7(12), 2084–2094 (1989).
[Crossref]

1986 (1)

1981 (2)

T. Hosaka, K. Okamoto, T. Miya, Y. Sasaki, and T. Edahiro, “Low-loss single polarisation fibres with asymmetrical strain birefringence,” Electron. Lett. 17(15), 530–531 (1981).
[Crossref]

A. J. Barlow, J. J. Ramskov-Hansen, and D. N. Payne, “Birefringence and polarization mode-dispersion in spun single-mode fibers,” Appl. Opt. 20(17), 2962–2968 (1981).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1979 (2)

R. Ulrich and A. Simon, “Polarization optics of twisted single-mode fibers,” Appl. Opt. 18(13), 2241–2251 (1979).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. B. Dyott, J. R. Cozens, and D. G. Morris, “Preservation of polarisation in optical-fibre waveguides with elliptical cores,” Electron. Lett. 15(13), 380–382 (1979).
[Crossref]

Agha, Y. O.

A. Nicolet, F. Zolla, Y. O. Agha, and S. Guenneau, “Leaky modes in twisted microstructured optical fibers,” Wave Random Complex 17(4), 559–570 (2007).
[Crossref]

Ahmed, G.

Alexeyev, A. N.

C. N. Alexeyev, A. N. Alexeyev, B. P. Lapin, G. Milione, and M. A. Yavorsky, “Spin-orbit-interaction-induced generation of optical vortices in multihelicoidal fibers,” Phys. Rev. A 88(6), 063814 (2013).
[Crossref]

Alexeyev, C. N.

C. N. Alexeyev, A. N. Alexeyev, B. P. Lapin, G. Milione, and M. A. Yavorsky, “Spin-orbit-interaction-induced generation of optical vortices in multihelicoidal fibers,” Phys. Rev. A 88(6), 063814 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. N. Alexeyev and M. A. Yavorsky, “Generation and conversion of optical vortices in long-period helical core optical fibers,” Phys. Rev. A 78(4), 043828 (2008).
[Crossref]

Anuszkiewicz, A.

Argyros, A.

Ashton, B.

Aslund, M.

Ayala-Díaz, C.

Babic, F.

Baggett, J.

Barkou, S. E.

D. Mogilevtsev, J. Broeng, S. E. Barkou, and A. Bjarklev, “Design of polarization-preserving photonic crystal fibres with elliptical pores,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 3(6), 141–143 (2001).
[Crossref]

Barlow, A. J.

Bartelt, H.

Bassett, I.

Belardi, W.

Beravat, R.

P. St. J. Russell, R. Beravat, and G. K. L. Wong, “Helically twisted photonic crystal fibres,” Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci 375(2087), 20150440 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Biancalana, F.

G. K. L. Wong, M. S. Kang, H. W. Lee, F. Biancalana, C. Conti, T. Weiss, and P. St. J. Russell, “Excitation of orbital angular momentum resonances in helically twisted photonic crystal fiber,” Science 337(6093), 446–449 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bjarklev, A.

D. Mogilevtsev, J. Broeng, S. E. Barkou, and A. Bjarklev, “Design of polarization-preserving photonic crystal fibres with elliptical pores,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 3(6), 141–143 (2001).
[Crossref]

Bock, W. J.

Broeng, J.

D. Mogilevtsev, J. Broeng, S. E. Barkou, and A. Bjarklev, “Design of polarization-preserving photonic crystal fibres with elliptical pores,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 3(6), 141–143 (2001).
[Crossref]

Canning, J.

Chamorovsky, Y. K.

S. K. Morshnev, Y. K. Chamorovsky, and I. L. Vorob’ev, “Phase delay of polarisation modes in elastically twisted spun fibres,” Quantum Electron. 41(5), 469–474 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chao, N.

V. I. Kopp, V. M. Churikov, J. Singer, N. Chao, D. Neugroschl, and A. Z. Genack, “Chiral fiber gratings,” Science 305(5680), 74–75 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, X. J.

Churikov, V. M.

V. I. Kopp, V. M. Churikov, J. Singer, N. Chao, D. Neugroschl, and A. Z. Genack, “Chiral fiber gratings,” Science 305(5680), 74–75 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ciprian, D.

P. Hlubina and D. Ciprian, “Spectral-domain measurement of phase modal birefringence in polarization-maintaining fiber,” Opt. Express 15(25), 17019–17024 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Hlubina, M. Szpulak, L. Knyblová, G. Statkiewicz, T. Martynkien, D. Ciprian, and W. Urbanczyk, “Measurement and modelling of dispersion characteristics of a two-mode birefringent holey fibre,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 17(4), 626–630 (2006).
[Crossref]

Clarkson, W. A.

Conti, C.

G. K. L. Wong, M. S. Kang, H. W. Lee, F. Biancalana, C. Conti, T. Weiss, and P. St. J. Russell, “Excitation of orbital angular momentum resonances in helically twisted photonic crystal fiber,” Science 337(6093), 446–449 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cooper, L. J.

Cozens, J. R.

R. B. Dyott, J. R. Cozens, and D. G. Morris, “Preservation of polarisation in optical-fibre waveguides with elliptical cores,” Electron. Lett. 15(13), 380–382 (1979).
[Crossref]

Dabkiewicz, P.

Dianov, E. M.

Ya. V. Przhiyalkovsky, S. A. Vasiliev, O. I. Medvedkov, S. K. Morshnev, and E. M. Dianov, “Polarization state evolution in spun birefringent optical fibers,” J. Appl. Phys. 122(12), 123104 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. A. Vasiliev, Y. V. Przhiyalkovsky, P. I. Gnusin, O. I. Medvedkov, and E. M. Dianov, “Measurement of high-birefringent spun fiber parameters using short-length fiber Bragg gratings,” Opt. Express 24(11), 11290–11298 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Digweed, J.

Digweed, K.

Ding, Z.

Dyott, R. B.

R. B. Dyott, J. R. Cozens, and D. G. Morris, “Preservation of polarisation in optical-fibre waveguides with elliptical cores,” Electron. Lett. 15(13), 380–382 (1979).
[Crossref]

Edahiro, T.

T. Hosaka, K. Okamoto, T. Miya, Y. Sasaki, and T. Edahiro, “Low-loss single polarisation fibres with asymmetrical strain birefringence,” Electron. Lett. 17(15), 530–531 (1981).
[Crossref]

Euser, T. G.

Feng, T.

Frosz, M. H.

Fujita, M.

Fuochi, M.

Furusawa, K.

Galvanauskas, A.

Genack, A. Z.

Gnusin, P. I.

Guenneau, S.

A. Nicolet, F. Zolla, Y. O. Agha, and S. Guenneau, “Leaky modes in twisted microstructured optical fibers,” Wave Random Complex 17(4), 559–570 (2007).
[Crossref]

A. Nicolet, F. Zolla, and S. Guenneau, “Modelling of twisted optical waveguides with edge elements,” Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 28(2), 153–157 (2004).
[Crossref]

Hayes, J.

Haywood, J.

Hlubina, P.

P. Hlubina and D. Ciprian, “Spectral-domain measurement of phase modal birefringence in polarization-maintaining fiber,” Opt. Express 15(25), 17019–17024 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Hlubina, M. Szpulak, L. Knyblová, G. Statkiewicz, T. Martynkien, D. Ciprian, and W. Urbanczyk, “Measurement and modelling of dispersion characteristics of a two-mode birefringent holey fibre,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 17(4), 626–630 (2006).
[Crossref]

Hosaka, T.

T. Hosaka, K. Okamoto, T. Miya, Y. Sasaki, and T. Edahiro, “Low-loss single polarisation fibres with asymmetrical strain birefringence,” Electron. Lett. 17(15), 530–531 (1981).
[Crossref]

Hu, I.-N.

Jiang, X.

Kang, M. S.

G. K. L. Wong, M. S. Kang, H. W. Lee, F. Biancalana, C. Conti, T. Weiss, and P. St. J. Russell, “Excitation of orbital angular momentum resonances in helically twisted photonic crystal fiber,” Science 337(6093), 446–449 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kaplan, A.

Kawanishi, S.

Kirchhof, J.

Knyblová, L.

P. Hlubina, M. Szpulak, L. Knyblová, G. Statkiewicz, T. Martynkien, D. Ciprian, and W. Urbanczyk, “Measurement and modelling of dispersion characteristics of a two-mode birefringent holey fibre,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 17(4), 626–630 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kobelke, J.

Kopp, V. I.

Kubota, H.

Ladouceur, F.

Laming, R. I.

R. I. Laming and D. N. Payne, “Electric current sensors employing spun highly birefringent optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 7(12), 2084–2094 (1989).
[Crossref]

Lapin, B. P.

C. N. Alexeyev, A. N. Alexeyev, B. P. Lapin, G. Milione, and M. A. Yavorsky, “Spin-orbit-interaction-induced generation of optical vortices in multihelicoidal fibers,” Phys. Rev. A 88(6), 063814 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lau, A.

Lee, H. W.

G. K. L. Wong, M. S. Kang, H. W. Lee, F. Biancalana, C. Conti, T. Weiss, and P. St. J. Russell, “Excitation of orbital angular momentum resonances in helically twisted photonic crystal fiber,” Science 337(6093), 446–449 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, Y. L.

W. Shin, Y. L. Lee, B.-A. Yu, Y.-C. Noh, and K. Oh, “Spectral characterization of helicoidal long-period fiber gratings in photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Commun. 282(17), 3456–3459 (2009).
[Crossref]

Liu, T.

Ma, X.

Martynkien, T.

T. Martynkien, M. Szpulak, G. Statkiewicz-Barabach, J. Olszewski, A. Anuszkiewicz, W. Urbanczyk, K. Schuster, J. Kobelke, A. Schwuchow, J. Kirchhof, and H. Bartelt, “Birefringence in microstructure fiber with elliptical GeO2 highly doped inclusion in the core,” Opt. Lett. 33(23), 2764–2766 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Hlubina, M. Szpulak, L. Knyblová, G. Statkiewicz, T. Martynkien, D. Ciprian, and W. Urbanczyk, “Measurement and modelling of dispersion characteristics of a two-mode birefringent holey fibre,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 17(4), 626–630 (2006).
[Crossref]

G. Statkiewicz, T. Martynkien, and W. Urbanczyk, “Measurements of birefringence and its sensitivity to hydrostatic pressure and elongation in photonic bandgap hollow core fiber with residual core ellipticity,” Opt. Commun. 255(4–6), 175–183 (2005).
[Crossref]

G. Statkiewicz, T. Martynkien, and W. Urbanczyk, “Measurements of modal birefringence and polarimetric sensitivity of the birefringent holey fiber to hydrostatic pressure and strain,” Opt. Commun. 241(4–6), 339–348 (2004).
[Crossref]

Medvedkov, O. I.

Ya. V. Przhiyalkovsky, S. A. Vasiliev, O. I. Medvedkov, S. K. Morshnev, and E. M. Dianov, “Polarization state evolution in spun birefringent optical fibers,” J. Appl. Phys. 122(12), 123104 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. A. Vasiliev, Y. V. Przhiyalkovsky, P. I. Gnusin, O. I. Medvedkov, and E. M. Dianov, “Measurement of high-birefringent spun fiber parameters using short-length fiber Bragg gratings,” Opt. Express 24(11), 11290–11298 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mendieta-Jiménez, F.

Michie, A.

Milione, G.

C. N. Alexeyev, A. N. Alexeyev, B. P. Lapin, G. Milione, and M. A. Yavorsky, “Spin-orbit-interaction-induced generation of optical vortices in multihelicoidal fibers,” Phys. Rev. A 88(6), 063814 (2013).
[Crossref]

Miya, T.

T. Hosaka, K. Okamoto, T. Miya, Y. Sasaki, and T. Edahiro, “Low-loss single polarisation fibres with asymmetrical strain birefringence,” Electron. Lett. 17(15), 530–531 (1981).
[Crossref]

Mogilevtsev, D.

D. Mogilevtsev, J. Broeng, S. E. Barkou, and A. Bjarklev, “Design of polarization-preserving photonic crystal fibres with elliptical pores,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 3(6), 141–143 (2001).
[Crossref]

Monro, T.

Morris, D. G.

R. B. Dyott, J. R. Cozens, and D. G. Morris, “Preservation of polarisation in optical-fibre waveguides with elliptical cores,” Electron. Lett. 15(13), 380–382 (1979).
[Crossref]

Morshnev, S. K.

Ya. V. Przhiyalkovsky, S. A. Vasiliev, O. I. Medvedkov, S. K. Morshnev, and E. M. Dianov, “Polarization state evolution in spun birefringent optical fibers,” J. Appl. Phys. 122(12), 123104 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. K. Morshnev, Y. K. Chamorovsky, and I. L. Vorob’ev, “Phase delay of polarisation modes in elastically twisted spun fibres,” Quantum Electron. 41(5), 469–474 (2011).
[Crossref]

Napiorkowski, M.

Neugroschl, D.

Nicolet, A.

A. Nicolet, F. Zolla, Y. O. Agha, and S. Guenneau, “Leaky modes in twisted microstructured optical fibers,” Wave Random Complex 17(4), 559–570 (2007).
[Crossref]

A. Nicolet, F. Zolla, and S. Guenneau, “Modelling of twisted optical waveguides with edge elements,” Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 28(2), 153–157 (2004).
[Crossref]

Noh, Y.-C.

W. Shin, Y. L. Lee, B.-A. Yu, Y.-C. Noh, and K. Oh, “Spectral characterization of helicoidal long-period fiber gratings in photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Commun. 282(17), 3456–3459 (2009).
[Crossref]

Oh, K.

W. Shin, Y. L. Lee, B.-A. Yu, Y.-C. Noh, and K. Oh, “Spectral characterization of helicoidal long-period fiber gratings in photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Commun. 282(17), 3456–3459 (2009).
[Crossref]

Okamoto, K.

H. M. Xie, P. Dabkiewicz, R. Ulrich, and K. Okamoto, “Side-hole fiber for fiber-optic pressure sensing,” Opt. Lett. 11(5), 333–335 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Hosaka, K. Okamoto, T. Miya, Y. Sasaki, and T. Edahiro, “Low-loss single polarisation fibres with asymmetrical strain birefringence,” Electron. Lett. 17(15), 530–531 (1981).
[Crossref]

Olszewski, J.

Park, J.

Payne, D. N.

R. I. Laming and D. N. Payne, “Electric current sensors employing spun highly birefringent optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 7(12), 2084–2094 (1989).
[Crossref]

A. J. Barlow, J. J. Ramskov-Hansen, and D. N. Payne, “Birefringence and polarization mode-dispersion in spun single-mode fibers,” Appl. Opt. 20(17), 2962–2968 (1981).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pla, J.

Poladian, L.

Przhiyalkovsky, Y. V.

Przhiyalkovsky, Ya. V.

Ya. V. Przhiyalkovsky, S. A. Vasiliev, O. I. Medvedkov, S. K. Morshnev, and E. M. Dianov, “Polarization state evolution in spun birefringent optical fibers,” J. Appl. Phys. 122(12), 123104 (2017).
[Crossref]

Ramskov-Hansen, J. J.

Richardson, D.

Russell, P. St. J.

P. St. J. Russell, R. Beravat, and G. K. L. Wong, “Helically twisted photonic crystal fibres,” Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci 375(2087), 20150440 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. M. Xi, G. K. L. Wong, M. H. Frosz, F. Babic, G. Ahmed, X. Jiang, T. G. Euser, and P. St. J. Russell, “Orbital-angular-momentum-preserving helical Bloch modes in twisted photonic crystal fiber,” Optica 1(3), 165–169 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. Xi, G. K. L. Wong, T. Weiss, and P. St. J. Russell, “Measuring mechanical strain and twist using helical photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett. 38(24), 5401–5404 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. K. L. Wong, M. S. Kang, H. W. Lee, F. Biancalana, C. Conti, T. Weiss, and P. St. J. Russell, “Excitation of orbital angular momentum resonances in helically twisted photonic crystal fiber,” Science 337(6093), 446–449 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sahu, J. K.

Sasaki, Y.

T. Hosaka, K. Okamoto, T. Miya, Y. Sasaki, and T. Edahiro, “Low-loss single polarisation fibres with asymmetrical strain birefringence,” Electron. Lett. 17(15), 530–531 (1981).
[Crossref]

Scandurra, D.

Schuster, K.

Schwuchow, A.

Shin, W.

W. Shin, Y. L. Lee, B.-A. Yu, Y.-C. Noh, and K. Oh, “Spectral characterization of helicoidal long-period fiber gratings in photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Commun. 282(17), 3456–3459 (2009).
[Crossref]

Simon, A.

Singer, J.

Statkiewicz, G.

P. Hlubina, M. Szpulak, L. Knyblová, G. Statkiewicz, T. Martynkien, D. Ciprian, and W. Urbanczyk, “Measurement and modelling of dispersion characteristics of a two-mode birefringent holey fibre,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 17(4), 626–630 (2006).
[Crossref]

G. Statkiewicz, T. Martynkien, and W. Urbanczyk, “Measurements of birefringence and its sensitivity to hydrostatic pressure and elongation in photonic bandgap hollow core fiber with residual core ellipticity,” Opt. Commun. 255(4–6), 175–183 (2005).
[Crossref]

G. Statkiewicz, T. Martynkien, and W. Urbanczyk, “Measurements of modal birefringence and polarimetric sensitivity of the birefringent holey fiber to hydrostatic pressure and strain,” Opt. Commun. 241(4–6), 339–348 (2004).
[Crossref]

Statkiewicz-Barabach, G.

Stevenson, M.

Suzuki, K.

Szpulak, M.

T. Martynkien, M. Szpulak, G. Statkiewicz-Barabach, J. Olszewski, A. Anuszkiewicz, W. Urbanczyk, K. Schuster, J. Kobelke, A. Schwuchow, J. Kirchhof, and H. Bartelt, “Birefringence in microstructure fiber with elliptical GeO2 highly doped inclusion in the core,” Opt. Lett. 33(23), 2764–2766 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Hlubina, M. Szpulak, L. Knyblová, G. Statkiewicz, T. Martynkien, D. Ciprian, and W. Urbanczyk, “Measurement and modelling of dispersion characteristics of a two-mode birefringent holey fibre,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 17(4), 626–630 (2006).
[Crossref]

Tanaka, M.

Tentroi, D.

Treviño-Martínez, F.

Ulrich, R.

Urbanczyk, W.

M. Napiorkowski and W. Urbanczyk, “Role of symmetry in mode coupling in twisted microstructured optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 43(3), 395–398 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Napiorkowski and W. Urbanczyk, “Scaling effects in resonant coupling phenomena between fundamental and cladding modes in twisted microstructured optical fibers,” Opt. Express 26(9), 12131–12143 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Napiorkowski and W. Urbanczyk, “Coupling between core and cladding modes in a helical core fiber with large core offset,” J. Opt. 18(5), 055601 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. Martynkien, M. Szpulak, G. Statkiewicz-Barabach, J. Olszewski, A. Anuszkiewicz, W. Urbanczyk, K. Schuster, J. Kobelke, A. Schwuchow, J. Kirchhof, and H. Bartelt, “Birefringence in microstructure fiber with elliptical GeO2 highly doped inclusion in the core,” Opt. Lett. 33(23), 2764–2766 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Hlubina, M. Szpulak, L. Knyblová, G. Statkiewicz, T. Martynkien, D. Ciprian, and W. Urbanczyk, “Measurement and modelling of dispersion characteristics of a two-mode birefringent holey fibre,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 17(4), 626–630 (2006).
[Crossref]

G. Statkiewicz, T. Martynkien, and W. Urbanczyk, “Measurements of birefringence and its sensitivity to hydrostatic pressure and elongation in photonic bandgap hollow core fiber with residual core ellipticity,” Opt. Commun. 255(4–6), 175–183 (2005).
[Crossref]

G. Statkiewicz, T. Martynkien, and W. Urbanczyk, “Measurements of modal birefringence and polarimetric sensitivity of the birefringent holey fiber to hydrostatic pressure and strain,” Opt. Commun. 241(4–6), 339–348 (2004).
[Crossref]

W. J. Bock and W. Urbanczyk, “Measurement of polarization mode dispersion and modal birefringence in highly birefringent fibers by means of electronically scanned shearing-type interferometry,” Appl. Opt. 32(30), 5841–5848 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vasiliev, S. A.

Ya. V. Przhiyalkovsky, S. A. Vasiliev, O. I. Medvedkov, S. K. Morshnev, and E. M. Dianov, “Polarization state evolution in spun birefringent optical fibers,” J. Appl. Phys. 122(12), 123104 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. A. Vasiliev, Y. V. Przhiyalkovsky, P. I. Gnusin, O. I. Medvedkov, and E. M. Dianov, “Measurement of high-birefringent spun fiber parameters using short-length fiber Bragg gratings,” Opt. Express 24(11), 11290–11298 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vorob’ev, I. L.

S. K. Morshnev, Y. K. Chamorovsky, and I. L. Vorob’ev, “Phase delay of polarisation modes in elastically twisted spun fibres,” Quantum Electron. 41(5), 469–474 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wang, P.

Weiss, T.

X. Xi, G. K. L. Wong, T. Weiss, and P. St. J. Russell, “Measuring mechanical strain and twist using helical photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett. 38(24), 5401–5404 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. K. L. Wong, M. S. Kang, H. W. Lee, F. Biancalana, C. Conti, T. Weiss, and P. St. J. Russell, “Excitation of orbital angular momentum resonances in helically twisted photonic crystal fiber,” Science 337(6093), 446–449 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wlodawski, M.

Wong, G. K. L.

P. St. J. Russell, R. Beravat, and G. K. L. Wong, “Helically twisted photonic crystal fibres,” Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci 375(2087), 20150440 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. M. Xi, G. K. L. Wong, M. H. Frosz, F. Babic, G. Ahmed, X. Jiang, T. G. Euser, and P. St. J. Russell, “Orbital-angular-momentum-preserving helical Bloch modes in twisted photonic crystal fiber,” Optica 1(3), 165–169 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. Xi, G. K. L. Wong, T. Weiss, and P. St. J. Russell, “Measuring mechanical strain and twist using helical photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett. 38(24), 5401–5404 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. K. L. Wong, M. S. Kang, H. W. Lee, F. Biancalana, C. Conti, T. Weiss, and P. St. J. Russell, “Excitation of orbital angular momentum resonances in helically twisted photonic crystal fiber,” Science 337(6093), 446–449 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xi, X.

Xi, X. M.

Xiao, H.

Xie, H. M.

Xu, Z.

Yao, X. S.

Yavorsky, M. A.

C. N. Alexeyev, A. N. Alexeyev, B. P. Lapin, G. Milione, and M. A. Yavorsky, “Spin-orbit-interaction-induced generation of optical vortices in multihelicoidal fibers,” Phys. Rev. A 88(6), 063814 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. N. Alexeyev and M. A. Yavorsky, “Generation and conversion of optical vortices in long-period helical core optical fibers,” Phys. Rev. A 78(4), 043828 (2008).
[Crossref]

Yu, B.-A.

W. Shin, Y. L. Lee, B.-A. Yu, Y.-C. Noh, and K. Oh, “Spectral characterization of helicoidal long-period fiber gratings in photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Commun. 282(17), 3456–3459 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zhao, X.

Zhu, C.

Zolla, F.

A. Nicolet, F. Zolla, Y. O. Agha, and S. Guenneau, “Leaky modes in twisted microstructured optical fibers,” Wave Random Complex 17(4), 559–570 (2007).
[Crossref]

A. Nicolet, F. Zolla, and S. Guenneau, “Modelling of twisted optical waveguides with edge elements,” Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 28(2), 153–157 (2004).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Electron. Lett. (2)

R. B. Dyott, J. R. Cozens, and D. G. Morris, “Preservation of polarisation in optical-fibre waveguides with elliptical cores,” Electron. Lett. 15(13), 380–382 (1979).
[Crossref]

T. Hosaka, K. Okamoto, T. Miya, Y. Sasaki, and T. Edahiro, “Low-loss single polarisation fibres with asymmetrical strain birefringence,” Electron. Lett. 17(15), 530–531 (1981).
[Crossref]

Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

A. Nicolet, F. Zolla, and S. Guenneau, “Modelling of twisted optical waveguides with edge elements,” Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 28(2), 153–157 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

Ya. V. Przhiyalkovsky, S. A. Vasiliev, O. I. Medvedkov, S. K. Morshnev, and E. M. Dianov, “Polarization state evolution in spun birefringent optical fibers,” J. Appl. Phys. 122(12), 123104 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

J. Opt. (1)

M. Napiorkowski and W. Urbanczyk, “Coupling between core and cladding modes in a helical core fiber with large core offset,” J. Opt. 18(5), 055601 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

D. Mogilevtsev, J. Broeng, S. E. Barkou, and A. Bjarklev, “Design of polarization-preserving photonic crystal fibres with elliptical pores,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 3(6), 141–143 (2001).
[Crossref]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

P. Hlubina, M. Szpulak, L. Knyblová, G. Statkiewicz, T. Martynkien, D. Ciprian, and W. Urbanczyk, “Measurement and modelling of dispersion characteristics of a two-mode birefringent holey fibre,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 17(4), 626–630 (2006).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (3)

G. Statkiewicz, T. Martynkien, and W. Urbanczyk, “Measurements of birefringence and its sensitivity to hydrostatic pressure and elongation in photonic bandgap hollow core fiber with residual core ellipticity,” Opt. Commun. 255(4–6), 175–183 (2005).
[Crossref]

W. Shin, Y. L. Lee, B.-A. Yu, Y.-C. Noh, and K. Oh, “Spectral characterization of helicoidal long-period fiber gratings in photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Commun. 282(17), 3456–3459 (2009).
[Crossref]

G. Statkiewicz, T. Martynkien, and W. Urbanczyk, “Measurements of modal birefringence and polarimetric sensitivity of the birefringent holey fiber to hydrostatic pressure and strain,” Opt. Commun. 241(4–6), 339–348 (2004).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (10)

K. Suzuki, H. Kubota, S. Kawanishi, M. Tanaka, and M. Fujita, “Optical properties of a low-loss polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Express 9(13), 676–680 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Treviño-Martínez, D. Tentroi, C. Ayala-Díaz, and F. Mendieta-Jiménez, “Birefringence assessment of single-mode optical fibers,” Opt. Express 13(7), 2556–2563 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Xu, X. S. Yao, Z. Ding, X. J. Chen, X. Zhao, H. Xiao, T. Feng, and T. Liu, “Accurate measurements of circular and residual linear birefringences of spun fibers using binary polarization rotators,” Opt. Express 25(24), 30780–30792 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Hlubina and D. Ciprian, “Spectral-domain measurement of phase modal birefringence in polarization-maintaining fiber,” Opt. Express 15(25), 17019–17024 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Michie, J. Canning, I. Bassett, J. Haywood, K. Digweed, M. Aslund, B. Ashton, M. Stevenson, J. Digweed, A. Lau, and D. Scandurra, “Spun elliptically birefringent photonic crystal fibre,” Opt. Express 15(4), 1811–1816 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Argyros, J. Pla, F. Ladouceur, and L. Poladian, “Circular and elliptical birefringence in spun microstructured optical fibres,” Opt. Express 17(18), 15983–15990 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. A. Vasiliev, Y. V. Przhiyalkovsky, P. I. Gnusin, O. I. Medvedkov, and E. M. Dianov, “Measurement of high-birefringent spun fiber parameters using short-length fiber Bragg gratings,” Opt. Express 24(11), 11290–11298 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Ma, C. Zhu, I.-N. Hu, A. Kaplan, and A. Galvanauskas, “Single-mode chirally-coupled-core fibers with larger than 50 µm diameter cores,” Opt. Express 22(8), 9206–9219 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Fuochi, J. Hayes, K. Furusawa, W. Belardi, J. Baggett, T. Monro, and D. Richardson, “Polarization mode dispersion reduction in spun large mode area silica holey fibres,” Opt. Express 12(9), 1972–1977 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Napiorkowski and W. Urbanczyk, “Scaling effects in resonant coupling phenomena between fundamental and cladding modes in twisted microstructured optical fibers,” Opt. Express 26(9), 12131–12143 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (5)

Optica (1)

Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci (1)

P. St. J. Russell, R. Beravat, and G. K. L. Wong, “Helically twisted photonic crystal fibres,” Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci 375(2087), 20150440 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. A (2)

C. N. Alexeyev and M. A. Yavorsky, “Generation and conversion of optical vortices in long-period helical core optical fibers,” Phys. Rev. A 78(4), 043828 (2008).
[Crossref]

C. N. Alexeyev, A. N. Alexeyev, B. P. Lapin, G. Milione, and M. A. Yavorsky, “Spin-orbit-interaction-induced generation of optical vortices in multihelicoidal fibers,” Phys. Rev. A 88(6), 063814 (2013).
[Crossref]

Quantum Electron. (1)

S. K. Morshnev, Y. K. Chamorovsky, and I. L. Vorob’ev, “Phase delay of polarisation modes in elastically twisted spun fibres,” Quantum Electron. 41(5), 469–474 (2011).
[Crossref]

Science (2)

G. K. L. Wong, M. S. Kang, H. W. Lee, F. Biancalana, C. Conti, T. Weiss, and P. St. J. Russell, “Excitation of orbital angular momentum resonances in helically twisted photonic crystal fiber,” Science 337(6093), 446–449 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. I. Kopp, V. M. Churikov, J. Singer, N. Chao, D. Neugroschl, and A. Z. Genack, “Chiral fiber gratings,” Science 305(5680), 74–75 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wave Random Complex (1)

A. Nicolet, F. Zolla, Y. O. Agha, and S. Guenneau, “Leaky modes in twisted microstructured optical fibers,” Wave Random Complex 17(4), 559–570 (2007).
[Crossref]

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Cross sections of the birefringent microstructured fiber (BMF) and the side-hole fiber (SHF) drawn with and without preform spinning. Small differences in geometry of the spun and non-spun birefringent microstructured fibers are clearly visible.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Side views of the birefringent microstructured fiber (BMF) and the side-hole fiber (SHF) drawn with and without preform spinning. On the images of twisted fibers the intensity of reflected light varies along the fibers length with the period of LT/6 because of the sixfold symmetry of microstructure in case of BMFs and the outer cladding in case of SHFs (photograph attached).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Output spectrum with interference fringes registered for the spun side-hole fiber with polarizers aligned for maximum contrast (red curve). The interference fringes are almost extinguished (black curve), when only one elliptically polarized eigenmode is excited by proper alignment of the achromatic quarter-wave plate and the polarizer at the fiber input (azimuth of the λ/4 plate at 0° and the polarizer at ϑ). Residual fringes visible in the long wavelength range arise because of chromatic dispersion of the ellipticity angle ϑ in the examined fiber. The length of the fiber was equal to L = 10.0 m and the spin pitch LT = 10.0 mm.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Scheme of the experimental setup for measuring elliptical beat length in spun highly birefringent fibers using the lateral point-force method. LF indicates the distance of the pressing point from the fiber end.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Force-induced interference fringes in the transmission spectra for the spun side-hole fiber with LT = 10.0 mm and the distance LF = 9.80 m (a) and for the spun microstructured fiber with LT = 8.2 mm and distance LF = 0.20 m (b).
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Force-induced interference fringes registered for different displacements of the coupling point ΔLF-n for the spun side-hole fiber with the spin pitch LT = 10.0 mm (a) and linear dependence ∆LF = f(∆M) measured for the wavelength 1290 nm (b).
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Force-induced interference fringes registered for different displacements of the coupling point ΔLF-n registered for the spun birefringent microstructured fiber with the spin pitch LT = 8.2 mm (a) and linear dependence ∆LF = f(∆M) measured for the wavelength of 973 nm (b).
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Group elliptical birefringence ∆Ne(λ) (a), phase elliptical birefringence ∆ne(λ) (b), phase linear birefringence ∆nl(λ) (c), group linear birefringence ∆Nl(λ) (d) and ellipticity angle of polarization eigenmodes ϑ(λ) (e) determined for seven side-hole fibers with differing spin pitches LT.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Group elliptical birefringence ∆Ne(λ) (a), phase elliptical birefringence ∆ne(λ) (b), phase linear birefringence ∆nl(λ) (c), group linear birefringence ∆Nl(λ) (d), and ellipticity angle of polarization eigenmodes ϑ(λ) (e) measured for five birefringent microstructured fibers with differing spin pitches LT.

Equations (20)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Δ n l = n x n y
Δ N l = N x N y =Δ n l λ dΔ n l dλ
L l = λ Δ n l .
Δ n c =λ | α | πL = 2λ L T ,
ϑ=0.5arctan( 2 L l L T ).
dΔφ dL = 2πΔ n e , λ ,
Δ n e , = Δ n l 2 +Δ n c 2 .
L e ' = L l L T ( 4 L l 2 + L T 2 ) 1 2 .
L e = L l L T ( 4 L l 2 + L T 2 ) 1 2 2 L l .
L l = L e L T ( 4 L e L T + L T 2 ) 1 2 .
Δ n e = Δ n l 2 +Δ n c 2 Δ n c .
Δ N e =Δ n e λ dΔ n e dλ .
Δ N e ( λ )= Δ n l Δ n l 2 +Δ n c 2 Δ N l ( λ ).
dϑ dλ = L T L T 2 +4 L l 2 d L l dλ .
d L l dλ = Δ N l Δ n l 2 ,
Δλ= λ 2 L| Δ N e | ,
Δφ( λ )= 2πLΔ n e ( λ ) λ .
Δφ( λ )=( 2m1 )π+ φ 0 .
Δ N e ( λ )= λ 2 2πL Δφ λ .
Δ n e ( λ )=λ Δφ( λ ) 2πL +Δ n e 0 .

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